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  • Viral diseases (other than aids)

1988

CIS 90-2068 Leprince A., Monod G.
Colloquium "AIDS, rights and freedoms"
Colloque SIDA, droit et libertés [en francés]
Summary of the discussions of the major themes: HIV and national borders; HIV and social security; HIV and employment; law, medical ethics and testing; HIV and prisons; HIV and drug addiction; HIV, human rights and familial relations.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.34, p.159-165.

CIS 90-1588 Rogers R., Salvage J.
Nurses at risk: a guide to health and safety at work
This practical guide covers occupational hazards of nursing at different levels of the service, raises nurses' consciousness of these hazards and suggests ways of tackling them - using practical, legal and political means. Special features of the book include: easy reference guide to hazards at work; action checklists of how to fight specific problems; emphasis on mental and social hazards as well as chemical and physical ones; summaries of the latest research in the field: a chapter for the healthy nurse.
Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., 23 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3HT, United Kingdom, 1988. 186p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 89-2070 Global Programme on AIDS: Statement from the consultation on AIDS and the workplace
Programme mondial de lutte contre le SIDA - Consultation sur le SIDA et le lieu de travail: déclaration [en francés]
This statement is a final document adopted by a Consultation on AIDS and the Workplace held in Geneva by the World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) in association with WHO's Office on Occupational Health and the ILO, 27-29 June 1988. The main themes treated by the Consultation: risk factors associated with HIV infection in the workplace, responses by employers and employees to HIV/AIDS, and use of the workplace for health education activities. Contents: general statement, introduction, policy principles, policy development and implementation, policy components. The document provides guidance for those considering issues raised by HIV/AIDS in the workplace which do not involve direct risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV between workers, from worker to client, or from client to worker. Special attention is given to protection of the human rights and dignity of HIV-infected persons, including persons with AIDS.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1988. 4p.

CIS 89-1549 Hofmann F., Heidenreich S., Achenbach W., Berthold H.
Minor injuries in hospitals - safety and medical aspects
Bagatellverletzungen im Krankenhaus - sicherheitstechnische und medizinische Aspekte [en alemán]
Determination of the frequency of needle stick injuries among the medical personnel of the university hospital in Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany, in the period 1976 - 1987 yielded a total of 139 reported injuries. Of these, 78 were caused by injection needles used on hepatitis B antigen-positive patients, 61 by needles used on HIV-positive or AIDS patients. None of the latter developed AIDS. Of the former group, 11 developed severe hepatitis, 18 had been immunised prior to injury and the rest had received hepatitis B-globulin in time. Improved information on the dangers of needle stick injuries increased the reported number seeking immediate professional help.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Jan. 1988, Vol.19, No.1, p.50-53. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 89-1730 9 important messages about HIV at the job
Information sheet reflecting the basic views of all Swedish trade unions and federations of employers on this major problem of public health. The main points are: HIV infection in itself does not impair work capacity; HIV carriers must be given the same opportunities for work as other people; if HIV infection develops into AIDS, its medical consequences do not differ in principle from those of other potentially fatal illnesses; information concerning HIV infection is a major responsibility of the employer, the trade union organisations and occupational health services; in jobs which are subject to special requirements of safety or efficiency, health checks may include HIV screening; HIV screening results are confidential; all forms of ostracism and discrimination against HIV carriers must be actively counteracted.
Swedish National Board of Occupational and Safety Health, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 1p.

CIS 89-1729 AIDS and the workplace
Information sheet on AIDS written for health-care personnel, personal service workers, emergency workers and other workers who might encounter HIV-infected persons in the workplace. Information covered: definition and cause with AIDS; propagation with AIDS; prophylactic measures against AIDS; responsibilities of employers and employees in connection with AIDS; practical advice on how to avoid infection by AIDS.
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Occupational Health and Safety Division, 10709 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, 1988. 5p.

CIS 89-1727 Ricardo Edström M.D.
HIV-screening in the interest of employee protection
Information sheet issued by the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health and covering the problem of the HIV screening of workers. The main conclusion is that since HIV is not transmitted through usual social contacts, there is no justification for testing employees at ordinary workplaces, including health-care establishments.
Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 1p.

CIS 89-1725
Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS)
AIDS in employment
Information sheet providing essential information on AIDS and written for managers, trade union representatives and employees.
Confederation of British Industry, Centre Point, 103 New Oxford Street, London WC1A 1DU, United Kingdom, 1988. 5p. 6 ref.

CIS 89-1723 Blood-borne infectious disease
Blodsmitta [en sueco]
Recommendations elaborated by the Swedish Confderation of Trade Unions to prevent the propagation of blood-borne infectious diseases caused by the HIV-virus and the Hepatitis B-virus. Contents: trade union policy; employers' responsibilities; target groups for information on blood-borne infection; working instructions; HIV-tests; work abroad; travelling abroad, vacations; trade union personnel policy in cases of established blood-borne infection. Regulation AFS 1986:23 concerning protection against blood-borne diseases is appended. English translation.
Landsorganisationen i Sverige, 105 53 Stockholm, Sweden, 1988. 67p. Illus.

CIS 89-1722 AIDS - a new disease: Information for seafarers
Information sheet on AIDS written for seafarers. Contents: What is AIDS? How does AIDS spread? Who can be infected with AIDS? How infectious is AIDS? What are the symptoms? Can AIDS be treated? Practical advice is given to seafarers on how to avoid being infected. A summary of the contents is also given in Korean.
The Seamen's Church Institute of New York and New Jersey, 50 Broadway, New York, New York 10004, USA, 1988. 4p.

CIS 89-1721 Living with AIDS at work and in the community
Policy guide on AIDS covering a wide range of problems raised by the disease. Contents: AIDS - the illness; control of AIDS - basic precautions; additional advice for particular groups of workers (health services - all departments, mortuaries and post-mortem rooms, working in sewers and sewage treatment plants, home helpers, prison workers and others); a policy for AIDS and HIV (equal opportunities and employment protection, confidentiality, training, other policy initiatives); AIDS - the campaign for health and safety at work; checklists (basic questions about AIDS, general safety for NHS workers, safety for ambulance staff, disposal of infected materials from laboratories, check on waste disposal by safety representatives); contact organisations in the United Kingdom.
General, Municipal, Boilermakers and Allied Trades Union, Thorne House, Ruxley Ridge, Claygate, Esher, Surrey KT10 0TL, United Kingdom, 1988. 58p. Price: GBP 1.50 (non-members).

CIS 89-1720 What you should know about AIDS
Information booklet on AIDS containing basic facts about the disease and practical advice on how to protect oneself and one's family against infection by HIV.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 5600 Fichers Lane, Rockville M8 20852, USA, 1988. 8p.

CIS 89-1716 What employees and employers should know about AIDS
AIDS: Was Arbeitnehmer und Arbeitgeber wissen sollten [en alemán]
This brochure covers medical and occupational aspects of AIDS and advises how to deal with them in the workplace. Particular attention is given to juridical problems of special interest to employers.
Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung, Postfach 91 01 52, 5000 Köln 91, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 30p.

CIS 89-1317
Health and Safety Executive
Asbestos
This note is an update of the document abstracted as CIS 80-677. It provides general information on asbestos and its uses. It gives guidance on exposure limits and their significance, control measures in order to reduce exposure, respiratory protective equipment, biological and clinical effects of exposure to asbestos, asbestosis (pathology and clinical features), the increased risk of lung cancer due to exposure, mesothelioma of pleura and peritoneum, cancers at other sites, asbestos corns (warts), medical examinations of workers exposed to asbestos and social security benefit criteria.
HM Stationary Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Apr. 1988. 4p. 15 ref.

CIS 89-1377 Morgan D.R., Dawson J.
Occupational health aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS
Since 1981 the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the agent that causes AIDS, has spread world-wide. HIV is spread mainly through sexual intercourse, infected blood or blood products on shared syringes and needles, and from mother to baby or before birth. There is now considerable evidence to show that the virus is not transmitted by casual contact in the workplace and the families of AIDS sufferers are at very low risk of developing infection in the home. Although the majority of workers simply need the assurance that they are safe at work, some occupations require sensible, routine protective measures for the protection of staff and their clients or patients. Occupational health professionals will have an increasingly important role in providing solutions to health and safety problems in the workplace and in co-ordinating the welfare education and training of staff.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1988, Vol.32, No.1, p.69-82. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 89-770 Hazards at work - TUC guide to health and safety
Detailed guide to occupational safety and health, aimed at workers and their safety representatives. It covers: legislative aspects in the United Kingdom (including an annotated list of laws and regulations); safety representatives and safety committees; dealing with accidents; the working environment (lighting, temperature, ventilation, overcrowding, cleanliness); chemicals and toxic substances; dust; asbestos; noise; ionising radiations; biological hazards (leptospirosis, hepatitis B, AIDS, legionnaires' disease, organic dust diseases); skin hazards; hazards of physical work (work posture, manual handling, repetitive work, vibration); machinery guarding; cranes and lifting gear; hand tools; eye protection; protective clothing and equipment; welding; fire precautions; electricity; maintenance work; stress; office work; VDUs; violence; hours of work; young workers; first aid and welfare facilities; access to information; workplace health and safety services. Checklists and information on HSE and TUC publications and offices are given throughout the text.
Trades Union Congress, Congress House, Great Russell Street, London WC1B 3LS, United Kingdom, 1988. 214p. Bibl. ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 89-1028 Deith B.
AIDS: a rehabilitation perspective
A questionnaire survey carried out among British post office employees showed that despite extensive publicity on AIDS, fears, prejudices and myths still exist about this major public health problem. Recommendations to remove possible adverse effects on industrial relations in connection with AIDS are given to management, unions and employees.
Occupational Health, July-Aug. 1988, Vol.40, No.7/8, p.618-623. Illus.

CIS 89-1029 Cox T.
AIDS and stress
This editorial discusses the relationship between stress and AIDS, under the headings: stress, immune system competence and AIDS; diagnosis; implications for work; design and management of work.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1988, Vol.2, No.2, p.109-112. 6 ref.

CIS 89-1027
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM)
A THINK special report on AIDS
The attitude of IBM towards AIDS is discussed in an interview with the company's Director of Personnel Plans and Programmes. Main themes: education, no testing, no discrimination.
Think, Mar. 1988, Vol.54, No.3, p.9-15.

CIS 89-1018 Brundage J.F., Scott R.M., Lednar W.M., Smith D.W., Miller R.N.
Building-associated risk of febrile acute respiratory diseases in army trainees
Airborne transmission of infectious agents and associations of indoor air pollutants with respiratory illnesses are well documented. At four Army training centres during a 47-month period, incidence rates of febrile acute respiratory disease were compred between basic trainees in modern (energy-efficient design and construction) and old barracks. Rates of febrile acute respiratory disease were significantly higher among trainees in modern barracks (adjusted relative risk estimate, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.46 to 1.56), and relative risks were about the same at the 4 centers. These results support the hypothesis that tight buildings with closed ventilation systems, designed to conserve energy, significantly increase risks of respiratory-transmitted infection among congregated, immunologically susceptible occupants.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Apr. 1988, Vol.259, No.14, p.2108-2112. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 89-1019 Bennett N.M.
Disposal of medical waste
This leading article in a medical journal discusses the problem of medical waste disposal in connection with potential dangers of exposure to HIV and Hepatitis B virus. In the United States (and in most parts of Australia), it is not usually considered practical or necessary to treat all waste contaminated with body fluids as infectious, even though it is possible for AIDS and Hepatitis B to be transmitted by contact of infected blood with mucous membranes or inflamed uncovered skin. It is recommended that waste contaminated heavily with blood, such as used blood packs, disposable blood-suction sets, placentas and sanitary napkins, be labelled appropriately in order to warn staff members involved in waste disposal procedures.
Medical Journal of Australia, 17 Oct. 1988, Vol.149, No.8, p.400-402. 13 ref.

CIS 89-808 Pelnar P.V.
Further evidence of nonasbestos-related mesothelioma
Asbestos is not the only cause of malignant mesothelioma. An updated review of the literature is presented with reports on mesothelioma with unknown causes (spontaneous cases) in animals and humans and on mesothelioma in man in association with exposure to erionite-zeolite, exposure to ionising radiation, and chronic inflammation and in animals in association with biological (viral), chemical physicochemical and physical agents.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1988, Vol.14, No.3, p.141-144. 39 ref.

CIS 89-1022 Reid J.A., White D.G., Caul E.O., Palmer S.R.
Role of infected foold handler in hotel outbreak of Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis: Implications for control
Investigation of an outbreak of viral (Norwalk-like) gastroenteritis amongst staff (40 cases), resident guests (over 70 cases), and persons attending functions (54 cases) at one hotel over 8 days suggested that the main vehicle of infection was cold foods prepared by a food handler during and after a mild gastrointestinal illness. He was excreting Norwalk-like virus particles 48 hours after the illness. In addition, ill kitchen staff vomited in the kitchen area and may have contaminated surfaces and stored foods. It is recommended that food handlers should be regarded as potentially infectious until at least 48 hours after clinical recovery from viral gastroenteritis. Stored foods that may have been contaminated should be immediately discarded and areas of the work place which may have been affected should be identified and decontaminated.
Lancet, 6 Aug. 1988, Vol.2, No.8606, p.321-323. 17 ref.

CIS 89-1025 Meylan P.R., Francioli P., Decrey H., Chave J.P., Glauser M.P.
Post-exposure prophylaxis against HIV infection in health care workers
This letter to the editor describes the case of a 24-year old laboratory technician who pricked a finger with a broken haematocrit tube filled with blood from a patient with seropositive AIDS and several AIDS symptoms. The risk of transmission of HIV associated with a single occupational exposure is estimated at 0.13% (95% confidence interval 0.01-0.74%). An attempt of prophylaxis by zidovudine was made to prevent HIV in the technician. Treatment began 2 hours after the exposure. She was given a 4-day course of zidovudine at 500mg doses four times daily. 3 months after exposure she remained free of any serological markers of HIV infection (anti-HIV ELISA, confirmatory anti-env and anti-core ELISAs, HIV antigen p24, and western blot). Despite this, zidovudine prophylaxis cannot yet be recommended to health-care workers with parenteral HIV exposure because its long-term side-effects are unknown. However, establishing the efficacy of a post-exposure chemoprophylactic measure is desirable, and prophylactic zidovudine or similar drugs could be tested in non-human primates experimentally infected with HIV.
Lancet, 27 Feb. 1988, Vol.I, No.8583, p.481. 5 ref.

CIS 89-1030 AFSCME Fact Sheet - AIDS
Data sheet on AIDS covering a wide range of information on AIDS, including the cause of this fatal disease, the nature of the AIDS virus, modes of transmission, pecularities of the "AIDS test", protective measures against HIV infection, non-discrimination against workers with AIDS and others.
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), 1625 L Street N.W., Washington D.C. 20036, USA, 1988. 7p.

CIS 89-779 The AIDS book
Information handbook usable as training material for workers, issued by a labour union concerning AIDS in the workplace. Contents: 20 questions and answers on various aspects of AIDS; the Union's role - addressing AIDS in the workplace, reducing risk at work, workplace policies to protect the rights of workers with AIDS, AIDS education for all workers, respondong to the AIDS epidemic (the example of SEIU); guidelines for protection of health care workers and other occupations. Recommendations for the prevention of HIV transmission in health care settings by the US Centers for Disease Control and the Joint advisory note on protection against occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by the US Department of Labor and the Department of Health and Human Services are presented in the appendices.
Service Employees International Union, AFL-CIO, CLC, 1313 L Street, NW Washington D.C. 20005, USA, 1988. 85p. 37 ref. 3 appendices.

CIS 89-671
Centers for Disease Control
Update: Universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne pathogens in health-care settings
This report clarifies and supplements the US Centres for Disease Control publication entitled "Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-care Settings" (1987). Contents: body fluids to which universal precautions apply and do not apply; precautions for other body fluids in special settings (human breast milk and saliva); use of protective barriers; glove use for phlebotomy; selection of gloves; waste management.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22/29 July 1988, Vol.260, No.4, p.462-464. 20 ref.

CIS 89-672 Dickens B.M.
Legal limits of AIDS confidentiality
This article discusses in detail some approaches to conscientious disclosure of results of HIV-testing in order to reduce individual risks of exposure to HIV infection. The relevant legal situation in the US is outlined.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 17 June 1988, Vol.259, No.23, p.3449-3451. 20 ref.

CIS 89-681 AIDS: What workers need to know
Safety and health special report on AIDS covering a wide range of problems raised in connection with this major disease. Contents: what is AIDS?; how does the AIDS virus get into the body?; how contagious is AIDS?; AIDS in the workplace; how is AIDS identified?; who is at risk?; what the union can do about AIDS?; facts about AIDS. It also contains guidelines by the Centres for Disease Control for various groups of workers such as food service workers, barbers and cosmetologists, laboratory workers, laundry workers, service and maintenance workers and health care personnel.
United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, AFL-CIO/CLC, 1775 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA, 1988. 4p.

CIS 89-678 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in health care institutions
This fact sheet is intended for the use of health care workers exposed to patients who may have AIDS. It contains AFSCME recommendations for health care workers, including those in emergency and home-care services, in order to prevent HIV infection in the workplace.
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, (AFSCME), 1625 L Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036, USA, 1988. 6p.

CIS 89-677 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in correctional institutions
Fact sheet on AIDS for the information of ocrrectional officers, in order to prevent them from being infected by HIV.
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), 1625 L Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036, USA, 1988. 6p.

CIS 89-317 Baxter J.A.
Rabies - A summary of the occupational health concern
This data sheet covers: what is and what causes rabies; latent period; source; how common in Canada; how do infections occur; occupations at risk; signs of the disease; laboratory tests; treatment; protection of workers; precautions for control; immunisation for workers; workplace hygiene recommendations.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Mar. 1988. 9p.

CIS 89-312 Moran J.B.
Personal protective equipment: AIDS
A US Joint Advisory Notice states that no case of AIDS has been occupationally related. The transmission routes, exposure categories, risks of hepatitis B or AIDS viruses, and recommendations for worker information and protection are discussed.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Feb. 1988, Vol.3, No.2, p.F20, 22.

CIS 89-321 AIDS in the workplace
This data sheet covers: statistics; description of AIDS; methods of infection; people with AIDS; how to avoid AIDS; occupational risk; AIDS and the law; pre-employment; during employment; termination of employment; reaction of other employees; the advantages of a policy; position of the Confederation of British Industry; sources of information.
United Trade Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R ODA, United Kingdom, Feb. 1988. p.G:18-1 - G:18-7.

CIS 89-320 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Fact sheet on AIDS issued by a labour union, covering such important information on this major public health problem as what AIDS is; how AIDS can and cannot be transmitted, whether there is a workplace risk, safe systems of work, whether infected persons should be dismissed and precautions for first-aiders.
Union of Shop, Distributive and Allied Workers, 188 Wilmslow Road, Manchester MI4 6LJ, United Kingdom, 1988. 5p.

1987

CIS 90-135 Raffle P.A.B., Lee W.R., McCallum R.I., Murray R.
Hunter's diseases of occupations
This book written for clinicians who need information on the investigation and diagnosis of possible occupational diseases and to advise their patients on their future work is the prime source of clinical information about the effects of materials and processes in modern industry. Contents: history (man and his work, the industrial revolution, health of the worker in the twentieth centry), occupational history taking, diseases associated with chemical agents (metals, aromatic and aliphatic compounds, gases), diseases associated with physical agents (sound, infrasound and ultrasound; vibration; cold and heat; increased barometric pressure; reduced barometric pressure; ionising radiation; non-ionising radiation; extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields; inorganic dusts; organic dusts), diseases associated with microbiological agents, occupational cancer, occupational asthma, occupational diseases of the skin, reproduction and work.
Edward Arnold Publishers, 41 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DQ, United Kingdom, 1987. 1024p. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 95.00.

CIS 89-1711
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labour
Occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus; Advance notice of proposed rulemaking
This notice announces the initiation of the rulemaking process and requests information relevant to reducing occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or AIDS virus) under section 6 (B) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, 29, U.S.C. 655. It briefly summarises the ongoing activities in this area and describes the information available to OSHA concerning HBV and HIV infections, existing guidelines for worker protection and risk estimates. The notice also invites interested parties to submit data, comments and other pertinent information regarding OSHA's development of a proposed standard for occupational exposure to HBV and HIV.
Federal Register, 27 Nov. 1987, Vol. 52, No.228, p.45438-45441.

CIS 89-1728
AMI Occupational Health Ltd.
CBI Guideline - AIDS and first aid
Although the risk of being infected by AIDS from giving first aid is very slight, first aiders need reassurance. This guideline written for managers responsible for first aid is aimed at helping them to check whether they have made appropriate arrangements for the staff concerned and to inform such staff of the latest expert advice. Contents: reassurance for first aiders; definition of AIDS; cause of AIDS; how HIV infection occurs; precautions first aiders should take; special equipment and facilities.
Confederation of British Industry (CBI), Centre Point, 103 New Oxford Street, London WC1A 1DU, United Kingdom, 1987. 3p. 7 ref.

CIS 89-1715
US Department of Health and Human Sciences
Joint Advisory Notice on protection against occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
This notice issued by the US Government specifically addresses AIDS in the workplce and concerns all health care workers potentially exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Contents: texts of letter and notice sent to health care employers throughout the United States; background of the problem; modes of HBV and HIV transmission; epidemiologic data; general and administrative recommendations; exposure categories according to tasks implemented; training and education; engineering controls; work practices; personal protective equipment; record keeping.
Federal Register, 30 Oct. 1987, Vol.52, No.210, p.41818-41824. 38 ref.

CIS 89-1381
International Business Machines Corporation
IBM's practice regarding people with AIDS
Information kit on AIDS issued by IBM and reflecting IBM's policy towards its employees with AIDS. It contains: general statement of policy (no testing, confidentiality, information, keeping employees with AIDS on the work force as long as possible, health insurance coverage, research support); internal communications on AIDS; discussion.
International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, New York 10504, USA, 1987. Information kit. 9p.

CIS 89-1228 Watt A.D.
Hairdressers and hepatitis B - A risk of inapparent parenternal infection
According to Scottish statistics for 1981-84, 14 cases of hepatitis B out of 1774 recorded were in hairdressers. This represents an annual incidence rate for the profession of 41 per 100,000, a major increase from the annual incidence rate of 7.79 per 100,000 for the period 1973-80. The possible role of parenteral infection through skin affected by dermatitis is discussed.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Winter 1987, Vol.37, No.4, p.124-125. 8 ref.

CIS 89-1026 Handsfield H.H., Cummings M.J., Swenson P.D.
Prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus and samples submitted to a hospital laboratory: Implications for handling specimens
The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was determined in serum or plasma specimens of 506 patients submitted to the clinical chemistry laboratory of an urban teaching hospital, and the results were correlated with "biohazard" warning labels on the specimens. Hepatitis B surface antigen, HIV antibody, or either or both of these were present in 32 (6.3%), 15 (3.0%), and 44 specimens (8.7%), respectively. Ten (67%) pf 15 specimens with HIV antibody and nine (28%) of 32 with HBsAg bore biohazard labels. Among 473 unlabelled specimens, HIV antibody was present in five (1.1%), HBsAg was present in 23 (4.9%) and 27 (5.7%) contained either or both of these markers. All clinical and laboratory personnel should be vaccinated against hepatitis B and should handle all blood specimens as if they were infected, regardless of biohazard labelling. By fostering complacency in handling unlabelled specimens, the use of biohazard labels may paradoxically increase the risk that health care workers will be exposed to HIV and hepatitis B virus.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 18 Dec. 1987, Vol.258, No.23, p.3395-3397. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 89-670 Ashton D.
AIDS and employers
This article discusses a wide range of problems raised in society by the AIDS epidemic. Among them: attitudes towards AIDS victims; status of HIV carriers in the workplace; the problem of discrimination and unfair dismissal of workers with HIV; rights and responsibilities of employers in connection with the spread of AIDS; unnecessary routine pre-employment screening for the AIDS virus; need to educate workers about AIDS. The main conclusion is that neither the AIDS sufferer nor the HIV carrier poses any threat to his working colleagues and there is a continuing need for education to dispel the myths about AIDS.
Occupational Health, Aug. 1987, Vol.39, No.8, p.258-259.

CIS 89-669 Herbert E.
Understanding AIDS
This article consisting of 2 parts discusses in detail many of the problems raised by AIDS in the workplace in the United Kingdom, including: the epidemic of AIDS; discrimination against employees with AIDS; employment rights, pre-entry screening and recruiting in connection with AIDS; disclosure of the results of medical tests for HIV; first aid at work. Special attention is given to health-care personnel, a group of workers having a high risk of HIV infection. The article concludes that open discussion and circulating information about AIDS would help to dispel myths and to improe the level of understanding among the work-force.
Occupational Safety and Health, Part I: Nov. 1987, Vol.17, No.11, p.24-25; Part II: Dec. 1987, Vol.17, No.12, p.22-23. Illus.

CIS 89-680 AIDS in the workplace: A guide for employees
Policy guide on AIDS in the workplace written for employees. It contains general information on AIDS, practical advice on how to prevent infection by HIV in the working environment and how to deal with co-workers who have the disease.
San Francisco AIDS Foundation, 333 Valencia Street, 4th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA, 1987. 6p.

CIS 89-679 AIDS - a trade union issue?
Le SIDA - une cause syndicale? [en francés]
Fact sheet on AIDS containing practical advice on how to prevent infection by HIV in the working environment and in private life, as well as information on the position of labour unions regarding AIDS, the problems of mass screening of workers and AIDS in Africa. CIS has only the English-language version.
International Union of Food and Allied Workers, Rampe du Pont-Route 8, 1213 Petit-Lancy, Genève, Switzerland, July 1987. 9p. 6 ref.

CIS 89-188
US Department of Health and Human Services, Centres for Disease Control
Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in health-care settings
Practical recommendations for health care workers who have contact with persons potentially infected with HIV. Contents: definitions of health care workers; risk of acquiring HIV in health care settings; health care workers with AIDS; precautions to prevent transmission of HIV in dentistry, precautions for morticians and for persons performing autopsies, dialysis and laboratory work with biological samples; environmental considerations for HIV transmission, sterilisation and disinfection, survival of HIV in the environment, housekeeping, cleaning and decontaminating spills of blood and other body fluids, laundry, infective waste; implementation of recommended precautions; serological testing for HIV infection, testing of patients, testing of health care workers; management of infected health care workers. The recommendations are intended for health care settings and they emphasise the need to treat blood and other body fluids from all patients as potentially infective.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 21 Aug. 1987, Vol.36, No.25, 18p. 37 ref.

CIS 88-1851 Zox A.A., Platz K.J.
Caring about AIDS
Information booklet on AIDS written for employees, managers, families and their friends. It contains practical advice on how to prevent infection with HIV in the working environment and in private life. Contents: facts on AIDS, stopping the fear of AIDS, working with people with AIDS, AIDS and legal rights at work.
Workplace Health Communications Corporation, 4 Madison Place, Albany, NY 12202, USA, 1987. 32p.

CIS 88-1850 What everyone should know about AIDS
Information booklet on AIDS usuable as training material. It contains practical advice on how to prevent infection with the HIV in the working environment and in private life.
Channing L. Bete Co., South Deerfield, MA 01373, USA, 1987. 15p. Illus.

CIS 88-1726 Follett E.A.C., Symington I.S., Cameron M.G.
Experience with hepatitis B vaccination in nurses in a hospital for the mentally handicapped
500 nurses in a large hospital received a full course of hepatitis B vaccination. 480 of them (96%) had detectable antibodies 9 months after starting vaccinations, with high titres (over 1000 IU/L) in 60%. In only 2 of the 20 non-responders did lasting immunity develop with a 4th dose of vaccine. Antibody titre decreased rapidly in all vaccinees followed up. In vaccinees with a titre above 100 IU/L the decrease in titre could be reversed by a booster dose. Those with a titre below 100 IU/L had a variable response to a booster dose and lasting immunity developed in only a few. A recall system was started in order to maintain a protective level of antibodies in the nurses.
Lancet, 26 Sept. 1987, Vol.II, No.8561, p.728-731. 11 ref.

CIS 88-1725 Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in health care settings
This report is intended for all health care settings and considers all patients as potentially infective. Covered are: definition of health-care workers; health-care workers with AIDS; risk to health-care workers of acquiring HIV at work; precautions to prevent transmission (universally, during invasive procedures, dentistry, autopsies or morticians' services, dialysis, laboratories); environmental considerations (sterilisation and disinfection of equipment, survival of HIV, housekeeping, blood and other body fluid spills, laundry, infective waste); implementation of recommendations; serologic testing for HIV infection; management of infected health-care workers and of exposures.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 21 Aug. 1987, Vol.36, No.2S, 18p. 37 ref.

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