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Ayres S.M., Evans R., Licht D., Griesbach J., Reimold F., Ferrand E.F., Criscitiello A.
Health effects of exposure to high concentrations of automotive emissions - Studies in bridge and tunnel workers in New York City.
In 1970, a 3-year study was initiated of all non-administrative employees of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, an organisation responsible for the operation of 2 tunnels and 7 bridges in New York City, to ascertain the effects of automotive pollutants on human health. This article gives detailed information collected during the first 2 years of observation. A programme of toll booth air purification was completed early in the second year of the study, so that subsequent investigations should permit examination of the effect on human health of sudden decreases in automotive pollutants.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep. 1973, Vol.27, No.3, p.168-178. Illus. 20 ref.
Motor fleet safety manual - A guide to building and maintaining an effective accident control system
This manual is designed to help management to set up a loss and accident prevention programme. Introductory chapters concerning the costs of accidents, the elements of a safety programme, and accident reporting and investigation are followed by chapters on driver selection and supervision, alcohol and drugs, establishment of an employee safety and a vehicle safety programme, types of hazard, safety policy and supervision of a scattered fleet, special features for different fleets (sales fleet, utility fleet, police fleet, ambulance fleet, school bus fleet) and motivation. Appendices contain further information on job safety analysis, protective colour scheme for vehicles, braking, maintenance, carbon monoxide dangers, etc.
National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 2nd edition 1972. 408p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: US-$10.00.
Central Committee of the Road Transport Workers' Union (Central'nyj komitet profsojuza rabočih avtomobil'nogo transporta i šossejnyh dorog), Moskva, 14 Nov. 1972.
Safety regulations for road transport undertakings
Pravila tehniki bezopasnosti dlja predprijatij avtomobil'nogo transporta [en ruso]
Compilation of USSR safety regulations and standards on the following subjects: safety and health organisation; safety training and education; road vehicles (lorries, trailers, buses, cars, tank trucks); service stations and repair shops; handling of batteries; body work, vulcanisation and tyre mounting; use of leaded petrol, benzene and antifreezing agents; regulations for drivers; loading and unloading; fire protection; heating and ventilation; lighting of premises and access ways; water supply and sewers; sanitary and accommodation facilities; metalworking (machine-tool guarding); plant railways.
Izdatel'stvo "Transport", Basmannyj tupik 6a, Moskva, USSR, 1972. 136p. Price: Rbl.0.51.
Roadworks on open roads
Chantiers routiers sur routes circulées [en francés]
A humorously illustrated booklet for site supervisors indicating the main safety measures for roadworks. Individual sections are devoted to: warning signs; the driving of compacting machines; and tar-macadam application.
Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, 2 bis rue Michelet, 92 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, 1st ed., Jan. 1972. 40p. Illus.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Safety rules for vehicle repairs, maintenance, servicing and similar work
Sicherheitsregeln für das Instandsetzen, Warten und Pflegen von Fahrzeugen und ähnliche Arbeiten (Fahrzeug-Instandhaltung) [en alemán]
Safety rules for vehicle repairs including trailers, agricultural machinery, railed vehicles, earthmoving equipment, industrial trucks, etc. Definitions are followed by requirements for: exits; inspection pits; electrical equipment and installations; fire and explosion prevention; health protection; securing of vehicles; vehicle inspection lifts and work on elevated vehicles; inflation of tyres on sectional rims; wheel balancing; gasoline dispensing; vehicle washing; driving. A list of relevant safety regulations is appended.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1972. 30p.
Road ripper noise
Le bruit provoqué par les marteaux-piqueurs [en francés]
Reference to the relevant French legislation, the level of noise produced by various types of compressor taken alone or in combination with the road ripper, and to the source of the noise is followed by a brief review of general noise-control techniques and a description of the relevant techniques at present employed in Germany (air-cooled compressors, insulated by double-walled tents), the USSR (road rippers with telescopic vibration dampers) and in France (diesel-hydraulic compressors in which oil replaces air as the transmission fluid and which produces, together with the road ripper, a total noise level of 83dB).
Prévention et sécurité du travail, 1st quarter 1972, No.91, p.14-20. Illus. 3 ref.
Control of automobile noise
Zwalczanie hałasu pojazdów samochodowych [en polonés]
Octave spectra of noise from various automobiles under normal operating conditions are analysed. Noise sources include the engine, fan, transmission, tyres, etc. and, consequently, noise control also depends on the driver and not only on the manufacturer. Standardization of vehicle noise measurement is required, especially in the case of lorries in view of the increase in reaction time caused by prolonged exposure to levels of over 85dBA which, after several hours' driving, may have the same effect as drinking.
Ochrona pracy, Jan. 1972, Vol.26, No.1, p.22-25. Illus.
Evans M.J., Tempest W.
Some effects of infrasonic noise in transportation
Sound-pressure levels measured in cars travelling at motorway speeds showed that overall level is often very high in relation to dB(A) and octave-band levels, suggesting that much of the sound energy is in the low-frequency and infrasonic regions. These levels were measured down to the octave centred on 2Hz. Experiments on the effect of infrasound on balance and psychological awareness are described. Levels of infrasound measured in moving vehicles can produce symptoms of balance disturbance, including vertical nystagmus, and also have profound effects on psychological awareness. Possible mechanisms for these effects are discussed.
Journal of Sound and Vibration, 8 May 1972, Vol.22, No.1, p.19-24. Illus. 10 ref.
El tractor agrícola
Practical safety advice for agricultural workers. Sections are devoted to: introduction; hazards in the use of agricultural tractors (rearing, roll-over, falls from a height, entanglement with moving parts, crushing, accidents due to material damage, collision, burns, fire, poisoning); safety devices and mechanisms; safety rules and engineering measures (general rules; parking, repairs and replacement of parts; starting up and moving off; use; work with the power take-off; work in a stationary position with the pulley and drive belt; use on highways); technical checks and regulations.
Plan nacional de higiene y seguridad del trabajo, Gabinete técnico provincial, Valencia, Spain, Apr. 1972. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
Aspects of the development of a test code for tractor suspension seats
A test code was developed for assessing the performance under practical conditions of suspension seats used to improve the ride of agricultural tractors; this code should be suitable for application by testing stations in several countries and has been submitted to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for its consideration. The factors that the test code is required to evaluate are stated (suitability of driver position in relation to controls, driver-weight range that can be accommodated, level of vibration transmitted, and seat durability), the development of test techniques by the United Kingdom National Institute of Agricultural Engineering is described and the relative importance of factors affecting seat performance is discussed.
Journal of Sound and Vibration, 22 Jan. 1972, Vol.20, No.2, p.247-252. Illus. 4 ref.
Medical research on circulation and physical and mental stress in long-distance drivers of various types of vehicles
Verkehrsmedizinische Untersuchungen zur Frage des Kreislaufverhaltens, der körperlichen und seelischen Belastung von Kraftfahrzeugführern in verschiedenen Fahrzeugtypen und auf Fernfahrten [en alemán]
A report on research to determine variations in cardiovascular function (ECG, pulse and blood pressure) and respiratory frequency during an 8-h journey, by night or by day. 56 professional or non-professional drivers were tested. Preliminary remarks on physiology and legal matters are followed by a detailed description of methods. Results are recapitulated in numerous tables and diagrams, accompanied by commentaries. Pulse and respiration rates increased proportionally to driving errors and ECG modifications. There was virtually no difference found between night and day journeys.
Zentrallblatt für Verkehrsmedizin, Verkehrspsychologie, Luft- und Raumfahrt-medizin, Dec. 1971, Vol.17, No.4, p.193-224, and Mar. 1972, Vol.18, No.1, p.1-28. Illus. 19 ref.
Jones R.D., Commins B.T., Cernik A.A.
Blood lead and carboxyhaemoglobin levels in London taxi drivers
Blood lead and carboxyhaemoglobin analysis of 50 London taxi drivers with intensive exposure to traffic-exhaust fumes revealed a mean blood lead of 28.7µg/100mL. There was no statistically significant difference in the blood-lead levels of smokers and non-smokers, nor between the blood leads of night-shift and day-shift workers. The mean carboxyhaemoglobin level was 3.83%; however, carboxyhaemoglobin levels of smokers were significantly higher than those of non-smokers, and the levels were significantly higher in day workers than in night workers. Mean levels for lead and carbon monoxide in blood were not dissimilar to those found in other town dwellers. It is concluded that little of the blood lead is attributable to lead in vehicle-exhaust fumes but that the levels of CO in blood were related to both smoking and vehicle-exhaust exposure.
Lancet, Aug. 1972, Vol.2, No.7772, p.302-303. 12 ref.
New regulations on the employment of women in road and rail transport
Neue Vorschriften über die Beschäftigung von Frauen auf Fahrzeugen [en alemán]
A description is given of the trend in the legal situation in the Federal Republic of Germany which led to the publication of the 1971 regulations on the employment of women in road and rail transport (CIS 72-1752). A commentary is given on the various provisions of these regulations: scope, medical conditions for employment, employer's obligations, lifting and carrying of loads by female drivers and their mates. Medical objections to the employment of pregnant women, the employment of women as drivers on vehicles over 3.5t with trailer, and hours of work.
Sicher ist Sicher, July 1972, Vol.23, No.7, p.340-344. Illus.
Ergonomic design of seats for vehicle drivers, co-drivers and passengers
Ergonomische Gestaltung von Sitzen für Fahrzeugführer, Beifahrer und Fahrgäste [en alemán]
The seats for drivers, co-drivers and passengers in passenger vehicles, lorries, vans, buses and tractors must meet various requirements stipulated in directives 2782 and 2783 issued by the Association of German Engineers. These directives contain data for designing seats for brief and prolonged use. The data are presented in 2 tables.
Arbeit und Leistung, Aug. 1972, Vol.26, No.8, p.219-222. Illus. 9 ref.
Lower-limb circulation rheography in truck drivers
Reografski proučvanija vărhu sădovata cirkulacija na dolnite krajnici u vodači na tovarni motorni koli [en búlgaro]
Rheography, oscillography and skin-temperature measurements were used to study lower-limb circulation in 150 long-standing truck drivers. Rheography showed pathological conditions in 52 cases (34.6%), although clinical symptoms (oscillographic and skin-temperature deviations) were apparent in only 7 cases. Rheography showed a pathological condition in only 13 (8.6%) of a control group of 150 printers. Circulatory disorders in the lower limbs of truck drivers are attributed to specific occupational factors: effect of cold and vibration, prolonged seated posture during driving, prolonged nervous and muscular tension, and the effect of harmful chemical agents.
Zbornik materiali po zaboljavanijata na oporno-dvigatelnija aparat v uslovijata na truda, 1972, p.72-77. 15 ref.
Safety in roadbuilding
Gefahren beim Strassenbau [en alemán]
Advice is given on site lay-out, the hazards of black-top and concrete pavement construction are indicated and the relevant safety measures considered: macadam and concrete production plants, site transport, work procedures, roadbuilding machines, materials and climatic conditions, use of liquefied gases, worksites and construction site laboratories. Safety rules for compaction-roller drivers, reproduction of a data sheet for black-top worksite laboratories, which gives advice of solvent hazards, laboratory appliances and health problems.
Mitteilungsblatt der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft Wuppertal, Sep. 1972, No.3, p.122-143. Illus. 10 ref.
Safety in transit
This booklet deals with the loading, haulage and off-loading of concrete pipes and fittings using road transport vehicles and specifies what are considered good practices to be observed under average conditions. Individual sections are devoted to: vehicles; appliances, personnel and materials; loading; loads in transit; delivery at sites and unloading. In addition there is an appendix which shows the hand signals which should be used when loading or unloading by crane or fork-lift truck.
Concrete Pipe Association of Great Britain, Brenchley, Tonbridge, Kent, United Kingdom, Sep. 1971. 22p. Illus.
Filling automobiles with liquefied natural gas - Transport, storage and filling safety regulations
Betanken von Kraftfahrzeugen mit verflüssigtem Erdgas - Sicherheitsbestimmungen für Transport, Lagerung und Umfüllvorgänge [en alemán]
ftgngIn view of the growing use of liquefied natural gas as an automobile fuel, the author reviews the Federal German regulations in this field, in particular: the compressed gas ordinance, the technical rules for compressed gases of the technical guidelines applicable to portable compressed gas cylinders, the labour ordinance and the injury prevention ordinance.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Nov. 1972, No.11, p.418-422. Illus. 7 ref.
(Ministère du travail, Ottawa)
Regulations respecting the hours of service for motor vehicle operators engaged in inter-provincial trade or the transportation of mail and the returns to be made by motor carriers (Canada motor vehicles operators hours of service regulations)
Règlement concernant la durée du service des conducteurs de véhicules automobiles occupés au commerce interprovincial ou au transport du courrier et les rapports exigés des transporteurs routiers (Règlement du Canada sur la durée du service des conducteurs de véhicules automobiles) [en francés]
Issued pursuant to the Canada Labour Code, Part IV (Safety of Employees), these regulations apply to the hours of service for motor vehicle operators engaged in inter-provincial trade or the transportation of mail (with certain exceptions such as disaster relief) and the returns to be made by motor carriers. Except in certain circumstances, operators must not commence a workshift without at least 8 consecutive hours of duty. Hours of service are limited on 10h driving and 10h total duty in a workshift to a maximum of 60h on duty during a work week, unless precluded by unusual operational requirements; mechanical failure, special cargoes; adverse road, traffic, weather conditions. Operators daily logs and carriers' records of operators' hours of service must be maintained. Replaced by CIS 86-1483.
Canada Gazette - Gazette du Canada, 25 Oct. 1972, Part II, Vol.106, No.20, p.1885-1895.
Safety training - Welding in motor vehicle repairs
This brochure lays down a syllabus of instruction on welding hazards and safe welding practices and recommends that this syllabus should form part of welding instruction courses. Individual sections are devoted to: United Kingdom legislation; personal protection; safety preparations before welding; hazards and precautions necessary when using gas welding and cutting equipment; manual metal-arc, tungsten inert-gas and metal inert-gas welding equipment; and health, explosion and fire hazards associated with vehicles and plant generally during welding operations. A short list is included.
Road Transport Industry Training Board, Capitol House, Empire Way, Wembley, Middlesex, HA9 ONG, United Kingdom, May 1972. 28p. Illus. 5 ref.
Industrial safety and health in road and railway construction
Ohrana truda v transportnom stroitel'stve [en ruso]
Contents: statutory safety provisions; safety organisation; dust, noise and vibration on construction sites; dust suppression and exhaust ventilation; lighting; electrical safety; industrial accidents and occupational diseases; personal protective equipment; accident prevention in construction and assembly work, welding, oxyacetylene cutting, loading and unloading; cranes and hoisting equipment; safe use of pressure vessels and transport vehicles; accident prevention in road and railway construction (earthmoving, elevated constructions, surfacing, erecting overhead transmission lines, laying underground cables, bridge construction, tunnelling, caisson work); accident prevention in underwater construction in inland waterway ports and seaports; safe personnel transportation.
Izdatel'stvo "Transport", Basmannyj tup. 6a, Moskva, USSR, 1972.
Noise-induced hearing loss in tractor drivers
Lawaaidoofheid bij trekkerbestuurders [en holandés]
Report on the audiometric examination of 101 agricultural tractor drivers carried out at the instigation of the Netherlands Agronomics and Rationalisation Institute in collaboration with the Netherlands Labour Inspectorate. The results are given in tabular form, accompanied by commentaries. Energetic action to reduce noise levels on tractors and to ensure the use of hearing protection equipment is recommended.
Instituut voor landbouwtechniek en rationalisatie, Mansholtlaan 12, Wageningen, Netherlands, Oct. 1972. 23p. Illus. 12 ref.
Air conditioning of drivers' cabins of mobile equipment
Zur Klimagestaltung in Kabinen mobiler Maschinen [en alemán]
Drivers' cabins should have as comfortable a microclimate as possible, particularly avoiding the physiological effects of extremes of heat or cold. An optimum compromise should be reached between the factors affecting the microclimate and the requirements of the job. This booklet reviews and compares the way in which drivers' cabins are constructed and equipment in different countries (present situation and trends). On account of the wide scope of the component factors connected with air conditioning, which raise various occupational health problems, no standards have yet been set for the design and testinf of air-conditioning equipment for drivers' cabins.
Arbeitshygienische Information - Bauwesen, 1972, Vol.8, No.4, p.75-90. 29 ref.
Tola S., Hernberg S., Nikkanen J.
Occupational lead exposure in Finland - II. Service stations and garages
Random blood samples were taken from 76 Helsinki service-station workers and 83 automobile repair-shop workers to measure the blood lead (Pb-B) levels, erythrocyte γ-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activities and haemoglobin values. The mean Pb-B of repair-shop workers (35µg/100mL) was higher than the mean Pb-B of service-station workers (21µg/100mL). Car-body workers had the highest mean Pb-B (46µg/100mL); the mean Pb-B in mechanics was 32µg/100mL and in car washers 17µg.100mL. In the petrol-tank filling personnel this value was 20µg/100mL. All these findings were in excess of the mean Pb-B of 10µg/100mL found in the general urban population of Helsiniki. The results are discussed in the light of lead exposure due to working methods.
Work - Environment - Health, 1972, Vol.9, No.3, p.102-105. 8 ref.
Dupuis H., Broicher H.A.
Measurement techniques for determining the stress imposed on man by vibrations
Techniques de mesure des vibrations auxquelles l'homme est exposé. [en francés]
French translation of: Messtechnishe Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Schwingbelastung des Menschen. Messtechnische Briefe, Darmstadt, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Apr. 1969, No.1, p.12-15. Illus. 13 ref. The authors first consider the basic parameters which must be understood in order to evaluate vibrations and then discuss the method of measuring vibration acceleration, and the mode and force of vibration. In discussing amplitude classifications as a method of evaluation, they present in a diagram the results of 438 driving tests on motor cars, earthmoving machines and tractors. A vibration range of 0.5-5m/s2 was recorded at the driver's seat. Frequency analysis is also briefly discussed.
Translation INRS 113 B-71, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1971, 14p. Illus. 13 ref.
Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung)
Ordinance on the land-transport employment of women [Federal Republic of Germany]
Verordnung über die Beschäftigung von Frauen auf Fahrzeugen [en alemán]
This ordinance (entry into force: 12 Dec. 1971) covers the employment of women and drivers of motor vehicles with more than 8 seats or a laden weight of over 3.5t, or as drivers of rail-bound vehicles. Requirements concerning medical examination, maintenance of medical certificates, vehicle condition and lifting and carrying are stipulated.
Bundesgesetzblatt, 11 Dec. 1971, Teil I, No.126, p.1957-1959
Notification of the Slovak Occupational Safety and Health Authority concerning the safe operation of road haulage vehicles [Czechoslovakia - Slovak Socialist Republic]
Výhláška Slovenského úřadu bezpečnosti práce ze dne 31, května 1971 o bezpečnosti práce při provozu silničníh vozidel [en checo]
This notification (entry into force: 1 Sep. 1971) stipulates the obligations of hauliers concerning driving, maintenance and repair of road haulage vehicles, hitching and unhitching of trailers, freight transport, etc. It stipulates work breaks for drivers and the appointment of auxiliary drivers under certain circumstances. The haulier is required to inform his workers of the contents of the notification and organise practical exercises at least once per year. Prior to employment and once a year thereafter, drivers must be tested on their knowledge of the statutory requirements.
Sbírka zákonů, 7 July 1971, No.15, p.262-270.
American National Standard specifications for protective headgear for vehicular users
Specifications are laid down as regards the design, materials, marking and testing of protective headgear for drivers and passengers of surface vehicles; eye and face protection is not covered. Tests to be conducted are set out in detail (impact attenuation, penetration resistance, and strength of the retention system and its attachment).
American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018, USA, 1971. 11p.
General safety rules - Part 2: Road [France]
Règlement général de sécurité - 2me partie: route [France] [en francés]
A compilation of safety requirements for a company "transport and handling" department. It is designed to provide the necessary information and training material needed for accident prevention and applies to driver-mounted vehicles, motorised and non-motorised 2-wheeled vehicles, and pedestrians. Individual sections are devoted to: general requirements; requirements concerning workers; requirements imposed by the road network; requirements for vehicles; load requirements; in-plant traffic rules. A review is given of the relevant French legislation concerning driver-mounted industrial trucks and the transport of workers.
Union des industries métallurgiques et minières, 56 avenue de Wagram, 75017 Paris, France, 1971. 68p. Illus.
Metal waste cans
This standard covers metal waste cans used in factories, garages, etc., for the temporary indoor storage of oily waste or rags and other similar combustible materials. Requirements include: minimum dimensions, form and assembly; materials, seams and joints; cover design and reinforcement, cover hinges and cover stops; foot-operated cover-lifting mechanism; can supports and handles; testing and markings.
Underwriters' Laboratories, 207 East Ohio Street, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, Nov. 1970. 18p. Illus.
Decreto de 1965 sobre seguridad en el trabajo (tractores y equipos móviles de construcción y obras públicas) [Nueva Guinea-Papúa]
Industrial Safety (Tractors and Earthmoving and Mobile Construction Equipment) Order 1965 [Papua New Guinea] [en inglés]
Reglamento relativo a la seguridad de utilización de tractores, maquinaria para el movimiento de tierras y otras máquinas utilizadas en la construcción, las obras públicas y los trabajos forestales, desarrollado de conformidad con la ley de 1961 sobre salud, seguridad y bienestar en el trabajo (ver CIS 92-4).
Internet copy, Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute, School of Law, PMB 072, University of the South Pacific, Port Vila, Vanuatu, 1965. 4p.
http://www.paclii.org/pg/legis/consol_act/isaeamceo1965821/ [en inglés]
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