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Viral diseases (other than aids) - 571 entradas encontradas

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  • Viral diseases (other than aids)

2011

CIS 11-0359 Park S.G., Kim H.C., Min J.Y., Hwang S.H., Park Y.S., Min K.B.
A prospective study of work stressors and the common cold
Psychological stress is considered to be a risk factor for infectious diseases. The objective of this prospective study was to investigate whether work-related stress affected the occurrence of the common cold in South Korean workers in small- to medium-sized manufacturing companies. It involved 1241 workers. At the outset, information regarding socio-demographic and work characteristics was collected. At follow-up after six months, the subjects were asked whether they had experienced common cold symptoms during the preceding four months. Male subjects experiencing stress at the outset were more likely to report having experienced the common cold at follow-up (odds ratios: high job demand group 1.74; insufficient job control 1.42; inadequate social support 1.40). For women, no significant association between work stress and occurrence of the common cold was detected.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.53-56. Illus. 10 ref.

2010

CIS 11-0478 Dunleavy K., Taylor A., Gow J., Cullen B., Roy K.
Management of blood and body fluid exposures in police staff
Police service staff are at risk of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids with the consequent risk of blood-borne virus (BBV) infections. The objective of this study was to examine the types of occupational exposure incidents experienced by Scottish police service staff and to evaluate the post-incident management provided by their occupational health services. Data were collected on the circumstances and the post-incident management of each incident reported to occupational health services over 12 months. An expert panel reviewed the post-incident management provided by the occupational health service. The panel considered that the majority of cases of occupational exposure incurred little or no risk of BBV transmission. In general, the expert panel assessed the post-incident management provided by the occupational health service units serving the police as adequate and appropriate. However, some concerns were raised in relation to a small number of incorrect risk assessments and an inconsistent approach to hepatitis C virus follow-up blood testing.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.60, No.7, p.540-545. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 11-0430 Constans Aubert A., Solans Lampurlanés X
Servicios funerarios: exposición laboral a agentes biológicos
This information note describes the various activities within the framework of funeral services as well as their associated hazards. It lists the infectious diseases to which workers of these services may be exposed, together with the causative agent and mode of transmission, and provides a set of preventive measures to minimize exposure.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 8 ref.
NTP_858.pdf [en espańol]

CIS 10-0347 Mouchtouri V.A., Nichols G., Rachiotis G., et al.
State of the art: Public health and passenger ships
This report describes issues relevant to public health and reviews all passenger ship associated diseases and outbreaks. Moreover, legislation and practices on sanitation and diseases surveillance related to ships internationally were also reviewed. Some relevant historical information about infections on merchant ships is provided as well. The methods used to develop this state-of-the-art report included a scientific literature review, together with and an extensive and thorough search of the websites of organizations and government departments. The infections/outbreaks that occur on passenger ships include norovirus, Legionella, Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio and influenza A and B virus. The modes of transmission include person to person, waterborne, foodborne airborne and vectorborne, while shore excursions are responsible for some outbreaks. The industry (especially the ferry industry) and sanitary organizations can enhance collaboration in order to implement integrated hygiene programmes and prevent the occurrence of communicable diseases aboard passenger ships.
International Maritime Health, 2010, Vol.61, No.2, p.49-98. Approx. 150 ref.

CIS 10-0340 Riipinen A., Sallmén M., Taskinen H., Koskinen A., Lindbohm M.L.
Pregnancy outcomes among daycare employees in Finland
The aim of this study was to investigate whether working as a daycare employee increases the risk of perinatal death, pre-term birth, low birth weight, smallness for gestational age, or congenital malformations. A register-based cohort study was conducted among daycare employees and women from various occupations of healthcare (reference group). Study subjects were identified from the files of Finnish trade unions and the National Authority for Medico-legal Affairs. Pregnancy outcomes, antenatal occupation and working status were obtained by linkage to national registers. The final data consisted of 13,299 and 12,182 singleton births in the study and reference groups, respectively. Pregnancy outcome data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations and linear regression. Daycare employees were not, in general, at an increased risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. However, efforts should nevertheless be made to prevent their exposure to harmful viruses and heavy physical load during pregnancy.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, May 2010, Vol.36, No.3, p.222-230. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 10-0361 Henwood N., Niu S., Michell K., Mwakini N.K., Kaoneka B.K., Lekei E., Rwako A.J., Matee J.J., Jemneh T.A., Pääkkönen T.
Health care workers
Collection of articles on the safety and health of health care workers of relevance to African countries. Contents: ILO list of occupational diseases and health care workers; protection of health care workers with a focus on respiratory health; hepatitis in the context of Botswana. Other topics: safety implications of pesticide use in vegetable cultivation among small-scale farmers in Tanzania; Ethiopian migrant workers' perceptions of the United Kingdom health and safety regulations; review of a conference on well-being held in February 2010 in Helsinki, Finland.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2010, Vol.20, No.4, p.1-23 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Health_care_workers.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0223 Dahl S.Å., Hansen H.T., Olsen K.M.
Sickness absence among immigrants in Norway 1992-2003
This study of long-term sickness absence among immigrants and ethnic Norwegians for the years 1992-2003 used register panel data containing detailed information on socio-economic background, labour market participation and social insurance benefits for all individuals aged between 16 and 67 years residing in Norway. The main findings are that there is no difference in sickness absence between ethnic Norwegians and immigrants from the other Nordic countries, Western and Eastern Europe after controlling for demographic, socio-economic and labour market factors. However, sickness absence rates are higher among individuals from Asia (men and women) and Africa (men), and lower among men from North America and Oceania compared with ethnic Norwegians. Second-generation immigrants share the same level of sickness absence as ethnic Norwegians. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Acta sociologica, Mar. 2010, Vol.53, No.1, p.35-52. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 10-0280 Quarcoo D., de Roux A., Wicker S., Rabenau H.F., Groneberg D.A., Gottschalk R.
Occupationally-acquired infections among health care workers: Respiratory diseases
Arbeitsbedingte Infektionen bei Mitarbeitern des Gesundheitswesens - eine Serie - respiratorische Erkrankungen [en alemán]
Due to the contact with infectious patients, health care workers are at risk of work-related infectious diseases. This article on respiratory diseases is the first of a series of four on occupationally acquired infections among health care workers. It reviews literature data on viral and bacterial infections (SARS, influenza, para-influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, adenoviruses, tuberculosis, pertussi and other infectious agents) and describes the preventive measures to be taken by health care workers (wearing a mask, personal hygiene, infection control). Health care workers dealing with patients infected with highly pathogenic agents (SARS, avian flu) should be specially trained. See also ISN 110617, ISN 110619 and ISN 110620.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Mar. 2009, Vol.59, No.3, p.81-91. Illus. 41 ref.

2009

CIS 12-0069 Schulte P.A., Chun H.
Climate change and occupational safety and health: Establishing a preliminary framework
The relationship between global climate change and occupational safety and health has not been extensively characterized. This article develops a framework for identifying how climate change could affect the workplace, workers, occupational morbidity, mortality and injury, based on a review of the published scientific literature from 1988-2008 that includes climatic effects, their interaction with occupational hazards, and their manifestation in the working population. Seven categories of climate-related hazards are identified: increased ambient temperature; air pollution; ultraviolet exposure; extreme weather; vector-borne diseases and expanded habitats; industrial transitions and emerging industries; changes in the built environment. This review indicates that while climate change may result in increasing the prevalence, distribution, and severity of known occupational hazards, there is no evidence of unique or previously unknown hazards. However, such a possibility should not be excluded, since there is potential for interactions of known hazards and new conditions, possibly leading to new hazards and risks.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, p.542-554. Illus. 136 ref.
Climate_change_and_OSH_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]

CIS 10-0231 Documento de información técnica sobre las enfermedades que plantean problemas para su posible inclusión en la lista de enfermedades profesionales que figura como anexo de la Recomendación sobre la lista de enfermedades profesionales, 2002 (núm. 194)
Technical backgrounder on the problematic diseases in the proposed list to replace the list annexed to the List of Occupational Diseases Recommendation, 2002 (No. 194) [en inglés]
Document technique sur les maladies problématiques inscrites sur la liste proposée en remplacement de la liste des maladies professionnelles figurant dans l'annexe ŕ la recommandation (nş 194) sur la liste des maladies professionnelles, 2002 [en francés]
This report was prepared as a background for discussion at a meeting of experts on the revision of the ILO list of occupational diseases held in Geneva, Switzerland, 27-30 October 2009 (see ISN 110721). It addresses a number of occupational diseases that raise specific issues: diseases caused by radiofrequency radiation; malaria; extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by the inhalation of organic dusts; carpal tunnel syndrome; mental and behavioural disorders; formaldehyde; hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus; crystalline silica. In each case, the report includes general information on the disease or diseases caused by the agent, the exposure at work, the scientific background and the diagnosis criteria, as well as the list of countries specifically including the disease in the national list of occupational diseases.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2009. iv, 32p.
MERLOD/2009/5/EN.pdf [en inglés]
MERLOD/2009/5/FR.pdf [en francés]
MERLOD/2009/5/ES.pdf [en espańol]

CIS 10-0284 Wicker S., Rabenau H.F., Groneberg D.A., Gottschalk R.
Occupationally-acquired infections among health care workers: Children's diseases
Arbeitsbedingte Infektionen bei Mitarbeitern des Gesundheitswesens: Kinderkrankheiten [en alemán]
Infections professionnelles chez les soignants: maladies infantiles [en francés]
Infectious childrens' diseases can cause substantial illness and complications among non-immune health care workers, and present a significant risk for pregnant women. This article reviews literature data on children's diseases (measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox and parvovirus B 19) and describes the preventive measures to be taken by health care workers to reduce the risk of transmission of these infectious diseases. See also ISN 110616, ISN 110617 and ISN 110619.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Dec. 2009, Vol.59, No.12, p.370-381. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 10-0283 Wicker S., Rabenau H.F., Groneberg D.A., Gottschalk R.
Occupationally-acquired infections among health care workers: Gastroenterological diseases
Arbeitsbedingte Infektionen bei Mitarbeitern des Gesundheitswesens: Gastroenterologische Erkrankungen [en alemán]
Due to the contact with infectious patients, health care workers are at risk of work-related infectious diseases. This article reviews literature data on viral and bacterial gastroenterological infections (hepatitis A and E, rotaviruses, noroviruses, salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, Helicobacter pylori and other) and describes the preventive measures to be taken by health care workers. Breaking the chain of infection can be efficiently achieved by means of suitable hand and surface disinfection. A multiple choice questionnaire on gastroenterological infections is included. See also ISN 110616, ISN 110617 and ISN 110620.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, July 2009, Vol.59, No.7, p.204-214. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 10-0279 Elsner G., Petereit-Haack G., Nienhaus A.
Work-related infections in kindergarten workers
Berufsbedingte Inkektionen bei Erzieherinnen und Erziehern in Kindergärten [en alemán]
Nursery school teachers in contact with small children are at risk of infectious diseases. This study analysed the relevant literature on infectious diseases among nursery school teachers since 1990 to examine which agents were responsible for increased risks. Although the analysis did not provide information on the relative infection risk, it is suggested that nursery school teachers be not only tested regularly for hepatitis A, measles, mumps, varicella and rubella, but also examined for cytomegalic inclusion disease and parvovirus, as these two pathogens present an increased infection risk and can furthermore lead to damage to the foetus.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Feb. 2009, Vol.59, No.2, p.34-42. 36 ref.

CIS 09-1294 Vainio H., O'Hara L., Cheveers E., Yassi A., Fedotov I., Geyer N., Sigler N., Savolainen K., Takala J., Hämäläinen P., Pääkkönen T., Lehtinen S.
New emerging risks
Contents of this collection of articles on new chemical and biological hazards of relevance to African countries: H1N1 and occupational health for health workers in Africa; excerpts from WHO materials on H1N1; North-South partnership to strengthen trade union action against HIV/AIDS; engineered nanomaterials; globalization of risks; brief account of a conference on occupational health of nanotechnology which took place in 2009 in Finland; brief account of a meeting of WHO collaborating centres which took place in Geneva in 2009.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2009, Vol.19, No.3, p.55-75 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/en/publications/electronic_journals/african_newsletter/Documents/african_newsletter3_2009.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 09-1378 Sng J., Koh D., Koh G
Influenza A (H1N1) infections among healthcare workers: A cause for cautious optimism
This editorial argues that the relatively low number of confirmed cases of influenza A (H1N1) among healthcare workers is largely due to improved precautions and preparedness introduced since the avian influenza pandemic threat several years earlier, particularly in countries of South-East Asia.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.66, No.9, p.569-570. 13 ref.

CIS 09-1375 Tschopp A., Joller H., Jeggli S., Widmeier S., Steffen R., Hilfiker S., Hotz P.
Hepatitis E, Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcers in workers exposed to sewage: A prospective cohort study
Workers exposed to sewage may have an increased risk of infection by Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis E virus (HEV). To assess the incidence of clinical hepatitis E and peptic ulcers and the seroconversion rate of antibodies to H. pylori and HEV in workers with and without sewage exposure, 332 workers exposed to sewage and a control group of 446 municipal manual workers entered a study with clinical examination and determination of antibodies to H. pylori and HEV. Findings are discussed. Overall, sewage does not appear to be a source of occupational infection by H. pylori or HEV in trained sewage workers with personal protective equipment working in a region with good sanitation infrastructure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.45-50. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-1167 Jost M., Merz B., Colombo C., Francioli P., Ruef C., Iten A., Jost J., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Käslin E.
Prevention of blood-borne infections in the health care sector
Verhütung blutübertragbarer Infektionen im Gesundheitswesen [en alemán]
Prevenzione delle malattie infettive trasmesse per via ematica in ambito sanitario [en italiano]
Prévention des maladies infectieuses transmises par voie sanguine dans le secteur sanitaire [en francés]
In the course of their activities, health care workers are exposed not only to chemical or physical hazards, but also to various infectious agents. The aim of this publication is to present the current state of knowledge with respect to the hazards of blood-borne infections for health care workers, to provide practical recommendations on technical, organizational and behavioural preventive measures, and finally to explain various aspects of occupational medicine and compensation in Switzerland. This fully-revised edition replaces earlier versions, in particular that analyzed under reference CIS 08-1213. Changes concern primarily the chapters describing blood-borne infections, epidemiological data on infection hazards, the use of safety equipment and the updating of post-infection prevention.
Suva, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 14th ed., 2009. 105p. Illus. 157 ref.
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/02869_30_i.pdf [en italiano]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/02869_30_d.pdf [en alemán]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/02869_30_f.pdf [en francés]

CIS 09-1161 Kayali G., Ortiz E.J., Chorazy M.L., Gray G.C.
Lack of evidence of avian adenovirus infection among turkey workers
Although there are many animal-specific adenoviruses and occasionally they have been noted to infect man, rarely have they been studied as potential zoonotic pathogens. In this study, it was hypothesized that the hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), an avian adenovirus that causes illness among turkeys, might infect humans. Using an enzyme immunosorbent assay, the authors compared sera from 95 turkey-exposed individuals with sera from 82 nonexposed controls. Multivariate modeling revealed no statistical difference in anti-HEV antibodies between the two groups.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.299-305. 24 ref.

CIS 09-1164 Seasonal influenza prevention in health care workers
This article describes the comprehensive influenza prevention programme recommended by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Physicians for health care workers. It involves vaccination, information dissemination, employee participation, infection control practices and employer commitment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.386-389. 26 ref.

CIS 09-946 Anikeeva O., Braunack-Mayer A., Rogers W.
Requiring influenza vaccination for health care workers
Annual influenza vaccination for health care workers has the potential to benefit health care professionals, their patients and their families by reducing the transmission of influenza in health care settings. Furthermore, staff vaccination programmes are cost-effective for health care institutions because of reduced staff illness and absenteeism. However, rates of vaccination remain low. This study analysed the ethical implications of a variety of efforts to increase vaccination rates, including mandatory influenza vaccination. It is concluded that a programme of incentives and sanctions may increase health care worker compliance with fewer ethical impediments than mandatory vaccination.
American Journal of Public Health, Jan. 2009, Vol. 99, No.1, p.24-29. 32 ref.

CIS 09-709 "Mexican" influenza and risk of pandemic
Grippe "mexicaine" et risque de pandémie [en francés]
The new strain of influenza virus A/H1N1 is currently responsible for cases of influenza concentrated in Mexico and the United States. Its transmission among humans is now confirmed. Cases imported into other countries are being declared. The World Health Organization (WHO) has raised the phase of this influenza pandemic alert to level 5. This Internet document presents the current situation and stresses the importance of preparedness for this pandemic, including at the place of work. Contents: definitions; what workers and enterprises need to know now; how to track the trends online; answers to frequently asked questions by enterprises.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, May 2009. Internet document. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 09-503 Kawakami T.
Protecting your employees and business from pandemic human influenza: Action manual for small and medium-sized enterprises
The outbreak of avian influenza and the ongoing incidences of infected cases have prompted worldwide concern. This training manual was developed to promote safe practices in small and medium-sized enterprises. It is user-friendly and practical, providing an action checklist on various prevention measures, including explanations and descriptions. The unique participatory training methods of the ILO of the Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE) and Work Improvements in Neighbourhood Development (WIND) programmes were used to promote understanding and encourage improvement in the practices of employers and workers in small and medium-sized enterprises.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2009. 24p. Illus.
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_101422.pdf [en inglés]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_101423.pdf [en tailandés]

CIS 09-263 Kawakami T., Ratananakorn L.
Protecting your health and business from avian influenza: Action manual for farmers and poultry workers
The outbreak of avian influenza and the ongoing incidences of infected cases have prompted worldwide concern. This training manual is developed to promote safe practices. The manual is user-friendly and practical, providing an action checklist on various prevention measures including explanations and descriptions. The participatory training methods of the ILO, Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development (WIND) and Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE), were used to promote understanding and encourage improvements in the actions of farmers and poultry workers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2009. 24p. Illus. 7ref.
http://bravo.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_101421.pdf [en tailandés]
http://bravo.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_101420.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1218 Hoja de datos de OSHA: Lo que pueden hacer los patronos para proteger a los trabajadores contra la gripe pandémica
OSHA Fact Sheet: What employers can do to protect workers from pandemic influenza [en inglés]
Fact Sheet outlining the recommended actions employers can do in order to reduce the risk of exposure of workers to an influenza virus during a pandemic. The measures include: engineering controls; administrative controls; work practices; personal protective equipment.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 2009. 2p.
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/employers-protect-workers-flu-factsheet.pdf [en inglés]
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/employers-protect-workers-flu-factsheet-spanish.pdf [en espańol]

CIS 08-1217 What to do in the case of a suspected case of infection by the emergent A(H1N1) virus
Conduite ŕ suivre en cas d'infection suspecté au virus émergent H1N1 (A/H1N1/California/04/2009) [en francés]
Contents of this information note: definition of cases; recommendations for action (how to deal with patients, people who have been in contact with them, protection of health care and or other personnel exposed to the patients). In annex: contact information of concerned hospitals and laboratories in France; recommended antiviral drug régime.
Ministčre de la santé et des sports, 14, avenue Duquesne, 75350 Paris 07 SP, France, 2009. 7p.
http://www.sante-sports.gouv.fr/IMG//pdf/cat_suspicion_h1n1_280409.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-1216 Influenza H1N1 (gripe porcina)
Interim guidance for infection control for care of patients with confirmed or suspected swine influenza A(H1N1) virus infection in a healthcare setting [en inglés]
This document provides interim guidance for healthcare facilities (e.g., hospitals, long-term care and outpatient facilities and other settings where healthcare is provided). Contents: background, implementation of respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette, implementation of facility contingency plans, interim infection control recommendations, infection control of ill persons in a healthcare setting, surveillance management of healthcare personnel, management of ill healthcare personnel, environmental infection control, administration of the current 2008-2009 seasonal influenza vaccine.
Internet document, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA, 2009.
http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/guidelines_infection_control.htm [en inglés]
http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/espanol/ [en espańol]

CIS 08-1215 Occupational health issues associated with H1N1 influenza virus (Swine Flu)
Internet portal page with links to essential up-to-date information on the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, including its workplace health implications.
Internet document, NIOSH, 2009.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/h1n1flu/ [en inglés]

CIS 08-1214 Guía sobre la preparación de los lugares de trabajo para una pandemia del gripe
Guidance on preparing workplaces for an influenza pandemic [en inglés]
This guidance to allow employers to prepare their enterprise for a possible influenza pandemic applies to all types of workplaces. It describes the differences between seasonal, avian and pandemic influenza, and presents information on the nature of a potential pandemic, how the virus is likely to spread and how exposure is likely to occur.
Publications U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, Feb. 2009. 43p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3364pandemic.pdf [en espańol]
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3327pandemic.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1213 Jost M., Francioli P., Iten A., Jost J., Colombo C., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A.
Prevention of blood-borne infections in the health care sector
Verhütung blutübertragbarer Infektionen im Gesundheitswesen [en alemán]
Prevenzione delle malattie infettive trasmesse per via ematica in ambito sanitario [en italiano]
In the course of their activities, health care workers are exposed not only to chemical or physical hazards, but also to various infectious agents. Besides the prevention against certain occupational transmissible viral diseases such as German measles or chickenpox in paediatric services and tuberculosis, which is resurgent due to the emergence of multi-resistant mycobacteria, the prevention of bloodborne infections such as the human immunodeficiency virus or the hepatitis B and C viruses are the object of much attention. Employers and health care personnel need to undertake every effort to reduce these types of hazards. Contents of this booklet on the prevention of blood-borne infections aimed at health care workers: risk to health care personnel of being infected by a bloodborne pathogen; technical, organizational and personal measures; additional recommendations for certain specific workplaces; primary prevention at the occupational physician level, and vaccination of staff against hepatitis B; secondary prevention and occupational medicine; disposal of potentially-infectious material; insurance law aspects. Update of CIS 98-975.
Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 14th updated edition, 2009. 105p. Illus. 106 ref.
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/02869_30_f.pdf [en francés]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/02869_30_i.pdf [en italiano]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/02869_30_d.pdf [en alemán]

2008

CIS 09-1159 Connor B.A., Patron D.J.
Use of an accelerated immunization schedule for combined hepatitis A and B protection in the corporate traveler
Increased international business travel to moderate or high endemic areas of hepatitis A and B may leave many business travellers at risk for infection if not vaccinated. Often, the decision to travel to these regions is taken less than two months before departure. Because many areas endemic for hepatitis A are also endemic for hepatitis B, accelerated administration of the combined vaccine can offer protection for international business travellers destined for these countries, and should be part of corporate travel immunization programmes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.945-950. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 09-1158 Bunn W.B.
Risk and burden associated with the acquisition of viral hepatitis A and B in the corporate traveler
As the number of international business travellers continues to grow, so does the list of destinations, many of which are endemic for hepatitis A and B. For employers, infected employees can result in increased health care costs and reduced productivity. Safe and efficacious vaccines are available. Well-designed immunization plans organized within the enterprise health system can prevent hepatitis A and B when employees are abroad on business. This article discusses the risks, costs and prevention of hepatitis A and B for international business travellers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.935-944. Illus. 74 ref.

CIS 09-1157 Hudson T.W., Fortuna J.
Overview of selected infectious disease risks for the corporate traveler
International business travel to developing countries has increased considerably over the past two decades. Many of these destinations are endemic to a variety of infectious diseases, some of which are associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, or both. Non-immune travellers are at risk. Comprehensive pre-travel consultation is essential to prevent travel-related illness. This review addresses some of the infectious diseases that can be acquired during international travel, including endemic regions, assessment of risk and available means of prevention.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.924-934. Illus. 77 ref.

CIS 09-713 Luckhaupt S.E., Calvert G.M.
Deaths due to bloodborne infections and their sequelae among health care workers
Using data from the National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) system in the United States, a matched case-control design was employed to examine the relationship between health-care employment and death from HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), liver cancer and cirrhosis from 1984 to 2004. Employment in the health-care industry was associated with increased risk of death from HIV (odds ratio OR 2.27), HBV (OR 1.98) and cirrhosis (OR 1.09) among males, and death from HCV among both males (OR 1.46) and females (OR 1.22). Nursing was the occupation with the highest risk among males for HIV and HBV, but female nurses were at decreased risk of dying from HIV (OR 0.69).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.812-824. 41 ref.

CIS 09-582 Peate W.F., Mullins J.
Disaster preparedness training for tribal leaders
This short report describes a training programme set up to ensure that Native American communities were adequately informed and trained to implement coordinated response plans for a range of potential public health emergencies on tribal lands and in surrounding communities. The commentary outlines how specific cultural aspects (including for example a public prayer by an elder during the training), respect for tribal sovereignty, presentation of historical examples of indigenous preparedness, and incorporation of tribal community networks were essential to the success of this programme.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Jan. 2008, Vol.3, No.2, 5p. 3 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-2.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 09-569 Ahn Y.S., Lim H.S.
Occupational infectious diseases among Korean health care workers compensated with industrial accident compensation insurance from 1998 to 2004
Using the database of the Korea Labor Welfare Corporation, the 307 cases of occupational infectious diseases among the health care workers who were compensated from 1998 to 2004 were analyzed. Women accounted for 83% of the compensated cases. The most common age group was that of 20-29 yrs of age. The majority of infections were tuberculosis, hepatitis, chickenpox, AIDS and scabies. The major types of occupations were nurses, doctors, clinical pathology technicians and workers who were taking care of patients. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.448-454. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_5_448.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 09-460 Breton-Kueny L., Segovia-Kueny S.
When faced with the risk of a pandemic - Vital relevance of a plan for ensuring the continuity of operations
Face ŕ une crise de type pandémie - L'intéręt vital d'un plan de continuité des activités [en francés]
This article explains plans for ensuring the continuity of operations (PCOs) in the event of a pandemic, together with their usefulness and implementation. Topics: influenza pandemic; Decree on the safety of vital activities in France; what needs to be included in a PCO in the event of avian influenza. The proposed approach could also be relevant in other situations, for example in the case of bioterrorism.
Préventique-Sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.101, p.57-61. Illus.

CIS 09-100 Ide C.
Clean forgotten
Cleaning is generally regarded as a task carried out by women. In the United Kingdom, 84% of the 537,000 employed in cleaning are female and, about 70% work part-time. This article reviews the hazards and risks faced by cleaners, and outlines the need for proper training, maintenance of equipment and appropriate, comfortable clothing.
Safety and Health Practitioner, May 2008, Vol.26, No.5, p.55-58. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 08-1338 Copsey S., Schneider E., Holm L., Olkkonen S., Kurppa K., Danilina A., Pratt S., Lehtinen S.
Transport industry
Promyšlennost' otrasl' [en ruso]
Collection of articles on occupational safety and health in the transport sector of relevance to Russia and Nordic and Baltic countries. Contents: OSH and the transport sector; economic recovery in the transport sector in Sweden; cooperation for healthier working conditions among truck drivers in Finland; HIV/AIDS prevention in the road transport sector in Russia; global initiatives to prevent road traffic injury at work. Other topics: development of occupational health services; review of the XVIII World Congress on Safety and Health at Work (Seoul, Republic of Korea, 29 June - 2 July 2008).
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2008, Vol.11, No.2, p.38-63 (whole issue). Illus. 19 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/9AE91C9E-51B5-4C54-94CA-D9D00398B490/0/Barents_2_08.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1459 FitzSimons D., François G., De Carli G., Shouval D., Prüss-Üstün A., Puro V., Williams I., Lavanchy D., De Schryver A,, Kopka A., Ncube F., Ippolito G., Van Damme P.
Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and other blood-borne pathogens in healthcare workers: Guidelines for prevention and management in industrialized countries
The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board (VHPB) convened a meeting of international experts from the public and private sectors in order to review and evaluate the epidemiology of blood-borne infections in healthcare workers, to evaluate the transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses as an occupational risk, to discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and to review recommendations for infected healthcare workers. This meeting outlined a number of recommendations for the prevention and control of viral hepatitis, including the training of personnel, application of standard precautions and hepatitis B vaccination. Other topics addressed included ethical and legal issues, the assessment of risk and costs, and the role of the VHPB. Participants also identified a number of terms that need harmonisation or standardisation in order to facilitate communication between experts.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.65, No.7, p.446-451. 29 ref.

CIS 08-1462 Jolly H.
Biological hazards: Real nature of the problem in the construction sector
Risque biologique: quelle réalité dans le BTP? [en francés]
Through many of the diverse activities of the construction sector, workers may be faced with biological hazards. This article reviews the biological agents that can be encountered in the sector (hepatitis A, influenza and poliomyelitis viruses, legionella, leptospira and tetanus bacilli, Candida alibicans and Entamoeba hystolica), diseases they cause, modes of contamination and preventive measures (disinfection of premises, ventilation, personal protective equipment, vaccination).
Prévention BTP, June 2008, No.108, p.48-50. Illus.

CIS 08-1210 Rybacki M., Michowicz A.
Exposure to viruses at the workplace, with the example of viral hepatitis
Zagrożenia wirusowe w miejscu pracy na przykładzie wirusowego zapalenia wątroby [en polonés]
The characteristics of hepatitis B and C viruses are presented, together with their infection mechanisms. The occupational groups most exposed to infection hazards from these viruses are mentioned, together with the methods of prevention and treatment.
Praca i Zdrowie, 2008, No.1, p.10-16. Illus.

CIS 08-1222 Protect your employees with an exposure control plan
The exposure control plan is the focal point of any programme aimed at the prevention of exposure to bloodborne pathogens. It details in writing the employer's plan for reducing exposures to bloodborne pathogens and explains what steps to take when an exposure occurs. Aimed at employers of first responders (emergency medical services, fire fighters, and law enforcement), this leaflet outlines the basic elements of an exposure control plan and how to develop such a plan. See also CIS 08-1012 and 08-1221.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-115/pdfs/2008-115.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1221 Encourage your workers to report bloodborne pathogen exposures
Aimed at employers, this leaflet outlines the importance of encouraging first responders (emergency medical services, fire fighters, and law enforcement) to report exposures to bloodborne pathogens. Topics addressed: why employees may be reluctant to report exposures; why employees should report all exposures; how employers can encourage reporting (developing a policy, informing and training personnel). See also CIS 08-1012 and 08-1222.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-118/pdfs/2008-118.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1012 Protect yourself. Protect your family. Protect the public
These posters visually reinforce the importance of frontline first responders (emergency medical services, fire fighters, and law enforcement) protecting themselves from work-related exposures to bloodborne pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. Protection includes reading the employer's exposure control plan, wearing personal protective equipment and reporting all exposures. See also CIS 08-1221/1222.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. Two posters. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-117/pdfs/2008-117.pdf [en inglés]
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-116/pdfs/2008-116.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-712 Bennett B.
The lingering threat of avian flu
Although headlines warning of a pandemic of avian flu have started to wane, the threat is far from over. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a global outbreak of easily transmissible influenza such as the H5N1 virus avian flu is likely within a few years. Workers at risk include poultry farmers, health care and laboratory workers, veterinarians, waste disposal workers, persons in contact with animals and food, and persons working outdoors. Individuals can protect themselves in a number of ways, such as frequently washing their hands with soap and water. OSHA recommends that employers provide at-risk workers with the appropriate PPE, including gloves, apparel (aprons and sleeves), goggles and boots or protective shoe covers that can be disposed of or disinfected.
Occupational Hazards, Jan. 2008, p.50-54. Illus.

2007

CIS 08-1468 Previsiones de los expertos sobre riesgos biológicos emergentes relacionados con la salud y la seguridad en el trabajo (SST)
Ekspertna prognoza za văznikvaštite biologični riskove, svărzani s bezopasnostta i zdraveto pri rabota (BZP) [en búlgaro]
Expertprognos om nya mikrobiologiska arbetsmiljörisker [en sueco]
Ekspertvarsling om biologiske risici i fremvćkst i tilknytning til arbejdsmiljř [en danés]
Expertenbefragung zu neu auftretenden biologischen Risiken für Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit (OSH) [en alemán]
Ékthesē próblepsēs empeirognōmónōn shetiká me tous anaduómenous biologikoús kindúnous pou shetízontai me tēn epaggelmatikḗ asfáleia kai ugeía (EAU) [en griego]
Expert forecast on emerging biological risks related to occupational safety and health [en inglés]
Ekspertprognoos tekkivate tööohutuse ja töötervishoiu bioloogiliste riskide kohta [en estonio]
Asiantuntijat ennakoivat työterveyteen ja työturvallisuuteen liittyviä uusia biologisia riskejä [en finlandés]
Prévisions des experts sur les risques biologiques émergents liés ŕ la sécurité et ŕ la santé au travail [en francés]
Szakértői előrejelzés a munkahelyi biztonság és egészségvédelem vonatkozásában kialakuló biológiai kockázatokról [en húngaro]
Le previsioni degli esperti sui rischi biologici emergenti per la salute e la sicurezza sul lavoro [en italiano]
Ekspertų prognozė dėl naujos biologinės rizikos, kylančios darbuotojų saugai ir sveikatai (DSS) [en lituano]
Ekspertu prognozes par potenciāliem bioloģiskiem riska faktoriem saistībā ar darba drošību un veselības aizsardzību (DDVA) [en letón]
Tbassir espert dwar riskji bijoloġiċi emerġenti relatati massaħħa u s-sigurta fuq il-post tax-xogħol (OHS) [en maltés]
Prognose van deskundigen over in opkomst zijnde biologische risico's in het kader van veiligheid en gezondheid op het werk [en holandés]
Prognoza ekspercka dotycząca nowo powstających biologicznych czynników ryzyka zawodowego (BHP) [en polonés]
Previsőes de peritos sobre os riscos biológicos emergentes relacionados com a segurança e a saúde no trabalho (SST) [en portugués]
Previziunea experţilor privind riscurile biologice emergente legate de securitatea şi sănătatea în muncă (SSM) [en rumano]
Prognóza expertov o vznikajúcich biologických rizikách súvisiacich s bezpečnost'ou a ochranou zdravia na pracovisku (BOZP) [en eslovaco]
Predvidevanje strokovnjakov o nastajajočih bioloških tveganjih, ki so povezana z varnostjo in zdravjem pri delu [en esloveno]
Odborná prognóza vznikajících biologických rizik souvisejících s bezpečností a ochranou zdraví při práci (BOZP) [en checo]
About 320,000 workers worldwide die every year of communicable diseases, some 5,000 in the European Union. In the last decade, media coverage has raised public awareness of biological hazards, such as anthrax at work due to bioterrorist activities, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the threat of avian flu. But biological agents are ubiquitous and, in many workplaces, workers face considerably harmful biological risks. The Community strategy 2002-06 called on the European Agency for Occupational Safety and Health to set up a risk observatory to anticipate new and emerging occupational safety and health risks. The expert forecast on emerging occupational safety and health biological risks was formulated from the results of three consecutive questionnaire-based surveys using the Delphi method. The full report has been analysed under CIS 08-214. This information note summarizes the contents and the findings of this forecast. It is also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, http://osha.eu.int, 2007. 2p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/factsheets/68/view [en plurilingüe]

CIS 08-1460 Koh D., Ong B.L., Li A., Kasai T., Amin F., Lugah V, Wilburn S., Eijkemans G., Mukhopadhyay P., Nguyen T.H.T., Nguyen V.B., Tran T.D., Vu N.L., Bennoor K.S., Hassan M.R., Rahman M.F., Mahmud A.M., Hossain M.A., Haque M.E., Kabir M.H., Kalamuddin A.F.M., Ali T., Huq A.K.M.S., Shin B.M.
Infectious diseases
Collection of articles on infectious diseases of relevance to countries in the Asian-Pacific region. Contents: WHO strategy for emerging diseases in East Asia; HIV/AIDS prevention in Malaysia; protecting health workers from occupational exposure to HIV, hepatitis and other bloodborne pathogens; problem of occupational heat stress in India; evaluating the experience of Vietnam in controlling human influenza A (H5N1); incidence of tuberculosis among garment workers in Bangladesh; occupational exposure to hepatitis B among Korean health care workers.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, May 2007, Vol.14, No.1, p.2-23 (whole issue). Illus. 63 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/CC3D2788-535F-4445-8A74-CE56311AE501/0/AsianPacificNewsletter12007.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1341 Leggat P.A., Kedjarune U., Smith D.R.
Occupational health problems in modern dentistry: A review
Occupational health hazards in dentistry include percutaneous exposure incidents (PEIs), exposure to infectious diseases (including bioaerosols), radiation, dental materials and noise, musculoskeletal disorders, dermatitis, respiratory disorders, eye injuries and psychological problems. PEIs are a particular concern, as there is an almost constant risk of exposure to serious infectious agents. Strategies to minimize PEI and their consequences include hepatitis B immunization, the use of personal protective measures and appropriate sterilization or disinfection techniques. Aside from biological hazards, dentists continue to suffer a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, especially of the back, neck and shoulders.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.611-621. 100 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_45_5_611.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1220 Pandemic influenza: Guidance for infection control in hospitals and primary care settings
Guidance document on how to protect health care workers against the hazard of infection by pandemic influenza. Contents: terminology; overview of pandemic influenza and infection control; preparedness planning for pandemic infection control; occupational health and deployment of staff; infection control precautions; environmental infection control; supplementary guidance for hospitals; supplementary guidance for primary care settings. In the appendix: the epidemiology of pandemic influenza; infection control precautions.
TSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN, United Kingdom, 2007. 81p. Illus. 87 ref.
http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_080771?IdcService=GET_FILE&dID=154677&Rendition=Web [en inglés]

CIS 08-960 Puura-Märkälä A., Koh D., Maciejowski M., Treichel B., Nachtigall M., Karvonen O., Remizova M., Zenov S., Wilburn S., Eijkemans G.
Infectious diseases
Bor'ba s infekcionnymi zabolevanijami [en ruso]
Collection of articles on infectious diseases of relevance to Russia and Nordic Countries. Contents: increasing attention to health and social issues in the Barents region; infectious diseases as a challenge for public and occupational health; risk of tuberculosis; cooperation among Northern European countries in public health and social well-being; Barents HIV/AIDS protection programme for vulnerable groups; HIV/AIDS workplace education programme in Russia; protecting health workers from occupational exposure to HIV, hepatitis and other bloodborne pathogens.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2007, Vol.10, No.2, whole issue (p.38-75). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/E7C482BD-C809-4A54-BAD3-F3D0519BF5DC/0/BNL0207netti.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-962
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Human papillomaviruses
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are common sexually-transmitted infectious agents. Although most infections are asymptomatic and are cleared within a period of two years, genital HPV infection can lead to clinical disease, including anogenital warts, cervical neoplasia, cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Of the many types of HPVs, some are classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), others as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) and yet other as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Recent data includes strong evidence of carcinogenicity at sites other than the cervix. Vaccination can reduce the incidence of HPV-related genital diseases. However, such prophylactic treatments require that such vaccines be provided women for whom access to cervical cancer screening services is problematic. Therefore, the development of vaccines that are cheaper and easier to deliver remains highly desirable. Update of the IARC Monograph No.64 on the same subject (see CIS 96-1096).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2007. viii, 670p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00 (CHF 38.50 in developing countries). Downloadable version free of charge.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol90/mono90.pdf [en inglés]

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