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  • Inorganic sulfur compounds


CIS 86-1918 Carbon disulphide
Contents of this data sheet: industrial uses; properties; occupational exposure limits (8-h TWA recommended in the United Kingdom: 10ppm, 10-min short-term TWA: 30ppm); fire hazard (very high) and extinguishants to be used; hazardous reactions; toxicity and biological hazards (neurotoxin); medical surveillance; handling and storage; safety precautions; leakage and spillage; first aid.
Safety Practitioner, Apr. 1986, Vol.4, No.4, p.16-17. 10 ref.

CIS 86-1627 Hoogenboom B.E., Hynes R.W., McJilton C.E., Stevens J.B.
Validation of a simpler method for determination of atmospheric sulfur dioxide
The determination of atmospheric sulfur dioxide as aqueous bisulfite using 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTBN) was validated as a simple, rapid and reliable procedure. Standard sulfur dioxide concentrations in air (0-2.6ppm) were generated by means of a permeation device. Sulfur dioxide from air samples was absorbed in pH7 phosphate buffer and determined as bisulfite. The mean percentage recovery of sulfur dioxide is 101.4; the slope of the validation line determined by linear regression analysis is 1.014 found/calculated (1.4% absolute error; 0.9976 correlation coefficient).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1986, Vol.47, No.9, p.552-555. 8 ref.

CIS 86-1700 Ammann H.M.
A new look at physiologic respiratory response to H2S poisoning
Ever since the role of the carotid bodies in controlling ventilation was elucidated by Heymans in 1932, researchers have puzzled over the seeming paradox presented by the action of hydrogen sulfide gas on the nervous system. The dominant effect is depression of function, but the neural receptors of the carotids appear to be stimulated, resulting in hyperpnoea at sublethal exposures. This effect is examined in the light of the known cellular mechanisms of poisoning by H2S, which inhibits the enzyme cytochrome oxidase, stopping oxidative metabolism. The argument is made that H2S affects the carotid sensors in the same manner as reduced oxygen tension, thus resulting in increased rate and depth of ventilation.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Aug. 1986, Vol.13, No.3, p.369-374. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 86-1609 McKee E.S., McConnaughey P.W.
Laboratory validation of a passive length-of-stain dosimeter for hydrogen sulfide
The dosimeter consists of a sealed glass tube containing a length of impregnated paper. To use the dosimeter, one end is broken off and the tube is inserted in a transparent plastic holder which can be attached by a clip to the wearer's clothing, near the breathing zone. The dosimeter covers the concentration range from about 0.5 to 150ppm. Accuracy of the device is well within the NIOSH guideline of ±25%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1986, Vol.47, No.8, p.475-481. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 89-943
Werkgroep van Deskundigen van de Nationale MAC-Commissie
Report on exposure limits for sulfur dioxide
Rapport inzake grenswaarde - zwaveldioxide [en holandés]
Report of the Expert Working Group of the National MAC Committee of the Netherlands. On the basis of the data reviewed, the following exposure level is proposed: 1300µg/m3, 0.5ppm (8h).
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, Dec. 1985. 49p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 88-403 Manure gas - Hydrogen sulphide
Data sheet intended for farmers. Aspects covered: gas formation, properties, physiological effects, safe management of a liquid manure system, spreader tanks, and design and construction of new facilities.
Farm Safety Association, Unit 22, 340 Woodlawn Road West, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, Sep. 1985. 2p.

CIS 88-134 Sulfur trioxide
Chemical safety information sheet. Forms sulfuric acid on contact with water. Toxicity: irritates and corrodes mucous membranes; severe skin and eye burns on contact. No established exposure limit.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 87-402 Chlorosulfonic acid
This Workplace Environmental Exposure Level Guide (WEEL) presents the available toxicological data and recommends appropriate exposure limits for industrial chemicals for which no standards have been developed. Synonym: chlorosulfuric acid. Highly irritating and corrosive to the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. This chemical reacts readily with moisture to form hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. Recommended exposure limit: ceiling limit = 1.3mg/m3.
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 475 Wolf Ledges Parkway, Akron, OH 44311, USA, 1985. 2p. 11 ref.

CIS 87-251 Rumjancev G.I., Hodykina T.M., Arhangel'skij V.I.
Occupational hygiene in the production of chlorine-free potash fertilisers
Gigiena truda v proizvodstve beshlornyh kalijnyh udobrenij [en ruso]
The principal occupational hazards in chlorine-free potash production are potassium sulfate and potassium magnesium sulfate dusts, which are present in workplace air at concentrations from a few to hundreds of milligrams per cubic meter. The dust affects the respiratory systems of workers and lowers their resistance to other negative factors. Animal experiments showed that the compounds are somewhat toxic and mildly irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. The biochemical, physiological and morphological effects of the compounds suggest that the threshold of chronic effects of chlorine-free potash is around 15mg/m3.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1985, No.8, p.14-18. 10 ref.

CIS 87-131 Sulfuric acid
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazard data (corrosive, irritant); use information; precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 87-129 Sulfur dioxide
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazard data (irritant); use information; precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 87-95 Hydrogen sulfide
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazard data; use information; precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1326 Carbon disulfide
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-684 Sulfur dioxide or sulfurous anhydride
Dioxyde de soufre ou anhydride sulfureux [en francés]
This gas is colourless, asphyxiating, toxic and has highly irritant properties. As one of the most widespread and dangerous atmospheric pollutants, it has been chosen by specialists to serve as the reference pollutant. Aspects covered in this data sheet: identification, production, uses, pollution sources, physical and chemical properties, detection and determination in air and at the emission level, explosion and fire risks, health risks, damage to vegetation and materials, regulations in effect in Belgium, emergency measures, medical supervision, preventive measures.
Promosafe, Mar.-Apr. 1985, Vol.12, No.2, p.167-181. 34 ref.

CIS 86-415 Carbon bisulfide (Carbon disulfide)
Aspects covered in this data sheet: uses; shipping, storage and handling precautions; hazards (nervous system poison, flammable liquid with a low boiling point); tank and vessel entry; waste disposal; exposure limits (ACGIH TLV is 10ppm as an 8h TWA); ventilation; personal protection; pre-employment medical examinations; first aid.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 4p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 86-385 Van Den Berge L.P., Devreese A., Vanhoorne M.
A simplified method for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in the work environment
Hydrogen sulfide is collected with an impinger containing a sodium hydroxide/ethanol solution (5mL 0.015N NaOH + 5mL ethanol) and analysed quantitatively by spectrophotometry.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1985, Vol.46, No.11, p.693-695. 1 ref.

CIS 86-105 Cassinelli M.E., Delon Hull R., Cuendet P.A.
Performance of sulfur dioxide passive monitors
NIOSH evaluation of 4 commercial devices: Dupont Pro-Tek C-20, MSA Vaporgard, REAL biobadges and 3M Nutshell monitors. The experiments conducted were designed to test all the factors critical to the operation of passive dosimeters: accuracy, precision, capacity, stability, analytical recovery, effects of environmental parameters, chemical interference. Only the MSA device did not perform satisfactorily. The 3M badge was withdrawn by the manufacturer after only partial evaluation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1985, Vol.46, No.10, p.599-608. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 86-141 Kellett J.K., Beck M.H.
Ammonium persulphate sensitivity in hairdressers
Ammonium persulfate is a component of hairdressing bleaches. 12 of 49 professional hairdressers patch tested with ammonium persulfate gave positive reactions, in contrast to 1 of 118 patients who were not hairdressers. 7 out of 10 of these 12 patients have since given up hairdressing. The stability of ammonium persulfate preparations in petrolatum or water was tested; about 24% of the initial amount of the compound degraded in 6 months. This suggests that preparations this old or older should not be used.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1985, Vol.13, No.1, p.26-28. 5 ref.

CIS 85-1956 Borredon J.J.
Poisoning due to carbon disulfide - a powerful disinfectant
Un désinfectant radical ou une intoxication par le sulfure de carbone [en francés]
Case study of carbon disulfide poisoning due to the use of a disinfectant in the cleaning of incubators. The subject was suffering from chronic carbon disulfide poisoning followed by treatment and, after a 1-year interruption of exposure, by an episode of acute poisoning brought on by renewed exposure. Chronic poisoning can result in psychological disturbances, anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea, and ultimately in sensomotor polyneuritis and in retrobulbar optic neuritis. The symptoms of acute poisoning are psychological, neurological and digestive problems. The disease is recognised as an occupational disease in France. This product (Lomasept) is still used in the silk industry and in agriculture as an insecticide.
Le concours médical, 20 Apr. 1985, Vol.107, No.16, p.1569-1570. 1 ref.

CIS 85-1893 McConnaughey P.W., McKee E.S., Pritts I.M.
Passive colorimetric dosimeter tubes for ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide
These colorimetric stain length personal dosimeters, known by the trade name Vapor Guard, have been developed by the Mine Safety Appliances Company, Pittsburgh, PA 15208, USA. Calibration tests indicate that the tubes are accurate to ±25% and that temperature (5-40°C) and relative humidity (20-90%) do not significantly affect the results.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1985, Vol.46, No.7, p.357-362. Illus. 64 ref.

CIS 85-1642
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Sulfamic acid
Acide sulfamique [en francés]
Use, physical and chemical properties, storage containers, air sampling and analytical methods, fire hazards. Pathology and toxicology: acute experimental toxicity, mutagenic effects; acute and chronic toxicity in man. Recall of French legislation regarding OSH and French and international legislation regarding transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1985, No.120, p.393-396. 13 ref.

CIS 85-1382 Nurminen M., Hernberg S.
Effects of intervention on the cardiovascular mortality of workers exposed to carbon disulphide: a 15 year follow up
A preventive intervention programme at a rayon plant removed all workers with coronary risk factors from exposure to carbon disulfide. During the next 8 years this resulted in a very significant reduction of cardiovascular deaths (19 deaths, compared with 59 expected).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1985, Vol.42, No.1, p.32-35. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 85-1378 Arnold I.M.F., Dufresne R.M., Alleyne B.C., Stuart P.J.W.
Health implication of occupational exposures to hydrogen sulfide
Retrospective study of 250 Canadian workers who submitted compensation claims in Alberta between 1979-1983, following exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). 54% of these workers became unconscious after exposure. Symptoms with a neurological component accounted for the largest group of clinical findings. Other major symptoms were respiratory and ophthalmologic disorders. The overall fatality rate was 2.8%, significantly lower than that reported (6%) a decade earlier. This is attributed to improved first-aid and increased awareness of the dangers of H2S. Traumatic injury as a result of a fall after exposure was noted in 31 cases.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1985, Vol.27, No.5, p.373-376. Illus. 20 ref.


CIS 89-430
USSR Commission for UNEP
Nickel and its compounds
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC (nickel carbonyl) = 0.0005mg/m3; MAC (nickel salts as hydroaerosols) = 0.005mg Ni/m3; MAC (nickel metal, oxides, sulphides, ore concentrates) = 0.05mg Ni/m3. Toxicity: the water-soluble salts and nickel carbonyl are the most toxic (irritation of mucous membranes and skin, dermatitis, skin absorption; pulmonary oedema from exposure to nickel carbonyl); dust from nickel ore production is carcinogenic in man.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1984. 36p. 82 ref.

CIS 88-401 Hydrogen sulfide
Hydrogensulfid [en noruego]
Chemical safety information sheet. Inhalation at concentrations of 700ppm or more will cause serious poisoning in a short time. It is irritating to the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Higher concentrations will block the sense of smell and can damage the lungs with eventual pulmonary oedema. At very high concentrations it will affect the central nervous system. Exposure limits: Administrative standard = 15mg/m3; ceiling value = 15mg/m3 (Norway, 1984).
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, Rev. ed., Sep. 1984. 4p.

CIS 86-1549 Hallberg B.O., Rudling J., Hultman A., Hultengren M.
Filter method for active and passive sampling of sulfur dioxide in air
En metod för aktiv och passiv provtagning av svaveldioxid i luft med impregnerade filter [en sueco]
Sulfur dioxide is collected on filters impregnated with glycerol/potassium hydroxide solution. Sampling can be carried out with a pump or by using either of 2 different passive monitors available on the market. Analysis is performed by ion chromatography. These methods were evaluated and compared to a colorimetric air monitoring badge system (ProTek). Laboratory tests showed that the accuracy of the filter methods is good and that samples can be stored. Water vapour does not interfere, but hydrogen sulfide does cause a minor decrease in recovery. ProTek displays high accuracy, but storage tends to decrease recovery. Field tests in a steel rolling mill and a sulfite pulp mill showed fairly good correspondence between the methods.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 21p. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 86-1091 Dimitrova M., Uševa G., Pavlova S.
Results of a longitudinal study of coronaropathies in relation to occupational carbon sulfide exposure
Rezultati ot longitudinalno proučvane na koronaropatii pri profesionalno văzdeistvie na serovăglerod [en búlgaro]
A 7-year longitudinal study was carried out on the risk of coronaropathy in workers exposed to carbon disulfide. An increased number of the subjects with manifestations of positive and probable ischaemic heart disease was observed, no increase being found among the controls. The significance of carbon disulfide as a basic risk factor to and as a potentiator of the effects of smoking and hypertension still cannot be determined.
Problemi na higienata, July 1984, Vol.9, p.107-111. 2 ref.

CIS 86-439 Fuming sulfuric acid
Ácido sulfúrico fumegante [en portugués]
Data sheet on fuming sulfuric acid, containing information on: chemical composition, properties, main hazards, emergency measures, first-aid measures, handling and storage, and treatment of residues. The TLV in Brazil is: (suggested) 1mg/m3 for a 40h week.
Fundacentro, C.P.11484, CEP 05499 São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1984. 2p. Bibl.

CIS 86-438 Sulfuric acid
Ácido sulfúrico [en portugués]
Data sheet on sulfuric acid, containing information on: chemical composition, properties, main hazards, emergency measures, first-aid measures, handling and storage, and treatment of residues. The TLV in Brazil is: (suggested) 1mg/m3 for a 40h week.
Fundacentro, C.P.11484, CEP 05499 São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1984. 2p. Bibl.

CIS 86-478 Drozdov V.N.
State of the upper respiratory tract in industrial workers exposed to vapours of nickel sulfate
Sostojanie verhnih dyhatel'nyh putej u rabočih promyšlennyh predprijatij pri vozdejstvii parov sernokislogo nikelja [en ruso]
Study of 38 workers engaged in electrochemical nickel plating. Although nickel sulfate vapour in the air of the shop was well below the maximum allowable concentration, 25 of the workers had complaints of nasal discharge, sneezing, dryness and obstructions in the throat. Tissue abnormalities were found in the noses and larynxes of 34 workers, with allergic reactions being most common. All types of pathology observed, except chronic tonsillitis, were more frequent than in a control group. Whereas the frequency of chronic rhinitis was about the same at all age and seniority levels, allergic changes in the upper respiratory mucosae increased in frequency with length of service.
Vestnik otorinolaringologii, May-June 1984, p.56-58. 1 ref.

CIS 86-418 Recommended health-based occupational exposure limits for respiratory irritants
The short-term (15 min) and the 8h time-weighted average exposure limits recommended in this technical report for 4 irritants are respectively: 1.5 and 0.75mg/m3 for chlorine; 1.0 and 0.5mg/m3 for formaldehyde; 1.8 and 0.9mg/m3 for nitrogen dioxide; 3.9 and 1.3mg/m3 for sulfur dioxide. The basis for the recommendations are given for each substance.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 154p. Bibl. Price: SF.14.00.

CIS 86-99 Guščin V.I.
Electrical conductometric gas analyser
Ėlektrokonduktometričeskij gazoanalizator [en ruso]
A new gas analyser for continuous automatic monitoring of water-soluble toxic contaminants (ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, etc.) in the range of their maximum allowable concentrations was devised. The apparatus consists of 3 parts: electrochemical and electrometric units and an aspiration device. Gas concentrations are measured by comparison of the electrical resistance of absorption liquid in conductometric cells before and after absorption of the gas. The absorption liquid is 0.01% hydrochloric acid. Concentrations of ammonia from 0 to 100mg/m3 can be measured with 0.5% precision and at the sensivity limit of 0.1%. Determination of ammonia requires that 0.1-0.15L/min of air be passed through the electrometric chamber of the apparatus. A diagram of the apparatus is given.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1984, No.10, p.57-59. Illus.

CIS 85-1902 Sulfuric acid
Ácido sulfúrico [en portugués]
This data sheet on sulfuric acid covers: properties; effects on the organism; exposure limits (not fixed in Brazil; suggested ACGIH limit: 1mg/m3); emergency and first-aid measures; suggested label; handling and storage; treatment of residues; preventive measures.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-June 1984, Vol.12, No.46, insert 2p. 10 ref.

CIS 85-1954 De Souza Nascimento E., Mídio A.F.
Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide and vitamin B6 deficiency
Exposição ocupacional ao sulfeto de carbono e hipovitaminose B6 [en portugués]
A literature survey of the toxic action of carbon disulfide in exposed people, in particular of its inhibition of the pyridoxamine form of vitamin B6, of its interference with tryptophan metabolism, and of the resulting excretion of xanthurenic acid.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-June 1984, Vol.12, No.46, p.17-24. Illus. 64 ref.

CIS 85-1889 Hallberg B.O., Rudling J., Hultman A., Hultengren M.
A filter method for the active and passive monitoring of sulfur dioxide in workplace air
Sulfur dioxide is collected on impregnated filters and passive dosimeters (Abcor Gasbadge and 3M) using a glycerol/potassium hydroxide solution as collection medium. Analysis is made by ion chromatography. The methods were evaluated by comparison against the Pro-Tek (Du Pont) colorimetric badge system. All three methods gave acceptable results. Water vapour did not interfere but H2S caused a minor decrease in recovery. A collection efficiency of >98% was achieved for all the samples. For the Pro-Tek dosimeters, recovery after 4 weeks storage (refrigerated) was only 84%. This confirms the 3-week storage limit recommended by the manufacturer.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1984, Vol.10, No.5, p.305-309. 19 ref.

CIS 85-1631
Health and Safety Executive
Carbon disulphide: control of exposure in the viscose industry
This guidance note covers the control limit for carbon disulfide (10ppm for an 8h time-weighted average concentration in air); toxic effects; control of exposure in the viscose industry using respiratory protective equipment (canister gas respirators or compressed air line breathing apparatus); care and maintenance of the equipment; statutory requirements.
HM Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, Sep. 1984. 3p. 2 ref.

CIS 85-1682 Hodykina T.M.
Effect on animals of exposure to potassium sulfate and potassium-magnesium sulfate to long-term experiments
Dejstvie sul'fata kalija i kalimagnezii na organizm životnyh v hroničeskom ėksperimente [en ruso]
Exposure of animals to potassium sulfate and potassium-magnesium sulfate fertilisers produced irritation of the lung tissue and respiratory tract. A long-term experiment revealed some physiological and biological changes including inhibition of the enzyme activity, changes of the acid-base balance and leukocytosis. The data obtained provide a basis for establishing a MAC of 15mg/m3 for potassium sulfate and potassium-magnesium sulfate fertilisers.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1984, No.3, p.47-49. 6 ref.

CIS 85-732 Handling and storage of solid sulfur
This data sheet identifies the hazards from exposure to sulfur dust and during its handling. The required personal protective equipment and ventilation are also described.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, Rev. 1984. 4p. Bibl.

CIS 85-776 Màgliaro A., Iannaccone S., Màgliaro N.
Cardiac and respiratory pathology of occupational origin in sulfur workers
La patologia cardiaca e respiratoria di origine professionale nei lavoratori dello zolfo [en italiano]
Spirometric tests and electrocardiograms were performed on 200 present and past employees of a sulfur mine (length of employment: 5-30 years). Significant reductions in vital capacity (average 30%), in FEV1 (25-30%), increases in relative residual volume (29% in miners 39-45 years old, 57% in miners over 66 years old) and in residual volume/total lung capacity relation (by 36-43%, depending on age) were found. Significant changes in heart function occurred in 20% of the subjects (disturbances of atrial-ventricular conduction and of conduction in blood vessels on the right side of the body). Hypotheses for the aetiology of these changes are given.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Apr.-June 1984, Vol.8, No.2, p.109-117. 8 ref.

CIS 85-750 Wilcosky T.C., Checkoway H., Marshall E.G., Tyroler H.A.
Cancer mortality and solvent exposures in the rubber industry
A case control analysis of a 6678 member cohort compared the solvent exposure histories of a 20% age-stratified random sample of the cohort with those of cohort members who died during 1964-1973 from various types of cancer (stomach, respiratory system, prostate, lymphosarcoma, lymphatic leukaemia). Of these only lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia showed significant positive associations with any of the potential solvent exposures. Lymphatic leukaemia was strongly related to carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide. Benzene was not significantly associated with any of the cancers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1984, Vol.45, No.12, p.809-811. 18 ref.

CIS 85-848 Kangas J., Jäppinen P., Savolainen H.
Exposure to hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans and sulfur dioxide in the pulp industry
An occupational health survey of 10 paper mills in Finland revealed concentrations in air varying from 0 to 20ppm H2S, 0 to 15ppm methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide, 0 to 1.5ppm dimethyl disulfide and up to 20ppm SO2. The exposed workers complained of headache and a decrease in concentration capacity. Their frequency of sick leave was greater than among a control group. Contaminant concentrations and health problems differed with the types of processes used.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1984, Vol.45, No.12, p.787-790. 13 ref.

CIS 85-456 Rosier J., Vanhoorne M., van Peteghem C.
Historical and present-day trends in biological monitoring of industrial exposure to carbon disulfide
Historiek en hedendaagse trends in de biologische monitoring bij industriële expositie aan koolstofdisulfide [en holandés]
So far the iodine-azide urine monitoring test is the only carbon disulfide (CS2) exposure test recognized by the World Health Organization. However, one of the drawbacks of this test is that it cannot be used for low exposure levels corresponding to the TLV proposed by NIOSH for CS2. The discovery of the urinary CS2 metabolite 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) opens new prospects for the evaluation of CS2 exposure, because this metabolite can be detected in the urine of workers exposed to very low atmospheric concentrations of CS2.
Tijdschrift voor sociale gezondheidszorg, 29 Aug. 1984, Vol.62, No.17, p.665-669. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 85-450 Nurminen M., Hernberg S.
Cancer mortality among carbon disulfide-exposed workers
In a 15-year prospective follow-up of 2 industrial cohorts consisting of 343 viscose rayon plant workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) and a similar number of paper mill workers, mortality from lung cancer was lower in the viscose rayon workers. The mortality rate ratio of 0.46 was not statistically significant. Deaths from other neoplasms numbered 10 in both cohorts. When the Finnish national death rates for 1975 were taken as a standard, the rayon plant workers still showed a favourable mortality experience for lung cancer, but neither of the relative rates differed statistically significantly from the general standard. Competing causes of death, mainly cardiovascular diseases, were statistically accounted for by life-table techniques. 55% of the rayon plant workers were smokers compared to 49% of the paper mill workers. Under moderate conditions of exposure it appears that CS2 is not carcinogenic.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1984, Vol.26, No.5, p.341. 4 ref.

CIS 85-233 Nœuvéglise J.
Work on sewers and wastewater-treatment stations
Travaux en égouts et stations d'épuration [en francés]
Review of serious or fatal accidents due to hydrogen sulfide; an explosion; description of the symptoms of leptospirosis and other infectious deseases to which workers in this area are exposed. Preventive measures: personal and collective hygiene (disinfection and pest control in work areas), pre-employment medical examination and vaccinations. Safe work: monitoring the atmosphere, ventilation, etc. In an annex: list of personal and collective protective equipment, hazards that are not specific for sewer workers, French regulations.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, 1984, No.3, p.22-26. Illus.

CIS 85-98 Kolmodin-Hedman B., Swensson Å.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Exposure Limits - 48. Sulfur dioxide
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 48. Svaveldioxid [en sueco]
Criteria document for establishment of an exposure limit for sulfur dioxide. Exposure to low concentrations (>3mg SO2/m3) produces bronchoconstriction and elevated airway resistance; bronchoconstriction disappears quickly after cessation of exposure. Exposure to higher concentrations irritates the nose and throat; the irritation becomes intolerable at concentrations of 130-160mg/m3. Such concentrations produce serious lesions in the bronchial mucosa. High concentrations, such as those resulting from accidents, produce pulmonary oedema and toxic pneumonia. Exposure of monkeys and dogs to 3-13mg/m3 for 2 years gave no detectable lesions in their respiratory organs. The available data suggest that a concentration of 13mg/m3 will not accelerate the decline in spirometric parameters that occurs with age. In an annex: SO2 exposure limits in 21 countries; method of sampling and analysis.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 63p. 131 ref.

CIS 85-129 Rosier J., Billemont G., Van Peteghem C., Vanhoorne M., Grosjean R., Van de Walle A.
Relation between the iodine azide test and the TTCA test for exposure to carbon disulphide
Description of a method of carbon disulfide exposure evaluation that uses quantification of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in urine. This method is to be preferred to the method using the iodine azide test, which can give false positive results and whose readings have a strong subjective component. TTCA concentration increases in urine during workshift hours in a viscose plant were found to correlate well with carbon disulfide exposure levels. This correlation was especially good if urine samples with creatinine concentrations below 1mg/mL and above 3mg/mL were disregarded.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1984, Vol.41, No.3, p.412-416. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 85-121 Oliver L.C., Weber R.P.
Chest pain in rubber chemical workers exposed to carbon disulphide and methaemoglobin formers
This study of chest pain and/or coronary heart disease (CHD) was carried out on 94 rubber-chemical workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) and methaemoglobin-forming aromatic amines, and on 87 controls. Matching the workers and controls for known CHD risk factors, the association between the chemicals and diseases studied could be measured. Chest pain and angina pectoris were significantly related to exposure. Abnormal ECGs were more numerous in the exposed group, but the difference was not significant. An acute effect of exposure on the heart cannot be demonstrated.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1984, Vol.41, No.3, p.296-304. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 84-1945 Kulle J.J., Sauder L.R., Shanty F., Kerr H.D., Farrell B.P., Miller W.R., Milman J.H.
Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects
The effect of exposures to 1ppm sulfur dioxide and 500µg/m3 respirable ammonium sulfate particles was studied in 20 non-smoking subjects while performing 15min exercises during 4h exposure periods in an environmental chamber. Response to exposure was measured by pulmonary function tests and bronchial reactivity to methacholine. No significant changes were observed after separate or combined exposures to the 2 contaminants.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1984, Vol.45, No.3, p.156-161. 33 ref.

CIS 84-1629 Kring E.V., Damrell D.J., Henry T.J., DeMoor H.M., Basilio A.N., Simon C.E.
Laboratory validation and field verification of a new passive colorimetric air monitoring badge for sampling hydrogen sulfide in air
This dosimeter has been validated over the range of 1.8 to 164ppm-h (0.23-21 ppm H2S for 8h). Analysis is based on the Texas Air Control Board's molybdenum blue colorimetric method; colour-activated exposed badge solutions are read out on a spectrophotometer set at 580nm and using 10mm cells. The overall accuracy is ±16%; variations in temperature (10-40°C), relative humidity and face velocity (0.6-76m/s) do not affect badge performance. Unexposed badges are stable for 12 months refrigerated or 2 months at room temperature. Exposed badges can be stored for 1 week at room temperature or 1 month refrigerated. There are no significant interferences from other contaminants.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1984, Vol.45, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 84-414 Girard-Wallon C., Aubrun J.C.
Organic sulfur derivatives
Dérivés organiques du soufre [en francés]
This general review, divided into 6 sections on the basis of functional groups, covers thiols (mercaptans), thiahydrocarbons, sulfides, disulfides, episulfides, hydroxymercaptans and derivatives, sulfoxides, sulfones, sultones, sulfonates, sulfates, thioamides, thio amino acids, sulfamides, thiocarbamides, thiocarbamates, thiocyanates, thiazoles, thiazines, and thiohalogenated and thiophosphorylated compounds, indicating for each class its physical and chemical properties, industrial uses and toxicity. A final section covers preventive and protective measures: exposure limits where these are defined, determination of concentrations in the workplace, compensation in industry and agriculture, and diseases defined as occupational.
Encycolpédie médico-chirurgicale, 18, rue Seguier, 75006 Paris, France, 1983. Intoxications, 16058 U10, 10-1983, 16p. 35 ref.


CIS 89-1777
USSR Committee for UNEP
Carbon disulfide
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC = 1mg/m3.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1983. 27p. 137 ref.

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