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- Phenols and phenolic compounds
Pentachlorophenol, an assessment of the occupational hazard
Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a wood preservative, is absorbed into the body by all the routes of occupational exposure. It causes local irritation to the eyes and nose and systemic effects that result from its ability to uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. PCP is foetotoxic and teratogenic during early gestation. Commercial PCP is contaminated with chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, tetrachlorophenols, and hydroxychlorodiphenyl ethers, which can cause chloracne and liver damage. Direct contact with PCP should be avoided during occupational exposure, and air levels should be kept below the TLV of 0.5mg/m3.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1982, Vol.43, No.11, p.799-810. Illus. 55 ref.
Herbicides, occupation, and cancer
This letter to the Editor gives an update of a NIOSH study on mortality due to soft tissue sarcomas, Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphomas for men exposed to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. Only farmers (not otherwise specified) have a significant excess of soft tissue sarcomas, but the total proportional mortality rate for the occupations listed is not significantly increased. The mortality patterns reported do not offer convincing support for a link between phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenyl and these cancers.
Lancet, 26 June 1982, Vol.1, No.8287, p.1464-1465. 1 ref.
Hardell L., Axelson O.
Soft-tissue sarcoma, malignant lymphoma, and exposure to phenoxyacids or chlorophenols
The evidence for a relation between the exposure to phenoxy herbicides and trichlorophenols, of agricultural, forestry and railroad workers, and the occurrence of sarcomas and lymphomas is discussed in the content of several Swedish and American studies.
Lancet, 19 June 1982, Vol.1, No.8286, p.1408-1409. 10 ref.
This data sheet contains: physical and chemical properties; metabolism; toxicity to animals and humans (acute; skin and eye irritancy; sub-acute; mutagenicity; carcinogenicity; reproductive effects); appendix on toxicity of chlorinated dioxin impurities in technical pentachlorophenol (hexachlorinated dioxin; heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); references.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Aug. 1982. 20p. Illus. 73 ref. Price: Ł2.50.
Alexandersson R., Hedenstierna G.
Pulmonary function after long-term exposure to trichlorophenol
Symptoms and pulmonary function were evaluated in 7 subjects exposed to trichlorophenol (used as a tracer gas in gas mask testing). Symptoms from upper airways and chest were more common among exposed than in control subjects (60% and 10%). Significantly reduced forced expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity and increased closing volume were measured, while other spirometric variables and the transfer factor of the lung for CO were normal. Increased elastic recoil pressure of the lung and x-rays signs of lung tissue envolvement were noticed in 2 subjects. Blood and liver tests were normal. The findings suggest an irritating effect on the lung of trichlorophenol, and it cannot be excluded that long-term exposure may produce pulmonary fibrosis.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 1982, Vol.49, No.3-4, p.275-280. Illus. 15 ref.
Health hazard alert. Pentachlorophenol
This trade union data sheet summarises health data on pentachlorophenol (PCP) and on the major alternative wood preservatives, creosote and the arsenicals. Contents: chemistry, production, use and synonyms; dioxin contamination; cancers; birth deformities; liver effects; skin effects; current studies of health effects and hazards associated with timber treatment and telephone poles; regulations; alternatives (carcinogenic effects of creosote and the arsenicals); reproductive hazards of arsenicals; other alternative products; trade union action; timber preservers statement; recommendations.
ACTU-VTHC Occupational Health and Safety Unit, Trades Hall, Box 93, Carlton South, 3053 Vic., Australia, Mar. 1982. 16p. 14 ref.
Coggon D., Acheson E.D.
Do phenoxy herbicides cause cancer in man?
Swedish and American studies showing evidence of links between occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols and dioxins, either as a result of their application or production, and the occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas, Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are discussed. Evidence for increased risks of sarcoma appears good but it is still unclear if the carcinogen is the herbicide or the dioxin contaminant. Association between exposure to these substances and lymphoma occurrence is weak, and more research is needed.
Lancet, 8 May 1982, Vol.1, No.8280, p.1057-1059. 31 ref.
Miri Vieira M.A., Álvares dos Santos J.P., Gondin Galbes F.
Work in contact with pentachlorophenol
Trabalho em contato com pentaclorofenol [en portugués]
Case study of 17 workers in a pentachlorophenol plant; detailed medical data on 10 are presented. The skin lesions and other symptoms were typical effects of pentachlorophenol. The masks, goggles and boots worn by the workers were apparently inadequate to prevent exposure; by providing places close to the body where pentachlorophenol could accumulate, they may even have aggravated the problem. Contrary to published information, the skin lesions did not disappear when the workers were removed from exposure. Disfigurement was severe enough in some cases to produce psychological effects. It is recommended that collective, rather than personal, protection be emphasised (containment of pentachlorophenol at all stages of processing and use), that medical surveillance be increased, that appropriate medical treatment (including restorative surgery) be applied, and that counselling services be made freely available.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Oct.-Dec. 1981, Vol.9, No.36, p.31-35. Illus. 4 ref.
Sedov A.V., Surovcev N.A., Mazneva G.E., Ševkun O.N., Vissonov Ju.V., Byčkov S.V.
Combined effects of certain vital activity products during work in isolating personal protective equipment
O kombinirovannom dejstvii nekotoryh produktov žiznedejatel'nosti pri rabote čeloveka v izolirujuščih sredstvah individual'noj zaščity [en ruso]
The dead-space air inside isolating protective suits contains oxygen, carbon monoxide, methane, phenol and other substances in proportions which vary with the duration and type of work performed. To evaluate the combined toxic effect of various mixtures, 36 experiments were carried out with volunteers performing exercise tests in controlled atmospheres. Biological indices monitored included body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and minute volume, energy expenditure, serum cholinesterase activity, etc. Gaseous mixtures containing CO, methane and phenol in proportions of 15, 150 and 3mg% had independent effects similar to mixtures where these proportions were 30, 350 and 5mg/m3, respectively. These concentrations are considered to be maximum permissible ones under the conditions studied.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1981, No.4, p.15-17. 8 ref.
O'Sullivan J.J., Stevenson C.J.
Screening for occupational vitiligo in workers exposed to hydroquinone monomethyl ether and to paratertiary-amyl-phenol
Report of the follow-up of 2 cases of leucodermia (vitiligo) following exposure to hydroquinone monomethyl ether (HMME) described 8 years previously (CIS 72-1742, Darz Dedh Mhf Xkz Daht) and survey of 169 men exposed to HMME or paratertiary-amyl-phenol (PTAP) or both. In the follow-up, repigmentation of a significant degree was found in one man and of a limited degree in the other. Screening by means of the Wood's light technique (an ultra-violet light which is absorbed by normally pigmented skin and reflected by non-pigmented skin) of the 169 men surveyed in the same plant revealed no cases of leucoderma in the 148 men exposed to HMME or in the 129 men exposed to PTAP. Loss of light reflection on Wood's light examination was observed in 13 men due to scars or to other skin disorders.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1981, Vol.38, No.4, p.381-383. Illus. 10 ref.
Triebig G., Krekeler H., Golssler K., Valentin H.
Investigations on neurotoxicity of chemical substances at the wprkplace - II. Determination of the motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity in persons occupationally exposed to pentachlorophenol
Untersuchungen zur Neurotoxizität von Arbeitsstoffen - II. Messung der motorischen und sensorischen Nervenleitgeschwindigkeit bei beruflich Pentachlorophenol-belasteten Personen [en alemán]
Methods and results of examinations of 18 workers with a mean activity of 12 years in processing pentachlorophenol (PCP). The PCP levels in plasma ranged between 0.02 and 1.5ng/l (median 0.25ng/l) and in urine between 13 and 1.224µg/l (median 112γ/l) or between 11 and 2.111µg/l creatinine (median 111µg/g). The median values of the neurophysiological parameters showed a slight slowing trend, The decrease in sensory nerve conduction velocities was significant. A dose-effect relation between internal PCP load and nerve conduction velocities could not be demonstrated. The individual evaluation of the toxicological and neurophysiological results suggested that in some cases decreased nerve conduction velocity is caused by chronic exposure to PCP.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.4, p.357-367. 22 ref.
Zober A., Schaller K.H., Gossler K., Krekeler H.J.
Pentachlorophenol and liver-function: A study on occupational exposed collectives
Pentachlorophenol und Leberfunktion: Eine Untersuchung an beruflich belasteten Kollektiven [en alemán]
Studies were carried out on 2 groups of workers exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the production and application of wood preserving products. The investigations involved measuring the external (in ambient air) and the internal (in urine and plasma) PCP concentrations as well as determining biochemical and immunological data for the evaluation of possible effects on the liver. The air concentrations of PCP were well below the MAK value of 500µg/m3. The plasma concentrations ranged from 0.02-2.4µg/ml; the renal excretion of PCP varied between 6 and 2.111µg/g creatinine. No correlation was found between the duration and degree of exposure to PCP and the PCP concentrations in the biological materials. In 6 persons the immunological investigations yielded remarkable findings. No dose-effect relation was proved for the rise in immunoglobulines, interpreted as the result of an increased mesenchymal activity. The biochemical investigations revealed elevated serum GLDH activities in both groups.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.4, p.347-356. 12 ref.
Angerer J., Heinrich R., Laudehr H.
Occupational exposure to hexachlorocyclohexane - V. Gas chromatographic determination of monohydroxychlorobenzenes (chlorophenols) in urine
The hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers and particularly the γ-isomer (lindane), used as a pesticide, as well as the chlorobenzenes, used as pesticides and intermediates in chemical synthesis, are of great importance in occupational and environmental health. Increasing interest has focussed on pentachlorophenol, used in wood preservation, because of its potential risk to health. A sensitive and specific gas chromatographic method is described for the simultaneous determination of 10 chlorinated phenols that appear in the urine of persons exposed to HCH. The phenolic compounds in the urinary samples are hydrolysed in an acidic medium and esterified with acetic anhydride. This sample treatment permits routine application. The stationary phase has a high separating capability for the acetate esters of chlorophenols. The detection limits are 4.9 - 18.6µg/l.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.4, p.319-324. Illus. 11 ref.
Wörmann H., Müller F.J.
Determination of phenol in air during hardening of phenol-formaldehyde polymer binders for moulding sand
Phenolbestimmung bei der Aushärtung von Giessereisandbindemitteln auf Phenolharzbasis [en alemán]
A laboratory method is described for comparative study of binders for moulding sand, to develop materials which present less health hazards and pollutants (a serious problem in foundries indequately equipped with exhaust ventilation). Principle of the method, equipment, chemicals used, pyrolysis, analysis, calibration. This standardised method gives reproducible results; uniform heating of the reaction tube is of great importance. The phenols given off are absorbed by caustic soda, coupled with p-nitroaniline and determined by colorimetry.
Giesserei, 1981, Vol.68, No.8, p.223-224. Illus.
Van Roosmalen P.B., Purham J., Drummond I.
An improved method for the determination of phenol in the urine of workers exposed to benzene or phenol
Interlaboratory comparison of phenol in urine analyses shows large variability, much larger than is normally associated with gas chromatographic analysis, which suggests that sample preparation problems are to blame. Description of a simple method of analysis which has been in use in the author's laboratory: 2-ethylphenol is added to the urine as an internal standard; the sample is distilled and the distillate directly analysed by gas chromatography on a column packed with Tenax-GC using flame-ionisation detectors. The detection limit is 0.1mg/l, and the coefficient of variation at 5.9mg/l is 4.1% (n=8).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.2, p.159-163. Illus. 8 ref.
Hardell L., Eriksson M.
Soft-tissue sarcomas, phenoxy herbicides, and chlorinated phenols
Several studies have shown an increased risk of soft-tissue sarcoma resulting from exposure to 2,4,5-T, TCDD, and other phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The results obtained do not support the hypothesis of Cook that smokers acquiring chloracne as a result of exposure are at increased risk of soft-tissue sarcoma.
Lancet, Aug. 1981, Vol.II, No.8240, p.250. 7 ref.
Podolak G.E., McKenzie R.M., Rinehart D.S., Mazur J.F.
A rapid technique for collection and analysis of phenol vapors
Phenol is collected from an occupational environment on Tenax adsorbent contained in a glass tube and, after thermal desorption into a 20m infrared gas cell, the phenol is quantitatively determined at 1184cm-1. A 15min air sample, collected at 0.75l/min, was sufficient to measure phenol in the concentration range 0.7-10.4ppm. Analysis of 65 samples in this range resulted in a mean recovery of 99.3% with a standard deviation of 9.7%. Alipathic and aromatic hydrocarbons did not interfere with the method but cresols and xylenols caused some interference.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1981, Vol.42, No.10, p.734-738. Illus. 9 ref.
Relation of soft-tissue sarcoma, malignant lymphoma and colon cancer to phenoxy acids, chlorophenols and other agents
The posible relation between colon cancer and exposure to phenoxy acids or chlorophenols was evaluated using a case-control design study and validity of earlier studies on the association of soft-tissue sarcoma and malignant lymphoma and these same chemicals was also examined. Cases consisted of 157 men diangosed as having colon cancer. The 541 referents consisted of 206 used in the soft-tissue study and 335 from the malignant lymphoma study. The previously reported associations between exposure to phenoxy acids or chlorophenols and soft-tissue sarcoma and malignant lymphoma could not be explained by observational bias in the studies. No significant associations was found between the occurrence of colon cancer and these chemicals. Exposure to asbestos was excessive among the colon cancer patients as compared to the referents and this finding agreed with previous results.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1981, Vol.7, No.2, p.119-130. 26 ref.
Eriksson M., Hardell L., Berg N.O., Möller T., Axelson O.
Soft-tissue sarcomas and exposure to chemical substances: a case-referent study.
110 patients with soft-tissue sarcomas reported to the cancer registry in 5 Swedish countries and 220 controls were studied. The risk ratio for soft-tissue sarcomas after exposure to phenoxy acids or chlorophenols was 5.1; for phenoxy acids 6.8 (4.2 when free from impurities) and for chlorophenols 3.3. The risk for workers exposed to 2,4,5-T and other phenoxy acids was 17.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1981, Vol.38, No.1, p.27-33. 30 ref.
Pentachlorophenol is toxic to man by ingestion and skin absorption. Deaths have occurred as a result of skin exposure. In rats, pentachlorophenol is a foetotoxic agent. Dioxins are present as contaminants in pentachlorophenol. Precautionary measures proposed are: employee education, improved ventilation, automation, use of personal protective equipment, use of impervious protective clothing, observance of labelling information.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1981, Vol.42, No.1, p.A-16/A-18.
Vitiligo as an occupational disease
Vitiligo, a skin condition involving an absence of melanocytes and manifested by sharply demarcated areas of hypopigmentation, can be caused by occupational contact with alkyl phenols used in the adhesives, tanning, and plastics and rubber industries. Occupational vitiligo is recognised as a prescribed disease in the U.K. when it results from contact with specific phenols. Methods of protection, prevention, screening and treatment are described.
Occupational Health, Sep. 1980, Vol.32, No.9, p.442-448. Illus. 2 ref.
Current literature on medical toxicology and a bibliography of pentachlorophenol
This bibliography, which results from a review of the clinical literature, reflects the current interests of practising medical toxicologists and presents the clinical problems of recent years.
Clinical Toxicology, 1980, Vol.16, No.4, p.531-539. 133 ref.
Tarasov V.V., Liho V.G., Kamalov R.S.
Chromatographic determination of phenol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol in air
Hromatografičeskoe opredelenie fenola, furfurola i furilovogo spirta v vozduhe [en ruso]
Description of a method developed for determining the concentrations of these three substances when they are simultaneously present in air. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis takes only 20min. Sensitivity is 0.5µg for furfuryl alcohol and 1µg for phenol and furfural.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1980, No.7, p.52-53.
Sedov A.V., Surovcev N.A., Mazneva G.E., Ševkun O.N.
Establishment of a TLV for phenol concentrations in the atmosphere of personal protective isolating equipment
O gigieničeskom normirovanii fenola v gazovoj srede izolirujuščih sredstv individual'noj zaščity [en ruso]
To determine this TLV a number of changes in functional indices were observed in volunteers exposed, during exercise tests, to concentrations of 3-9mg/m3 oxygen/phenol mixture. Considering odour threshold and effects on reproductive function, a TLV of 0.3mg/m3 was established for phenol in air inside breathing equipment.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1980 No.5, p.81-82. 5 ref.
Limasset J.C., Morel C., Gendre M.
Chlorophenols and dioxins - Hazards for chemical industry workers and users
Chlorophénols et dioxines - Risques pour les travailleurs de l'industrie chimique et pour les utilisateurs. [en francés]
This literature survey of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins reviews animal experiments and epidemiologic studies, and considers accidents such as that at Seveso. While 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is particularly dangerous, all members of this group are toxic and present industrial hygiene, civil defence and environmental protection problems. They may be present as impurities in manufactured compounds (o-chlorophenols, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T herbicides, hexachlorophene) or occur during chemical processes including reactions in their industrial preparation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd quarter 1980, No.99, Note No.1249-99-80, p.243-252. 45 ref.
Miller T.L., Deinzer M.L.
Effects of nonachloropredioxin and other hydroxychlorodiphenyl ethers on biological membranes.
The pesticide pentachlorophenol (PCP) contains hydroxychlorodiphenyl ethers and other compounds as impurities. The effects of hydroxy derivatives of nonachlorodiphenyl ether (NDE), 2-hydroxy-2',4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl ether (HTDE), and PCP, were studied in the human erythrocyte membrane. The hydroxy NDEs are very potent haemolytic agents. The order of activity is: 2-hydroxy-NDE (nonachloropredioxin)>3-hydroxy-NDE>4-hydroxy-NDE>HTDE>technical PCP>pure PCP. Haemolytic potency varied with the degree of chlorination and to some extent with the position of the HO group. The hydroxychlorodiphenyl ethers can directly alter properties of biological membranes.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Jan. 1980, Vol.6, No.1, p.11-25. Illus. 38 ref.
Van Roosmalen P.B., Klein A.L., Drummond I.
Simultaneous determination by gas chromatography of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,4- and 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol in the urine of industrially exposed workers.
This method requires a minimum of sample treatment and has suitable sensitivity and selectivity for chlorophenols in the urine of workers exposed in the production of phenoxy herbicides and of pentachlorophenol. The phenolic compounds are separated by steam distillation, extracted into isopropyl ether, and analysed by gas chromatography directly, using flame ionization detectors. The detection limits in urine range from 0.1mg/l urine for phenol to 1mg/l for the di- and triphenols. The naturally occurring metabolites cresol and 4-heptanone are also isolated and can be quantified by this method.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 1980, Vol.45, No.1, p.57-62. Illus. 11 ref.
Zack J.A., Suskind R.R.
The mortality experience of workers exposed to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin in a trichlorophenol process accident.
All 121 workers who developed chloracne from the accident in March 1949 were followed up. Standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 0.69, with 32 deaths observed and 46.41 expected. For malignant neoplasms and circulatory diseases, SMR was 1.00 and 0.68 respectively. These results are not conclusive, but the absence of excess mortality over 30 years is important. Broader studies are in progress.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1980, Vol.22, No.1, p.11-14. 15 ref.
Fenoli [en finlandés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit: 19mg/m3. Toxicity: is rapidly absorbed through skin; it severely corrodes the skin, the eyes and the mucous membranes of the digestive system; the vapour corrodes the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract; lung damage; long-term exposure affects the central nervous system and causes renal damage; can cause eczema. Mandatory European labelling: T, R24, R25, R34, R38, S2, S28, S44, S23, S38, S46.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Mar. 1979. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Kryńska A., Pośniak M.
Determination of chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol in air by gas chromatography
Oznaczanie chlorofenolu i pięciochlorofenolu w powietrzu metodą chromatografii gazowej [en polonés]
Review of the industrial uses and toxic effects of chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol (PCP), and methods for their determination in air. Description of a method for determination by gas chromatography with a flame-ionisation detector. The lower limit of the method is 0.03µg p-chlorophenol and 0.15µg PCP per sample. The method is based on the absorption of vapours in a Na2CO3 solution, the chromatography column being filled, in the case of p-chlorophenol, with silicon oil DC-550 at 150-180°C and, in the case of PCP, with diethylene glycol polysuccinate at 190°C to which 2% phosphoric acid is added. The method is highly sensitive and selective. The conditions for determination established for p-chlorophenol can be used for determining concentrations of 0- and m-chlorophenol, dichlorophenol, phenol, and cresols occurring in mixtures in ambient air.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1979, Vol.29, No.103, p.303-315. Illus. 21 ref.
Vizethum W., Goerz G.
Does 2,4,5-trichlorophenol have a porphyrogenic effect?
Ist 2,4,5-Trichlorphenol ein Porphyrogen? [en alemán]
0.05% 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 0.05% hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were administered orally to rats for 70 days. No difference was observed in the elimination of porphyrins between the TCP-treated animals and controls. The porphyrogenic effect of HCB cannot be ascribed to TCP (as with pentachlorobenzene and pentachlorophenol).
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1979, Vol.27, No.3, p.78. 7 ref.
Klaschka F., Nieding G., Walter R.
Skin sensitisation due to wood preservatives containing pentachlorophenol
Zur Frage der Hautsensibilisierung durch Pentachlorphenol (PCP)- haltige Holzschutzmittel [en alemán]
Review of the properties, uses and toxic effects of this substance, and a report on an investigation of skin reactions by patch testing, and some case studies. In some cases the patch tests gave rise to reactions of the contact dermatitis type. No proof of allergic reaction in the strict sense was observed. In view of the frequency and intensity of exposure in actual practice, pentachlorophenol seems to be not a very active allergen.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, June 1979, Vol.29, No.6, p.150-154. 20 ref.
Lamberton J., Griffin D., Arbogast B., Inman R., Deinzer M.
The determination of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins in pentachlorophenol and wood treatment solutions.
Samples of technical pentachlorophenol (PCP), recirculated PCP solution and sludge from the bottom of the recirculation tank were analysed. Normalised against the PCP content, the octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin level was 34% higher in the recirculating PCP solution, and 90% higher in the sludge, than in the fresh solution. The relative content of heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the sludge was similar.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1979, Vol.40, No.9, p.816-822. Illus. 16 ref.
Bilateral retrobulbar neuritis due to insecticides
Névrite rétrobulbaire bilatérrale due ŕ un insecticide. [en francés]
Translation of an article in Postgraduate Medical Journal, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1968, Vol.44, No.3, p.341-342. This is a case report in a subject exposed to an insecticide containing dieldrin and pentachlorophenol, for 8h daily for 4 consecutive days, without respiratory protection. The only symptom was marked loss of visual acuity.
Traduction INRS 5-79, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1979. 5p. 3 ref.
Uses, hazards (volatile combustible solid which gives off flammable, toxic vapours when heated, and may spread fire by melting and flowing as it burns; highly toxic by inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption); precautions (storage of molten and solid phenol, marking of containers, ventilation; prohibition of naked flames or hot elements; enclosed plant for processes using phenol; electrical equipment for use in atmospheres containing flammable concentrations); fire fighting; physical and chemical properties; chemical reactions.
Fire Prevention, H 82, Information sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Protection Association, Aldermary House, Queen Street, London EC4N 1TJO. London, United Kingdom, July 1979, No.131, p.47-48.
Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents - V. Chromatographic methods for determination of phenols in urine
Chronische Lösungsmittelbelastung am Arbeitsplatz - V. Chromatographische Methoden zur Bestimmung von Phenolen im Harn [en alemán]
In relation with his studies on the metabolism of alkyl benzenes, the author developed a gas chromatographic method for the determination of phenol and cresol in urine and a high pressure liquid chromatographic method for comparison. The methods and results of determinations are described. The principle is a liberation of phenol by acid hydrolysis and simultaneous separation from urine by steam distillation. The comparison included a known photometric determination method. The detection limits lie between 0.2 and 1.3mg/l.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1979, Vol.42, No.3-4, p.257-268. Illus. 21 ref.
Bekanntmachung, Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung), Bonn, 10 July 1979.
Data sheets for medical examination relating to Nos. 1307, 1310, 2104, 4301 and 4302 of schedule 1 of the occupational diseases Ordinance
Merkblätter für die ärztliche Untersuchung zu den Nrn. 1307, 1310, 2104, 4301 und 4302 der Anlage 1 zur Berufskrankheitenverordnung (BeKV) [en alemán]
The diseases covered are: 1307 - those due to organophosphates; 1310 - those due to halogenated alkyl, aryl and alkylaryl oxides; 2104 - blood circulation disorders of the hands due to vibration; 4301 - obstructive respiratory diseases due to allergens; 4302 - obstructive respiratory diseases due to irritant or toxic chemicals. A brief definition of the causal agent is given in each case, with information on the hazard source, physiopathology, clinical picture and diagnosis, and history-taking and medico-legal aspects.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, July-Aug. 1979, No.7-8, p.69-75. Illus. 9 ref.
Blinova Ė.A., Mjannik Ė.I.
Toxicity of shale phenols and methods for their determination in air
Toksičnost' slancevyh fenolov i metody ih opredelenija v vozduhe [en ruso]
Literature survey reporting health damage in workers exposed to these phenols (raised frequency of upper arway disease, neuralgia and disorders of the autonomic nervous system), the composition of the incriminated phenols (phenol content of the volatile part of the mixture extracted from shale pitch: 35-40%; cresols content: 42-47%; dihydric phenols content: 15.5%) and animal experiments conducted to study the acute and chronic effects of these substances. Analysis of the results obtained shows that shale phenols have general toxic effects on the body, causing damage especially to the nervous system and parenchymal organs such as the liver. The authors recommend a TLV of 0.3mg/m3 for water-soluble shale phenols.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1979, No.1, p.24-27. 15 ref.
Poisoning due to pentachlorophenol: 22 case studies
Intoxication par le pentachlorophénol: ŕ propos de 22 observations. [en francés]
MD thesis. Pentachlorophenol is very widely used as a fungicide in many trades (particularly in the woodworking industry) and for domestic purposes. The author takes stock of the present state of the art concerning this substance: properties, place and mode of utilisation in the woodworking industry, physio-pathology, experimental and human toxicology (review of 29 fatal cases and many cases of varying severity referred to in the literature), symptomatology, personal observations, occupational hygiene. Much space is devoted to the possible role of dioxin constituents in poisoning by commercial-grade chlorophenol and to the haematological toxicity of this substance.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Lariboisičre - Saint-Louis, Paris, France, 1978. 128p. 72 ref.
Levin J.O., Rappe C., Nilsson C.A.
Exposure of hospital staff to bactericides
Sjukvĺrdspersonals exposition för baktericider [en sueco]
Report on a study of 3 commonly used bactericides: hexachlorophene, Irgasan DP 300 and chlorhexidine. The investigation concerned their uses, toxicology and blood levels, and involved exposure tests (the results of analysis of blood samples from exposed persons are given). The chemical interaction between various disinfectants or antiseptics and the impurities found in commercial grades were also studied. The following measures are recommended to limit the exposure of hospital staff: regular surveillance of blood levels, careful rinsing of the hands after thorough washing, wearing gloves, substitution of soap and hot water for disinfectants. Appended: description of monitoring of blood levels of the 3 bactericides and text of an article in English on the genetic activity of chlorophenols and chlorophenol impurities.
Undersökningsrapport 1978:18, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, June 1978. 34p. Illus. 17 ref.
Ikeda M., Hirayama T., Watanabe T., Hara I.
GLC analysis of alkylphenols, alkylcatechols and phenylphenols in the urine of workers as a measure to prevent occupational leucoderma.
Gas-liquid chromatographic systems are described for quantitative analysis of p-tert-butylphenol, p-tert-amylphenol, p-octylphenol, p- and o-phenylphenol, 3- and 4-methylcatechol, 3-isopropylcatechol, and 4-tert-butylcatechol. The systems were successfully applied for the exposure assessment of workers in the chemical industry producing p-tert-butylphenol, p-octylphenol and/or 4-tert-butylcatechol. Urine concentrations were higher in product packers, who had higher estimated exposure, than in plant operators and engineers. They were reduced by improved hygiene conditions in the workshops. The importance of biological monitoring is discussed in connection with possible skin penetration. A urinary p-tert-butylphenol concentration of 2µg/ml is tentatively proposed as the biological limit to prevent a leucodermogenic effect.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1978, Vol.41, No.2, p.125-138. Illus. 19 ref.
A new method for personnel sampling and analyzing of phenol.
Concentrations of 2.5-100mg/m3 phenol in air were measured by a method involving adsorption of phenol on activated carbon, leaching in diethyl ether and quantitative analysis as a trimethylsilyl derivative by gas chromatography. Recovery was 96-102%; sensitivity was 0.5mg/m3. The method was more sensitive and specific than conventional liquid absorption, and can be adapted for breathing zone monitoring of phenol.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1978, Vol.39, No.4, p.326-330. 7 ref.
Pięciochlorofenol [en polonés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (USSR) = 0.1mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1977. 2p.
Activity of some enzyme indicators in persons occupationally exposed to phenol and acetone
Prosledjavane aktivnostta na njakoi enzimni pokazateli u lica v profesionalen kontakt s fenol i aceton [en búlgaro]
The activity of the liver-specific enzymes ornithine carbamoyl transferase, guanase and leucine aminopeptidase was studied in the blood serum of these workers. The mean concentrations of phenol and acetone were several times the exposure limit. There was a statistically significant increase in ornithine carbamoyl transferase and guanase activity. The problem of hyperenzymaemia is discussed.
Letopisi na higienno-epidemiologičnata služba, 1977, Vol.10, No.6, p.45-48. Illus. 12 ref.
Levin J.O., Westermark S.O.
Analytical methods for organic substances on the TLV list. II. Phenol, furfural, furfuryl alcohol
Analys av organiska ämnen pĺ gränsvärdeslistan. II. Fenol, furfural, furfurylalkohol [en sueco]
Report on a comparative study during which activated charcoal and Amberlite XAD-2 were tested for their adsorption capacities. The latter adsorbent proved to be superior to charcoal. Description of the gas chromatographic analyses of the 3 compounds after sampling in factory air.
Undersökningsrapport 1977:24, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1977. 10p. 6 ref.
Begley J., Reichert E.L., Rashad M.N., Klemmer H.W., Siemsen A.W.
Association between renal function tests and pentachlorophenol exposure.
Report on studies in 18 workers at a wood treatment plant. Blood pentachlorophenol levels averaged 5.1ppm, falling to 2.2ppm during a 20-day vacation. Creatinine clearance and phosphorus reabsorption values were low before vacation, but recovered during the non-exposure period. Pentachlorophenol exposure appeared to reduce both glomerular filtration rate and tubular function reversibly.
Clinical Toxicology, 1977, Vol.11, No.1, p.97-106. Illus. 17 ref.
Poisoning by pentachlorophenol or its sodium salt in treatment of wood by soaking
Intoxication au pentachlorophénol ou ŕ son sel de sodium dans le traitement des bois par la technique de trempage. [en francés]
MD thesis. General review of wood. Physical, chemical and biological data on pentachlorophenol; determination in biological media; methods of use. Literature survey of animal experiments to establish the minimum lethal dose, route of entry (mainly the skin), maximum permissible concentrations, and lesions produced (liver, kidney, lung, CNS). The physiopathology is not fully understood. Description of 13 cases of poisoning in 1952-1970 and a new fatal case in 1973. This rare but serious event involves a febrile course characterised by profuse sweating preceding the rise in temperature, the possibility of hepatonephritis, and rapid progression. Preventive measures can be directed at labelling and storage but the medical and personal protective aspects are the most important.
Université de Paris-Sud, Faculté de médecine Paris-Sud, Paris, France, 1977. 66p. 26 ref.
Koen E., Ivanov G.
Polarographic method for determination of phenol in air
Polarografski metod za opredeljane na fenol văv văzduha [en búlgaro]
Description of a specific, highly sensitive and precise polarographic method for determination of atmospheric phenol concentrations, indicating sampling methods and conditions. The authors study the influence of the pH of the polarographic solution on the peak and on the half-wave potential. This method appears to be convenient, easily reproducible and rapid.
Problemi na higienata, Dec. 1976, No.2, p.71-80. Illus. 14 ref.
Chlorophenols cause skin disorders and headache in sawmills
Klorfenoler i sĺgverk ger hudskador och huvudvärk [en sueco]
Chlorophenol salts used to preserve sawn wood are a source of skin irritation when they contain impurities such as dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, which are formed by the action of light or heat. Vapours and dust from the treated wood are also irritating for the respiratory tract and have neurotoxic effects. Highly toxic impurities precipitate to the bottom of the dipping tanks. Replacement of chlorophenols by difluorides, which are easier to monitor, the use of salts containing less impurities, and information of personnel of the hazards and suitable preventive measures are recommended.
Arbetsmiljö, 1976, No.15, p.23-24.
Neundörfer B., Wolpert E.
Neuropsychiatric disorders following phenol intoxication
Neuropsychiatrische Störungen nach Phenol-Intoxikation [en alemán]
Case report (circumstances of accident, acute symptoms, late symptoms, psychological observations, diagnostic conclusions) and discussion of the results in the context of the literature. A 30-year-old engineer in the chemical industry had intensive skin absorption and inhalation of phenol after overturning of a container. After discharge from a week's hospital treatment he showed characteristic symptoms of chronic phenol poisoning (loss of appetite, headache after effort, fatigue, severe insomnia), although some typical symptoms of acute phenol poisoning (liver and kidney damage, cerebral convulsions) were absent. Other symptoms of central nervous disturbance (behavioural changes with loss of initiative and irritability, concentration and memory disorders) were recognised to be the consequence of cerebral injury only later. The importance of psychological tests for the differential diagnosis is stressed.
Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 10 Sep. 1976, Vol.118, No.37, p.1177-1178. 11 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to phenol.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to exposure to phenol. The time-weighted average exposure (10h working day) should not exceed 20mg/m3 over a 40h week. The ceiling concentration is fixed at 60mg/m3 for any 15min period. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and recordkeeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the following heads: biological effects of exposure, environmental data, development of the standard, research priorities. Procedures for sampling and analysis in air are detailed and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-196, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1976. 167p. 349 ref.
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