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CIS 91-1199 Pirumov A.I., Mettus A.A., Leont'ev V.P., Graždanov V.A., Pavlova N.A.
Experience in the removal of plasticiser aerosol from exhaust air
Opyt očistki aspiracionnogo vozduha ot aėrozolej plastifikatorov [en ruso]
This article describes a long-term test of installations, designed for the electrical cleaning of air exhausted from artificial leather manufacturing machines, the agent removed being dioctyl phthalate plasticiser. With a specific air load through the filter inlet section of 3,000-4,000m3/(h x m2) and a phthalate concentration in the exhaust air of up to 25mg/m3, plasticiser aerosol collection efficiency was 80-88%; the installation's aerodynamic drag was 30-50Pa and persisted as such for the duration of the 3-year operation period; the power consumption off mains required for phthalate aerosol removal was 135-235W per 10,000m3/h of purified air; the electrical filters were safe against the risk of a spark-induced ignition of the precipitated flammable liquids. Result of testing a 2-stage glass-fibre filter containing 20 cylinder-form filter elements are given in tabulated form.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Dec. 1988, No.12, p.15-17. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 90-1120 Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), potential human carcinogen
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (8h-TWA) = 5mg/m3; NIOSH REL (lowest feasible limit: carcinogen); ACGIH TLV (8h-TWA) = 5mg/m3. Toxicity: irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; skin sensitisation; allergic dermatitis.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1988. 5p. Bibl.


CIS 89-1580 Šmidt P., Ivanov N.G.
Methodological approaches to the assessment of short-term exposure to industrial chemicals with hepatotoxic properties
Metodočeskie podhody k ocenke gepatotropnogo dejstvija promyšlennyh veščestv pri kratkosročnom vozdejstvii [en ruso]
Animal experiments carried out to investigate changes in liver function as a result of short-term exposure to known hepatotoxic chemicals (carbon tetrachloride, allyl alcohol, styrene) and to new industrial chemical compounds (diallyl phthalate, diaminodiphenylmethane etc.) showed the need for standardisation of experimental conditions for determination of the threshold of acute action of toxic chemicals on liver function for the purposes of hygienic standardisation. A set of compulsory and additional tests for detecting hepatotoxic effects of occupational poisons under conditions of short-term exposure is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1987, No.12, p.33-36. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 89-957
Health and Safety Executive: Occupational Medicine and Hygiene Laboratory
Dioctyl phthalates in air - Laboratory method using Tenax sorbent tubes, solvent desorption and gas chromatography
Content of this guidance note: properties, uses and toxicity of dioctyl phthalates and first aid after massive exposure to hot fume; description of the method (sampling through a glass or metal tube packed with Tenax porous polymer sorbent, description of the collected dioctyl phthalates by cyclohexane and analysis of the solution with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionisation detector). Scope: suitable for sampling over a period of 8h, but may be used for sampling over shorter periods by increasing the sampling flow rate to a maximum of 500mL/min. The method does not distinguish between di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diisooctyl phthalate. Analytical limits: 0.5 - 25mg/m3 for air samples of 50L. Bias of the method: <5%. The presence of coeluting compounds will provide interference - a table of interference data is given in the annex.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, Room 414, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 2QY, United Kingdom, Dec. 1987. 7p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 2.50.

CIS 88-1762
Environmental Protection Agency
Revised text of the Extremely Hazardous Substances List [USA]
Final rules by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), effective 17 Dec. 1987. The following substances are removed from the list of extremely hazardous substances published on 17 Nov. 1986: bacitracin, dibutyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate, dioctyl phthalate.
Federal Register, 40 CFR Part 355, 17 Dec. 1987, Vol.52, No.242, p.48072-48074.


CIS 88-1796 Diethyl o-phthalate
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: irritates mucous membranes and skin; narcotic in high concentrations.
Indian Chemical Manufacturers Association, India Exchange, India Exchange Place, Calcutta 700 001, India, 1986. 1p.

CIS 87-1393 Woodward K.N., Smith A.M., Mariscotti S.P., Tomlinson N.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Review of the toxicity of the esters of o-phthalic acid (phthalate esters)
This review covers: identities; absorption, biotransformation, distribution and excretion; animal toxicity (acute toxicity, irritation, and sensitisation, subacute toxicity, hypolipaemic and related effects, hepatic effects, effects on reproductive organs, mutagenicity, chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity); metabolism and effects in humans (acute toxicity, irritation and sensitisation, long-term exposure, other studies).
HM Stationery Office Publications Centre, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1986. 183p. 604 ref. Price: £15.20.

CIS 86-1960 Hours M., Bertholon J., Esteve J., Cardis E., Freyssinet C.L., Quelin P., Fabry J.
Mortality experience in a polyamide-polyester factory
Results of a mortality study carried out in a polyamide-polyester factory in France. A retrospective cohort design was chosen to evaluate the effect of exposure to phthalates, nickel catalysts, and other chemicals in the work environment. Only a slight excess of cancer, marginally related to exposure category yet not significantly related to length of exposure, was found. The cohort, however, was young but stable, and a continued follow-up is therefore both feasible and justifiable, since it is likely to yield important information about the potential hazards associated with the target polymer industry.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1986, Vol.12, No.5, p.455-460. 20 ref.


CIS 86-1875 Dimethyl phthalate
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1642 Dioctyl phthalate
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1608 Dibutyl phthalate
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 85-1691 Vidović R., Kansky A.
Contact dermatitis in workers processing polyvinyl chloride plastics
Results of patch tests of 2 groups (30 with and 30 without skin lesions) chosen from 400 workers in a plastic shoe factory. The tests included a standard battery of substances plus 4 phthalates widely used as plasticisers. Of the 11 workers with contact dermatitis, 6 were sensitive to phthalates and 5 to coal tar (also present in the granulated vinyl raw material). Reactions to dioctyl phthalate were even more numerous among the asymptomatic subjects than among the others, which shows the high sensitising potential of phthalates.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1985, Vol.33, No.3, p.104-105. 13 ref.


CIS 84-1678 Brunetti G., Moscato G.
Bronchial asthma due to occupational exposure to dioctyl phthalate
Asma bronchiale da esposizione professionale a dioctilftalato [en italiano]
Case study of a worker with continuous exposure to dioctyl phthalate during the manufacture of imitation leather, who developed an asthmatic reaction to the substance. The allergy tests and pulmonary function tests used are described. English translation may be obtained from: Health and Safety Executive, Translation Services, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN, United Kingdom.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1984, Vol.75, No.2, p.120-124. Illus. 12 ref.


CIS 85-468 Turbin E.V., Aldyreva M.V., Milkov L.E.
Changes in some nervous system parameters in workers exposed to phthalate plasticisers
Izmenenie nekotoryh pokazatelej nervnoj sistemy u rabotajuščih v kontakte s ftalatnymi plastifikatorami [en ruso]
Workers in the production of artificial leather had reduced skin sensitivity and neuromuscular excitability in their lower legs, which was correlated with exposure to low concentrations of phthalate plasticisers. Changes in sensory threshold were seen in workers with less than 5 years' seniority, and increased thresholds and latencies of a foot-flexion reflex were seen in workers with more prolonged contact with the plasticisers. Measurement of the thresholds of sensory and motor reactions can thus reveal early (subclinical) changes in the body.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1983, No.4, p.46-48. 4 ref.

CIS 84-1969 Riboli E., Bai E., Berrino F., Merisi A.
Mortality from lung cancer in an acetylene and phthalic anhydride plant - A case-referent study
A case-referent study was used to determine if exposure to carcinogens, including soot and phthalates, was a cause of excess deaths due to lung cancer in workers in an acetylene and phthalic anhydride plant. A local register of deaths was the source of 43 cases of males who had died from lung cancer between 1976 and 1979 and of a sample of referents who had died from other causes in the same period. Information for a complete occupational history and on smoking habits was collected in interviews with next of kin for each study subject. After control for age and smoking the risk of dying from lung cancer for subjects employed at the plant, relative to those never occupationally exposed, was 5.6. The risk for exposure to lung carcinogens in work environments other than the plant was 1.7. Occupational exposure to chemical carcinogens accounted for one-third of the total number of lung cancer deaths in the area during the study period.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1983, Vol.9, No.6, p.455-462. 21 ref.

CIS 84-1912
Health and Safety Executive
Dioctyl phthalates in air - Laboratory method using Tenax adsorbent tubes, solvent desorption and gas chromatography
Properties, uses and toxicity are given for the dioctyl phthalates. Determination method: sampling through a metal tube packed with porous polymer adsorbent, desorption of the dioctyl phthalates by cyclohexane and analysis of the solution with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionisation detector. Scope: suitable for measurement over a period of 8h, but may be used for sampling over shorter periods by increasing the sampling flow-rate to a max. of 500ml/min. The method does not differentiate between di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diisooctyl phthalate. It is suitable for determination of these compounds present as vapour or aerosol, and for both personal and area sampling. Analytical limits: 0.5-25mg/m3 for 50l air samples. Precision: <10%. The presence of coeluting compounds will provide interference - a table of interference data is given in the appendix.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QZ, United Kingdom, 1983. 5p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: £1.00.

CIS 84-1405 Alternatives to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate ("DOP") in respirator quantitative fit testing
Because di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is a potential carcinogen and has undesirable toxic properties, a replacement for this substance is needed as the aerosol used in quantitative fit testing (QNFT) of respirators. The aerosol characteristics and toxic properties of refined corn oil, di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DEHS) and dimethicone (DM) were evaluated, and these substances were also used as aerosols in QNFT field tests. Little toxicity data exists for DEHS or DM but the metabolic fate of DEHS is thought to be similar to that of DEHP. A refined corn oil aerosol is now recommended as a replacement for DEHP in QNFT.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Mar. 1983. 31p. 80 ref.

CIS 84-1012 Rittfeldt L., Ahlberg M.S., Zingmark P.A., Santesson J.
Occupational exposure to benzyl chloride and benzal chloride due to contaminated butyl benzyl phthalate
Investigation at a vinyl floor tile factory are reported . Exposure levels at a production line were approx. 0.03 and 0.15mg/m3 for benzyl and benzal chloride respectively. These substances were found to be impurities in the butyl benzyl phthalate used in producing the surface and patterned films of the tiles. Benzyl and benzal chloride were also detected in the atmosphere over a 10-day-old vinyl floor tile. The use of butyl benzyl phthalate with low levels of impurities is growing in Sweden. Other groups exposed include floor layers and the general public.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1983, Vol.9, No.4, p.367-368. 10 ref.

CIS 84-786 Kluwe W.M., Haseman J.K., Huff J.E.
The carcinogenicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in perspective
A critical review of recent animal studies into the carcinogenicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) concludes that they were conducted in accordance with state-of-the-art procedures and that the interpretations of the results are valid. Experimental evidence indicates that the plasticiser DEHP is carcinogenic to rats and mice, causing hepatocellular carcinomas. The carcinogenic potential of DEHP in humans requires further study. Firm conclusions concerning health risks of DEHP exposure should be avoided at this time.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, July 1983, Vol.12, No.1, p.159-169. Illus. 35 ref.


CIS 84-488 Kluwe W.M., Haseman J.K., Douglas J.F., Huff J.E.
The carcinogenicity of dietary di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice
Groups of 50 male and female rats and male and female mice were fed diets containing 6000 or 12000 (rats) or 3000 or 6000 (mice) mg di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)/kg for 103 consecutive weeks. Treatment with DEHP did not affect survival rates for rats or mice, compared with controls, nor did it alter the amount of food consumed. Mean body weight gains of the treated animals were less than those of controls. Treatment with DEHP caused liver tumours in both sexes of mice and rats. The combined incidence of animals with hepatocellular carcinomas or neoplastic nodules was significantly greater than that in controls for male rats ingesting 12000mg/kg and female rats ingesting 6000mg/kg. The combined incidence of animals with hepatocellular carcinomas or adenomas was significantly greater than that in controls for male mice ingesting 3000mg/kg. 20 of the 57 hepatocellular carcinomas diagnosed in DEHP-treated mice had metastasised to the lung.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Oct.-Nov. 1982, Vol.10, Nos.4-5, p.797-815. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 83-430 Engström K.
Nordic group of experts for documentation on threshold limit values - 31. Phthalates
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 31. Ftalater [en sueco]
Literature survey of the health hazards of dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dioctyl phthalate, designed to provide a basis for setting appropriate TLVs in the Scandinavian countries. Sections cover: physical and chemical properties; toxicology (metabolic model; toxicological mechanisms; effects on skin and mucous membranes, respiratory tract, liver, blood, central and peripheral nervous systems, reproductive organs and offspring; genotoxic effects; carcinogenic effects; indicators of exposure; relationship between exposure, effect and response). Summary in English. Lists of TLVs established in 14 countries and a method recommended for sampling and analysis are appended.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 42p. 77 ref.

CIS 82-1025 Workplace environmental exposure level guide - Dimethyl terephthalate
This data sheet provides information on: chemical identifiers; chemical and physical properties; toxicological experiments on animals; recommended threshold limit value (TWA 5mg/m3 respirable mass).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1982, Vol.43, No.1, p.B-85-B-88. 15 ref.


CIS 81-1932 Morel C., Gendre M., Cavigneaux A., Protois J.C.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
Phtalate de di(2-éthylhexyle) [en francés]
Synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards (open-cup flashpoint: 218°C), pathology and toxicology (mild irritant action on skin and mucosae; U.S. TLV: 5mg/m3). French OSH regulations; French and international regulations concerning transport. Recommendations for technical and medical prevention.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1981, No.104, p.447-449. 14 ref.


CIS 81-1005 Timofievskaja L.A., Ivanova N.I., Balynina E.S.
Toxicology of o-phthalic acid esters and determination of TLVs
Toksikologija ėfirov o-ftalevoj kisloty i ih gigieničeskaja reglamentacija [en ruso]
Animal research was carried out to establish inhalation toxicity parameters for dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), bis(3-methylhexyl) phthalate (BMHP), dinonyl phthalate (DNP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP). TLVs proposed are: 0.3mg/m3 (DMP); 0.5mg/m3 (DEP and BBP); 1mg/m3 (BMHP, DNP and DOP).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1980, No.3, p.25-28. 2 ref.


CIS 79-1369 Milkov L.E., Aldyreva M.V.
Establishment, on the basis of epidemiologic studies, of TLVs of chemical substances (on the example of chronic effects of dibutyl phthalate)
O kliniko-gigieničeskom obosnovanii predel'no dopustimyh koncentracij himičeskih veščestv (na primere hroničeskogo vozdejstvija dibutilftalata) [en ruso]
For the establishment of reliable TLVs the authors recommend epidemiologic studies followed by statistical evaluation of the data obtained on the health damage sustained by exposed workers. They present the results of dynamic health status case studies in 651 workers exposed to dibutyl phthalate in producing PVC-base films. An early sign of sensorial disturbances is the lowering of the pain sensitivity threshold; the frequency of this phenomenon depends on the number of years of employment and the concentrations of dibutyl phthalate. A regressive linear equation is presented, enabling a TLV to be established with sufficient empirical precision.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1979, No.2, p.1-5. 9 ref.


CIS 79-1351 Thiess A.M., Fleig I.
Research on chromosome changes in workers exposed to bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DOP)
Chromosomenuntersuchungen bei Mitarbeitern mit Exposition gegenüber Di-2-äthylhexylphthalat (DOP) [en alemán]
DOP is used as a plasticiser in the production of non-rigid plastics. Technical data and diagram of production method, exposure of workers involved in DOP production in a chemicals plant. A study of chromosome changes was made in 10 workers with history of 10-30 years exposure to 0.0006-0.01ppm DOP. When compared to the results obtained with non-exposed workers, the results of the present research did not indicate high levels of chromosome changes, which precludes the existence of a mutagenicity hazad in DOP production.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Dec. 1978, Vol.28, No.12, p.351-355. Illus. 22 ref.


CIS 77-750 Lake B.G., Brantom P.G., Gangolli S.D., Butterworth R., Grasso P.
Studies on the effects of orally administered di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in the ferret.
A target-organ study of the effects of this ester (DEHP, also known as DOP) was conducted in mature male albino ferrets. DEHP treatment caused a loss of body weight when administered as a 1% (w/w) diet for 14 months. Additionally, liver enlargement with associated morphological and biochemical changes were observed. These changes consisted of liver cell enlargement, lysosomal changes, dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum and the depression of a number of marker enzyme activities. The only other tissue observed to be affected by DEHP treatment was the testes where histological evidence of tissue damage was observed in some animals. DEHP was metabolised in the ferret to derivatives of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate which were excreted in the urine both unconjugated and as glucoronides. The results were compared with previous studies in the rat; DEHP is hepatotoxic in both species.
Toxicology, Nov.-Dec. 1976, Vol.6, No.3, p.341-355. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 77-744 Seth P.K., Srivastava S.P., Agarwal D.K., Chandra S.V.
Effect of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on rat gonads.
Enzymic and pathological changes in rat gonads were studied after injection of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Succinic dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphatase activities decreased suggesting energy metabolism impairment. β-Glucuronidase activity increased suggesting alterations involving lysosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. The testis of the treated animals showed thickened tunica albuginea and degeneration of epithelium. There were no detectable differences between the ovaries of normal and treated rats.
Environmental Research, Oct. 1976, Vol.12, No.2, p.131-138. Illus. 20 ref.


CIS 76-1366 Aldyreva M.V., Klimova T.S., Izjumova A.S., Timofeevskaja L.A.
Effects of phthalate plasticisers on genetic function
Vlijanie ftalatnyh plastifikatorov na generativnuju funkciju [en ruso]
A brief literature survey of the effects of phthalates on women (tendency to difficult pregnancy, miscarriage and anovulation) is followed by the results of research on pregnant female rats to which dibutyl (DBP), dioctyl and other phthalates were administered intragastrically. Administration of DBP during the development of the placenta resulted in a considerable reduction in placenta weight as compared with the controls. On the contrary, the weight of the embryo was above normal, except in cases where DBP was administered on the 11th day of pregnancy. The authors observed a direct dose-response relationship between dose and embryotropic effects.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1975, p.25-29. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 76-1073 Petersen R.V., Lyman D.J., Roll D.B., Swinyard E.A.
Toxicology of plastic devices having contact with blood.
A collection of papers on the following subjects: acute LD50 of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in mice and rats; sub-acute and local toxicity of MEHP in mice; in vitro uptake of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) by rat heart tissues; DEHP effect on rat heart Na+, K+-ATPase; in vitro metabolism of DEHP by enzyme systems and analyses of organs of calves and humans exposed to cardiac by-pass and renal dialysis procedures; analyses of blood and organs of calves maintained on cardiac by-pass for extended periods of time; localisation of tritiated DEHP in the mouse; fate and metabolism of DEHP in Peromyscus Maniculatus; ultrastructural observations on lung tissue following DEHP administration; effects of DEHP on: hexobarbital sleep time, coagulation time in mice after administration of dicumarol, and reproduction in mice at low dosage; effect of a phthalate plasticiser on blood compatability of polyvinyl chloride; tissue culture studies on MEHP; etc.
PB-244 753/OWV, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA, 1 May 1975. 122p. 67 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$5.25/Microfiche US-$2.25.

CIS 76-197 Antonjuk O.K.
Toxicology of complex esters of phthalic acid (literature survey)
Toksikologija složnyh ėfirov ftalevoj kisloty (Obzor literatury) [en ruso]
Literature survey of the toxic effects of the following phthalates used as plasticisers in the plastics industry: dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, dicapryl phthalate, didodecyl phthalate and DAP (a mixture of C7-9 and C9-11 alcohols). These phthalates are considered as only slightly toxic after one-time exposure. Their general toxicity affects nutrition absorption: slowing down of gain in body weight, impairment of hepatic and renal functions, effects on the nervous system, morphological alterations of the blood, etc. Some phthalates have allergenic and sensitising properties and cause local irritation.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1975, No.1, p.32-35. 38 ref.

CIS 75-1939 Moffitt A.E., Clary J.J., Lewis T.R., Blanck M.D., Perone V.B.
Absorption, distribution and excretion of terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate.
Structural formulae and physical and chemical properties of terephthalic acid (TA) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). Radiotracer studies in rabbits and rats using C-14-labelled TA and DMT showed: (1) rapid absorption and excretion of DA and DMT without evidence of tissue accumulation on single or repeated oral and intratracheal administration; (2) no skin irritation after single or repeated dermal application, and no significant skin absorption of TA; (3) recovery of 11-13% of the (single or repeated) cutaneous doses from urine and faeces within 10 days; (4) no significant absorption of TA after ocular instillation; (5) 33% excretion of a single ocular dose of DMT, with no evidence of tissue accumulation or eye damage. TA and DMT thus appeared to be rapidly absorbed and excreted without significant accumulation in the tissues.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1975, Vol.36, No.8, p.633-641. 15 ref.

CIS 75-1068 Jones A.E., Kahn R.H., Groves J.T., Napier E.A.
Phthalate ester toxicity in human cell cultures.
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate - often referred to as di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) - and butyl glycolyl butyl phthalate (BGBP), plasticisers which may be leached into the blood from medical devices with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) parts, were found to cause significant growth inhibition in cultures of the human diploid cell strain WI-38. The ID50 (dose causing 50% growth inhibition) values were 70 and 12µmol for DEHP and BGBP respectively. Toxic levels for DEHP were comparable to concentrations found in blood which has been stored in PVC bags for up to 21 days at 4°C. ID50 values are reported for other phthalate esters and for 2 non-phthalide compounds leachable from PVC medical devices.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Feb. 1975, Vol.31, No.2, p.283-289. Illus. 21 ref.


CIS 76-174 Timofeevskaja L.A., Aldyreva M.V., Kazbekov I.M.
Experimental studies on the effect of phthalate plasticisers on the organism
Ėksperimental'nye issledovanija vlijanija gruppy ftalatnyh plastifikatorov na organizm [en ruso]
Results of animal experiments done to compare the toxic effects of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dinonyl phthalate (DNP), didodecyl phthalate (DDP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) after ingestion, inhalation, and application on the skin and conjunctiva. These phthalates are very harmful after long exposure. Provisional threshold limit values are suggested: 0.5mg/m3 for mixtures of vapours or aerosols of DEP, DOP, DNP, DDP and BBP, and of 0.2mg/m3 for DMP.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1974, No.12, p.26-28. 3 ref.

CIS 74-1928 Singh A.R., Lawrence W.H., Autian J.
Mutagenic and antifertility sensitivities of mice to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and bis(methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP).
Numerous plastic materials used for medical and paramedical applications as well as for food processing and packaging are made of polyvinyl chloride. To provide the desirable physical characteristics, significant quantities of plasticisers are added. One commonly used group of plasticisers is the phthalic acid esters, probably the most widely used. It is known that small quantities of plasticisers can be leached from such materials by blood, milk and other solutions. This communication presents the results of dominant lethal mutation and antifertility studies on bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dimethoxyethyl phthalate in mice. These 2 phthalate esters produced some degree of dose-dependent and time-dependent antifertility and mutagenic effects.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, July 1974, Vol.29, No.1, p.35-46. 28 ref.


CIS 74-1068 Atlasov A.G.
Volatility of dibutyl phthalate and possible concentrations of this substance in the atmosphere of premises
O letučesti dibutilftalata i vozmožnyh koncentracijah ego v vozduhe pomeščenij [en ruso]
The author presents formulae giving the relationship between the vapour pressure of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and air temperature. The data tabulated show, for example, that the vapour concentration of DBP in air cannot be greater than 0.56 mg/m3 at 20°C or 1.75 mg/m3 at 30°C.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1973, No.8, p.86-87. 3 ref.

CIS 74-1057 Krasavage W.J., Yanno F.J., Terhaar C.J.
Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT): Acute toxicity, subacute feeding and inhalation studies in male rats.
Description and results of investigations carried out on rats to assess the toxicity of DMT. The acute oral LD50 was greater than 6,600 mg/kg, and the intraperitoneal LD50 was 3,900 mg/kg. Inhalation studies conducted at 16.5 and 86.4 mg/m3 caused no adverse toxicological effect in rats exposed to 4 h/day for 58 days. DMT was not found to be a primary irritant nor a sensitiser when applied to the skin of guinea pigs.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1973, Vol.34, No.10, p.455-462. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 74-754 Nikonorow M., Mazur H., Piekacz H.
Effect of orally administered plasticizers and polyvinyl chloride stabilizers in the rat.
The toxic effects of the plasticisers di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DOP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and the organotin stabilisers di-(n-octyl) tin S,S'-bis-(isooctyl mercaptoacetate) (DOTG) and dibenzyltin S,S'-bis (isooctyl mercaptoacetate) (D Benzyl TG) as well as their effect on reproduction and foetal development were examined in rats as it is known that these substances can migrate into food. The results of the investigation are discussed in detail.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Oct. 1973, Vol.26, No.2, p.253-259. 14 ref.

CIS 74-141 Autian J.
Toxicity and health threats of phthalate esters: Review of the literature.
Comprehensive review of recent literature on the subject and presentation of the results of animal experiments. Physical, chemical and toxic properties of a variety of phthalate esters are tabulated. Sections of the review are devoted to: chemistry, properties and applications; toxicology (acute, subacute and chronic toxicity; absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism; teratogenic mutagenic and carcinogenic effects; cellular toxicity); environmental and ecological aspects.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Experimental Issue No.4, June 1973, p.3-26. Illus. 56 ref.


CIS 72-2550 Morel C., Cavigneaux A.
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Ortho-phtalate de dibutyle [en francés]
Data sheet. Uses, chemical and physical properties, fire hazards (slight), pathology and toxicology, methods of detection and determination in air. Review of the relevant French legislation on safety, health and transport. Engineering and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1972, No.68, Note No.808-68-72, p.339-341. 16 ref.

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