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Research in occupational health: the UK National Health Service
This article discusses the scope of research to be carried out in the UK National Health Service which, if allied to occupational health practice, might have important direct or indirect benefits for patient care. General research topics that await further study include: health inequalities amongst health care workers, job stress, back problems, pregnancy, and infection risks from blood. Topical specific hazards include gluteraldehyde, cytotoxic drugs, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and implications of new technology in surgery. The co-ordination of databases across different district health authorities would be very useful for epidemiological research, the delivery of OSH services and the development of vaccination strategies.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Spring 1991, Vol.41, No.1, p.7-9. 11 ref.
McKinnon M.D., Insall C., Gooch C.D., Cockcroft A.
Knowledge and attitude of health care workers about AIDS and HIV infection before and after distribution of an education booklet
Hospital workers (509) in a health authority were surveyed, and asked if they were in contact with HIV positive or AIDS patients, about their perception of risk and their knowledge about attitudes towards HIV and AIDS problems at work. Following the first survey, an information booklet was distributed to all health authority staff and after distribution, 232 staff were surveyed again. In this group (the follow-up group), there was a reduction in perceived risk, and improvement in the level of knowledge and in attitudes, and a reduction in the desire for further information. The group who initially had the least level of knowledge and most unfavourable attitudes (non-clinical workers) were the group who improved most.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Spring 1990, Vol.40, No.1, p.15-18. 24 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
National consensus statement on hepatitis B and the workplace
This document provides guidance on workplace policies for the prevention of hepatitis B infection in the workplace. Contents: background information on means of transmission of hepatitis B infections and groups of workers at risk; policy principles for infection control; policy development and implementation; workplace procedures; first aid and disinfection.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1990. 8p. 4 ref.
Choc de Zanalda B., Manterola A.C., Díaz Lestrem M., Frider B., Zocchi G.A., Fainboim H., Clua G.I., Amor E.
Prevalencia del anticuerpo contra el antígeno central del virus de la hepatitis B (anti-HBc) en personal hospitalario de Buenos Aires
A group of 1,479 employees in various hospitals in Buenos Aires (Argentina) were tested for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, in order to identify those who should be vaccinated against this disease. 85.5% of them were working in services where the risk of infection was high. The results showed that 85.0% of the individuals did not have anti-HBc and thus were considered candidates for vaccination. The antibody was present in 15.0% of the workers. The prevalence of anti-HBc increased with age and with length of service, and it was greater in laboratory technicians, nurses and those in high-risk services. A total of 23 carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (AgHBs) were identified. It is argued that the high prevalence of anti-HBc in laboratory technicians, nurses and nurses' aides might justify their systematic vaccination. Summary in English.
Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Jan. 1990, Vol.108, No.1, p.16-26. 34 ref.
Abiteboul B., Gouaille B., Proteau J.
Prevention of hepatitis B in public hospitals in Paris - Results of 7 years of vaccination by occupational physicians
Prévention de l'hépatite virale B à l'Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris - Bilan de 7 ans de vaccination par les médecins du travail [en francés]
The results of a questionnaire survey addressed to all occupational health departments of the Paris Public Health Department seven years after the beginning of a vaccination campaign against hepatitis B showed a significantly positive outcome. On 15 February 1989, in 32 of the 45 departments questioned, 45% of the personnel at risk (14,528/32,034) were either completely vaccinated (32%) or in the course of being vaccinated (13%). Vaccination protection varied greatly from hospital to hospital, between departments, and between professional categories. The number of cases of occupational viral hepatitis dropped from 222 in 1980 to 37 in 1988, of which only 16 were hepatitis B.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1990, Vol.51, No.6, p.405-412. Illus. 22 ref.
Jörbeck H., Skoglund G., Bäckström B., Persson M., Hallqvist J.
Blood contact incidents among health care personnel
Incidenter med blodkontakt bland sjukvårdspersonal [en sueco]
Among some 2,000 persons in 37 departments of five hospitals in the region of Stockholm, Sweden, there were 465 reported cases of blood contact: 65 cases of contact with puncture wounds or cuts ('injection' cases), 57 with mucous membranes or injured skin and 343 with intact skin. Midwives had the highest frequency of incidents (389 per 100 persons), followed by physicians with 217 and nurses with 146 (laboratory and dental personnel were also included in the study). Injection cases were most frequent for the physicians (34/100 persons), followed by the nurses (27) and midwives (24). A follow-up study of 522 of the initial group showed that incidents were under-reported. Interviews with representative subjects gave details on the circumstances of the incidents.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1 Aug. 1990. 49p. Illus. 20 ref.
Fatras J.Y., Bajos N., Leprince A., Charrel M., Grizeau D.
Industrial physicians and the prevention of AIDS
Les médecins du travail et la prévention du SIDA [en francés]
This report presents the results of an investigation carried out among industrial physicians concerning the fight against AIDS conducted by the public authorities and associations in France. The aim of this study is to record and describe the educational activities already carried out by industrial physicians, and to get to know their requirements and their specific needs for information, support and training in this area in order to propose means of follow-up and of improving preventive measures at work.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.407-420. Illus.
Handling of vaccine virus. Is it necessary to immunise the laboratory personnel concerned?
Manipulation du virus de la vaccine. Faut-il immuniser les personnels de laboratoire concernés? [en francés]
Numerous investigations on vaccines currently use the cowpox virus as a recombination vector. The risk of accidental contamination during the handling of this virus has raised the question of the advantage of immunisation by Jennerian vaccination of the laboratory personnel concerned. This medico-technical information note sets out the conclusions presented by the official authorities to industrial physicians in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.389-390.
Vaccinations at work. Regulations and responsibilities of the various people concerned [France]
Vaccinations en milieu de travail. Réglementation et obligation des différents acteurs [France] [en francés]
In certain occupations some vaccinations are compulsory and others are recommended. Outside of these occupations, some vaccinations may be practical for the prevention of a particular occupational risk. Various compulsory and recommended vaccinations in France are presented, along with vaccinations under international regulations and requirements for vaccination at work. The responsibilities of the various people involved (employees, employers, industrial physicians) are explained and examples are given of how this responsibility may be assigned in two particular situations: contamination of a non-immunised individual and accidents with vaccines.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.367-371. Illus. 23 ref.
Alter M.J., Hadler S.C., Margolis H.S., Alexander W.J., Hu P.Y., Judson F.N., Mares A., Miller J.K., Moyer L.A.
The changing epidemiology of hepatitis B in the United States: Need for alternative vaccination strategies
A programme of intensive surveillance for acute viral hepatitis was carried out from 1981 through 1988 in 4 "sentinel counties" in the USA. The overall incidence of hepatitis B remained relatively constant throughout the study period, although disease transmission patterns changed significantly. There was a significant decline in the numbers of health care workers (75%) reported with hepatitis B, probably as a direct result of immunisation with hepatitis B vaccine and wider implementation of universal blood precautions.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 2 Mar. 1990, Vol.263, No.9, p.1218-1222. 22 ref.
Colds and flu - Can they affect workplace safety?
The current experimental knowledge on the implications of influenza and common cold virus on workplace safety is summarised. Results of a study carried out at the Common Cold Unit of the British Medical Research Council in Salisbury showed that colds and influenza may both impair performance efficiency, although the nature of the effects depends on the virus and type of activity being performed. Other studies included the effects of therapeutic drugs on performance efficiency and the effects of respiratory illnesses on memory and cognition.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Mar. 1990, Vol.8, No.3, p.20-22. 10 ref.
Chriske H.W., Abdo R., Richrath R., Braumann S.
Hepatitis B infection hazard among sewer and sewage plant workers
Hepatitis-B-Infektionsgefährdung bei Kanal- und Klärwerksarbeitern [en alemán]
A higher number of persons (24) with hepatitis B virus infection was found among 93 sewer maintenance workers than among hospital personnel. Of 84 workers in sewage treatment plants 11 were found to be infected. The high infection rate among sewer maintenance workers is blamed on contact with infectious waste water and sewage sludge and on the high rate of hand injuries. It is recommended to duly inform this specific category of workers of the hazards they have to face and to offer them hepatitis B vaccination.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Oct. 1990, Vol.25, No.10, p.475-477. 7 ref.
Occupational infection among anaesthetists
Short review of the risks for anaesthetists of exposure to blood and body fluids carrying infectious organisms, in particular hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The fact that anaesthetists have more HBV markers than the general population suggests that occupational infection does occur. Immunisation against hepatitis B gives a high level of protection. Although there have been no fully documented cases of accidental HIV infection among anaesthetists, such incidents have been reported in other health care workers. There is no protective vaccine against HIV and the wearing of gloves is advised as a minimum protective measure.
Lancet, 3 Nov. 1990, Vol.336, No.8723, p.1103. 17 ref.
Astbury C., Baxter P.J.
Infection risks in hospital staff from blood: hazardous injury rates and acceptance of hepatitis B immunization
A questionnaire survey of 1800 clinical health care staff was undertaken to determine hazardous injury rates and uptake of hepatitis B vaccination. The overall sharps injury rate was 116 injuries per 100 staff per year. Full-time doctors had the highest rates. Surgical procedures were the commonest cause of accidental injury (58 per cent) and 30 per cent of all sharps injuries were attributable to careless handling. Injuries caused by bites and scratches from patients occurred mainly in nurses in psychiatric and geriatric wards (115/100 staff per year). Twenty-four per cent of respondents had received a full course of hepatitis B vaccine and 51 per cent of the remainder were planning to have it. This survey reveals injury rates higher than those observed in previous reports, particularly in doctors, and shows a need for more information and advice about hepatitis B infection and vaccination to be targeted to health care workers at risk.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1990, Vol.40, No.3, p.92-93. 6 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Vaccination of laboratory workers handling vaccinia and related poxviruses infectious for humans
This guidance note presents the statement on vaccination policy given by the Advisory Committees on Dangerous Pathogens and on Genetic Modification: it is recommended that the smallpox vaccine should not generally be given to those who work with vaccinia virus or related poxviruses except in certain circumstances (details of which are given). Brief guidance is given on counselling before vaccination and after exposure, teaching and use of poxviruses, and training of workers handling poxviruses. Appendices provide detailed information on: risk assessment; contra-indications and complications of vaccination; vaccination procedures; hygiene precautions following vaccination; accidental personal contamination with wild-type or recombinant virus; containment of work with vaccinia and other poxviruses; poxviruses infectious for humans.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 16p. Illus. Price: GBP 5.50.
Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
Categorisation of pathogens according to hazard and categories of containment
Contents of this guide: introductory comments on assessing the dangers of pathogenic organisms, a review of categorisation, physical containment of work and implementation of preventive measures; categories of pathogens (allocation of pathogens to hazard groups; definition of hazard groups; matching hazard group with containment level; modification to containment; categorisation lists; vaccination; vaccinia immunisation; sources of vaccines and other immunological products); categories of containment (model rules; local adjustments to levels of containment; laboratory and animal room containment levels). Appendices include: recommendations for certain types of virus, the use of Class II microbiological safety cabinets, respiratory protective equipment and training of laboratory personnel.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1990. 68p. 17 ref. Price: 6.00.
League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
Guidelines on AIDS and first aid in the workplace
This booklet presents concise guidelines on the precautions that should be followed in order to protect first-aid workers from contracting HIV infection following the administration of first-aid measures in the workplace. The guidelines contain general information on the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and specific information on risks associated with first-aid treatment of injured employees. The book concludes with a consensus statement on AIDS and the workplace, including advice on the development of employment policies.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. iii, 12p. Annex. Price: CHF 4.00; USD 3.20.
Hofmann F., Köster D., Schrenk C., Wehrle G., Berthold H.
Hepatitis A - occupational risk for health service employees?
Die Hepatitis A - Arbeitsmedizinisches Risiko bei Beschäftigten im Gesundheitsdienst? [en alemán]
Analysis of 13 hepatitis A cases which occurred between 1979 and 1989 among personnel in a hospital in Freiburg, Germany, showed kitchen help to be a source of the disease. As a consequence, 1001 serum samples collected during routine check-up examinations of medical and hospital personnel were tested for anti-HAV. The percentage of anti-HAV positive was significantly higher among kitchen personnel in all age groups than among the general population. Therefore kitchen personnel should be a target of active hepatitis A immunisation.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1990, Vol.25, No.2, p.76-79. Illus. 24 ref.
Chriske H.W., Abdo R., Richrath R., Braumann S.
Risk of hepatitis A infection among sewage workers
Hepatitis-A-Infektionsgefährdung bei Kanal- und Klärwerksarbeitern [en alemán]
Infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) was studied among 93 sewerage workers and 84 workers in waste water treatment plants in Cologne, Germany. In comparison to the general population of the same age, HAV infection among young sewerage workers was 3-4 times higher. Anti-HAV antibodies were found in 35.7% of 21-30-year-old sewerage workers and in 85% of those aged 50 and above. Of the 84 workers in waste water treatment plants, 47 (56%) showed anti-HAV. Thus, sewerage workers are persons at risk for whom active vaccination should be practised.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1990, Vol.25, No.6, p.285-287. Illus. 5 ref.
Hepatitis B - A summary of the occupational health concern
L'hépatite B - Résumé des risques sur le plan professionnel [en francés]
Hepatitis B is a serious occupational concern for workers who may be exposed to blood or certain body fluids. Topics covered in this document: description of the disease and its effects; transmission of the virus via blood, saliva and other body fluids; occupational groups at risk; recognition and treatment of the disease; prevention of the spread of Hepatitis B in the workplace by infection control and immunisation measures..
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2nd ed., Mar. 1990. 8p. 11 ref.
Needlestick injuries - A summary of the occupational health concern
Blessures par piqûre d'aiguille - Résumé des risques sur le plan professionnel [en francés]
Accidental punctures by contaminated needles can cause injection of hazardous substances, in particular, blood-borne viruses such as hepatitis and AIDS. Needlestick injuries are an occupational hazard for nursing and laboratory staff and for domestic staff encountering needles in waste. Recommended preventive measures include effective training programmes, safe handling and recapping procedures and effective waste disposal systems for used needles.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Feb. 1990. 11p. 16 ref.
AIDS and hepatitis B and C: Contamination risk at transurethral resection - A study using sodium fluorescein as a marker
Endoscopic surgeons performing transurethral resection are exposed to facial splashes containing minute and dilute quantities of irrigating fluid used during the operation, as was proven by the use of a fluorescent dye marker in 17 out of 20 consecutive operations. The surgeons generally were not aware of the splashes. As irrigating fluid can be contaminated by HIV and hepatitis B/C virus, it is important that endoscopic surgeons be vaccinated against hepatitis B, and that protective glasses and masks be used during the operation in order to guard against HIV infection.
Medical Journal of Australia, 3 Sep. 1990, Vol. 153, No.5, p.257-260. Illus. 20 ref.
Murray A., Kangro H.O., Heath R.B.
Screening hospital staff for antibodies to varicella-zoster virus
In hospitals there is a risk of cross-infection of staff by varicella-zoster virus (VZV). As vaccination of susceptible hospital staff with live varicella vaccines cannot be recommended at present, this letter to the editor recommends routine screening for VZV antibody status during the pre-employment health checks of new employees.
Lancet, 21 July 1990, Vol.336, No.8708, p.192. 2 ref.
Yardley-Jones A., Anderson D., Lovell D.P., Jenkinson P.C.
Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in workers exposed to low level benzene
Metaphase chromosome preparations were analysed as part of a larger study from a population occupationally exposed to benzene and compared with a control group. The incidence of chromosomal aberrations in the exposed group was slightly increased compared with the control group. This increase was of borderline significance in parametric statistical tests but was significant using Fisher's exact test. No lifestyle factors had any consistent effect on the incidence of chromosome aberrations, although there was a small reduction in gaps with increasing cigarette smoking. Older individuals had a higher incidence of chromosome exchanges and "other" aberrations. Individuals who reported a recent viral illness had a higher incidence of aberrations, particularly gaps. The increased incidence of aberrations seen in the group exposed to benzene may result from a history of exposure to benzene. Nevertheless, other explanations such as sampling, interindividual variability, and unintentional bias in the selection of the 2 groups cannot be excluded.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1990, Vol.47, No.1, p.48-51. 7 ref.
Comments on proposed rule on occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens
While the Service Employees International Union (SEIU) strongly endorses certain features of OSHA's proposed regulation to reduce occupational exposures to bloodborne infectious diseases, several modifications are suggested in the areas of: coverage of service contractors; compliance hierarchy; exemptions to universal precautions in particular circumstances; proper disposal of needles; quality of personal protective equipment; hepatitis B vaccine; post-exposure follow-up; worker training. Detailed comments are made on each of the OSHA proposals along with SEIU recommendations.
Service Employees International Union, 1313 L Street N.W., Washington, DC 20005, USA, 1989. 42p.
Local Government Training Board
HIV infection and AIDS - A training handbook for local authorities
This publication is a detailed, practical guide for local authorities in Britain setting up their own training programmes. It can be used with all employees ranging from cleaners to refuse collectors, teachers to caretakers, social workers and home helps to senior management. With charts and checklists throughout, it covers all the stages of the training process from preparation and negotiation through to programme design, implementation and evaluation.
Health Education Authority, Supplies Department, Hamilton House, Mabledon Place, London WC1H 9TX, United Kingdom, 1989. 126p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: GBP 6.95.
A guide to the safe handling of sharps: Occupational health and safety manual for health care institutions
This training guide presents methods for the safe handling of sharps. Many of the recommendations have not been tested for effectiveness; most are based on logic and common sense, rather than scientific evaluation. Issues covered: disposal of used sharps, sharps containers, waste disposal, sharps contaminated with cytotoxic drugs, injury prevention, and puncture wound follow-up. A sample reporting form and survey are included.
Health Care Occupational Health and Safety Association, 150 Ferrand Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 1H6, Canada, 1989. 31p. Illus. 75 ref.
Siqueira L.F.G., Almeida R.G., Lang D., Francisco W., Ottati S.M., Santos M.F.Q., Belda W., Silveira M.C.
Biosafety in STD laboratories
Biossegurança em laboratórios de DST [en portugués]
Article on infection control among workers in laboratories specialised in the detection of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Part I describes the risks (infection through inadvertent inhalation or ingestion of pathogens, contact with infected experimental animals, accidental self-inoculation with syringes), provides a table containing data on individual cases of infection (bacteria; fungi; viruses including HIV and Hepatitis A and B; parasitic organisms); suggested preventive methods (in particular, against Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Herpes virus and HIV (AIDS) virus); basic guidelines for safety in biomedical laboratories. Part II provides detailed information on proper methods of cleanliness, antisepsis, disinfection and sterilisation in order to reduce the likelihood of such infections.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Mar. 1989, Vol.17, No.65, p.16-32. 38 ref.
AIDS and the workplace - Some policy pointers from international labour standards
Le SIDA et le lieu de travail - Les orientations que suggèrent les normes de l'OIT [en francés]
The increasingly devastating effects of HIV/AIDS on the working population confront governments and employers' and workers' organisations with an urgent need to devise and implement policies on HIV/AIDS and employment. The joint WHO/ILO Statement from the Consultation on AIDS and the Workplace now offers useful guidelines. The author explores how those guidelines reflect principles already established in ILO Conventions and Recommendations on the elimination of discrimination, protection in relation to termination of employment, special measures for the disabled, occupational health and safety and collective bargaining. She stresses the important role international standards can play in the search for a policy that is both reasonable and humane.
International Labour Review - Revue internationale du Travail - Revista internacional del trabajo, 1989, Vol.128, No.1, p.29-45. 57 ref.
Windorfer A., Seiker W., Stroscher J.
Hepatitis in the health professions (exemplified by the state of Lower Saxony)
Hepatitiserkrankungen bei Gesundheitsberufen (Beispiel Bundesland Niedersachsen) [en alemán]
Statistical data on the hepatitis incidence between 1976 and 1986 among medical doctors, dentists and nurses are presented in comparison with the general population. They were obtained from the health departments of Lower Saxony, Federal Republic of Germany. The incidence of hepatitis A, B and non-A-non-B among medical doctors, dentists and nurses was markedly higher than among the general population. Better protection of medical personnel against hepatitis infection is demanded.
Das Öffentliche Gesundheitswesen, 1989, Vol.51, No.3, p.118-121. Illus. 5 ref.
Guide to planning health promotion for AIDS prevention and control
A practical step-by-step guide providing guidelines on planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating a health promotion programme aimed at limiting the spread of AIDS. Addressed to those responsible for planning and managing an AIDS health promotion programme, this book provides guidance on the use of specific educational methods and techniques that have proved their effectiveness and should be used in every cultural context.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. iv, 71p. Annexes. Price: CHF 14.00; USD 11.20.
Monitoring of national AIDS prevention and control programmes: Guiding principles
This booklet presents concise practical guidelines intended to help countries develop an effective, streamlined system for tracking and reporting on progress in the implementation of an AIDS prevention and control programme. Addressed to health system managers, it considers some of the practical aspects of monitoring such programmes in the context of national medium-term plans.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. iii, 27p. Annex. Price: CHF 8.00; USD 6.40.
Guidelines on sterilization and disinfection methods effective against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
This booklet provides complete technical instructions on the methods and chemicals that are most appropriate and effective against HIV in the workplace. Emphasis is given to the use of heat for sterilisation and disinfection.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. iii, 11p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 4.00; USD 3.20.
Viral hazards: H.I.V., hepatitis A, hepatitis B
This advice booklet deals with risks of viral infections (human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis A and B viruses) likely to be confronted by fire service personnel in performing its duty. Information covered: viral hazards - precautions for fire service personnel; transmissions of HIV, hepatitis A and B viruses; operational precautions; additional personal precautionary measures; exposure and contamination; decontamination; contaminated equipment; additional essential precautions. Appendices: I - hepatitis virus; II - product information; III - reporting a case of disease; IV - AIDS policy.
Fire Brigades Union, Bradley House, 68 Coombe Road, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT2 7AE, United Kingdom, 1989. 12p.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Diseases acquired from animals
This safety guide to zoonoses is aimed principally at farmers, abattoir workers, food processing workers, health workers in contact with animals, biological researchers, livestock handlers, workers in the pet industry and workers in wildlife parks, circuses and zoological gardens. Contents: identification of zoonoses; basic information on the most commonly seen zoonoses in Australia (Murray Valley fever, Q fever, psittacosis, acute gastroenteritis, leptospirosis, ringworm, hydatid disease, brucellosis, orf, anthrax); prevention and management of exposure to zoonoses in an occupational setting.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Dec. 1989. 30p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: AUD 5.95.
Psittacosis (Ornithosis) - A summary of the occupational health concern
La psittacose (ornithose) - Résumé des risques sur le plan professionnel [en francés]
Psittacosis is an occupational health hazard for those whose work brings them into contact with birds. It is primarily a lung disease caused by inhalation of airborne microorganisms or by handling an infected bird. Preventive measures include proper feeding of birds, avoidance of overcrowding and adequate ventilation systems.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, June 1989. 4p. 9 ref.
Ho M.S., Glass R.I., Monroe S.S., Madore H.P., Stine S., Pinsky P.F., Cubitt D., Ashley C., Caul E.O.
Viral gastroenteritis aboard a cruise ship
237 passengers (22%) and 28 crew members (3%) on a cruise ship were infected with viral gastroenteritis (vomiting and/or diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, headache, myalgia, fever) on a transatlantic crossing. Epidemiological findings indicate that vomitus was an important factor in the transmission of the disease, and therefore strategies for prevention of the disease should include protection against environmental contamination by viruses in airborne droplets or vomitus.
Lancet, 21 Oct. 1989, Vol.2, No.8669, p.961-965. Illus. 33 ref.
Risks associated with human parvovirus B19 infection
This is the 2nd part of a lead article from the MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report) dealing with guidelines for isolation precautions in hospitals where B19-infected patients are being treated.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 17 Mar. 1989, Vol.261, No.11, p.1555-1563. 72 ref.
Prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis 'B' virus
This curriculum guide, or course of study, is designed to meet the training and education needs of public safety and emergency medical workers who may be exposed on the job to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). This curriculum guide is based on US federal guidelines for preventing occupational transmission or spreading of HIV and HBV among worker groups. These include public safety workers (fire service, law enforcement, and correctional facility personnel) and emergency-medical workers (emergency-medical technicians and paramedics).
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Feb. 1989. 14p. Bibl.
Guidelines for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to health-care and public-safety workers. A response to P.L. 100-607. The Health Omnibus Programs Extension Act of 1988
This document provides an overview of the modes of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus in the workplace, an assessment of the risk of transmission under various assumptions, principles underlying the control of risk, and specific risk-control recommendations for employers and workers. It also includes information on the medical management of persons who have sustained an exposure at the workplace to these viruses. The guidelines are intended for use by a technically informed audience to reduce the risk in the workplace of becoming infected with the aetiologic agents for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and hepatitis B infection.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4647 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1989. 46p. Bibl. Appendices.
A curriculum guide for public-safety and emergency-response workers. Prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus
This curriculum guide designed to meet the training and education needs of public safety workers (fire service, law enforcement, and correctional facility personnel) and emergency medical workers (emergency-medical technicians and paramedicals) who may be exposed on the job to human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is based on federal guidelines for preventing occupational transmission, or spread, of HIV and HBV among worker groups. Contents: information about this curriculum guide, tips for trainers, preventing transmission of HIV and HBV (lecture outline), case studies, resources, glossary, guidelines for the prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to health-care workers and public-safety workers, overhead transparencies.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centres for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4647 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1989. Bibl. Appendices.
Low molecular weight chemicals, hypersensitivity, and direct toxicity: the acid anhydrides
The acid anhydrides are a group of reactive chemicals used widely in alkyd and epoxy resins. The major hazards to health are mucosal and skin irritation and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. Most cases of occupational asthma caused by acid anhydrides appear to be immunologically mediated. Immunological mechanisms are proposed to explain an influenza-like syndrome and pulmonary haemorrhage, but direct toxicity may also be important in the aetiology of these conditions.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1989, Vol.46, No.4, p.222-232. Illus. 112 ref.
Advice for the health protection of workers. AIDS, a danger in the workplace?
Hinweise zum Gesundheitsschutz für Arbeitnehmer. AIDS, Gefahr am Arbeitsplatz? [en alemán]
Aspects covered: definition of AIDS, modes of transmission, high-risk groups, protection against AIDS contamination in the workplace, question of acknowledgement of AIDS as an occupational disease, problems connected with the presence of sero-positives in the workplace, occupations at risk in the food and related industries, professional activities abroad, telephone number to contact in Bavaria.
Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Winzererst. 9, 8000 München 40, Federal Republic of Germany, 1989. 10p.
AIDS: inform yourself
SIDA, d'abord s'informer [en francés]
This brochure lists titles of documents, films, telephone numbers, names of databases and other information facilities related to AIDS in France. The 2nd part of the brochure comprises data on information, consultation, detection and treatment centres dealing with AIDS as well as on associations with the same orientation existing in France.
Service d'Information et de Diffusion du Premier Ministre (SID), 19 rue de Constantine, 75700 Paris, 1989. 32p.
AIDS and employment: Medical and legal aspects
SIDA et emploi: aspects médicaux et juridiques [en francés]
This brochure divided into 2 parts covers medical and legal aspects of AIDS in the workplace and advises on how to deal with them. Special attention is given to legal problems that employees and employers can encounter in connection with AIDS at the workplace. Also available in German and Italian.
Le Groupe de travail interdépartemental pour les problèmes liés au SIDA (sous la direction de l'Office fédéral de santé publique), AIDS Info-Docu Schweiz, Schauplatzgasse 26, Boîte postale, 3001 Berne, Switzerland, 1989. 20p.
Occupational pathology of medical and paramedical occupations
Pathologie professionnelle des professions médicales et paramédicales [en francés]
The hazards encountered by workers in the health professions are reviewed. These include: infectious hazards including viral infections (viral hepatitis and AIDS) and bacterial infections (principally tuberculosis); physical hazards (ionising radiation); toxic hazards (gaseous and volatile anaesthetics, antiseptics and disinfectants, sterilising agents, medicinal substances and cytostatic drugs); hazards inherent in particular occupational activities (occupational accidents, back disorders, disorders due to stressful postures and hand movements, hours of work, mental stress). For each of these hazards, preventive measures are put forward.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications - Pathologie du travail, 1988. 12p. 48 ref.
Guidelines for the development of a national AIDS prevention and control programme
This booklet provides guidelines for the development of national programmes for preventing the spread of AIDS. Addressed to national authorities, it describes the principles of assessment, planning and action necessary to launch an agressive attack on every mode of virus transmission. The need to cope with complex cultural, social, economic, and political problems is also considered.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1988. iv, 27p. Price: CHF 8.00; USD 6.40.
AIDS in the workplace
Topics examined are: AIDS, the disease; how infections are detected; how HIV is transmitted; requirements for health care facilities; the infected person as the coworker; what Michigan is doing about AIDS in the workplace.
Michigan's Occupational Health, Autumn 1988, Vol.24, No.4, p.1-3.
Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
Inactivation of viral haemorrhagic fever specimens with B-propiolactone
These guidelines describe how heparimised or EDTA treated blood specimens suspected of containing certain haemorrhagic fever viruses may be made safe for examination by inactivation with B propiolactone (BPL). Details are given of the characteristics of BPL and precautions to be taken during its use, and of the effect of BPL inactivation of blood on test results. Kits for blood specimen collection are described and a model information and instruction sheet provided for physicians submitting specimens for inactivation. Details are given of the inactivation procedure and the materials required, and accident procedures are outlined for cases of inoculation accident or spillage.
Health Services Division 1B, Room A414, Alexander Fleming House, Elephant and Castle, London SE1 6BY, United Kingdom, 1988. 14p. Illus. Bibl.
García Alvarez J., Martínez Albares J.L., Moyano Barbero E., Moya Valdés M., Valle Muñoz J.
Utilidad de la vacuna antihepatitis B en una población de riesgo
Hepatitis-B immunological status was studied by radio-immuno-testing in a group of 340 hospital workers considered to be a high risk group for contagion from the disease. The group was compared with a control group of blood donors. Immunity to hepatitis B was more frequent in hospital workers than in the general population. After hepatitis B vaccination of 51 persons, surface antibodies were determined. A decrease in levels of specific immunoglobulins was observed and no new cases of the disease were detected.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.30, p.15-19. Illus.
Leprince A., Monod G.
Colloquium "AIDS, rights and freedoms"
Colloque SIDA, droit et libertés [en francés]
Summary of the discussions of the major themes: HIV and national borders; HIV and social security; HIV and employment; law, medical ethics and testing; HIV and prisons; HIV and drug addiction; HIV, human rights and familial relations.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.34, p.159-165.
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