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  • Phenols and phenolic compounds


CIS 77-704 Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to phenol.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to exposure to phenol. The time-weighted average exposure (10h working day) should not exceed 20mg/m3 over a 40h week. The ceiling concentration is fixed at 60mg/m3 for any 15min period. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and recordkeeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the following heads: biological effects of exposure, environmental data, development of the standard, research priorities. Procedures for sampling and analysis in air are detailed and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-196, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1976. 167p. 349 ref.

CIS 77-429 Galickaja V.A.
Toxicological features of dimethylvinylethynyl-p-hydroxyphenylmethane
Harakteristika toksikologičeskih svojstv dimetilvinilėtinil-p-oksifenilmetana [en ruso]
Dimethylvinylethynyl-p-hydroxyphenylmethane (DVP) or 4-(1,1-dimethyl-4-penten-2-ynyl)phenol is used as a corrosion inhibitor and sealing agent. The dermatological, haematotoxic and genetic effects of DVP were assessed in experiments on white rats and rabbits. Based on the results obtained, a TLV of 0.6mg/m3 for DVP vapour concentrations in workpost air is recommended.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1976, No.1, p.95-96. 2 ref.

CIS 77-428 Ozerskij Ju.G., Akimov Ju.A., Kabreljan S.N.
Method of determination of phenols in gaseous effluents in a coal by-products plant
Metodika opredelenija fenolov v vybrosah koksohimičeskogo proizvodstva [en ruso]
Description of a sampling and analysis method for determining concentrations of phenols in gaseous effluents from plants producing phenol from coal. Gas-liquid chromatography is used. A comparison of the results obtained with this method and those obtained with colorimetry (reaction with 4-aminoantipyrine) shows that the chromatography method is more precise.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1976, No.1, p.69-71. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 76-1927 Levin J.O., Rappe C., Nilsson C.A.
Use of chlorophenols as fungicides in sawmills.
Occupational hygiene studies at the trimming, grading and packaging positions of 2 sawmills, with results of chromatographic analysis of 3 commercial chlorophenol formulations and of wood dust. Chemistry and toxicology of chlorophenols. The most frequent impurities of the commercial chlorophenols, which are applied by dipping or spraying, were chlorinated phenoxyphenols, diphenyl ethers, dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins. Analysis of wood dust showed the impurities to be enriched in relation to the chlorophenols themselves, probably because of their low volatility and high stability. Contaminant concentrations were much higher at the plant employing spraying as method of application; the dipping method is therefore preferable, provided that the highly contaminated sludge from the dipping tank is adequately disposed of.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1976, Vol.2, No.2, p.71-81. Illus. 25 ref.


CIS 77-156 Mel'nikova L.V., Beljakov A.A., Smirnova V.G., Kučenko L.T.
Methods for determination of harmful substances in workplace air during sodium pentachlorophenolate production
Sanitarno-himičeskie metody opredelenija vrednyh veščestv, vstrečajuščihsja v proizvodstve pentahlorofenoljata natrija [en ruso]
Description of some methods of determination developed for an occupational health survey in a pesticide plant producing sodium pentachlorophenolate (SPCP) where the workplace air contained SPCP dust, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) dust and hexachlorane (lindane), trichlorobenzene (TCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) vapours: determination of HCB by phototurbidometry, colorimetric determination of PCP and of PCPS aerosols by reactions with 4-amino antipyrine, pyramidon and safranine (the last-mentioned being found to be the best reagent); determination of PCP and SPCP by spectrophotometry.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1975, No.7, p.37-39. 8 ref.

CIS 76-1931 Schaffernicht H., Hädge H.
Study of formaldehyde and phenol concentrations in the workplace air of foundries
Untersuchung der Formaldehyd- und Phenolkonzentrationen in der Luft von Giessereiarbeitsplätzen [en alemán]
After a brief presentation of the health hazards of phenol and formaldehyde, the methods and results of concentration measurements of these substances in the moulding shop of a large foundry are given. Measurements were made with personal samplers which permitted continuous monitoring of air concentrations. The excursions above the maximum permissible concentrations observed should be eliminated by the use of less toxic resin/hardener mixtures, formaldehyde-binding substances and appropriate ventilation.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Aug. 1975, Vol.21, No.8, p.610-613. 20 ref.

CIS 76-1363 Dvoskin Ja., Sandrackaja S.Ė., Rahmanina N.A., Rodnikov A.V., Žarkova V.K., Volodina L.I., Erofeeva L.F., Kalinko T.A., Laškina A.V.
Study of the combined effect of phenol and formaldehyde in a warm atmosphere (+30°)
Izučenie sovmestnogo dejstvija fenola i formal'degida v kombinacii s povyšennoj temperaturoj vozduha [en ruso]
Results of animal experiments for the establishment of standards for use of phenol-formaldehyde resins in the construction of ships sailing in the tropics. Chronic exposure to 0.023mg/m3 phenol and 0.024mg/m3 formaldehyde at 30°C produces a toxic effect characterised by changes in the erythropoiesis, the phagocytic activity of the neutrophiles, neuromuscular functions, etc. As a result of these and other experiments with lower concentrations (at the same temperature) the authors recommend 0.005mg/m3 and 0.006mg/m3 as TLVs for combinations of phenol and formaldehyde, respectively.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1975, No.12, p.17-21. 5 ref.

CIS 76-1068 Michaux P.
Phenols - Carbonyl derivatives
Phénols - Dérivés carbonylés. [en francés]
General study on phenols (phenol, cresols, diphenols, triphenols) and aliphatic aldehydes (formaldehyde, metaldehyde, paraldehyde, acrolein), with consideration of the following aspects: use; occupationally-induced acute and chronic poisoning; prevention; treatment. Summary of relevant French regulations.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale. Intoxications, Fascicule 16048 A 10, 1-1975, 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France. 4p. 10 ref.

CIS 75-568 Brown V.K.H., Box V.L., Simpson B.J.
Decontamination procedures for skin exposed to phenolic substances.
Spraying or swabbing with a mixture of polyethylene glycol 300/methylated spirits (PEG-300/IMS) (2:1 by volume) was shown to markedly reduce mortality, systemic intoxication and burns from exposure to phenol, cumene hydroperoxide, or phenol/acetone cleavage product. In the case of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, PEG-300/IMS (2:1 by volume) was slightly less effective than water as a decontaminant. The mixture did not cause permanent eye irritation and should not present a hazard when used as a spray.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan. 1975, Vol.30, No.1, p.1-6. 5 ref.


CIS 75-1328 Velizarov A., Georgiev A., Hadžieva J.
Histopathological liver changes after chronic experimental phenol poisoning
Histologični promeni v černija drob pri eksperimentalno hronično otravjane s fenol [en búlgaro]
Results of research in 35 rabbits given 0.18g/kg phenol daily for 7-35 days by the intravenous route. The authors noted severe dystrophic changes (non-fatty parenchymal and vacuolar dystrophy) of the hepatic parenchyma, necrobiotic lesions of the hepatocytes, a considerable decline (to complete disappearance) in glycogen and a very great fall in cytoplasmic ribonucleic acid. In animals in which administration was stopped after 35 days they noted a reversal of the dystrophic processes and the return of glycogen and RNA levels in the liver cells to normal values.
Trudove na Instituta po higiena, ohrana na truda i profesionalni zaboljavanija, 1974, Vol.22, No.1, p.141-146. 4 ref.

CIS 75-1078 Schaffernicht H., Deicke H.
Continuous personal dosimetry of phenol and sulfur dioxide at the workplace by means of colorimetric methods
Kontinuierliche personengebundene Messung von Phenol und Schwefeldioxid am Arbeitsplatz mit Hilfe colorimetrischer Methoden [en alemán]
Description of a portable apparatus weighing 2kg for semi-continuous dosimetry over a period of 8h. Air is aspirated by a membrane pump and conducted onto a colorimetric test paper strip, which moves every 4min for phenol and every 2min for sulfur dioxide. Concentrations are identified by coloured zones of varying intensity. Details are given as regards reactive agents, procedure, durability of test paper, etc.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 12 Mar. 1974, Vol.33, No.1, p.71-77. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 75-732 Kredl F., Breyl I.
Methods for detecting and determining pentachlorophenol
Metody průkazu a stanovení pentachlórfenolu [en checo]
Extensive survey of the methods for determining and detecting pentachlorophenol, followed by a detailed description of the modified colorimetric, thin-layer and gas-chromatography techniques used by the authors.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1974, Vol.26, No.3, p.97-101. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 75-475 Jäger W., Schmidt K., Weichardt H.
New method of decontaminating phenol-containing exhaust gases in shell moulding
Eine neue Methode zur Entgiftung phenolhaltiger Abluft beim Giessen nach dem Maskenformverfahren [en alemán]
Description of the method, based on wet oxidation by permanganate. Tests in a foundry in which shell moulding is carried out yielded a decontamination rate of 94%; the phenol concentration in the purified air was well below the threshold limit value. A curve illustrates the course of phenol build-up after pouring.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, June 1974, Vol.24, No.6, p.177-180. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 75-482 Occupational leucoderma.
A number of phenol and catechol compounds widely used in industry can produce cutaneous depigmentation when applied topically to the skin. Outbreaks of leucoderma have occurred in workers exposed to para-tertiary butylphenol and butylcatechol and in hospital workers exposed to phenols in germicidal disinfectants. Chemical workers engaged in the production of alkyl phenols are also at risk. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism by which these compounds can induce cutaneous depigmentation.
Lancet, Oct. 1974, Vol.2, No.7885, p.879. 9 ref.

CIS 74-1974 Malygina E.F., Cendrovskaja V.A.
Determination of sodium pentachlorophenolate in air by thin-layer chromatography
Opredelenie pentahlorfenoljata natrija v atmosfernom vozduhe metodom tonkoslojnoj hromatografii [en ruso]
Description of a method based on the reaction between sodium pentachlorophenolate (SPCP) and silver on a thin layer of silica gel. The eluting agent used is a 3:2 mixture of dioxan and methanol. The sensitivity of the method is 0.7µg on the plate. The concentration of SPCP is determined by comparing the colour of the stain from the sample with standard stains produced by a control solution.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Mar. 1974, No.3, p.71-72. 1 ref.

CIS 74-1694 Le Bourdon A.
Occupational depigmentations - A clinical case
Les dépigmentations professionnelles (à propos d'un cas clinique). [en francés]
MD thesis. Description of a case of leukoderma of the hand involving a black worker using a hydroquinone developer. Review of the chemical substances responsible (hydroquinone, p-tolyl hydroquinone, p-tert-butylphenol, p-tert-butylpyrocatechol, 4-chloro-2-phenoxyphenol, propoxyphenol) and cases previously described in the medical literature. Problems of diagnosis, physiopathological hypotheses, biochemical mechanisms and stages of melanogenesis, treatment and prevention. The profound psychological effects of these types of leukoderma are emphasised, especially among black subjects on account of their resemblance to achromic leprosy.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Broussais - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1974. 33p. Illus. 43 ref.


CIS 74-766 Vinogradova V.K., Kaljaganov P.I., Sudonina L.T., Elizarov G.P.
Health aspects of working conditions of persons engaged in the production of sodium pentachlorophenolate
Gigieničeskaja harakteristika uslovij truda i sostojanie zdorov'ja rabočih v proizvodstve pentahlorfenoljata natrija [en ruso]
A number of workers who had been employed for 2 to 6 years in the production of sodium pentachlorophenolate (antiseptic and pesticide) showed symptoms of chronic discrete poisoning which are described in detail. To improve hygienic conditions, the authors recommend that continuous production methods should be adopted, sampling techniques should be improved, plant equipment should be made more airtight, adequate ventilation provided and high standards of personal hygiene observed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1973, No.8, p.11-13. 3 ref.

CIS 74-457 Imamura T., Ikeda M.
Lower fiducial limit of urinary metabolite level as an index of excessive exposure to industrial chemicals.
A discussion of the utilisation of the lower confidence limit (p=0.10), rather than the mean urinary metabolite level, as an index of excessive exposure to industrial chemicals. Cases of exposure to trichloroethylene, phenol and toluene are used to illustrate this approach.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1973, Vol.30, No.3, p.289-292. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 74-455 May G.
Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin.
Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) due to an exothermic reaction at a plant manufacturing 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Similar incidents are known to have occurred both in Europe and the USA, often resulting in widespread illness and even deaths. A new plant now in operation for 3 years is designed in such a way that an exothermic reaction is not possible. The trichlorophenol which is produced is tested for dioxin contamination by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1973, Vol.30, No.3, p.276-283. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 74-296
Minister of State for Social Affairs, Paris, France.
Decree No.73-215 of 23 February 1973 to revise and supplement the schedule of occupational diseases annexed to Decree No.46-2959 of 31 December 1946
Décret n° 73-215 du 23 février 1973 revisant et compléant les tableaux de maladies professionnelles annexés au décret n°46-2959 du 31 décembre 1946. [en francés]
This decree, which came into force on 2 Mar. 1973, adds to the statutory list of occupational diseases the following new tables (Nos.59 to 63): occupational poisoning due to hexane; occupational poisoning due to pentachlorophenol or sodium pentachlorophenolate; diseases due to cadmium and its compounds; diseases due to organic isocyanates; diseases due to proteolytic enzymes. Table No.34 is amended. [The text of this decree is also reproduced in Travail et sécurité, Paris, Mar. 1973, No.3, p.223-227, with comments, followed by the text of the administrative circular of 7 Mar. 1973 on this subject].
Journal officiel de la République française, 2 Mar. 1973, No.52, p.2321-2322.


CIS 75-127 Zlateva M., Hadjieva Y.
Histological changes in the internal organs of experimental animals under the effect of phenol.
Account of animal experiments carried out to study the histological and histochemical changes induced by a single dose of phenol (1/10 of the lethal dose 50 = 0.18g/kg) in the liver, lungs, myocardium, aorta and small intestine. The authors observed dystrophic, and sometimes even necrotic, liver cell changes which were particularly evident 35 days after the administration of phenol. The changes observed in the tissues of the other organs showed that phenol is not only hepatotoxic, but also affects other parenchymatous organs including the large arteries.
Works of the United Research Institute of Hygiene and Industrial Safety, 1972, Vol.23, p.109-118. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 73-34 Urban H.J.
Acute percutaneous phenol poisoning
Die akute resorptive Phenolvergiftung [en alemán]
Paper read at the 1st International Symposium of Plant Physicians of the Chemical Industry (Ludwigshafen, 27-29 April 1972). Report of a fatal case of phenol poisoning with severe central nervous system damage and respiratory and cardiac paralysis. The circumstances of the accident (removal of a valve from a piping system) and the post-mortem and tissue-analysis findings are given. First aid of phenol contamination by irrigation with water at the site of the accident is controversial. (For the complete proceedings of this symposium, see CIS 73-32.)
I. Internationales Symposium der Werksärzte der chemischen Industrie, Medichem, BASF Ärztliche Abteilung, 67 Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany, 1972. 4p.

CIS 73-35 Henschler D.
(I. Internationales Symposium der Werksärzte der chemischen Industrie)
Therapy for percutaneous phenol poisoning
Therapiemöglichkeiten bei perkutaner Phenolvergiftung [en alemán]
Paper read at the 1st International Symposium of Plant Physicians of the Chemical Industry (Ludwigshafen, 27-29 April 1972). Emergency treatment of skin contact with phenol is a controversial matter and animal experiments were undertaken to clarify the situation. It was found that irrigation with water has an considerable detoxifying effect. Polyethyleneglycol 400 had the most pronounced effect by far; polyethyleneglycol 300 also proved highly effective. It is recommended that phenol skin contamination should be treated by brief water irrigation followed by decontamination with polyethyleneglycol. Intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate is advocated in in very severe cases. (For the complete proceedings of this symposium, see CIS 73-32).
Medichem, BASF Ärztliche Abteilung, 67 Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany, 1972. 4p.

CIS 73-1377 Heistand R.N., Todd A.S.
Automated determination of total phenol in urine
A fully automated method has been developed to determine total phenol in urine. The reagents include a buffer solution, sulphuric acid, 4-aminoantipyrine and an oxidant. The analytical procedure involves hydrolysis of conjugated phenols and steam distillation, followed by colorimetric phenol determination in the distillate. Urine samples (1-2mL) are run sequentially at the rate of 10 per hour; the precision obtained is 1.6ppm per litre. The method could be used routinely to assess benzene exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1972, Vol.33, No.6, p.378-381. Illus. 5 ref.


CIS 72-2805 Nishitani N., Hara I.
Cases of leucomelanodermatosis caused by phenylphenol
Phenylphenol ni yoru hakuhan kokuhi sho no shorei [en japonés]
Report on a study carried out over a number of years of skin lesions in workers in a plant producing o- and p-phenylphenol from phenol-distillation residues. 16 cases of leucomelanodermatosis were found; these cases are briefly reviewed.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Apr. 1971, Vol.13, No.3, p.218-219. Illus. 9 ref.

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