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- Waste collection and disposal
Irlweck K., Streit S.
Urinary 90Sr concentration in occupationally exposed and nonexposed persons in Austria.
Results of a 2-year study (quarterly urinalysis) in workers handling low-level radioactive wastes are reported. 90Sr concentrations were generally 0.5-5.OpCi/l. Results were higher in 2 workers involved in accidental dispersion of waste material. Concentrations were below 2pCi/l in all non-exposed persons.
Health Physics, July 1979, Vol.37, No.1, p.163-165. 6 ref.
Žiharev M.V., Kostrikov V.I.
Neutralisation of gaseous effluents in paint shops
Obezvreživanie ventiljacionnyh vybrosov pokrasočnyh učastkov [en ruso]
Description of some methods for the elimination of organic substances (in particular solvents) contained in these effluents: low-temperature catalytic combustion, high-temperature post-combustion and adsorption on activated carbon, followed by thermal desorption and post-combustion. An economic advantage of post-combustion lies in the fact that existing industrial furnaces can be used.
Mašinostroitel', Mar. 1979, No.3, p.29. Illus.
Council Directive of 20 March 1978 on toxic and dangerous waste [European Communities]
Directive du Conseil, du 20 mars 1978, relative aux déchets toxiques et dangereux [Communautés européennes] [en francés]
This directive specifies the measures that Member States shall take in order to ensure that toxic and dangerous waste is disposed of without endangering human health and without harming the environment. A list of certain toxic or dangerous substances and materials selected as requiring priority consideration is given in annex.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 31 Mar. 1978, Vol.21, No.L.84, p.43-48.
Toxic organic chemicals - Destruction and waste treatment.
Many current and possible methods of treating polluted solids, liquids or air are described. The book is intended for industrial personnel, pollution control engineers, facilities planners and designers, Government personnel, chemicals producers, equipment manufacturers and teachers and students. The chapters cover: risk-benefit assessment, hazardous incidents and legislative responses; toxic organic chemicals definition; methods of destruction and detoxification; separations technology for waste treatment; generation and dissemination of wastes; pesticide production; organic chemicals production; petroleum refining; polymers and plastics production; textile manufacturing; coal conversion; and detailed waste treatment designs and costs of the polychlorinated biphenyls pollution problem.
Noyes Data Corporation, Mill Road at Grand Avenue, Park Ridge, N.J. 07656, USA, 15 May 1978. 317p. Illus. Price: US-$42.00.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - Disposal and marking.
These new regulations (entry into force: 18 Apr. 1978), dated 8 Feb. 1978, apply to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use or disposal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). They establish procedures, methods and other requirements for disposal, storage and marking of PCBs. Sections refer to: definitions; disposal of PCBs; marking of PCBs. Annexes deal with incineration; chemical waste landfills; storage and disposal; decontamination; marking formats; and records and monitoring. The regulations are preceded by explanations of the final text.
Federal Register, 17 Feb. 1978, Vol.43, No.34, p.7150-7164. Illus. 95 ref.
Kinsey J.S., Keen R.C., Mumford C.J.
A preliminary survey of the hazards to operators engaged in the disposal of asbestos waste.
The Asbestosis Research Council's recommendations for collection and tipping of asbestos waste are summarised. Fibre concentrations of 38 samples taken at 8 landfill sites are given. Other observations made during the visits are reported: compliance with the Code of Practice for the handling and disposal of asbestos waste materials; supervision; protective clothing; other facilities.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, July 1977, Vol.20, No.1, p.85-89. 8 ref.
Safety requirements for the stability of refuse bins.
This standard applies to certain types of refuse bins which are unloaded by mechanical means into the hopper of the collection vehicle. Requirements to prevent inadvertent tipping cover: vertical hanging weight, horizontal pull force, centre of gravity. Conditions for compliance testing to meet the above requirements are described in detail. Provisions concerning safety markings and manufacturer's and owner's responsibility.
ANSI Z245.3-1977, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 2 Dec. 1976. 16p. Illus. Price: US-$4.00.
Notification No.3/1977 on prevention of hazards of compacting devices fitted on certain types of garbage trucks
Meddelelse nr. 3/1977 om sikkerhedsforanstaltninger ved komprimeringsanlæg på visse typer af renovationsbiler [en danés]
The compactors to which these directives apply must be in conformity with the Danish machinery guarding regulations, and be fitted with a nameplate showing the maximum operating load, the manufacturer or importer, etc.; operating instructions must be written in Danish. Measures to prevent crushing by moving parts of the lifting-tipping and compacting elements: location of controls at a point from which these elements are visible; sheathing of push-buttons against inadvertent release; interlock between the lifting and compacting controls; prohibition of setscrews, etc.
M nr.3/1977, Directorate of Labour Inspection, (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2400 København, Denmark, 7 Feb. 1977. 4p. Gratis.
Hansson J.E., Klusell L.
An ergonomic study of carting and carrying refuse bags
Ergonomiska specialstudier av kärrning och bärning av sopor [en sueco]
Results of observations made on 8 dustmen to determine maximum weight of filled refuse bags, space requirements, access routes to, and facilities for stepping onto and dismounting from refuse trucks. The factors affecting strenuousness of the work included weight of the filled bag (maximum 35kg); centre of gravity of the bag; movement up and down stairs; carrying refuse bags by hand or using trolleys; ease of getting in and out of the truck. Recommendations are made for carting, carrying and design of access to and egress from the trucks. English summary.
Undersökningsrapport 1977:9, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1977. 46p. Illus. 15 ref.
How to remove pollutants and toxic materials from air and water.
This handbook, based on data in US patents, provides practical information on methods and means of controlling pollutants from industrial processes. Pollutants are covered in 292 sections arranged in alphabetical order; each section presents the processes available to remove and occasionally recover the substances from air, water and waste materials. Examples of some applications are given.
Noyes Data Corporation, Noyes Building, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656, USA, 1977. 621p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US-$48.00.
Occupational safety and health in undertakings for the collection and treatment of household refuse
Hygiène et sécurité dans les entreprises de collecte et de traitement des résidus urbains. [en francés]
MD thesis. General considerations on household refuse (definition and composition; garbage collecting, transport, treatment processes, recycling); review of recognised occupational and occupation-associated diseases (tetanus, leptospirosis, dermatosis, ear, nose, throat and lung disease, backache, low back pain, gastric disorders) contracted by garbage collectors and workers engaged in refuse composting, comminution, incineration, etc. Some of these diseases have practically disappeared with progress in hygiene, and the number of accidents has decreased due to mechanisation and automation. The most hazardous operations remaining are: refuse sorting (cuts, pricks, nips) and collecting (muscular overstrain, elongation, traffic accidents). The last part of the thesis gives the results of a statistical survey of occupational accident trends in a refuse processing plant at Lille (France) (comparison with data from other French cities and France as a whole).
Faculté de médecine de Lille, Lille, France, 1976. 123p. 48 ref.
Department of the Environment, London.
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes.
This technical memorandum and code of practice contains sections on: properties of PCBs; chemical and biochemical degradation; trade names of PCBs; industrial processes giving rise to PCB waste; acute and chronic toxicity in man; disposal methods; handling procedures, labelling, storage and containment, contamination (cleanliness, housekeeping); use of alternative materials (in transformers and capacitors for fluorescent light fittings and motors).
Waste Management Paper No.6, H.M. Stationery Office, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Sep. 1976. 19p. 6 ref. Price: £0.57.
Notification No.29/1976 concerning occupational safety in the use of mechanical conveyors for manure removal
Meddelelse nr. 29/1976 om sikkerhedsforanstaltninger ved udmugningsanlæg [en danés]
These directives (entry into force: 1 July 1977) prescribe the following safety measures for scraper (chain or bar) conveyors for the mechanical removal of manure from cowsheds, pigstyes, etc.: fixed guards on all mechanical parts where there is a crushing hazard; location of on/off control at a point where the entire installation is visible; safe distances and bevelling of scraper ends to eliminate crushing zones; bevelling of conveyor bars to avoid jamming or packing of solid manure and litter; design of walkways above the conveyor; protection against falls, etc.
Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbejdstilsynet), Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2400 København, Denmark, 21 Dec. 1976. 12p. Illus. Gratis.
Notification No.20/1976 concerning incineration plants
Meddelelse nr.20/1976 om forbrændingsanlæg [en danés]
These directives, which replace Communication M1/1971 (CIS 72-728), lay down occupational safety and health rules for incineration plants: protection of drivers of garbage trucks and personnel discharging the contents (ventilation; guard wall around silo rim; prohibited area around silo rim (safe distance: 3m); in the case of manual unloading the upper edge of the furnace feed hopper must be at least 1.1m above the level of the working platform); cleaning work (access to silo floor, ventilation, etc.); heat protection during furnace cleaning; dust control during slag extraction; emergency lighting in case of electricity supply failure; fencing of plant; toilets.
M 20/1976, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2100 København, Denmark, 20 Sep. 1976. 9p. Gratis.
Rufener-Press C., Bahy M., Voinier B., Rey P.
Chronic bronchitis and risk factors among Geneva street cleaners
Bronchite chronique et facteurs de risque chez les employés de la voirie à Genève. [en francés]
Questionnaire survey and measurement of peak expiratory flow among 429 employees (mainly street cleaners) of the City of Geneva sanitation department. Risk factors studied: age; smoking habits; previous history of broncho-pulmonary disease; occupational exposure. Results obtained: prevalence of chronic bronchitis is almost 3 times higher among street cleaners (13%) than among the active population in general (5%). Smoking alone plays an important role in the onset and aggrevation of chronic respiratory symptoms, whereas exposure to weather conditions and air pollution is apparently not enough by itself to cause an increase in the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms among the sample populations surveyed. The authors draw the conclusion that the prevalence of chronic bronchitis among street cleaners is due to a combination of 3 risk factors: cigarette smoking; previous history of chest disease; occupational exposure to inclement weather and air pollution.
Revue d'épidémiologie et de santé publique, Mar.-Apr. 1976, Vol.24, No.2, p.141-150. Illus. 9 ref.
Safety requirements for refuse collection and compaction equipment.
This standard, co-sponsored by the American Public Works Association and the National Solid Wastes Management Association, applies to mobile and stationary equipment for receiving, compacting, transporting and unloading refuse. General definitions and definitions of equipment are followed by requirements concerning the construction, reconstruction, modification, care and maintenance, and operation of this equipment. Sections are devoted to safeguards and features for mobile equipment and for stationary compaction equipment (access covers; access door interlock; compactor container locking mechanism; controls; electrical systems; guarding; locking system; safety markings).
ANSI Z245.1-1975, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA. Standard approved on 16 Oct. 1975. 23p. Illus. Price: US-$4.50.
Occupational safety in household garbage incineration plants
Sécurité du travail dans les installations d'incinération des ordures ménagères. [en francés]
Translation of: Arbeitsschutz in Müllverbrennungsanlagen. Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Heidelberg, Germany (Fed.Rep.), Jan. 1975, Vol.25, No.1, p.15-19. 7 ref. Description of technical (dust prevention, dumping bins, burner, incinerator, extinguishers, belt conveyors, explosion hazard from inflammable gas, etc.) and medical preventive measures (personnel action (pre-employment examinations, etc.), effect of dust and odours, poisoning hazard, etc.) and hazards involved in repairing plant.
Traduction INRS 76 B-75, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1975. 11p. 7 ref.
Chaumont A.J., Fournillou J.C., Mehl J.
Collection of garbage and waste - Occupational hazards
La collecte des ordures et déchets, ses risques professionnels. [en francés]
General background information on garbage collecting, past and present, is followed by a definition of the concept of household garbage and a brief description of various methods of garbage collection (traditional non-enclosed method, modern hermetically enclosed method). Comments on the results of national and regional accident statistics involving garbage collectors, which are broken down into 3 categories: accidents due to equipment used, traffic accidents and accidents due to miscellaneous causes. Falls, slips, accidents due to the mechanism for lifting stardardised dustbins and injuries to the hands were all frequent. Recommended preventive measures: general extension of the hermetically enclosed method; guarding of sharp edges and angles of garbage trucks; wearing of protective gloves, non-skid shoes, luminescent clothing; safety training.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, July-Aug. 1975, Vol.36, No.7-8, p.429-434.
Keen R.C., Mumford C.J.
A preliminary study of hazards to toxic waste disposal operators on ten landfill sites in Britain.
Introductory general analysis: 70% of toxic waste is disposed of on sites operated by the waste producer, 5% is dealt with by local authorities, and 25% by contractors; the extent of the hazards involved in the United Kingdom is estimated; list of materials for which notification was made; facilities at typical sites; review of potential operator hazards (chemical, physical, mechanical, infective). The report itself deals with site conditions (measurement of noise, gases and vapours, and general atmosphere); results of sampling of materials; summary of interviews with 25 workers (protection provided; accounts of incidents involving hazadous situations or irresponsible conduct). Preliminary conclusions are drawn, and recommendations for measures at official and operation levels made.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1975, Vol.18, No.3, p.213-228. Illus. 21 ref.
Destruction of unusable explosives in mining regulations
Vernichten unbrauchbarer Sprengmittel aus der Sicht der bergbehördlichen Bestimmungen [en alemán]
Review of the development of technology and regulations applicable to the destruction of unusable explosives in the Fed.Rep. of Germany. Experience gained by explosives manufacturers has led to the use of combustion as the commonest method. Accidents have however occurred, necessitating special regulations in the interest of users without experience in destruction of explosives. The Directives issued in 1975 by the Hessen Mines Authority are examined. They prescribe detonation as the chief method of destroying explosives. However, the solution most to be recommended is return of the material to the supplier.
Nobel Hefte, July-Sep. 1975, Vol.41, No.3, p.81-88. 19 ref.
Toxic and hazardous industrial chemicals safety manual.
This manual covers 702 substances, listed alphabetically (with cross-reference index) and includes data on: formulae, synonyms, uses, physical properties, hazard criteria (flash and ignition points, melting and boiling points, vapour pressure, explosibility limits, vapour density, etc.), toxicity criteria (threshold limit values LD50, LC50, etc.), handling and storage (precautions, safety devices, hazardous reaction data), emergency treatment and measures (safety measures, fire precautions, first aid, fire fighting, extinguishing chemicals and techniques), spills and leakage treatment, and disposal and waste treatment.
International Technical Information Institute, Toranomon-Tachikawa Building, 6-5, 1 Chome Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, 1975. 591p. Price: US-$65.00.
Whitcher C., Piziali R., Sher R., Moffat R.J.
Development and evaluation of methods for the elimination of waste anesthetic gases and vapors in hospitals.
The sources and atmospheric distribution of trace concentrations of inhalation anaesthetics in the operating theatre are discussed. Scavenging systems (collection of waste gases at the anaesthetic breathing system and disposal procedures) are outlined, and recommendations made for "low-leakage" practices by the anaesthetist, equipment maintenance, and an air monitoring programme to establish the efficacy of the control measures. Careful application will yield an air concentration in the operating theatre of <30ppm nitrous oxide and <0.5ppm halothane. Appendices: fundamentals of physiology, anaesthetic techniques and agents, breathing systems, and test lung; diffusion leakage; distribution of waste gases in air; diagrams and pressure-flow relationships of scavenging components; gas analysis and calibration techniques.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)75-137, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, May 1975. 123p. Illus. 60 ref.
An explosion safety device in a plant for grinding household garbage and industrial waste
Explosionsschutzeinrichtung für Müllzerkleinerungsanlagen [en alemán]
Certain materials contained in household garbage or industrial waste may sometimes explode in grinding plant, due to sparks occurring in the grinding mechanism. This article describes a system for preventing explosions which can be adapted to this type of plant, composed of pressure detectors and extinguishers. Evaluation of the degree of extinguishing potential was made on the basis of the degree of flame formation at the plant intake and outlet.
TÜ, June 1975, Vol.16, No.6, p.172-174. Illus.
Explosion tests in a refuse comminution plant
Explosionsversuche in einer Müllzerkleinerungsanlage [en alemán]
The presence of combustible dusts and gases is likely in refuse comminution plants. Since metal elements also enter such plants, a gas or dust explosion hazard from sparks must be borne in mind. A study of explosions in closed containers and of safety measures is followed by a report on 3 series of tests in a refuse comminution plant. An explosion extinguishing barrier was developed which within certain limiting conditions reduces the explosion hazard to an acceptable level. Details are given of the installation of such an extinguishing unit, and suggestions made for the general operating safety of refuse comminution plants.
Forschungsbericht Nr.124, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Martener Strasse 435, 46 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1974. 42p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: DM.6.80.
Safety and hygiene in household garbage incinerating plants
La sécurité et l'hygiène dans l'incinération des ordures ménagères. [en francés]
Describes the hazards encountered and methods of protection which should be adopted in old and new incinerator plants at each stage of the process: waste tipping (vehicles falling into garbage dumps, dust raised); loading the incinerators (dust, exposure to cold, microbes, operating cranes and hoists); incineration process (burns, explosions, smoke release). In modern incineration plants the trend is to avoid exposing the worker to these hazards, particularly by automation of the various operations.
Regional Sickness Insurance Fund for the North of France (Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France), 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 1974. 9p. 1 ref. Gratis.
Explosion in a garbage incineration plant
Räjähdys jätteenpolttolaitoksella [en finlandés]
Investigation of a methane explosion with happened in a Finnish garbage incineration plant, causing 4 fatalities. The methane produced in a garbage composting unit located near the incineration plant was evacuated through a pipeline which had been dug in the earth. The loose backfill earth had been tamped with the aid of vibrated tampers which caused the pipeline to bend, break and leak. The methane which escaped from the leak penetrated into the incineration plant and an explosion followed.
Ehkäise tapaturmia - Förebygg olycksfall, 1974, No.1, p.20. Illus.
Automatic control on certain garbage collecting trucks
Automatik på vissa sophämtningsbilar [en sueco]
Certain types of garbage-collecting trucks equipped with a garbage-compacting mechanism have caused injuries to workers whose hands or arms were caught when pressing the compactor control button. To prevent this type of accident, the following measures must be taken: the automatic control cycle must be activated only after the edges of the dust bin and the compactor plate have passed each other and are at least 100mm apart; the adjusting screw of the automatic control switch must be safely locked and made inaccessible; the start button must be flush with the truck body to avoid accidental operation; movable parts must be well visible from the operator's platform.
Meddelanden 1974:5, National Occupational Safety and Health Board (Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, Stockholm 34, Sweden, 21 Jan. 1974. 2p.
Recommendation No.107, National Joint Technical Committee for Transport and Materials Handling (Comité technique national des transports et de la manutention), Paris, 23 Nov. 1973.
Urban refuse collection
Collecte des déchets urbains. [en francés]
Enumeration of protective measures to be taken by urban refuse collection undertakings (equipment of vehicles and personnel, work organisation). The provisions of the Decree of 4 July 1972 concerning special lights for slow-moving vehicles are appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1974, No.74, Note No.889-74-74, p.147-148.
Onishi N., Nomura H.
Low back pain in relation to physical work capacity and local tenderness.
The authors compare the incidence of low-back pain and a variety of physical parameters in garbage-men with data from 20 years ago, and with present findings in teachers of disabled children. In spite of marked general improvements in physique, back muscle strength is considerably lower in garbage-men than 20 years ago, and 36.9% have experienced disturbing low-back pain. The rate was 49% and 59% in male and female teachers of handicapped children, respectively. Low-back pain in teachers correlated with poorer back muscle strength. After a review of the literature, the authors conclude that the different type of physical effort in these two groups of workers may play different roles in the causation of low-back pain.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 1973, Vol.2, No.2, p.119-132. Illus. 27 ref.
Pollutant removal handbook.
This handbook, based largely on data contained in U.S. patents and government reports, provides a wealth of practical information on methods and means of controlling pollutants from industrial processes. Pollutants are dealt with in 128 sections arranged in alphabetical order; each section presents in concise form the various processes available to remove and occasionally also recover pollutants from air, water and industrial waste materials. Examples of applications are given in a few instances.
Noyes Data Corporation, Mill Road at Grand Avenue, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656, USA, 1973. 527p. Illus. 922 ref. Price: US-$36.00.
Pollution control in metal finishing.
Data from U.S. government sources relevant to the major processes available for treating waste products in the metal finishing industry are presented and explained by examples from 49 U.S. patents. Topics dealth with include: current practices in small electroplating plants; characteristics, economic aspects and treatment of metal-finishing wastewaters (chemical, physical and other methods); in-plant control measures; removal from water of acids, alkalis, metals, cyanides, fluorides, paint, etc.; foundry waste treatment; treatment of pickling liquors; air pollution problems and control connected with electroplating, surface coating and paint baking. Future trends are outlined.
Pollution technology review No.5, Noyes Data Corporation, Mill Road at Grand Avenue, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656, USA, 1973. 295p. Illus. 224 ref. Price: US-$36.00.
Koziorowski B., Kucharski J.
Industrial waste disposal
A review of the general problem of disposing industrial wastes into water courses and what can be done to treat waste adequately before disposal. Individual chapters are devoted to: the degree of treatment required for industrial wastes; effect of industrial wastes upon sewers and municipal treatment plants; methods and equipment for industrial waste treatment; the problem of detergents; corrosion problems in waste treatment plants; flotation enrichment of lead-zinc ores; the iron and steel industry; chemical and electrochemical metal-treatment processes; coal mining, the gas and coke industry; the alkali industry; removal of sulfides and hydrogen sulfide from industrial wastes and mine waters; mineral acids industry; fertiliser industry; inorganic pigments (paints) industry; radioactive wastes.
Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 OX3, United Kingdom, Mar. 1972. 369p. Illus. 486 ref.
Laboratory waste disposal manual.
This revised edition covers some 1,200 chemical compounds. The following data are set out for each compound in chart form under the headings: name and chemical formula; waste disposal procedure (according to an appended classification); threshold limit values; numerical identification of fire, health and reactivity hazards (according to the National Fire Protection Association classification); specific gravity, vapour density, flash point, ignition temperature, flammability or explosivity limits in air, boiling point, melting point, solubility in water, other solvents; bibliographical references. The disposal procedure charts indicate for each chemical group: protective equipment to be worn, treatment of spills, packaging instructions and examples of the substances in the group. Similar information is given for recovery procedures.
Manufacturing Chemists Association, 1825 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, USA, Nov. 1972. 176p. 41 ref. Price: US-$3.50.
Sources of pollution and air purification in animal-carcass destruction plants
Emissionsquellen und Massnahmen zur Luftreinhaltung in Tierkörperbeseitigungsanstalten [en alemán]
Having indicated the atmospheric pollution sources and the problems of work organisation in animal carcass destruction plants, the author deals with engineering methods for the reduction and dissipation of emissions: chemical absorption, scrubbing, thermal combustion, catalytic combustion, condensation. It is concluded that scrubbing and combustion are proven methods.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Sep. 1972, Vol.22, No.9, p.259-264. 14 ref.
Freeman T.W., Oppold J.A.
Mercury hazard and its control during operation of fluorescent tube breakers
The use of commercial tube breakers to crush large numbers of fluorescent tubes for easier disposal was found to produce potentially hazardous mercury concentrations in the air surrounding the operator. These breakers consist of rotating hammers driven by a motor and mounted on a large steel drum equipped with a cloth dust-collecting bag. Each fluorescent tube contains 50mg of elemental mercury, and mercury vapour concentrations reached more than 1mg/m3 near the bag (more than 20 times the TLV). It is recommended that the dust collecting bag be replaced by an adequate local exhaust system, or that the tube breaker be located outdoors, away from occupied areas. Advice is also provided for the safe disposal of broken tubes.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1972, Vol.33, No.6, p.419-422. Illus.
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