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CIS 11-0360 Kurnatowski P., Warpechowska M., Kurnatowska A.J.
Knowledge on Lyme disease among foresters
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge on Lyme disease among people whose profession involves working in the forest in Poland. The study was performed on 159 subjects. Only 15% were aware of the etiological factor of disease, while 98% were aware of the main cause of infection and route of pathogen transmission. It is concluded that information on Lyme disease, particularly among highly-exposed workers, is not satisfactory. Little knowledge on tick risk among secondary school students highlights the need for cooperation between teachers, epidemiologists, and health service providers in order to propagate the knowledge on parasites, symptoms, disease propagation and methods of prevention.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol.24, No.1, p.78-93. 24 ref.

CIS 11-0322 Patel D.
Occupational travel
This review summarizes the available evidence on travel-related illness and injury for overseas travellers and, where available, evaluates the literature on occupational travellers. The studies evaluated include those published in international scientific literature since 1980 and were identified through a search of relevant databases using selected keywords. A high proportion of travellers experience health problems. While the majority of problems are minor, they can cause disruption to travel plans, and a small proportion can result in hospital admission or death. Data on occupational travellers are limited but reveal similar findings, although higher rates of illness and injury are often reported and psychological factors appear to be more prominent. This is particularly the case for expatriates. While data on general travellers can be used to make valid inferences about the travel-related illness or injury in occupational travellers, there are some important differences between the two groups, which need to be considered when making comparisons. Further research in this area is required to evaluate the additional risks to those who travel overseas for work.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.6-18. 68 ref.

CIS 11-0346 Person Severo K.G., da Silva Oliveira J., Carneiro M., de Moura Valim A.R., Carlosso Krummenauer E., Goncalves Possuelo L.
Latent tuberculosis in nursing professionals of a Brazilian hospital
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered an occupational disease among health-care workers (HCWs). Direct contact with TB patients leads to an increased risk to become latently infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of latent M. tuberculosis infection among nursing professionals of a hospital in Brazil, assessed by tuberculin skin test (TST). From November 2009 to May 2010, latent M. tuberculosis infection was assessed by TST in 55 nursing professionals. Epidemiological information was collected using a standardized questionnaire. A positive TST result was observed in 47.3% of the HCWs tested. There was no significant difference in TST positivity when duration of employment or professional category (technician or nurse) was evaluated. The results of this work reinforce the need for control measures to prevent latent M. tuberculosis infection among nursing professionals at the hospital where the study was conducted.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, No.6:15, 12p. 17 ref.
Latent_tuberculosis.pdf [en inglés]


CIS 11-0430 Constans Aubert A., Solans Lampurlanés X
Servicios funerarios: exposición laboral a agentes biológicos
This information note describes the various activities within the framework of funeral services as well as their associated hazards. It lists the infectious diseases to which workers of these services may be exposed, together with the causative agent and mode of transmission, and provides a set of preventive measures to minimize exposure.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 8 ref.
NTP_858.pdf [en español]

CIS 10-0347 Mouchtouri V.A., Nichols G., Rachiotis G., et al.
State of the art: Public health and passenger ships
This report describes issues relevant to public health and reviews all passenger ship associated diseases and outbreaks. Moreover, legislation and practices on sanitation and diseases surveillance related to ships internationally were also reviewed. Some relevant historical information about infections on merchant ships is provided as well. The methods used to develop this state-of-the-art report included a scientific literature review, together with and an extensive and thorough search of the websites of organizations and government departments. The infections/outbreaks that occur on passenger ships include norovirus, Legionella, Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio and influenza A and B virus. The modes of transmission include person to person, waterborne, foodborne airborne and vectorborne, while shore excursions are responsible for some outbreaks. The industry (especially the ferry industry) and sanitary organizations can enhance collaboration in order to implement integrated hygiene programmes and prevent the occurrence of communicable diseases aboard passenger ships.
International Maritime Health, 2010, Vol.61, No.2, p.49-98. Approx. 150 ref.

CIS 10-0287 Code of practice - Prevention and control of Legionnaires' disease 2010
This code of practice on the prevention and control of legionnaires' disease has been developed through a tripartite consultative process involving employers, unions and the State Government of Western Australia. It describes the legionnaires' disease, its symptoms, risk factors, notification and sources of infection (potting mix, soils, mulch, air handling systems, hot and cold water distribution systems and other equipment). It explains how to ensure prevention through water treatment, disinfection and equipment maintenance. Appendices include relevant legislation and a glossary. Replaces CIS 99-1354.
Commission for occupational safety and health, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2010. PDF document, 37p. Illus. 10 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 10-0280 Quarcoo D., de Roux A., Wicker S., Rabenau H.F., Groneberg D.A., Gottschalk R.
Occupationally-acquired infections among health care workers: Respiratory diseases
Arbeitsbedingte Infektionen bei Mitarbeitern des Gesundheitswesens - eine Serie - respiratorische Erkrankungen [en alemán]
Due to the contact with infectious patients, health care workers are at risk of work-related infectious diseases. This article on respiratory diseases is the first of a series of four on occupationally acquired infections among health care workers. It reviews literature data on viral and bacterial infections (SARS, influenza, para-influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, adenoviruses, tuberculosis, pertussi and other infectious agents) and describes the preventive measures to be taken by health care workers (wearing a mask, personal hygiene, infection control). Health care workers dealing with patients infected with highly pathogenic agents (SARS, avian flu) should be specially trained. See also ISN 110617, ISN 110619 and ISN 110620.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Mar. 2009, Vol.59, No.3, p.81-91. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 10-0278 Scarselli A., Vonesch N., Melis P., Massari S., Marinaccio A., Iavicoli S.
Biological risk at work in Italy: Results from the national register of occupational exposures
The aim of this study was to analyze the information on workers exposed to biological hazards based on information that employers are legally required to supply to the Italian National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention. Biological agents included in the system belong to risk groups 3 and 4 of the European Union classification. The survey included 90 firms and 2194 workers exposed to biological agents between 1994 and 2008. The most frequent biological agent reported was Salmonella typhi, while that which counted the most exposures was Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.365-369. 18 ref.


CIS 12-0069 Schulte P.A., Chun H.
Climate change and occupational safety and health: Establishing a preliminary framework
The relationship between global climate change and occupational safety and health has not been extensively characterized. This article develops a framework for identifying how climate change could affect the workplace, workers, occupational morbidity, mortality and injury, based on a review of the published scientific literature from 1988-2008 that includes climatic effects, their interaction with occupational hazards, and their manifestation in the working population. Seven categories of climate-related hazards are identified: increased ambient temperature; air pollution; ultraviolet exposure; extreme weather; vector-borne diseases and expanded habitats; industrial transitions and emerging industries; changes in the built environment. This review indicates that while climate change may result in increasing the prevalence, distribution, and severity of known occupational hazards, there is no evidence of unique or previously unknown hazards. However, such a possibility should not be excluded, since there is potential for interactions of known hazards and new conditions, possibly leading to new hazards and risks.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, p.542-554. Illus. 136 ref.
Climate_change_and_OSH_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]

CIS 10-0231 Documento de información técnica sobre las enfermedades que plantean problemas para su posible inclusión en la lista de enfermedades profesionales que figura como anexo de la Recomendación sobre la lista de enfermedades profesionales, 2002 (núm. 194)
Technical backgrounder on the problematic diseases in the proposed list to replace the list annexed to the List of Occupational Diseases Recommendation, 2002 (No. 194) [en inglés]
Document technique sur les maladies problématiques inscrites sur la liste proposée en remplacement de la liste des maladies professionnelles figurant dans l'annexe à la recommandation (nº 194) sur la liste des maladies professionnelles, 2002 [en francés]
This report was prepared as a background for discussion at a meeting of experts on the revision of the ILO list of occupational diseases held in Geneva, Switzerland, 27-30 October 2009 (see ISN 110721). It addresses a number of occupational diseases that raise specific issues: diseases caused by radiofrequency radiation; malaria; extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by the inhalation of organic dusts; carpal tunnel syndrome; mental and behavioural disorders; formaldehyde; hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus; crystalline silica. In each case, the report includes general information on the disease or diseases caused by the agent, the exposure at work, the scientific background and the diagnosis criteria, as well as the list of countries specifically including the disease in the national list of occupational diseases.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2009. iv, 32p.
MERLOD/2009/5/EN.pdf [en inglés]
MERLOD/2009/5/FR.pdf [en francés]
MERLOD/2009/5/ES.pdf [en español]

CIS 10-0283 Wicker S., Rabenau H.F., Groneberg D.A., Gottschalk R.
Occupationally-acquired infections among health care workers: Gastroenterological diseases
Arbeitsbedingte Infektionen bei Mitarbeitern des Gesundheitswesens: Gastroenterologische Erkrankungen [en alemán]
Due to the contact with infectious patients, health care workers are at risk of work-related infectious diseases. This article reviews literature data on viral and bacterial gastroenterological infections (hepatitis A and E, rotaviruses, noroviruses, salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, Helicobacter pylori and other) and describes the preventive measures to be taken by health care workers. Breaking the chain of infection can be efficiently achieved by means of suitable hand and surface disinfection. A multiple choice questionnaire on gastroenterological infections is included. See also ISN 110616, ISN 110617 and ISN 110620.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, July 2009, Vol.59, No.7, p.204-214. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 09-1294 Vainio H., O'Hara L., Cheveers E., Yassi A., Fedotov I., Geyer N., Sigler N., Savolainen K., Takala J., Hämäläinen P., Pääkkönen T., Lehtinen S.
New emerging risks
Contents of this collection of articles on new chemical and biological hazards of relevance to African countries: H1N1 and occupational health for health workers in Africa; excerpts from WHO materials on H1N1; North-South partnership to strengthen trade union action against HIV/AIDS; engineered nanomaterials; globalization of risks; brief account of a conference on occupational health of nanotechnology which took place in 2009 in Finland; brief account of a meeting of WHO collaborating centres which took place in Geneva in 2009.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2009, Vol.19, No.3, p.55-75 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. [en inglés]

CIS 09-1378 Sng J., Koh D., Koh G
Influenza A (H1N1) infections among healthcare workers: A cause for cautious optimism
This editorial argues that the relatively low number of confirmed cases of influenza A (H1N1) among healthcare workers is largely due to improved precautions and preparedness introduced since the avian influenza pandemic threat several years earlier, particularly in countries of South-East Asia.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.66, No.9, p.569-570. 13 ref.

CIS 09-1375 Tschopp A., Joller H., Jeggli S., Widmeier S., Steffen R., Hilfiker S., Hotz P.
Hepatitis E, Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcers in workers exposed to sewage: A prospective cohort study
Workers exposed to sewage may have an increased risk of infection by Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis E virus (HEV). To assess the incidence of clinical hepatitis E and peptic ulcers and the seroconversion rate of antibodies to H. pylori and HEV in workers with and without sewage exposure, 332 workers exposed to sewage and a control group of 446 municipal manual workers entered a study with clinical examination and determination of antibodies to H. pylori and HEV. Findings are discussed. Overall, sewage does not appear to be a source of occupational infection by H. pylori or HEV in trained sewage workers with personal protective equipment working in a region with good sanitation infrastructure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.45-50. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-1167 Jost M., Merz B., Colombo C., Francioli P., Ruef C., Iten A., Jost J., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Käslin E.
Prevention of blood-borne infections in the health care sector
Verhütung blutübertragbarer Infektionen im Gesundheitswesen [en alemán]
Prevenzione delle malattie infettive trasmesse per via ematica in ambito sanitario [en italiano]
Prévention des maladies infectieuses transmises par voie sanguine dans le secteur sanitaire [en francés]
In the course of their activities, health care workers are exposed not only to chemical or physical hazards, but also to various infectious agents. The aim of this publication is to present the current state of knowledge with respect to the hazards of blood-borne infections for health care workers, to provide practical recommendations on technical, organizational and behavioural preventive measures, and finally to explain various aspects of occupational medicine and compensation in Switzerland. This fully-revised edition replaces earlier versions, in particular that analyzed under reference CIS 08-1213. Changes concern primarily the chapters describing blood-borne infections, epidemiological data on infection hazards, the use of safety equipment and the updating of post-infection prevention.
Suva, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 14th ed., 2009. 105p. Illus. 157 ref. [en italiano] [en alemán] [en francés]

CIS 09-1163 Langley R., Morris T.
That horse bit me: Zoonotic infections of equines to consider after exposure through the bite or the oral/nasal secretions
Injuries from horses are responsible for over 100,000 emergency room visits each year in the United States. Although various types of traumatic injuries related to direct contact with horses are generally well described, roughly 3% to 4.5% of all reported injuries are due to bites. Besides injuries, the bite may also cause the transmission of a microbial agent that can lead to a zoonotic infection. This review focuses on those zoonoses that have been reported in the literature, including those that may in theory be transmitted from equine to human by direct inoculation or exposure to oral or nasal secretions from horses and other equine species.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.370-381. 68 ref.

CIS 09-1161 Kayali G., Ortiz E.J., Chorazy M.L., Gray G.C.
Lack of evidence of avian adenovirus infection among turkey workers
Although there are many animal-specific adenoviruses and occasionally they have been noted to infect man, rarely have they been studied as potential zoonotic pathogens. In this study, it was hypothesized that the hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), an avian adenovirus that causes illness among turkeys, might infect humans. Using an enzyme immunosorbent assay, the authors compared sera from 95 turkey-exposed individuals with sera from 82 nonexposed controls. Multivariate modeling revealed no statistical difference in anti-HEV antibodies between the two groups.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.299-305. 24 ref.

CIS 09-1164 Seasonal influenza prevention in health care workers
This article describes the comprehensive influenza prevention programme recommended by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Physicians for health care workers. It involves vaccination, information dissemination, employee participation, infection control practices and employer commitment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.386-389. 26 ref.

CIS 09-1033 Everts R., Lloyd A., Meech R., Speers D.
Chronic fatigue syndrome complicating leptospirosis
A link between acute leptospirosis and subsequent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been alluded to by several sources but not specifically reported or discussed in the scientific medical literature. This study discusses 12 cases of occupationally acquired acute leptospirosis, complicated by CFS. The apparent link between these two diseases deserves further epidemiological investigation, because if confirmed, it has implications for both prevention and compensation of occupationally acquired leptospirosis.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2009, Vol.25, No.3, p.209-212. 22 ref.

CIS 09-944 Dreger M.
ACOEM guidance statement - HIV and AIDS at the workplace
This guidance statement of the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) addresses general issues of HIV and AIDS in the workplace. AIDS and HIV present tremendous challenges to infected individuals seeking to remain productive in the workplace, to employers coping with the special needs of such individuals and to physicians who treat and counsel exposed or infected personnel. Occupational physicians should strive to ensure that employers are familiar with legislation and guidelines protecting the rights of infected employees, and adopt workplace policies applying to employees with HIV infection or AIDS. Where there is potential for occupational HIV exposure, occupational physicians should assure that adequate training is provided concerning exposure, prevention and treatment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.243-250. 82 ref.

CIS 09-946 Anikeeva O., Braunack-Mayer A., Rogers W.
Requiring influenza vaccination for health care workers
Annual influenza vaccination for health care workers has the potential to benefit health care professionals, their patients and their families by reducing the transmission of influenza in health care settings. Furthermore, staff vaccination programmes are cost-effective for health care institutions because of reduced staff illness and absenteeism. However, rates of vaccination remain low. This study analysed the ethical implications of a variety of efforts to increase vaccination rates, including mandatory influenza vaccination. It is concluded that a programme of incentives and sanctions may increase health care worker compliance with fewer ethical impediments than mandatory vaccination.
American Journal of Public Health, Jan. 2009, Vol. 99, No.1, p.24-29. 32 ref.

CIS 09-619 Healthcare and social assistance - Advancing priorities through research and partnerships
Healthcare and social assistance workers are exposed to many hazards that can affect their health and well-being, including life threatening infections, such as SARS, HIV and hepatitis. They work with highly toxic cancer-treating drugs and various chemical agents. They perform physically demanding tasks, such as lifting patients. This information sheet describes some of the hazards faced by these workers and invites interested parties among industry and research institutions to participate in identified research needs for which government funding is available.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, June 2009. 2p. Illus. 1 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 09-709 "Mexican" influenza and risk of pandemic
Grippe "mexicaine" et risque de pandémie [en francés]
The new strain of influenza virus A/H1N1 is currently responsible for cases of influenza concentrated in Mexico and the United States. Its transmission among humans is now confirmed. Cases imported into other countries are being declared. The World Health Organization (WHO) has raised the phase of this influenza pandemic alert to level 5. This Internet document presents the current situation and stresses the importance of preparedness for this pandemic, including at the place of work. Contents: definitions; what workers and enterprises need to know now; how to track the trends online; answers to frequently asked questions by enterprises.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, May 2009. Internet document. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 09-503 Kawakami T.
Protecting your employees and business from pandemic human influenza: Action manual for small and medium-sized enterprises
The outbreak of avian influenza and the ongoing incidences of infected cases have prompted worldwide concern. This training manual was developed to promote safe practices in small and medium-sized enterprises. It is user-friendly and practical, providing an action checklist on various prevention measures, including explanations and descriptions. The unique participatory training methods of the ILO of the Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE) and Work Improvements in Neighbourhood Development (WIND) programmes were used to promote understanding and encourage improvement in the practices of employers and workers in small and medium-sized enterprises.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2009. 24p. Illus. [en inglés] [en tailandés]

CIS 09-577 Schablon A., Beckmann G., Harling M., Diel R., Nienhaus A.
Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in a hospital for pulmonary diseases
The study was designed to estimate prevalence of latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI) among 270 health care workers (HCW) in a hospital specialized in pulmonary diseases, using both Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) and tuberculin skin test (TST) methods. The prevalence of LTBI was 7.2%. In HCW younger than 30 years LTBI prevalence was 3.5% and in those older than 50 years 22%. Physicians and nurses showed a higher prevalence (10.8%) than other professions (4.5%). The risk factors for LTBI were age >50 years (odds ratio OR 9.3), working as physicians/nurses (OR 3.2) and no previous TST in medical history (OR 4.4) when compared to those with a negative TST. The higher LTBI prevalence in older HCWs might be due to the cohort effect or the longer time at risk.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Jan. 2009, Vol.4, No.1, 7p. 31 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 09-263 Kawakami T., Ratananakorn L.
Protecting your health and business from avian influenza: Action manual for farmers and poultry workers
The outbreak of avian influenza and the ongoing incidences of infected cases have prompted worldwide concern. This training manual is developed to promote safe practices. The manual is user-friendly and practical, providing an action checklist on various prevention measures including explanations and descriptions. The participatory training methods of the ILO, Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development (WIND) and Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE), were used to promote understanding and encourage improvements in the actions of farmers and poultry workers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2009. 24p. Illus. 7ref. [en tailandés] [en inglés]

CIS 08-1218 Hoja de datos de OSHA: Lo que pueden hacer los patronos para proteger a los trabajadores contra la gripe pandémica
OSHA Fact Sheet: What employers can do to protect workers from pandemic influenza [en inglés]
Fact Sheet outlining the recommended actions employers can do in order to reduce the risk of exposure of workers to an influenza virus during a pandemic. The measures include: engineering controls; administrative controls; work practices; personal protective equipment.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 2009. 2p. [en inglés] [en español]

CIS 08-1217 What to do in the case of a suspected case of infection by the emergent A(H1N1) virus
Conduite à suivre en cas d'infection suspecté au virus émergent H1N1 (A/H1N1/California/04/2009) [en francés]
Contents of this information note: definition of cases; recommendations for action (how to deal with patients, people who have been in contact with them, protection of health care and or other personnel exposed to the patients). In annex: contact information of concerned hospitals and laboratories in France; recommended antiviral drug régime.
Ministère de la santé et des sports, 14, avenue Duquesne, 75350 Paris 07 SP, France, 2009. 7p. [en francés]

CIS 08-1216 Influenza H1N1 (gripe porcina)
Interim guidance for infection control for care of patients with confirmed or suspected swine influenza A(H1N1) virus infection in a healthcare setting [en inglés]
This document provides interim guidance for healthcare facilities (e.g., hospitals, long-term care and outpatient facilities and other settings where healthcare is provided). Contents: background, implementation of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette, implementation of facility contingency plans, interim infection control recommendations, infection control of ill persons in a healthcare setting, surveillance management of healthcare personnel, management of ill healthcare personnel, environmental infection control, administration of the current 2008-2009 seasonal influenza vaccine.
Internet document, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA, 2009. [en inglés] [en español]

CIS 08-1215 Occupational health issues associated with H1N1 influenza virus (Swine Flu)
Internet portal page with links to essential up-to-date information on the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, including its workplace health implications.
Internet document, NIOSH, 2009. [en inglés]

CIS 08-1214 Guía sobre la preparación de los lugares de trabajo para una pandemia del gripe
Guidance on preparing workplaces for an influenza pandemic [en inglés]
This guidance to allow employers to prepare their enterprise for a possible influenza pandemic applies to all types of workplaces. It describes the differences between seasonal, avian and pandemic influenza, and presents information on the nature of a potential pandemic, how the virus is likely to spread and how exposure is likely to occur.
Publications U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, Feb. 2009. 43p. Illus. 5 ref. [en español] [en inglés]

CIS 08-1213 Jost M., Francioli P., Iten A., Jost J., Colombo C., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A.
Prevention of blood-borne infections in the health care sector
Verhütung blutübertragbarer Infektionen im Gesundheitswesen [en alemán]
Prevenzione delle malattie infettive trasmesse per via ematica in ambito sanitario [en italiano]
In the course of their activities, health care workers are exposed not only to chemical or physical hazards, but also to various infectious agents. Besides the prevention against certain occupational transmissible viral diseases such as German measles or chickenpox in paediatric services and tuberculosis, which is resurgent due to the emergence of multi-resistant mycobacteria, the prevention of bloodborne infections such as the human immunodeficiency virus or the hepatitis B and C viruses are the object of much attention. Employers and health care personnel need to undertake every effort to reduce these types of hazards. Contents of this booklet on the prevention of blood-borne infections aimed at health care workers: risk to health care personnel of being infected by a bloodborne pathogen; technical, organizational and personal measures; additional recommendations for certain specific workplaces; primary prevention at the occupational physician level, and vaccination of staff against hepatitis B; secondary prevention and occupational medicine; disposal of potentially-infectious material; insurance law aspects. Update of CIS 98-975.
Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 14th updated edition, 2009. 105p. Illus. 106 ref. [en francés] [en italiano] [en alemán]


CIS 09-1160 Hymel P., Yang W.
Review of malaria risk and prevention for use in corporate travel
Malaria continues to be a significant, life-threatening illness in many parts of the world. For corporate travellers from countries with low endemicity, the risk of infection is considerable. Many corporate travellers are unaware of their risk, unsure of the correct preventative measures and receive incorrect advice regarding prevention or do not comply with advice they have received. This review addresses the risk of malaria to the non-immune corporate traveller, disease transmission, and recommended means of prevention, including the protection against mosquito bites and anti-malaria chemoprophylaxis.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.951-959. Illus. 61 ref.

CIS 09-1159 Connor B.A., Patron D.J.
Use of an accelerated immunization schedule for combined hepatitis A and B protection in the corporate traveler
Increased international business travel to moderate or high endemic areas of hepatitis A and B may leave many business travellers at risk for infection if not vaccinated. Often, the decision to travel to these regions is taken less than two months before departure. Because many areas endemic for hepatitis A are also endemic for hepatitis B, accelerated administration of the combined vaccine can offer protection for international business travellers destined for these countries, and should be part of corporate travel immunization programmes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.945-950. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 09-1158 Bunn W.B.
Risk and burden associated with the acquisition of viral hepatitis A and B in the corporate traveler
As the number of international business travellers continues to grow, so does the list of destinations, many of which are endemic for hepatitis A and B. For employers, infected employees can result in increased health care costs and reduced productivity. Safe and efficacious vaccines are available. Well-designed immunization plans organized within the enterprise health system can prevent hepatitis A and B when employees are abroad on business. This article discusses the risks, costs and prevention of hepatitis A and B for international business travellers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.935-944. Illus. 74 ref.

CIS 09-1157 Hudson T.W., Fortuna J.
Overview of selected infectious disease risks for the corporate traveler
International business travel to developing countries has increased considerably over the past two decades. Many of these destinations are endemic to a variety of infectious diseases, some of which are associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, or both. Non-immune travellers are at risk. Comprehensive pre-travel consultation is essential to prevent travel-related illness. This review addresses some of the infectious diseases that can be acquired during international travel, including endemic regions, assessment of risk and available means of prevention.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.924-934. Illus. 77 ref.

CIS 09-1054 Protecting health care workers from tuberculosis
The resurgence of cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and the emergence of drug-resistant strains of TB have increased the risk that health care workers (HCWs) may acquire serious TB infections which may not respond to usual therapy. These ACGIH guidelines explain the multiple steps needed to reduce this risk, which include: periodical training of HCWs to maintain awareness of the potential risks of TB; optimizing the design, ventilation and patient flow in clinical spaces; periodic TB surveillance testing of HCWs; use of appropriate respiratory protection; active infection control procedures; updating of written TB control plans.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.852-855. 32 ref.

CIS 09-945 Patterson T.L., Mausbach B., Lozada R., Staines-Orozco H., Semple S.J., Fraga-Vallejo M., Orozovich P., Abramovitz D., de la Torre A., Amaro H., Martinez G., Magis-Rodríguez C., Strathdee S.A.
Efficacy of a brief behavioral intervention to promote condom use among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico
A random sample of 924 female sex workers from two Mexican localities bordering the United States were divided between intervention and reference groups. The intervention group received a 30-minute presentation on sexual risk reduction. At baseline and six months later, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia. A 40% decline in sexually transmitted illness incidence was observed in the intervention group. Incidence rates for the intervention versus control groups was 13.8 versus 24.92 per 100 person-years for sexually transmitted illnesses combined and 0 versus 2.01 per 100 person-years for HIV. There were concomitant increases in the percentage of protected sex acts. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Public Health, Nov. 2008, Vol. 98, No.11, p.2051-2057. 40 ref.

CIS 09-713 Luckhaupt S.E., Calvert G.M.
Deaths due to bloodborne infections and their sequelae among health care workers
Using data from the National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) system in the United States, a matched case-control design was employed to examine the relationship between health-care employment and death from HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), liver cancer and cirrhosis from 1984 to 2004. Employment in the health-care industry was associated with increased risk of death from HIV (odds ratio OR 2.27), HBV (OR 1.98) and cirrhosis (OR 1.09) among males, and death from HCV among both males (OR 1.46) and females (OR 1.22). Nursing was the occupation with the highest risk among males for HIV and HBV, but female nurses were at decreased risk of dying from HIV (OR 0.69).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.812-824. 41 ref.

CIS 09-561 Zachou K., Papamichalis P.A., Dalekos G.N.
Severe pharyngitis in stockbreeders: An unusual presentation of brucellosis
Brucellosis is a known occupational hazard for shepherds, abattoir workers, veterinarians, dairy industry workers and personnel in microbiological laboratories. Two cases in stockbreeders who presented with high-grade fever and severe exudative pharyngitis, accompanied by severe odynophagia in the first and a history of relapsing tonsillitis in the second are recorded. It is therefore recommended to include brucellosis in the differential diagnosis of febrile patients suffering from unexplained pharyngitis or tonsillitis who belong to high-risk occupational groups.
Occupational Medicine, 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.305-307. 8 ref.

CIS 09-708 Sernia S.
Tuberculosis biological risk in the workplace: Legislative aspects, specific prophylaxis, new perspectives and management criticalities
Il rischio biologico da tubercolosi in ambito occupazionale: aspetti legislativi, profilassi specifica, nuovi orientamenti e criticità gestionali [en italiano]
This editorial discusses tuberculosis risks at the place of work, addressing diagnosis (skin tests, blood tests) and prophylaxis (vaccination, health surveillance), with reference to Italian legislation.
Prevenzione oggi, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol.4, No.2, p.1-16. Illus. 9 ref. [en italiano] [en inglés]

CIS 09-582 Peate W.F., Mullins J.
Disaster preparedness training for tribal leaders
This short report describes a training programme set up to ensure that Native American communities were adequately informed and trained to implement coordinated response plans for a range of potential public health emergencies on tribal lands and in surrounding communities. The commentary outlines how specific cultural aspects (including for example a public prayer by an elder during the training), respect for tribal sovereignty, presentation of historical examples of indigenous preparedness, and incorporation of tribal community networks were essential to the success of this programme.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Jan. 2008, Vol.3, No.2, 5p. 3 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 09-712 Musharrafieh U.M., Bizri A.R.N., Nassar N.T., Rahi A.C., Shoukair A.M., Doudakian R.M., Hamadeh G.N.
Health care workers' exposure to blood-borne pathogens in Lebanon
The objective of this study was to assess the pattern of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF) at a 420-bed hospital in Beirut, Lebanon. A total of 1,590 BBF exposure-related accidents reported to the Infection Control Office over a 17-year period were retrospectively analysed. Results are expressed in terms of long-term trends, categories of personnel exposed and causes of the incident. The study shows that health care workers continue to be exposed to blood-borne pathogens. Findings and their implications are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.94-98. Illus. 29 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 09-569 Ahn Y.S., Lim H.S.
Occupational infectious diseases among Korean health care workers compensated with industrial accident compensation insurance from 1998 to 2004
Using the database of the Korea Labor Welfare Corporation, the 307 cases of occupational infectious diseases among the health care workers who were compensated from 1998 to 2004 were analyzed. Women accounted for 83% of the compensated cases. The most common age group was that of 20-29 yrs of age. The majority of infections were tuberculosis, hepatitis, chickenpox, AIDS and scabies. The major types of occupations were nurses, doctors, clinical pathology technicians and workers who were taking care of patients. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.448-454. Illus. 21 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 09-596 Lee K., Lim H.S.
Work-related injuries and diseases of farmers in Korea
Korean farmers are the victims of various work-related injuries and diseases, including injuries from farming machinery and tools, pesticide poisoning, peasant syndrome, vinyl house disease, respiratory diseases, infectious and skin diseases. Zoonoses including brucellosis and tsutsugamushi disease are on the increase, as well as musculoskeletal problems due to awkward postures, repetitive work and long working hours. Moreover Korean farmers themselves do not pay much attention to these problems and farmers are not considered a priority by health care facilities since the number of people involved in farming has strongly declined during the last few decades and the average age of this population has dramatically increased. This article reviews the current status of work-related injuries and diseases among Korean farmers and provides basic data for future studies.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.424-434. 95 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 09-366 Alexandre Fernandes A., Pereira Miguel J.
Health and migration in the EU
Saúde e migrações na UE [en portugués]
Proceedings of the European conference "Health and migration in the EU - better health for all in an inclusive society" held in Lisbon, Portugal, on 27-28 September 2007. The EU is the destination for many millions of migrants from around the world. This poses a variety of challenges that range from demographic to economic. Health is one of the most important issues. Migrants face increased risks to their health linked to the stresses of moving home and changing country. They can also experience difficulties in accessing health services due to language, cultural and other barriers. These problems can be particularly acute for children and other vulnerable groups. Main topics covered: overview of migrants' health determinants and needs; the challenge of migrant's health for health services and research; health promotion among migrants; disease prevention; access to healthcare; mental health; occupational health, working conditions and health hazards; women and child health; accessibility and quality of care.
Instituto Nacional de Saúde (INSA), Lisboa, Portugal, 2008. 242p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 09-459 Lorenzi R.L., de Oliveira I.M.
Tuberculosis in nursing personnel - A population based epidemiological approach
Tuberculose em trabalhadores de enfermagem: uma abordagem epidemiológica de base populacional [en portugués]
This study examines the risk of tuberculosis among nursing personnel in Brazil using the São Paulo Tuberculosis Program database "EPI-TB". The standardized incidence ratio was calculated taking as reference the population in the city of São Paulo in the year 2004. The 20-29 age interval showed an increased risk among nurses when compared to the reference population. Among 15 to 19 year-old nurses' aides there was also an increase of risk. It is concluded that nursing personnel may be considered at risk of nosocomial tuberculosis and should be monitored for nosocomial TB. The ways of improving health surveillance practices in Brazil are discussed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2008, Vol.33, No.117, p.6-14. Illus. 16 ref. [en portugués]

CIS 09-457 Miraz Novás C.
Evaluación higiénica de riesgos biológicos del trabajo en estabulario de un centro de investigación sanitaria
The purpose of this study was to assess the biological hazards to which workers in the animal facilities of a health research facility are exposed in order to determine the need for preventive measures. The methodology used involved identification of the microorganisms present, damage to health, routes of transmission, possibility of vaccination and percentage of vaccinated personnel, and the existing hygienic measures. Findings highlight the need of further preventive measures, particularly for the control of Leptospira and Brucella.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.97-103. Illus. 8 ref. [en español]

CIS 09-460 Breton-Kueny L., Segovia-Kueny S.
When faced with the risk of a pandemic - Vital relevance of a plan for ensuring the continuity of operations
Face à une crise de type pandémie - L'intérêt vital d'un plan de continuité des activités [en francés]
This article explains plans for ensuring the continuity of operations (PCOs) in the event of a pandemic, together with their usefulness and implementation. Topics: influenza pandemic; Decree on the safety of vital activities in France; what needs to be included in a PCO in the event of avian influenza. The proposed approach could also be relevant in other situations, for example in the case of bioterrorism.
Préventique-Sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.101, p.57-61. Illus.

CIS 09-353 Occupational hazards of work in cemeteries
Risques professionnels liés au travail dans les cimetières [en francés]
Working in cemeteries is often physically difficult and involves exposure to various hazards depending on the type of job. This article describes the occupational hazards encountered in this work environment. Topics addressed: chemical hazards (exposure to herbicides); physical workload; workers' well-being amenities; biological hazards (Lyme's disease, Weil's disease); psychosocial hazards.
Prevent Focus, Sep. 2008, No.7, p.16-17. Illus.

CIS 09-100 Ide C.
Clean forgotten
Cleaning is generally regarded as a task carried out by women. In the United Kingdom, 84% of the 537,000 employed in cleaning are female and, about 70% work part-time. This article reviews the hazards and risks faced by cleaners, and outlines the need for proper training, maintenance of equipment and appropriate, comfortable clothing.
Safety and Health Practitioner, May 2008, Vol.26, No.5, p.55-58. Illus. 12 ref.

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