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CIS 12-0214 Idnani S..N., Wickramatillake H., Nguyen T.S., Tran Thi Q.C., Nguyen B.D., Saarni H., Balalla N.B.P., Lehtinen S.
Maritime sector
Collection of articles on occupational safety and health in the maritime sector of relevance to countries in the Asian-Pacific region. Contents: seafaring and health with an emphasis on Asian seafarers; strategy for maritime health services in Vietnam; occupational safety and health in a Vietnamese shipyard; fitness for work at sea; occupational health services in Brunei; policies, profiles and services in occupational safety and health. Other topics: brief report on an OSH conference held during 2011 in Espoo, Finland.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Sep. 2011, Vol.18, No.2, p.31-47 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Maritime_sector_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]

CIS 11-0704 Schröder-Hinrichs J.U., Baldauf M., Ghirxi KT.
Accident investigation reporting deficiencies related to organizational factors in machinery space fires and explosions
This article presents a review of 41 accident investigation reports related to ship engine-room space fires and explosions. The objective was to find out whether organizational factors were identified during maritime accident investigations. An adapted version of the Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) with minor modifications related to engine room features was applied. Findings show that organizational factors were not identified by maritime accident investigators to the extent expected, had the IMO guidelines been observed. Instead, contributing factors at the lower end of organizational echelons are over-represented. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2011, Vol.43, No.3, p.1187-1196. Illus. 44 ref.


CIS 11-0267 Psarros G., Skjong R., Eide M.S.
Under-reporting of maritime accidents
The objective of this article is to highlight evidence of serious under-reporting of maritime accidents in accident databases, which can be considered as the main contributor to questioning the direct and uncritical use of historical data. By analysing the 10-year tanker accident data from the Lloyd's Register (LRFP) and the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD) for vessels registered in Norway, it was found that the reporting performance has an upper bound of 41% for NMD and 30% for LRFP. Furthermore, based on comparison between LRFP data and self-assessment by Flag States, it is concluded that accidents reported by the Flag States are also incomplete.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Mar. 2010, Vol.42, No.2, p.619-625. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 11-0189 Rachiotis G., Mouchtouri V.A., Schlaich C., Riemer T., Martinez C.V., Nichols G., Bartlett C.L., Kremastinou J., Hadjichristodoulou C.
Occupational health legislation and practices related to seafarers on passenger ships focused on communicable diseases: Results from a European cross-sectional study (EU SHIPSAN PROJECT)
The aim of this study is to draw information and identify possible gaps on occupational health practices related to seafarers sailing on ships within the European Union Member States (EU MS) with focus on communicable diseases. A structured questionnaire was sent to competent authorities from 21 EU MS. The questionnaire included questions on occupational health policies, medical certification of seafarers, communicable diseases reporting and relevant legislation. Findings reveal a wide heterogeneity regarding occupational health of maritime employees in EU MS. This work provides some evidence that further work at international and European level could be considered, in order to explore the potential for harmonized initiatives regarding occupational health of seafarers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, No.5:1, 7p. 19 ref.
Occupational_health_legislation.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0788 Salgado Don A., Bouza Prego M.A., De la Campa Portela R.M.
Normas y reglamentos existentes sobre la fatiga en el marino y su prevención
Both physical and mental fatigue constitute a problem for all means of transport, and particularly for sectors that operate 24 hours a day such as maritime transport. Fatigue causes concentration difficulties, anxiety, gradual reduction of body resistance, sleep disturbances and major light sensitivity. Every State of registry is responsible for production, acceptance, implementation and application of national and international legislation relative to the various aspects that involve the fatigue issue, namely work schedules, rest periods, crew qualification and watch keeping policies. This article examines the conventions and other instruments on fatigue promulgated by several international organizations (ILO, IMO).
Medicina Marítima, June 2010, Vol.10, No.1, p.70-76. 10 ref.

CIS 10-0787 Gómez Muñiz F., Angulo Galánm.C., Vega Guerra
Relación entre las causas de las evacuaciones marítimas atendidas por el Centro Radio-médico Español y los antecedentes patológicos recogidos en sus historias clínicas laborales
The objective of this retrospective descriptive study was to determine the relationship between the cause of the evacuation of seafarers by the Spanish Radio Medical Advice Centre (CRME) and their previous medical history. Over a one-year period (2009/2010), 1062 seafarers consulted the CRME. 58.19% were treated on board with telemedicine; 17.61% remained on board until arrival in port and 24.2% needed to be evacuated to land. 40.9% had not been subjected to a medical check-up prior to enrolement. 23% of the evacuated seafarers had evidence of a similar problem in their medical fitness examination. It is concluded that the information given in occupational medical records needs to be improved (past medical history, consequences from background pathologies) to reduce the number of evacuations.
Medicina Marítima, June 2010, Vol.10, No.1, p.59-64. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 10-0715 Lu C.S., Tsai C.L.
The effect of safety climate on seafarers' safety behaviors in container shipping
This study examined the safety climate and its effects on safety behaviour based on the perceptions of seafarers in the container shipping sector. Research hypotheses were formulated and tested using survey data collected from 608 seafarers working on 124 vessels. A structural equation model was used to examine the effects safety policy, perceived supervisor safety behaviour and safety management, on safety behaviour. Findings revealed a positive association between safety climate and seafarers' safety behaviour. Implications are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov 2010, Vol.42, No.6, p.1999-2006. Illus. 95 ref.

CIS 10-0324 Fabiano B., Currò F., Reverberi A.P., Pastorino R.
Port safety and the container revolution: A statistical study on human factor and occupational accidents over the long period
This article investigates the relationship between work organization, job experience, productivity and occupational accidents, from the starting of the container expansion to the present time, considering port of Genoa, Italy, one of the largest of the Mediterranean Sea. In order to minimize possible reporting biases, such as underreporting or reclassification to a lower level of severity, injury statistics are elaborated starting from data collected directly on-site, from internal accident or medical-aid reports. An in-depth statistical analysis on occupational injuries in the years 1980-2006 was carried out, with reference to frequency indexes, mechanisms of injury and material causes. An increase of the frequency index (injuries per hundred thousand hours worked) from 13.0 to 29.7 was observed. Consideration of these and other findings may enable managerial solutions and workplace organization interventions for the prevention of injuries and safety performance improvement in port activities.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.980-990. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 10-0347 Mouchtouri V.A., Nichols G., Rachiotis G., et al.
State of the art: Public health and passenger ships
This report describes issues relevant to public health and reviews all passenger ship associated diseases and outbreaks. Moreover, legislation and practices on sanitation and diseases surveillance related to ships internationally were also reviewed. Some relevant historical information about infections on merchant ships is provided as well. The methods used to develop this state-of-the-art report included a scientific literature review, together with and an extensive and thorough search of the websites of organizations and government departments. The infections/outbreaks that occur on passenger ships include norovirus, Legionella, Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio and influenza A and B virus. The modes of transmission include person to person, waterborne, foodborne airborne and vectorborne, while shore excursions are responsible for some outbreaks. The industry (especially the ferry industry) and sanitary organizations can enhance collaboration in order to implement integrated hygiene programmes and prevent the occurrence of communicable diseases aboard passenger ships.
International Maritime Health, 2010, Vol.61, No.2, p.49-98. Approx. 150 ref.

CIS 10-0214 Implementing WSH 2018 for the marine sector in Singapore - Towards a progressive and pervasive safety and health culture
This document consists of the sector-specific plan to guide collective effort in achieving significant and sustained improvements in occupational safety and health in the Singapore marine sector, including shipbuilding, ship repair, rig building, offshore engineering, marine surveying services, salvaging of distressed vessels and cargo, as well as work done at anchorages. Contents: key statistics of the marine sector in Singapore, including accident statistics; roles and responsibilities; implementing Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) 2018 strategy for the marine sector in Singapore; action plans.
Workplace Safety and Health Council, 5 Maxwell Road, 20-00 Tower Block, MND Complex, Singapore 069110, 2010. 31p. Illus.
Implementing_WSH_2018_marine.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 10-0080 Baur X.
Workshop on safe handling of imported containers
6. Workshop - Sicherer Umgang mit Import-Containern [en alemán]
Some 20% of all imported shipping containers in Germany are contaminated with important concentrations of hazardous substances. This article consists of a review of a workshop on the safe handling in ports of potentially-contaminated shipping containers, held in Hamburg, Germany, on 11 November 2009, which mainly addressed the issued of health hazards due to fumigation, residues and toxic chemicals. Topics addressed included: sampling and analysis techniques for potentially-contaminated containers; City of Hamburg regulations concerning minimum requirements for sampling and analysis; thermal desorption gas chromatography couples with mass spectroscopy; issues raised by fumigation; electronic methods of gas detection; Hamburg database for fumigated containers; testing the gas-tightness of cargo holds in bulk carriers.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, June 2010, Vol.60, No.6, p.184-185. Illus. 12 ref.


CIS 09-1280 Jensen O.C.
Collaborative, cross-national studies on health and safety in seafaring for evidence-based maritime policy and regulations
Seafarers from eleven countries completed a questionnaire concerning their working conditions. Data were subjected to multivariate regression analyses. Significant disparities were pointed out among the nationalities concerning lengths of the tours at sea, proportions of officers and non-officers, age structures, injury rates and occupational safety standards.
International Maritime Health, 2009, Vol.60, No.1-2, p.10-13. 11 ref.

CIS 09-964 Antonsen S.
The relationship between culture and safety on offshore supply vessels
The article examines the relationship between culture and safety on offshore supply vessels in the Norwegian petroleum sector, relying on both qualitative and quantitative data. The analysis makes a general description of cultural traits, epitomized through the notion of "good seamanship", and discusses the way these traits influence safety. Findings show a great deal of friction between aspects of culture and aspects of structure. In particular, there appear to be incompatibilities between the occupational culture on the vessels and the strict rule-based safety management approaches of the petroleum industry. The role of inter-group asymmetries in power and status in the definition of what constitutes safe working conditions are highlighted. Finally, whether culture can (and should) be changed is discussed.
Safety Science, Oct. 2009, Vol.47, No.8, p.1118-1128. 69 ref.

CIS 09-855 Celik M.
Designing of integrated quality and safety management system (IQSMS) for shipping operations
This article proposes a systematic approach for exploring the compliance level of the international safety management (ISM) code with the ISO 9001:2000 in order to structure an integrated quality and safety management system (IQSMS) for shipping operations. Multi-attribute fuzzy axiomatic design was determined to be a suitable methodology. To illustrate the proposed approach, a mechanical failure on board an oil tanker is analysed. The advantages of IQSMS as an operational tool for enabling ship management companies implement the ISM code are highlighted.
Safety Science, May 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.569-577. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 09-728 Celik M., Cebi S.
Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents
Despite marine technology improvements and the implementation of safety-related regulations, shipping accidents are still a leading concern for global maritime interests. Ensuring the consistency of accident investigation reports is a significant goal in order to clearly identify the root causes of these accidents. This article presents a Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), based on a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), in order to identify the role of human errors in shipping accidents. Integration of FAHP improves the HFACS framework by providing an analytical foundation for a quantitative assessment of shipping accidents.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Jan. 2009, Vol.41, No.1, p.66-75. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-727 Håvold J.I, Nesset E.
From safety culture to safety orientation: Validation and simplification of a safety orientation scale using a sample of seafarers working for Norwegian ship owners
Measuring safety performance is becoming increasingly important in high-risk sectors. Based on the safety orientation model and a review of items and scales used in surveys of safety climate and safety culture, a safety orientation scale (SOM) was developed and refined through the use of multivariate statistics. It was then applied in this study with a sample of seafarers sailing on Norwegian-owned vessels. A total of 2558 questionnaires were returned from 141 vessels and 16 shipping companies, giving a calculated response rate of 70%. Findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.3, p.305-326. Illus. 87 ref.

CIS 09-480 Knudsen F.
Paperwork at the service of safety? Workers' reluctance against written procedures exemplified by the concept of "seamanship"
Efforts to reduce accidents in seafaring have led to a proliferation of procedures such as workplace assessments and checklists. Unfortunately, written procedures are perceived by many seafarers as counteracting the use of common sense, experience, and professional knowledge epitomized in the concept of seamanship. Their objections fit the Dreyfus and Dreyfus' model of skill acquisition according to which while novices steadily follow context-independent rules, the expert's behaviour goes beyond analytical rationality, and is situational, experience-based and intuitive. This article discussed the issues raised when written procedures are perceived as a hindrance to safety.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.295-303. 45 ref.


CIS 11-0132 Howland J., Rohsenow D.J., Minsky S., Snoberg J., Tagerud S., Hunt S.K., Almeida A., Greece J., Allensworth-Davies D.
The effects of transdermal scopolamine on simulated ship navigation and attention/reaction time
Transdermal scopolamine is commonly used by mariners to prevent or treat seasickness. Most studies indicate that scopolamine administered transdermally via an adhesive patch does not impair performance of skills required to navigate a vessel, but trials have not been conducted testing navigation and ship handling under realistic conditions. The aim of this study was to test the effects of transdermal scopolamine on performance using training simulators to assess complex vessel navigation and rough-weather ship handling abilities. A randomized double-blind crossover study assessed 32 Swedish maritime cadets under transdermal scopolamine and placebo conditions on simulated navigation and ship handling performance, sleepiness and subjective measures of fitness and performance. There were no significant differences on occupational outcomes by medication condition, but sustained reaction time was significantly increased under transdermal scopolamine, relative to placebo. It is concluded that the transdermal scopolamine patch does not impair simulated ship handling.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.4, p.250-256. 21 ref.

CIS 09-1139 Risikko T., Remes J., Hassi J.
Implementation of cold risk management in occupational safety, occupational health and quality practices. Evaluation of a development process and its effects at the Finnish maritime administration
Cold is a typical environmental risk factor in outdoor work in northern regions. It should be taken into account in the occupational safety, health and quality systems of enterprises. An approach was developed for improving cold risk management at the Finnish Maritime Administration. This study evaluates the results of implementing this approach three years after its introduction. Although findings showed an increased awareness about cold work, there were few concrete improvements or policy implementations. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2008, Vol.14, No.4, p.433-446. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 09-603 Wadsworth E.J.K., Allen P.H., McNamara R.L., Smith A.P.
Fatigue and health in a seafaring population
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence of fatigue among United Kingdom seafarers, identify fatigue risk factors and assess possible links with poor performance and ill-health. Data were collected by means of questionnaires among seafarers working in the offshore oil support, short-sea and deep-sea shipping industries. In all, 1855 questionnaires were completed giving an overall response rate of 20%. Fatigue symptoms were associated with a range of occupational and environmental factors, many unique to seafaring. Reporting a greater number of risk factors was associated with greater fatigue. There was also a strong link between fatigue and poorer cognitive and health outcomes, with fatigue the most important of a number of risk factors.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.58, No.3, p.198-204. 28 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 09-602 Roberts S.E.
Fatal work-related accidents in UK merchant shipping from 1919 to 2005
The objective of this study was to establish the causes of all fatal accidents and their trends among seafarers who were employed in United Kingdom merchant shipping from 1919 to 2005. During this period, there were 17,386 deaths, including 6,074 from shipping disasters and 11,312 from personal accidents. Over time, there were large reductions in mortality rates for all the main types of fatal accident, except accidents on deck. Major causes of mortality from shipping disasters were vessels foundering in typhoons, storms and severe gales, explosions in cargo holds and collisions in poor visibility. Fatal accident rates were higher among British seafarers than among Asians. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.129-137. Illus. 34 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 09-482 Leszczyńska I., Jeżewska M., Jaremin B.
Work-related stress at sea - Possibilities of research and measures of stress
The present concept of stress is related with triangulation in research. Triangulation requires collecting data on stress from three sources: precursors (moderating factor), direct consequences and state of health. This article discusses some of the specific issues involved in collecting such data among seafarers.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.93-102. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-463 Allen P., Wadsworth E., Smith A.
Seafarers' fatigue: A review of the recent literature
Fatigue has been noticeably under-researched in the maritime domain compared to other transport sectors. In a review of the literature 11 databases were searched in order to assess recent developments in the field and distil those issues of greatest concern and challenge to the seafaring community. Whilst diversity in the seafaring population has the potential to make global fatigue estimates meaningless, evidence of misrecorded working hours shows how commercial pressures are universally shared.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.81-92. 37 ref.

CIS 09-449 Dahl E., Ulven A., Horneland A.M.
Crew accidents reported during 3 years on a cruise ship
The objective of this study was to analyze data from crew injuries reported to the medical center of a cruise ship and to determine high risk activities, equipment and behavior. During three years, 361 injuries (23% women) were reported. Thirty percent involved loss of work time. The marine department accounted for 14% (deck 5%; engine 9%), the hotel department for 79% and contractors for 7% of the reports. Filipinos comprised half the crew, reported 35% of the accidents, and their rate of serious injuries were lower than non-Filipino crew. Hotel crew had a higher rate of accident absenteeism than marine crew. The upper extremity was the most frequently injured body part (51%), open wounds the most common injury type (37%), and galleys the most common accident location (30%).
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.19-33. 18 ref.

CIS 09-350 Hansen H.L., Laursen L.H., Frydberg M., Kristensen S.
Major differences in rates of occupational accidents between different nationalities of seafarers
Earlier studies have shown that merchant seafarers from South-East Asia had considerably lower accident rates when compared with seafarers from Western Europe. The purposes of this study were to confirm the earlier observations and to identify specific causes of excess accident rates among certain nationalities. Occupational accidents aboard Danish merchant ships during one year were identified from various sources. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for East European seafarers was 0.88 and for South East Asians 0.38 using West European seafarers as reference. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.7-18. 17 ref.

CIS 09-95 Oldenburg M., Jensen H.J., Latza U., Baur X.
Coronary risks among seafarers aboard German-flagged ships
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of coronary risk factors among male seafarers on vessels sailing under the German flag and to assess their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Data were collected from 161 participants by means of interviews, blood sampling and blood pressure measurements. In the total sample, 55 seamen (34.2%) had at least three CHD risk factors. The most prominent risk factors were hypertension (49.7%), high triglycerides (41.6%), older age (39.8%) and smoking (37.3%). Compared with non-Europeans, European seafarers were significantly more likely to have more than three CHD risk factors after adjusting for age (OR 2.4). German seamen showed a similar predicted 10-year CHD risk as the German population working ashore. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2008, Vol.81, No.6, p.735-741. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 09-201 Oldenburg M., Latza U., Baur X.
Occupational health risks due to shipboard cockroaches
The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of sensitization to cockroaches in seafarers. In July 2005, 145 seamen sailing under the German flag were recruited from a medical surveillance programme for a cross-sectional study. Standardized interviews and skin prick tests (SPT) with nine common inhalant allergens and a cockroach extract (Blatella germanica) were performed. Furthermore among cockroach-sensitized seafarers, total and cockroach-specific IgE was measured and lung function tests conducted. In total, 39 seamen (26.9%) were cockroach-sensitized according to the SPT results. Presence of cockroach sensitization in seamen from the tropical zone (37.3%) was significantly higher than in seamen from the temperate zone (21.3%) (odds ratio 2.20). Other findings are discussed. Longitudinal studies and bronchial cockroach challenge tests are necessary to for a more complete assessment of the clinical relevance of cockroach sensitization on board ships.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2008, Vol.81, No.6, p.727-734. 31 ref.

CIS 09-240 Phan Chan Thé E.
Addictive behaviour and safety-critical jobs
Conduites addictives et postes de sécurité [en francés]
This article discusses the management of addictive behaviour in occupational settings, with an emphasis on screening for the abuse of drugs and alcohol among persons assigned to safety-critical jobs. Two examples of safety-critical jobs are presented: truck drivers and dock handlers. The article also presents various statistics that help understand the importance and the severity of the problem of substance addiction in France.
Préventique-Sécurité, Jan.-Feb. 2008, No.97, p.76-81. Illus.

CIS 08-1356 Propuesta de Pautas para los funcionarios encargados del control por el Estado del puerto que realizan inspecciones con arreglo al Convenio sobre el trabajo marítimo, 2006 (MELCBS); Propuesta de Pautas para las inspecciones por el Estado del pabellón en virtud des Convenio sobre el trabajo marítimo, 2006 (MEFS)
Proposal for Guidelines for port state control officers carrying out inspections under the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MELCBS); Proposal for Guidelines for flag State inspections under the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MEFS) [en inglés]
Projet de directives pour les agents chargés du contrôle par l'Etat du port effectuant des inspections en application de la convention du travail maritime, 2006 (MELCBS); Projet de directives pour les inspections des Etats du pavillon en vertu de la convention du travail maritime, 2006 (MEFS) [en francés]
Proposed guidelines for flag State ship inspections and for port State control officers carrying out ship inspections under the Maritime Labour Convention of 2006 (see CIS 06-864).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2008. 54p. Illus. (MELCBS); 54p. Illus. (MEFS). [en inglés] [en inglés] [en francés] [en español] [en español] [en francés]

CIS 08-606 Cheneau V.
Seafarers - Occupational safety and health goes to sea
Les travailleurs de la mer - La prévention s'amarine [en francés]
Topics addressed in the collection of articles on the hazards of working at sea: hazards caused by understaffing which leads to risk-taking; day-to-day account of a 15-day fishing campaign on board a trawler; key statistics of occupational accidents and diseases among French seafarers; remote medical consultation; stability of vessels at sea; hazards related to older vessels; occupational safety and health (noise attenuation on ships, first aid, personal protective equipment).
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2008, No.681, p.16-28. Illus.


CIS 08-1135 Swan J.R.M., Blainey D., Crook B.
Health and Safety Executive
The HSE grain dust study - Workers' exposure to grain dust contaminants, immunological and clinical response
This study investigated the role of microorganisms and their associated contaminants in the development of clinical symptoms and immunological response in workers exposed to grain dust. A cohort of 321 workers exposed to grain dust (farmers at 27 farms and dock workers at two ports) was constituted. Workers were subjected to several immunoassay and clinical assessments over two study phases: phase 1 from 1990 to 1993 and phase 2 from 1997 to 2003. It was found that grain workers are exposed to high levels of endotoxin, microorganisms and dust. The levels of endotoxin were greatly in excess of those shown to cause adverse health effects. Exposure levels to grain dust were high, and still frequently over maximum exposure limits. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 98p. Illus. Approx 150 ref. [en inglés]

CIS 07-1352 Saarni H., Niemi L.
Manual médico para la gente del mar
Medical handbook for seafarers [en inglés]
Este manual aporta instrucciones relativas a primeros auxilios y cuidados médicos que deben dispensarse a bordo de los buques, hasta el momento en que el paciente se recupere o se logre trasladarlo a tierra para recibir un tratamiento más adecuado. Este manual constituye una ayuda para las personas responsables del tratamiento médico a bordo de los buques, a la hora de decidir la mejor manera de actuar, incluidas aquellas situaciones en que conviene consultar con un médico a través de la radio o proveer los medios para que el paciente sea trasladado a tierra urgentemente
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2007. 213p. Illus. Index. Price: EUR 39.00.


CIS 09-867 Pautas para los funcionarios encargados des control por el estado del puerto
Guidelines for port state control officers [en inglés]
Directives pour les agents chargés du contrôle par l'Etat du port [en francés]
The Guidelines for port State control officers carrying out inspections under the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MLC, 2006), contained in this book are an important international resource for implementing port State responsibilities under the MLC, 2006. These guidelines provide practical advice to port State control officers (PSCOs) verifying compliance of foreign ships with the requirements of the MLC, 2006. Chapter 1 contains an overview of the special features of the MLC 2006 and its key concepts. Chapter 2 relates to the required profile of PSCOs under the MLC, 2006. Chapter 3 covers the required review of documents in the case of ships that carry certification under the MLC, 2006. It explains when a more detailed inspection may be carried out. The main inspection tool is provided by chapter 4, indicating the basic requirements to be complied with, sources of information for checking compliance and examples of deficiencies, in the 14 areas of working and living conditions that are mainly concerned. Chapter 5 provides guidance when deficiencies are found and when a ship may have to be detained in port. Chapter 6 relates to the handling of onshore complaints by seafarers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. xi, 77p. Price: CHF 15.00. [en inglés] [en español] [en francés]

CIS 09-866 Pautas para las inspecciones por el Estado del pabellón
Guidelines for flag state inspections [en inglés]
Directives pour les inspections des Etats du pavillon [en francés]
The Guidelines for flag State inspections under the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MLC, 2006), contained in this booklet are an important resource for implementing flag state responsibilities under the MLC, 2006. They provide practical advice to competent authorities in flag States and to flag State inspectors, or recognized organizations, on how to carry out ship inspections and certifications to verify compliance with the requirements of the MLC, 2006 as implemented nationally. Chapter 1 contains an overview of the special features of the MLC 2006 and its key concepts. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the procedures for ship inspection and certification, including areas of national flexibility, and processes for responding to complaints. The main inspection tool is provided by chapter 3, indicating the basic requirements to be complied with, a list of items showing how to check the basic requirements and examples of deficiencies, in connection with these requirements. Chapter 4 provides guidance on actions to be taken when deficiencies are found and when a ship may have to be detained.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. xi, 76p. Price: CHF 15.00. [en inglés] [en español] [en francés]

CIS 08-608 Jensen O.C., Sørensen J.F.L., Thomas M., Canals M.L., Nikolic N., Hu Y.
Working conditions in international seafaring
The objective of this questionnaire survey was to assess the self-rated health status and the main characteristics of seafarers' working conditions. A total of 6461 seafarers in 11 countries responded. In general, the seafarers' self-rated health was good, but it declined significantly with age. Seafarers from South-East Asian countries spent longer time periods at sea, and had lower numbers of officers and older seafarers than found among seafarers from western countries. Most seafarers worked every day of the week and on average for 67-70h a week during periods of 2.5-8.5 months at sea. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.56, No.6, p.393-397. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 08-230 Hetherington C., Flin R., Mearns K.
Seguridad en el sector marítimo: el factor humano
Safety in shipping: The human element [en inglés]
Este estudio bibliográfico ha examinado los factores causales de los accidentes en el mar, con especial atención a los aspectos comunes de los accidentes, la influencia de los errores humanos y las intervenciones dirigidas a hacer que el sector marítimo sea más seguro. Se han analizado 20 informes que abordan los siguientes temas: fatiga, estrés, estado de salud, sentido de la orientación, trabajo en equipo, toma de decisiones, comunicación, automatización y cultura de seguridad. Se concluye que con control y la modificación de algunos de los factores humanos identificados en esta revisión, sería posible mejorar la seguridad en el sector marítimo
Journal of Safety Research, 2006, Vol.37, No.4, p.401-411. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 08-67 Lucas D., Jegaden D., Lodde B., Arvieux C., Dewitte J.D.
Asma profesional en el ambiente marítimo
Occupational asthma in maritime environment [en inglés]
En el ambiente marítimo, los trabajadores están expuestos a diversas sustancias químicas o biológicas, de las que algunas pueden provocar asma de etiología profesional. Tal es el caso de los productos del mar, como los crustáceos y los moluscos, aunque también pueden provocarla los cereales que se transportan en forma de carga o las sustancias químicas transportadas o utilizadas para mantenimiento del buque. Este estudio bibliográfico comenta los factores etiológicos del asma profesional conocidos a que pueden estar sometidos los marineros y demás trabajadores del sector marítimo
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.177-187. 72 ref.

CIS 08-142 Baur X., Yu F., Poschadel B., Veldman W., Knol-De Vos T.
Riegos para la salud derivados del bromometano y otros gases tóxicos en los contenedores de buques mercantes procedentes del extranjero
Health risks by bromomethane and other toxic gases in import cargo ship containers [en inglés]
El transporte de toda clase de mercancías a lo largo y ancho del mundo cada vez se realiza más en contenedores. De conformidad con los reglamentos nacionales e internacionales sobre desinsectación, una proporción creciente de estos contenedores se trata mediante fumigación. Con frecuencia, el etiquetado obligatorio no existe, lo que puede llevar a la producción de accidentes y constituye un riesgo significativo para la salud de los trabajadores portuarios, los inspectores y el personal aduanero. Además, el contacto con agentes de fumigación tóxicos, como el bromometano, también puede afectar a los trabajadores de almacenes e, incluso, a los propios consumidores finales de las mercancías transportadas. Siempre se deberian tener presentes las consecuencias de la fumigación de los contenedores recurriéndose, cuando ello sea posible, a soluciones alternativas tales como el tratamiento térmico o una atmósfera pobre en oxígeno. Finalmente, habrá que controlar rigurosamente que se respeta la reglamentación internacional, considerándose la imposición de sanciones cuando no se respeten las recomendaciones de la OMI referentes a la utilización de pesticidas, de forma segura, en los buques
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.46-55. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 07-1143 Hänninen S., Rytkönen J.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Transporte de sustancias químicas líquidas a granel en buques-cisterna en el Mar Báltico
Transportation of liquid bulk chemicals by tankers in the Baltic Sea [en inglés]
Este informe presenta estadísticas relativas a la carga y descarga de sustancias químicas líquidas a granel en los puertos del Mar Báltico en 2004. Los datos se han extraído de los registros públicos así como de las bases de datos y declaraciones de agencias portuarias. A cada puerto se envió un cuestionario especial relativo a sustancias químicas, especialmente sustancias líquidas a granel. El informe comenta la situación respecto de determinadas sustancias químicas, las más peligrosas y las más comunes desde el punto de vista de su impacto ambiental en caso de vertido (amoniaco, epiclorohidrina, aceite de soja, estireno, acetato de vinilo, etanol y metanol). Se comenta el riesgo vertido en caso de colisión o de quedar encallado el buque. Hay un capítulo dedicado al agua del Mar Báltico del Norte y a los riesgos de la navegación en invierno respecto del transporte de sustancias químicas. También se comenta el devenir de las sustancias químicas vertidas en el agua y los métodos empleados para neutralizarlas. Finalmente, se presentan algunos escenarios sobre las áreas de alto riesgo potencial
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2006. 121p. Illus. Bibl. ref. [en inglés]

CIS 07-1080 O'Connor P.J., O'Connor N.
Muertes por accidentes de trabajo en el sector marítimo
Work-related maritime fatalities [en inglés]
Entre 1992 y 1998 se han registrado 74 fallecimientos entre los marinos australianos: 42 pescadores comerciales, 12 marineros de buques mercantes y 16 marinos que trabajaban en diversos sectores. Los principales factores que contribuyeron a dichas muertes fueron las condiciones meteorológicas, los errores de cálculo, las prácticas arriesgadas y no utilizar elementos de flotación en unas condiciones en que dichos elementos podrían haber salvado la vida. Los esfuerzos que se realicen deberían focalizarse en la disminución del consumo de alcohol y en una mejor disponibilidad de salvavidas y el respeto para usarlos
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 2006, Vol.38, No.4, p.737-741. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 07-1078 López Montiel M.
Análisis de la incapacidad permanente en los trabajadores del mar. Ceuta, 1955-2005.
Se ha llevado a cabo un análisis de los expedientes de incapacidad permanente tramitados por el Instituto de la Marina de Ceuta, España, entre 1995 y 2005, con el fin de determinar las patologías responsables de las incapacidades permanentes para el trabajo y el perfil de los marinos. La incapacidad permanente afecta principalmente a hombres quincuagenarios que trabajan en condiciones precarias, y lo más probable es que sean resultado de trastornos osteomusculares y enfermedades cardiovasculares y respiratorias. Los accidentes de trabajo invalidantes afectan a los marinos más jóvenes (edad media 44,2 años)
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Oct. 2006, Vol.LII, No.204, p.43-51. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 07-849 Proyecto de convenio refundido sobre el trabajo marítimo 2006
Proposed Consolidated Maritime Labour Convention 2006 [en inglés]
Projet de convention du travail maritime consolidée 2006 [en francés]
Este CD-ROM contiene un proyecto de convenio sobre el trabajo marítimo así como la documentacion al respecto. Este nuevo convenio internacional del trabajo ha sido adoptado en febrero de 2006 en Ginebra por la Organización Internacional del Trabajo con ocasión de la Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo. Este nuevo instrumento aporta un conjunto coherente de principios y derechos para los trabajadores del mar. Esta concebido para que sea un procedimiento de mejora simplificado y para garantizar una mejor implantación de las normas marítimas. Pretende ser el cuarto pilar de la reglamentación internacional del sector marítimo, como complemento de los convenios fundamentales de la Organización Marítima Internacional
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. CD-ROM.

CIS 07-821 Bollé P.
(SITITL): El nuevo Convenio marítimo, una norma innovadora
The ILO's new Convention on maritime labour: An innovative instrument [en inglés]
La nouvelle convention sur le travail maritime: un instrument novateur [en francés]
Este artículo comenta el nuevo convenio de la OIT sobre el trabajo en el sector marítimo, adoptado en 2006. Pasa revista a los desarrollos históricos que han llevado a este nuevo convenio, y presenta su estructura y contenido. El convenio establece los requisitos mínimos para los marineros que trabajan en los buques y contiene disposiciones acerca de las condiciones de empleo, la duración del trabajo y los períodos de descanso, la acomodación, las instalaciones de recreo, la restauración, la protección sanitaria, los cuidados médicos, el bienestar y la seguridad social. Este nuevo convenio consolida y actualiza 68 convenios y recomendaciones marítimas de la OIT adoptados desde el año 1920
International Labour Review - Revue internationale du Travail - Revista internacional del trabajo, 2006, Vol.145, No.1-2, p.135-142 (English), p.157-164 (French); 2006, Vol.125, No.1-2, p.150-157 (Spanish). 10 ref.

CIS 07-595 Wojciechowska D.
Bajo pabellón polaco: seguridad y salud del trabajo en el transporte marítimo
Pod polską banderą: Bhp w transporcie morskim [en polonés]
Se examina la reglamentación polaca sobre seguridad en el trabajo en los buques, y las directivas europeas actualmente en vigor. Se comenta la necesidad de adoptar otras medidas reglamentarias.
Inspektor Pracy, 2006, No.3, p.17-19. Illus.


CIS 07-379 Bianchi C., Bianchi T., Nicotra M., Grandi G.
Mesotelioma pleural asociado al amianto entre los trabajadores del puerto de Trieste, Italia
Mesotelioma pleurico da asbesto in lavoratori del porto di Trieste [en italiano]
Se examinan 23 casos de mesotelioma pleural observados en los trabajadores portuarios de Trieste entre 1968 y 2004. Se disponía de los datos de la autopsia en 18 de estos casos. Los pacientes, todos varones, tenían entre 39 y 80 años (media de edad, 61 años), y por lo general su trabajo había consistido en la carga y descarga de diversos productos, incluido el amianto. De los 18 casos citados, 12 iniciaron su actividad después de 1950. La mayoría había trabajado durante más de 20 años. Los períodos de latencia entre el comienzo de la exposición y el diagnóstico del tumor oscilaron entre 25 y 60 años (media, 38 años). Se observó la presencia de cuerpos asbestósicos en los cortes histológicos del tejido pulmonar de 15 de los 17 casos examinados. En comparación con otros grupos profesionales investigados en la región de Trieste, los trabajadores portuarios presentaban períodos de latencia más cortos y una prevalencia más elevada de cuerpos asbestósicos en los cortes histológicos rutinarios de tejido pulmonar. Los resultados indican unos niveles elevados de exposición al amianto.
European Journal of Oncology, Dec. 2005, Vol.10, No.4, p.287-290. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 06-1355 Kaerlev L., Hansen J., Hansen H.L., Nielsen P.S.
Incidencia de cáncer entre los marineros daneses: estudio de cohorte con base poblacional.
Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers: A population based cohort study [en inglés]
Los marineros a bordo de petroleros y de buques químicos pueden estar expuestos a numerosos productos químicos, comprendidas sustancias tales como benceno, con potencial cancerígeno reconocido. Los marineros también pueden estar expuestos a gases de escape de los motores, a diversos productos químicos y petroleros, y al amianto. Una cohorte constituida por merineros daneses profesionalmente activos entre 1986 y 1999 (33.340 hombres y 11.291 mujeres) estaba vinculada al registro danés del cáncer y ha sido seguida hasta el año 2002. Los informes relativos a la incidencia (SIR) se calcularon con referencia a las tasas correspondientes para el conjunto de la población del país. El SIR para todo los tipos de cáncer era de 1,26 en el caso de los hombres y de 1,07 en el de las mujeres. Estas cifras se debían principalmente al exceso de cánceres de laringe, de pulmón, de lengua, de faringe, de esófago, de páncreas, de riñón, de vesícula, de cólon y de huesos, así como a los melanomas cutáneos entre los hombres, y al exceso de cáncer de pulmón, de recto y de útero entre las mujeres. Las diferencias en la incidencia de cáncer entre los hombres en función de las categorías de personal variaban entre 1,2 para los oficiales de salas de maquinas, 2,3 para la tripulación de salas de maquinas y 4,1 para el personal de mantenimiento. El personal no oficial presentaba un riesgo 1,5 veces más importante de cáncer de pulmón que los oficiales. De todas formas, los datos no se han corregido para el tabaquismo ni para el consumo de alcohol, lo que podría introducir factores de confusión importantes.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2005, Vol.62, No.11, p.761-765. 24 ref.

CIS 06-1354 Jégaden D., Dewitte J.D., Loddé B.
La aptitud para la navegación marítima: una verdadera evaluación de los riesgos de enfermedad.
L'aptitude à la navigation maritime: une véritable évaluation des risques de maladie [en francés]
Se propone una metodología para la evaluación de la aptitud médica para la navegación marítima, dado el particular entorno del mundo de la mar y la problemática de la aptitud para el trabajo, basada en el estudio del pronóstico a corto, medio y largo plazo de la afección en cuestión. La metodología propuesta se ha desarrollado a partir de un ejemplo real. Se basa en un estudio bibliográfico presentado con detalle en el que se discuten los resultados. La justificación de la decisión de aptitud se explicita mediante una evaluación cifrada del pronóstico de la enfermedad en cuestión y de los daños potenciales ligados al tratamiento. Con el fin de justificar lo mejor posible la decisión de aptitud, se preconiza acoplar la metodología de evaluación de los riesgos con la de la medicina basada en la evidencia.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Sep. 2005, Vol.66, No.4, p.318-325. 13 ref.

CIS 06-1303 Higiene en las cocinas de los buques.
Gigiena na kambuze [en ruso]
Hygiene in the galley [en inglés]
Kalinisan sa galley [en tagalo]
Folleto, en forma de cómic, sobre la higiene en las cocinas de los buques.
International Committee on Seafarers' Welfare (ICSW), Forsyth House, 2nd Floor, 77 Clarendon Road, Watford, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, ca 2005. 12p. Illus. [en inglés] [en ruso]

CIS 06-1151 Williams P.R.D., Robinson K., Paustenbach D.J.
Exposiciones al benceno asociadas a tareas realizadas a bordo de buques de la marina mercante (aproximadamente entre 1975 y 2000).
Benzene exposures associated with tasks performed on marine vessels (circa 1975 to 2000) [en inglés]
Se han identificado en la literatura 25 estudios de higiene industrial que describen exposiciones al benceno durante el transporte marítimo de sustancias que contenían este compuesto. Las concentraciones de benceno en el aire mencionadas estaban comprendidas entre 0,2 y 2,0ppm durante las operaciones de carga en cerrado, y entre 2 y 10ppm durante las operaciones de carga en abierto. Si comparamos estos valores con las normas de higiene industrial en vigor en aquella época, los resultados indican que la mayor parte de las actividades que se desarrollaban a bordo de los buques entre los años 70 y 90 no dieron lugar a exposiciones superiores a las establecidas por las normas. Las informaciones y los datos presentados en este estudio pueden ser útiles para la estimación cuantitativa de la exposición durante el transporte de cargamentos que contenían benceno o para la reconstrucción de las exposiciones históricas profesionales de los individuos que habían trabajado en el sector del transporte marítimo.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2005, Vol.2, No.11, p.586-599. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 06-1120 Wang J., Pillay A., Kwon Y.S., Wall A.D., Loughran C.G.
Análisis de los accidentes en los buques de pesca.
An analysis of fishing vessel accidents [en inglés]
Este artículo presenta los datos sobre accidentes en los buques de pesca registrados en la Rama de Investigación de Accidentes del Reino Unido, así como un análisis de las principales causas de los mismos. Los datos estan agrupados según tipo y causa de los accidentes y, también, en función de la longitud del buque. Su análisis ha demostrado que entre 1994 y 1999 las averías de las maquinas habían contribuido al 50% de la totalidad de los accidentes. Asimismo, se discuten diversos aspectos, especialmente la evaluación de la seguridad de los buques de pesca y los problemas relacionados con los atraques y desatraques, colisiones y contactos.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov. 2005, Vol.37, No.6, p.1019-1024. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 06-1109 Hasanzadeh M.A., Aziabadi E., Alipour N.A.
Sistemas de servicios de salud para las gentes del mar y los pescadores en Irán.
Health services system for seafarers and fishermen in Iran [en inglés]
Este artículo describe el sistema de salud marítima de Irán. La compañía marítima nacional iraní IRISL posee la flota comercial más importante de Oriente Medio y explota 137 buques. Globalmente, las compañías marítimas nacionales emplean a más de 5.900 marineros. Se calcula que existen 11.000 barcos de pesca y que el numero de pescadores en Irán es de 124.000. Las gentes del mar y los pescadores se someten a reconocimientos médicos periódicos tras los que, de acuerdo con la reglamentación, se les extiende un certificado de salud. El sistema de servicios de salud depende de las autoridades portuarias en todo el país. Las observaciones y los datos relativos a problemas de salud de los trabajadores del mar iraníes se recopilan a intervalos regulares para confeccionar estadísticas.
International Maritime Health, 2005, Vol.56, No.1/4, p.173-184. 6 ref.

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