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CIS 09-100 Ide C.
Clean forgotten
Cleaning is generally regarded as a task carried out by women. In the United Kingdom, 84% of the 537,000 employed in cleaning are female and, about 70% work part-time. This article reviews the hazards and risks faced by cleaners, and outlines the need for proper training, maintenance of equipment and appropriate, comfortable clothing.
Safety and Health Practitioner, May 2008, Vol.26, No.5, p.55-58. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 09-197 Brasseur G., Vaudoux D.
Zoonoses - From animal to man, multiple hazards
Zoonoses - De l'animal à l'homme, un risque pluriel [en francés]
Zoonoses are diseases that are transmissible from animals to men. In occupational settings, risks of zoonoses exist for activities that involve contact with animals in nature or in captivity. This special feature on occupational zoonoses addresses the following topics: problems faced in proving the occupational nature of zoonoses; risks from rats and ticks in natural environments; personal protective equipment; occupational safety and health approach adopted by a French veterinary school; risks related to imported animals; risks in pet shops; protection measures for pregnant women; occupational safety and health in a Parisian zoo.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2008, No.686, p.22-35. Illus.$File/TS686page22.pdf?OpenElement [en francés]

CIS 08-1338 Copsey S., Schneider E., Holm L., Olkkonen S., Kurppa K., Danilina A., Pratt S., Lehtinen S.
Transport industry
Promyšlennost' otrasl' [en ruso]
Collection of articles on occupational safety and health in the transport sector of relevance to Russia and Nordic and Baltic countries. Contents: OSH and the transport sector; economic recovery in the transport sector in Sweden; cooperation for healthier working conditions among truck drivers in Finland; HIV/AIDS prevention in the road transport sector in Russia; global initiatives to prevent road traffic injury at work. Other topics: development of occupational health services; review of the XVIII World Congress on Safety and Health at Work (Seoul, Republic of Korea, 29 June - 2 July 2008).
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2008, Vol.11, No.2, p.38-63 (whole issue). Illus. 19 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 08-1459 FitzSimons D., François G., De Carli G., Shouval D., Prüss-Üstün A., Puro V., Williams I., Lavanchy D., De Schryver A,, Kopka A., Ncube F., Ippolito G., Van Damme P.
Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and other blood-borne pathogens in healthcare workers: Guidelines for prevention and management in industrialized countries
The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board (VHPB) convened a meeting of international experts from the public and private sectors in order to review and evaluate the epidemiology of blood-borne infections in healthcare workers, to evaluate the transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses as an occupational risk, to discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and to review recommendations for infected healthcare workers. This meeting outlined a number of recommendations for the prevention and control of viral hepatitis, including the training of personnel, application of standard precautions and hepatitis B vaccination. Other topics addressed included ethical and legal issues, the assessment of risk and costs, and the role of the VHPB. Participants also identified a number of terms that need harmonisation or standardisation in order to facilitate communication between experts.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.65, No.7, p.446-451. 29 ref.

CIS 08-1462 Jolly H.
Biological hazards: Real nature of the problem in the construction sector
Risque biologique: quelle réalité dans le BTP? [en francés]
Through many of the diverse activities of the construction sector, workers may be faced with biological hazards. This article reviews the biological agents that can be encountered in the sector (hepatitis A, influenza and poliomyelitis viruses, legionella, leptospira and tetanus bacilli, Candida alibicans and Entamoeba hystolica), diseases they cause, modes of contamination and preventive measures (disinfection of premises, ventilation, personal protective equipment, vaccination).
Prévention BTP, June 2008, No.108, p.48-50. Illus.

CIS 08-1258 Occupational Safety and Health Statistics Bulletin
Zhiye anquan ji jiankang tongji shuzi jianbao [en chino]
The statistics in this bulletin provide information and analysis on work-related accidents and confirmed cases of occupational disease in Hong Kong during the year 2007, with breakdowns by economic sectors and trends from 1998 to 2007. In 2007, the number of occupational injuries in all workplaces stood at 43,979, a decrease of 6.3% over 2006, while the injury rate per 1000 employees also decreased from 18.4 to 16.9 or 8.3%. The total number of occupational diseases in 2007 was 177, a substantial decease from the 264 cases recorded in 2006. They primarily consisted of silicosis, hearing loss and tensynovitis of hand and forearm, as well as tuberculosis among health care workers.
Occupational Safety and Health Statistics Bulletin, May 2008, No.8, p.1-8 (whole issue). Illus. [en inglés] [en chino]

CIS 08-1210 Rybacki M., Michowicz A.
Exposure to viruses at the workplace, with the example of viral hepatitis
Zagrożenia wirusowe w miejscu pracy na przykładzie wirusowego zapalenia wątroby [en polonés]
The characteristics of hepatitis B and C viruses are presented, together with their infection mechanisms. The occupational groups most exposed to infection hazards from these viruses are mentioned, together with the methods of prevention and treatment.
Praca i Zdrowie, 2008, No.1, p.10-16. Illus.

CIS 08-1222 Protect your employees with an exposure control plan
The exposure control plan is the focal point of any programme aimed at the prevention of exposure to bloodborne pathogens. It details in writing the employer's plan for reducing exposures to bloodborne pathogens and explains what steps to take when an exposure occurs. Aimed at employers of first responders (emergency medical services, fire fighters, and law enforcement), this leaflet outlines the basic elements of an exposure control plan and how to develop such a plan. See also CIS 08-1012 and 08-1221.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. 4p. Illus. 4 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 08-1221 Encourage your workers to report bloodborne pathogen exposures
Aimed at employers, this leaflet outlines the importance of encouraging first responders (emergency medical services, fire fighters, and law enforcement) to report exposures to bloodborne pathogens. Topics addressed: why employees may be reluctant to report exposures; why employees should report all exposures; how employers can encourage reporting (developing a policy, informing and training personnel). See also CIS 08-1012 and 08-1222.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. 2p. Illus. 2 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 08-1012 Protect yourself. Protect your family. Protect the public
These posters visually reinforce the importance of frontline first responders (emergency medical services, fire fighters, and law enforcement) protecting themselves from work-related exposures to bloodborne pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. Protection includes reading the employer's exposure control plan, wearing personal protective equipment and reporting all exposures. See also CIS 08-1221/1222.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. Two posters. Illus. [en inglés] [en inglés]

CIS 08-1208 Muñoz Doncel N., Moreno Toral E., Megias Guijo M.
Ficha de datos de seguridad biológica de la bacteria L. pneumophila
L. pneumophila is the bacterium responsible for legionellosis. Workers with the highest risk of exposure to this bacterium are medical laboratory personnel and maintenance workers of systems in which the growth of L. pneumophila is likely. This article discusses the data which need to be included in the biological safety sheet on L. pneumophila, which should be considered as being an occupational safety and health tool for use in the information and training of workers.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, May 2008, No.47, p.18-23. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 08-712 Bennett B.
The lingering threat of avian flu
Although headlines warning of a pandemic of avian flu have started to wane, the threat is far from over. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a global outbreak of easily transmissible influenza such as the H5N1 virus avian flu is likely within a few years. Workers at risk include poultry farmers, health care and laboratory workers, veterinarians, waste disposal workers, persons in contact with animals and food, and persons working outdoors. Individuals can protect themselves in a number of ways, such as frequently washing their hands with soap and water. OSHA recommends that employers provide at-risk workers with the appropriate PPE, including gloves, apparel (aprons and sleeves), goggles and boots or protective shoe covers that can be disposed of or disinfected.
Occupational Hazards, Jan. 2008, p.50-54. Illus.


CIS 09-342 MacFarlane E., Benke G., Goddard D., Sim M.
Urban pest control operators in Australia
This article describes the occupational tasks of domestic and commercial pest control operators in Australia, the hazards they face and the appropriate preventive measures. Contents: tasks of the job; hazards of the job and in the workplace; measures to protect workers (protective clothing, respirators, measures related to pesticides, physical hazards and biological hazards, training and qualification of workers).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2007, Vol.64, No.6, p.422-427. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 08-1468 Previsiones de los expertos sobre riesgos biológicos emergentes relacionados con la salud y la seguridad en el trabajo (SST)
Ekspertna prognoza za văznikvaštite biologični riskove, svărzani s bezopasnostta i zdraveto pri rabota (BZP) [en búlgaro]
Expertprognos om nya mikrobiologiska arbetsmiljörisker [en sueco]
Ekspertvarsling om biologiske risici i fremvækst i tilknytning til arbejdsmiljø [en danés]
Expertenbefragung zu neu auftretenden biologischen Risiken für Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit (OSH) [en alemán]
Ékthesē próblepsēs empeirognōmónōn shetiká me tous anaduómenous biologikoús kindúnous pou shetízontai me tēn epaggelmatikḗ asfáleia kai ugeía (EAU) [en griego]
Expert forecast on emerging biological risks related to occupational safety and health [en inglés]
Ekspertprognoos tekkivate tööohutuse ja töötervishoiu bioloogiliste riskide kohta [en estonio]
Asiantuntijat ennakoivat työterveyteen ja työturvallisuuteen liittyviä uusia biologisia riskejä [en finlandés]
Prévisions des experts sur les risques biologiques émergents liés à la sécurité et à la santé au travail [en francés]
Szakértői előrejelzés a munkahelyi biztonság és egészségvédelem vonatkozásában kialakuló biológiai kockázatokról [en húngaro]
Le previsioni degli esperti sui rischi biologici emergenti per la salute e la sicurezza sul lavoro [en italiano]
Ekspertų prognozė dėl naujos biologinės rizikos, kylančios darbuotojų saugai ir sveikatai (DSS) [en lituano]
Ekspertu prognozes par potenciāliem bioloģiskiem riska faktoriem saistībā ar darba drošību un veselības aizsardzību (DDVA) [en letón]
Tbassir espert dwar riskji bijoloġiċi emerġenti relatati massaħħa u s-sigurta fuq il-post tax-xogħol (OHS) [en maltés]
Prognose van deskundigen over in opkomst zijnde biologische risico's in het kader van veiligheid en gezondheid op het werk [en holandés]
Prognoza ekspercka dotycząca nowo powstających biologicznych czynników ryzyka zawodowego (BHP) [en polonés]
Previsões de peritos sobre os riscos biológicos emergentes relacionados com a segurança e a saúde no trabalho (SST) [en portugués]
Previziunea experţilor privind riscurile biologice emergente legate de securitatea şi sănătatea în muncă (SSM) [en rumano]
Prognóza expertov o vznikajúcich biologických rizikách súvisiacich s bezpečnost'ou a ochranou zdravia na pracovisku (BOZP) [en eslovaco]
Predvidevanje strokovnjakov o nastajajočih bioloških tveganjih, ki so povezana z varnostjo in zdravjem pri delu [en esloveno]
Odborná prognóza vznikajících biologických rizik souvisejících s bezpečností a ochranou zdraví při práci (BOZP) [en checo]
About 320,000 workers worldwide die every year of communicable diseases, some 5,000 in the European Union. In the last decade, media coverage has raised public awareness of biological hazards, such as anthrax at work due to bioterrorist activities, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the threat of avian flu. But biological agents are ubiquitous and, in many workplaces, workers face considerably harmful biological risks. The Community strategy 2002-06 called on the European Agency for Occupational Safety and Health to set up a risk observatory to anticipate new and emerging occupational safety and health risks. The expert forecast on emerging occupational safety and health biological risks was formulated from the results of three consecutive questionnaire-based surveys using the Delphi method. The full report has been analysed under CIS 08-214. This information note summarizes the contents and the findings of this forecast. It is also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2007. 2p. Illus. 5 ref. [en plurilingüe]

CIS 08-1460 Koh D., Ong B.L., Li A., Kasai T., Amin F., Lugah V, Wilburn S., Eijkemans G., Mukhopadhyay P., Nguyen T.H.T., Nguyen V.B., Tran T.D., Vu N.L., Bennoor K.S., Hassan M.R., Rahman M.F., Mahmud A.M., Hossain M.A., Haque M.E., Kabir M.H., Kalamuddin A.F.M., Ali T., Huq A.K.M.S., Shin B.M.
Infectious diseases
Collection of articles on infectious diseases of relevance to countries in the Asian-Pacific region. Contents: WHO strategy for emerging diseases in East Asia; HIV/AIDS prevention in Malaysia; protecting health workers from occupational exposure to HIV, hepatitis and other bloodborne pathogens; problem of occupational heat stress in India; evaluating the experience of Vietnam in controlling human influenza A (H5N1); incidence of tuberculosis among garment workers in Bangladesh; occupational exposure to hepatitis B among Korean health care workers.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, May 2007, Vol.14, No.1, p.2-23 (whole issue). Illus. 63 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 08-1341 Leggat P.A., Kedjarune U., Smith D.R.
Occupational health problems in modern dentistry: A review
Occupational health hazards in dentistry include percutaneous exposure incidents (PEIs), exposure to infectious diseases (including bioaerosols), radiation, dental materials and noise, musculoskeletal disorders, dermatitis, respiratory disorders, eye injuries and psychological problems. PEIs are a particular concern, as there is an almost constant risk of exposure to serious infectious agents. Strategies to minimize PEI and their consequences include hepatitis B immunization, the use of personal protective measures and appropriate sterilization or disinfection techniques. Aside from biological hazards, dentists continue to suffer a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, especially of the back, neck and shoulders.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.611-621. 100 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 08-1220 Pandemic influenza: Guidance for infection control in hospitals and primary care settings
Guidance document on how to protect health care workers against the hazard of infection by pandemic influenza. Contents: terminology; overview of pandemic influenza and infection control; preparedness planning for pandemic infection control; occupational health and deployment of staff; infection control precautions; environmental infection control; supplementary guidance for hospitals; supplementary guidance for primary care settings. In the appendix: the epidemiology of pandemic influenza; infection control precautions.
TSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN, United Kingdom, 2007. 81p. Illus. 87 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 08-1212 Johnson E.S., Zhou Y., Sall M., El Faramawi M., Shah N., Christopher A., Lewis N.
Non-malignant disease mortality in meat workers: A model for studying the role of zoonotic transmissible agents in non-malignant chronic diseases in humans
A study of mortality from non-malignant causes was conducted between 1949 and 1989 in a cohort of 8520 meat workers in a union in Baltimore, Maryland, who worked in manufacturing plants where animals were killed or processed, and who had high exposures to infectious agents. Mortality in this cohort was compared with that in a control group of 6081 unexposed workers in the same union, and also with the United States general population. Proportional, standardized and relative mortality ratios were calculated. Significant excesses of mortality from septicaemia, subarachnoid haemorrhage, chronic nephritis, endocarditis and functional diseases of the heart were observed in meat workers when compared to the control group or to the United States general population. It is hypothesized that zoonotic transmissible agents may be responsible for the occurrence of some of the circulatory, neurological and other diseases observed among these workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2007, Vol.64, No.12, p.849-855. 53 ref.

CIS 08-960 Puura-Märkälä A., Koh D., Maciejowski M., Treichel B., Nachtigall M., Karvonen O., Remizova M., Zenov S., Wilburn S., Eijkemans G.
Infectious diseases
Bor'ba s infekcionnymi zabolevanijami [en ruso]
Collection of articles on infectious diseases of relevance to Russia and Nordic Countries. Contents: increasing attention to health and social issues in the Barents region; infectious diseases as a challenge for public and occupational health; risk of tuberculosis; cooperation among Northern European countries in public health and social well-being; Barents HIV/AIDS protection programme for vulnerable groups; HIV/AIDS workplace education programme in Russia; protecting health workers from occupational exposure to HIV, hepatitis and other bloodborne pathogens.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2007, Vol.10, No.2, whole issue (p.38-75). Illus. Bibl.ref. [en inglés]

CIS 08-962
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Human papillomaviruses
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are common sexually-transmitted infectious agents. Although most infections are asymptomatic and are cleared within a period of two years, genital HPV infection can lead to clinical disease, including anogenital warts, cervical neoplasia, cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Of the many types of HPVs, some are classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), others as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) and yet other as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Recent data includes strong evidence of carcinogenicity at sites other than the cervix. Vaccination can reduce the incidence of HPV-related genital diseases. However, such prophylactic treatments require that such vaccines be provided women for whom access to cervical cancer screening services is problematic. Therefore, the development of vaccines that are cheaper and easier to deliver remains highly desirable. Update of the IARC Monograph No.64 on the same subject (see CIS 96-1096).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2007. viii, 670p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00 (CHF 38.50 in developing countries). Downloadable version free of charge. [en inglés]

CIS 08-965 Aarnisalo K.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Equipment hygiene and risk assessment measures as tools in the prevention of Listeria monocytogenes-contamination in food processes
Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium frequently found in the food industry. Its efficient control requires good manufacturing and hygiene practices, effective means of decontamination, rapid detection of contamination sources and hazard evaluation procedures. This thesis focused on deficiencies in equipment hygiene and hazard evaluation practices with the aim of developing the efficient practices against L. monocytogenes. Hygiene problems in the Finnish food industry were most frequently observed with packaging machines, conveyers, dispensers, slicing machines and cooling machines. Lubricants used in food processing equipment may also act as contamination vehicles of L. monocytogenes. Commonly-used commercial disinfectants against L. monocytogenes were generally found to be efficient at the recommended concentrations and effect times. Other findings are discussed.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2007. 101p. Illus. Approx. 230 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 08-713 César Gonzáles R., Ciro Maguiña V., Felipe Heras M., Luis Conde-Salazar G.
Bartonelosis (fiebre de la Oroya o Verruga Peruana) ¿Enfermedad ocupacional?
Bartonellosis (also known as Oroya fever, Verruga Peruana or Carrion's disease) is an endemic disease in South America caused by the Bartonella bacilliformis bacterium and propagated by the Lutzomyia verrucarum mosquito. This infection constitutes a public health problem in rural areas, with epidemics having occurred in mountainous regions of Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. This article reviews current epidemiological and clinical understanding of the disease and highlights the fact that workers travelling in the endemic areas are particularly at risk, which is why the occupational nature of this disease should be recognized.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Dec. 2007, Vol.LIII, No.209, p.35-41. Illus. 14 ref. [en español]

CIS 08-717 Ornithosis-psittacosis (Chlamydophila psittaci)
Ornithose-psittacose (Chlamydophila psittaci) [en francés]
Ornithosis or psittacosis is an infection caused by a bacterium transmitted by infected birds or their contaminated environment. The disease often remains unnoticed but its effect on humans can be serious. Contents of this leaflet: information on the bacterium (Chlamydophila psittaci); description of the disease; occupations and populations at risk; safety, health and protective measures to be implemented.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2007. 6p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$file/ed6010.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-537 Protect your employees with an exposure control plan
NIOSH researchers visited a number of prisons and jails to learn more about current practices and procedures being used to protect health care workers from blood-borne diseases. This leaflet provides tips to medical service administrators and supervisors for improving the plans aimed at protecting workers from exposure to blood-borne pathogens, which are required by OSHA. These tips include information on the exposure control plan, workers' participation in the selection of equipment, supply and use of personal protective equipment and designating persons responsible for the implementation of the plan and of the vaccination policy.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2007. 2p. Illus. [en inglés]

CIS 08-534 Let art be your legacy
NIOSH researchers worked with professional tattoo artists to figure out how they can be exposed to blood and blood-borne pathogens. Based on visits to piercing and tattooing shops and interviews with practicing artists, various communication materials were developed to better inform artists of these diseases, explain how artists can be exposed and reinforce safe practices to reduce the chances of exposure. This information card explains how contamination by hepatitis B occurs; it suggests that body artists be vaccinated against hepatitis B and that they attend yearly blood-borne pathogen training. See also CIS 08-532/533.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2007. 2p. Illus. [en inglés]

CIS 08-533 Good, clean art
NIOSH researchers worked with professional tattoo artists to figure out how they can be exposed to blood and blood-borne pathogens. Based on visits to piercing and tattooing shops and interviews with practicing artists, various communication materials were developed to better inform artists of these diseases, explain how artists can be exposed and reinforce safe practices to reduce the chances of exposure. This information card explains how to reduce cross-contamination within the body art sector. See also CIS 08-532 and 08-534.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2007. 2p. Illus. [en inglés]

CIS 08-532 Look sharp
NIOSH researchers worked with professional tattoo artists to figure out how they can be exposed to blood and blood-borne pathogens. Based on visits to piercing and tattooing shops and interviews with practicing artists, various communication materials were developed to better inform artists of these diseases, explain how artists can be exposed and reinforce safe practices to reduce the chances of exposure. This information card addresses the issues of handling and disposing sharps within this sector of activity. See also CIS 08-533/534.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2007. 2p. Illus. [en inglés]

CIS 08-583 Tse L.A., Li Z.M., Wong T.W., Fu Z.M., Yu I.T.S.
High prevalence of accelerated silicosis among gold miners in Jiangxi, China
This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of accelerated silicosis among Chinese gold mine workers. A medical cross-sectional examination was conducted among 574 miners; all participants were male rock-drillers. The concentrations of total dust and quartz content were obtained from government documentation. Descriptive data analyses were performed. The prevalence of accelerated silicosis was 29.1% after an average of 5.6 years of dust exposure. A history of tuberculosis seemed to increase the risk. The concentration of respirable silica dust was estimated to be 89.5 mg/m3 (range 70.2-108.8) in the underground goldmine, far exceeding the permissible exposure limits. This study illustrates a serious health threat in small-scale goldmines in China and indicates an urgent need for environmental control and disease prevention.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007, Vol.50, p.876-880. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 08-462 Le Bâcle C.
Biological hazards in occupational settings
Les risques biologiques en milieu professionnel [en francés]
Protection against biological hazards within the enterprise remains hindered by several obstacles. Their effects being generally neither immediate nor spectacular, they are not considered as having the same priority as other more visible hazards. There is insufficient understanding of these hazards among persons responsible for occupational safety and health. This article presents a concise overview of these hazards and proposes an approach to safety and health based on the type of risk (infections, toxins, immuno-allergies, cancer) and the sector of activity (health care, agriculture, food industry, waste disposal).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2007, No.207, p.85-96. Illus. 19 ref.$File/PR28.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-329 Sambo L.G., Kisting S., Alli B., Wilburn S., Eijkemans G., Ansa V.O., Anah M.U., Udoma E.J., Umoh M.S., Gold D., Comlan P., Ezinah F., Nambo Wezet G., Anyunzoghe E.S., Ossoubita B.O., Kibwage J.K., Momanyi G.M., Odondo A.J., Lekei E.E., Akhabuhaya J., Mkalaga H., Clarke E.E., Sutherland D.K.
Infectious diseases
Collection of articles on infectious diseases of relevance to African countries. Contents: ILO programme on HIV/AIDS and the world of work; protecting health care workers from occupational exposure to HIV, hepatitis and other bloodborne pathogens; reducing occupational risks to HIV and hepatitis B virus exposure among health care workers in Nigeria. Other topics: addressing psychosocial issues in Africa through the ILO's SOLVE programme; occupational safety and health (OSH) problems among wood processing workers in Gabon; OSH concerns of smallholder tobacco farmers in Kenya; OSH issues in pesticide formulation plants in Tanzania; OSH initiatives aimed at health care workers in Ghana.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 2007, Vol.17, No.2, p.31-55 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. [en inglés]

CIS 08-465 Lot F.
Surveillance of occupational contamination by HIV, HCV and HBV among health care personnel
Surveillance des contaminations professionnelles par le VIH, le VHC et le VHB chez le personnel de santé [en francés]
The surveillance of occupational seroconversions among health care personnel is in effect since 1991 for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, or AIDS virus), since 1997 for HCV (or hepatitis C virus) and since 2005 for HBV (or hepatitis B virus). Between 1983 and 2005, 14 HIV seroconversions were notified. Within this surveillance programme, there were also 34 notifications of presumed HIV infections. With respect to HCV, 55 occupational seroconversions were counted between 1991 and 2005. In almost all cases, seroconversions were the result of a percutaneous skin injury. Close to half of the HIV and HCV seroconversions were related to accidents involving an exposure to blood when the putting away or disposal of equipment and therefore could have been avoided by following usual precautions. To this day, no occupational contaminations by HBV have been notified.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2007, No.109, p.51-60. Illus. 13 ref.$File/TF158.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-466 Gómez Murcia J.E., Flórez C.M., Mejía Rodríguez S., González Ó ., Cajigas de Acosta B.E.
Bioseguridad en el sector salud
Contents of this collection of articles on biological safety in the health care sector: classification of biological waste and infection hazards; biological safety standards and procedures in hospital settings; importance of having equipment that can limit the ambient concentration of infectious agents; biological safety and pathogens; criteria for the selection of single-use or re-usable protective clothing; waste management in hospital settings; workers exposed to blood-borne viral infections (HIV, HBV, HCV).
Protección y seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 2007, Vol.53, No.311, p.51-79. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 08-469 Guidance on preparing workplaces for an influenza pandemic
A worldwide influenza pandemic could have a major effect on the global economy, including travel, trade, tourism, food, consumption, investment and financial markets. Planning for pandemic influenza by business and industry is essential to minimize a pandemic's impact. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) therefore developed this pandemic influenza planning guidance based upon traditional infection control and industrial hygiene practices. Topics addressed: how a severe pandemic influenza could affect workplaces; how influenza can spread between people, classifying employee exposure to pandemic influenza at work, how to maintain operations during a pandemic, how organizations can protect their employees; steps every employer can take to reduce the risk of exposure to pandemic influenza in their workplace; what employees living abroad or who travel internationally for work should know.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2007. 43p. Illus. [en inglés]

CIS 08-464 Migueres F., Pellissier G., Goyer F., Touche S., Alcouffe J., Fabin C., Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Abiteboul D.
Risk of exposure to blood when taking venous blood samples - Results of a survey in medical laboratories
Risque d'exposition au sang lors des prélèvements veineux - Résultats d'une étude dans des laboratoires d'analyses médicales [en francés]
This study on the risk of incidents involving exposure to blood in France when taking venous blood samples involved three tasks: job observations by occupational physicians of the gestures carried when taking blood samples; evaluation of responses to a questionnaire on line addressed to biologists working in medical laboratories; survey among the main manufacturers of equipment used in laboratories. Findings concerning the incidence of needlestick injuries when taking blood samples, blood sampling systems, the use of protective gloves and the rate of hepatitis B vaccination are discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2007, No.110, p.173-184. Illus. 16 ref.$File/TF159.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-83 Sánchez-Arcilla Conejo I.
Prevención de riesgos laborales por tuberculosis
Entre los principales aspectos de la prevención de tuberculosis entre trabajadores de servicios de salud, residencias de ancianos y establecimientos penitenciarios, figura el diagnóstico precoz, las medidas sanitarias dirigidas a proteger el ambiente de trabajo y un programa de vigilancia médica eficaz. Temas tratados en este artículo sobre la prevención de la tuberculosis en el medio laboral: epidemiología de la tuberculosis; tuberculosis como enfermedad profesional; medidas de protección colectiva; medidas de protección individual; vigilancia médica
Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente, 1st Quarter, 2007, Vol.14, No.51, p.13-18. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 08-218 Vacunación en el ámbito laboral
La vacunación es el medio de prevención primaria más eficaz para los trabajadores expuestos al riesgo de contraer determinadas enfermedades infecciosas en el entorno laboral. El ambiente de trabajo constituye, además, un entorno adecuado para la detección de enfermedades, incluso de origen profesional. Este artículo trata de las consideraciones generales relativas a la vacunación en los centros de trabajo, de los grupos de trabajadores expuestos que deberían ser objeto de vacunación preventiva, de las etapas de un plan de inmunización, de las enfermedades para las que es recomendable la vacunación en los centros de trabajo, de las contraindicaciones de la vacunación, así como de la legislación española aplicable al respecto
ERGA Noticias, 2007, No.98, p.4. Illus. 3 ref. [en español]

CIS 08-209 Vaxelaire S., Houssin D., Le Bâcle C., Abadia G., Bacarisse J.P., Kiniger-Passigli D.
Pandemia gripal y actividad de las empresas
Pandémie grippale et vie des entreprises [en francés]
Este número está dedicado al potencial impacto en Francia de una pandemia de gripe sobre las empresas, y los medios para prepararse ante dicha eventualidad. Consta de entrevistas, avisos y consejos de diversos responsables y especialistas, incluido un alto responsable de salud pública, un experto del INRS en materia de riesgos biológicos, un médico asesor en medicina del trabajo, el responsable de prevención de una empresa multinacional y la responsable del equipo de la OIT, que explica el papel de la Organización frente al riesgo de pandemia aviaria (proteger los medios de subsistencia, garantizar el respeto de los reglamentos sanitarios internacionales, reforzar las sinergias entre las instancias nacionales e internacionales, proporcionar información de utilidad)
Réalité Prévention, Mar. 2007, No.14, p.1-12 (whole issue). Illus.

CIS 08-131 Møller L., Stöver H., Jürgens R., Gatherer A., Nikogosian H.
Salud en la prisiones ¿ Guía de la OMS sobre principios básicos de salud en las prisiones
Health in prisons - A WHO guide to the essentials in prison health [en inglés]
Realizado sobre la base de experiencias obtenidas en numerosos países europeos, esta guía explica las medidas que deben adoptar las administraciones penitenciarias para proteger la salud de los reclusos y del personal de prisiones. Ello requiere que el conjunto de las personas que trabajan en las prisiones sean conscientes del impacto que la privación de libertad puede tener sobre la salud, los cuidados sanitarios de los reclusos y la forma de dispensarlos. Entre otros elementos esenciales se encuentran el conocimiento de las normas internacionales admitidas en materia de salud en los centros penitenciarios, la importancia de dispensar la asistencia sanitaria con idéntico nivel ético profesional que en otros servicios de salud y la promoción de un modelo integrado de asistencia sanitaria, salud y bienestar de las personas recluidas
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. xvi, 179p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: CHF 40.00, USD 36.00 (CHF 28.00, USD 25.20 in developing countries) [en inglés]

CIS 08-79 Whysall Z.
Presentes e infectados
Present and infect [en inglés]
Cuando las personas se presentan en su trabajo sintiéndose indispuestas, generan costes indirectos ocultos tanto para los empresarios como para los trabajadores. Se ha definido el presentismo como una pérdida de productividad que se da cuando los trabajadores acuden al trabajo pero lo hacen en baja forma por causa de cualquier tipo de enfermedad. Las causas más corrientes de presentismo son habitualmente las migrañas, las alergias, la depresión, los trastornos osteomusculares, los trastornos gastrointestinales y el eczema. En el caso de enfermedades contagiosas, como la gripe, los trabajadores que acuden al trabajo enfermos pueden contagiar a sus compañeros. Este artículo explica cómo se podría contribuir a disminuir el absentismo por enfermedad analizando el problema del presentismo
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 2007, Vol.25, No.8, p.54-56. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 08-97 Capone L., Consiglio E., Fulgenzi A.E., Jarés E., Labbate A., Poropat A.
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Patología respiratoria de origen ocupacional
Actas de cinco talleres dedicados a las afecciones respiratorias de origen profesional organizadas en Buenos Aires, Argentina, por la Superintendencia de Riesgos Profesionales (SRP), en los que se presentaron datos estadísticos y se discutieron diversos casos. Los talleres estabab consagrados a las siguientes patologías: asma profesional; infecciones respiratorias de origen profesional; bronco-neuropatía crónica obstructiva (EPOC); afecciones pleurales; enfermedades intersticiales pulmonares
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007. 103p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 08-216 Brun E.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work
Previsiones de expertos respecto de los riesgos biológicos emergentes en relación con la seguridad y salud en el trabajo
Expert forecast on emerging biological risks related to occupational safety and health [en inglés]
Cada año mueren en la Unión Europea alrededor de 5.000 trabajadores por causa de enfermedades transmisibles. En el marco de la estrategia comunitaria para los años 2002-2006, la Agencia europea para la seguridad y salud en el trabajo ha creado un observatorio del riesgo que tiene como misión anticipar los riesgos nuevos y emergentes. Este informe presenta las conclusiones de las previsiones en materia de riesgos biológicos emergentes para la seguridad y salud en el trabajo, basada en las encuestas efectuadas a 36 expertos mediante el método Delphi. Las previsiones remarcan la importancia de tener en cuenta los riesgos biológicos a escala mundial y de manera coordinada en disciplinas tales como la prevención, la salud pública, la salud animal, la prevención del medio ambiente y la seguridad alimentaria. Este informe pone también en evidencia el hecho de que los conocimientos en materia de riesgos biológicos, en el momento actual, adolecen de lagunas, por lo que es difícil tener una apreciación correcta de los riegos biológicos. Si se desea mejorar la evaluación de la exposición, deben desarrollarse mejores métodos de detección de los agentes biológicos y de medida de sus concentraciones
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2, rue Mercier, L-2985 Luxembourg, 2007. 145p. Illus. 361 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 08-215 Lavoie J., Cloutier Y., Lara J., Marchand G.
Guía de protección respiratoria frente a bioaerosoles ¿ Recomendaciones para su elección y utilización
Guide on respiratory protection against bioaerosols: Recommendations on its selection and use [en inglés]
Esta guía va dirigida, entre otros, a los trabajadores de plantas de clasificación de desechos, estaciones depuradoras de aguas, empresas agrícolas, industrias de transformación de alimentos y bebidas, así como centros hospitalarios. Describe los equipos de protección respiratoria y los mecanismos de filtrado y ofrece información sobre su ajuste, su estanqueidad y su mantenimiento. Asimismo, aporta información sobre la protección respiratoria requerida para los bioaerosoles de naturaleza infecciosa y no infecciosa
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. v, 30p. Illus. 53 ref. Price: CAD 7.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [en inglés]

CIS 08-66 Bianchi C., Bianchi T.
Mesotelioma maligno: incidencia mundial y relación con el amianto
Malignant mesothelioma: Global incidence and relationship with asbestos [en inglés]
Estudio bibliográfico. La incidencia de mesotelioma varía mucho de un país a otro. Las regiones con una fuerte incidencia corresponden generalmente a regiones industriales con un alto consumo de amianto, especialmente los astilleros y las empresas de amianto-cemento. Sin embargo, en determinados países con un alto consumo de amianto, la incidencia de mesotelioma es baja, y las razones de esta situación no están claras. Los mesoteliomas se desarrollan generalmente tras largos periodos de exposición al amianto y con períodos de latencia incluso superiores a los 40 años, Existe una relación inversa entre la intensidad de la exposición al amianto y la amplitud del periodo de latencia. Algunos estudios recientes han demostrado que el riesgo se incrementa con la duración de la exposición. Entre los posibles cofactores de la patogenia del amianto se encuentran: la predisposición genética, un régimen alimenticio pobre en frutas y legumbres, determinados virus, déficit inmunitario y una inflamación recurrente de la pleura. A pesar de que en ciertos países se ha observado una estabilización de la incidencia del mesotelioma, es previsible que en muchas partes del mundo se produzca un agravamiento de la epidemia
Industrial Health, June 2007, Vol.45, No.3, p.379-387. Illus. 89 ref.

CIS 08-64 Hämäläinen P., Takala J., Saarela K.L.
Estimaciones a escala mundial del número de muertes por enfermedades de etiología profesional
Global estimates of fatal work-related diseases [en inglés]
Pocos países en el mundo disponen de datos fiables respecto de las enfermedades profesionales y esto es particularmente cierto en los países en desarrollo. En este estudio, las estimaciones se han calculado a partir de escenarios básicos relativos a la mortalidad mundial por todo tipo de enfermedad en el año 2000, en combinación con las fracciones atribuibles a las enfermedades de etiología profesional utilizados en Finlandia. Sobre esta base, se ha estimado que el número de muertes anuales provocadas por las enfermedades profesionales ronda los dos millones. Dos tercios de estos casos afectaron a hombres. Los grupos de enfermedades profesionales mas importantes fueron los cánceres, las afecciones cardio-vasculares y las enfermedades infecciosas. Los datos se aportan por edad, sexo y principal factor causal
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2007, Vol.50, No.1, p.28-41. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 08-214 Brun E., Van Herpe S., Laamanen I., Klug K., Linsel G., Schöneich R., Flaspöler E., Reinert D., Galwas M., Mirón Hernández M.A., García-Matarredona Cepeda D.
Previsión de expertos sobre los riesgos biológicos emergentes en relación con la seguridad y salud en el trabajo
Expert forecast on emerging biological risks related to occupational safety and health [en inglés]
Alrededor de 320.000 trabajadores en el mundo mueren cada año por causa de enfermedades transmisibles, 5.000 de ellos en la Unión Europea. Durante el último decenio, la cobertura mediática de los riesgos biológicos, como el carbunco relacionado con el bioterrorismo (antrax), el Síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SRAS) y la gripe aviaria, ha suscitado una toma de conciencia de dichos riesgos por parte de la población general. Los agentes biológicos son omnipresentes y, en numerosos puestos de trabajo, los trabajadores están expuestos a riesgos biológicos particularmente graves. La estrategia comunitaria para los años 2002-2006 ha solicitado de la Agencia que se cree un observatorio de riesgos con el fin de anticipar los riesgos nuevos o emergentes. Este informe presenta las conclusiones de las previsiones relativas a los riesgos biológicos emergentes en los lugares de trabajo
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2007. 145p. Illus. 361 ref. Price: EUR 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [en inglés]

CIS 08-1 Decreto nº 2007-1121 de 19 de julio de 2007 en el que se revisan y completan los cuadros de enfermedades profesionales en agricultura adjuntos al libro VII del código rural [Francia]
Décret n° 2007-1121 du 19 juillet 2007 révisant et complétant les tableaux des maladies professionnelles en agriculture annexés au livre VII du code rural [France] [en francés]
Este decreto francés de 19 de julio de 2007 modifica algunas tablas relativas a enfermedades profesionales del régimen agrícola. Afecta particularmente a los cuadros nº 5 relativo a leptospirosis, nº 36 relativo a las enfermedades profesionales provocadas por polvos de maderas, nº 46 relativo a los trastornos auditivos derivados de los ruidos lesivos y nº 47 relativo a las afecciones derivadas de la inhalación de polvos de amianto
Secrétariat général du Gouvernement, Hôtel de Matignon, 57 rue de Varenne, 75007 Paris, France, 2007. Internet document (PDF format). 3p. [en francés]

CIS 08-106 Pistón Reyes J.M., Cubero Atienza A.J.
Trabajos en redes públicas de saneamiento: un estudio de riesgos
Los medios de comunicación frecuentemente nos hablan de accidentes en los que varios trabajadores han padecido asfixia o intoxicaciones en fosas sépticas o en pozos negros. Estos accidentes tienen como característica común la gravedad de sus consecuencias, tanto para las víctimas directas como para el personal encargado de socorrerlas. Muchos de estos accidentes se podrían haber evitado mediante una adecuada formación y la utilización de equipos de protección apropiados. Este artículo trata más específicamente de los riesgos existentes durante los trabajos de limpieza y mantenimiento de las redes de alcantarillado, trabajos estos que se ven agravados por el hecho de efectuarse en espacios confinados
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2007, No.43, p.20-27. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 07-1346 Bouchet H., Castel S., Chaney C., Mzabi M.I.
Pescaderos de ayer y de hoy
Poissonniers d'hier et d'aujourd'hui [en francés]
El oficio de pescadero ha evolucionado mucho con el curso de los años, al igual que las técnicas de pesca, los transportes de pescado, especialmente por el advenimiento de la congelación a bordo de los buques. Hoy en día, los pescaderos trabajan en pescaderías artesanales, en centros de media y gran distribución, en mercados, en empresas industriales, en comercios mayoristas, en empresas de catering y en restaurantes tradicionales. En esta ocupación, los accidentes de trabajo y las enfermedades profesionales pueden tener consecuencias variadas sobre la vida de la empresa. Los principales riesgos son las lesiones osteomusculares relacionadas con accidentes de trabajo (caídas, manutención defectuosa de cargas) o gestos repetitivos, lesiones y afecciones cutáneas (cortes, punturas, quemaduras, dermatitis de contacto, verrugas) y patologías cardiovasculares derivadas del trabajo prolongado en ambientes refrigerados. En un encarte se aporta una ficha medico-profesional sobre el trabajo de pescadero
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2007, Vol.47, No.2, p.117-127. 8 ref. + Insert 2p.

CIS 07-1478 Cartier B.
Gripe aviaria/Riesgo de pandemia - Protección de las personas que trabajan en el sector sanitario.
Vogelgrippe/Pandemie: Schutz des Arbeitnehmenden im Gesundheitswesen [en alemán]
Grippe aviaire/Risque de pandémie - Protection des personnes travaillant dans le secteur de la santé [en francés]
En caso de una pandemia de gripe aviaria, el personal de los servicios de salud sería el colectivo más expuesto. La legislación suiza dispone que los empresarios deben proporcionar las medidas de prevención necesarias para garantizar la protección de los trabajadores. Estas medidas incluyen: la información del personal; la utilización de equipos de protección; la aplicación correcta de las medidas de higiene; el diagnóstico precoz de las personas infectadas; la separación de otros pacientes y de personal no protegido
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2007, No.78, p.71-73. 8 ref. ((part)) [en francés] ((part)) [en alemán]

CIS 07-1209 Gołofit-Szymczak M., Zapór L.
Riesgos biológicos en las estaciones depuradoras municipales
Zagrożenia biologiczne w oczyszczalniach ścieków komunalnych [en polonés]
Los trabajadores de estaciones depuradoras de aguas están expuestos a diversos tipos de virus, bacterias, hongos y parásitos. Las contaminaciones biológicas pueden ser responsables de muy diferentes efectos nocivos para la salud, especialmente alergias, cuadros de hipersensibilidad, problemas respiratorios y enfermedades infecciosas. Se proponen medidas preventivas
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, 2007, No.3, p.26-28. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 07-1215 Agentes biológicos y salud laboral
Les agents biologiques et la santé au travail [en francés]
Biologische agentia en gezondheid op het werk [en holandés]
Esta guía, destinada a los empresarios, comenta la real orden belga de 4 de agosto de 1996 relativa a la protección de los trabajadores frente a los riesgos relacionados con la exposición a agente biológicos en el trabajo (ver CIS 00-1532) y explica la manera de aplicarla a nivel de empresa. En el sumario: definiciones y campo de aplicación; efectos de los agentes biológicos sobre la salud; evaluación del riesgo; documentos a cumplimentar por parte del empresario; prevención y confinamiento del riesgo; vigilancia de la salud; vacunaciones; papeles de las diversas partes involucradas en la prevención de riesgos y vigilancia de la salud
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot I, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2007. 36p. Illus. 11 ref. [en holandés] [en francés]

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