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- Waste collection and disposal
Occupational safety and health guidance manual for hazardous waste site activities
Aspects covered in this illustrated manual: identification of hazards; planning and organisation; training of workers; medical programme; site characterisation; air monitoring; personal protective equipment; site control; decontamination; handling drums and other containers; site emergencies.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Oct. 1985. 102p. Illus. Appendices. 48 ref.
Dokter T., Brunink J.P., Eggelte H., Kramer Th.
Chlorine container experiment
Investigation of the effects of destroying a 1000kg chlorine cylinder lost at sea and residing at a depth of 25m. Experiments showed that the container could be destroyed safely by an explosive charge provided that a circular area around the source with a radius of about 10km be cleared of ships.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1985, Vol.12, No.1, p.11-26. Illus. 4 ref.
Levine S.P., Costello R.J., Geraci C.L., Conlin K.A.
Air monitoring at the drum bulking process of a hazardous waste remedial action site
Evaluation of inhalation hazards during the clean-up of hazardous waste sites. Airborne contaminant concentrations (acids, amines, PCBs, PNAs, pesticides, volatile organics) at the EPA Chemdyne cleanup site in Hamilton, Ohio, USA, were well below permissible exposure limits. Results, sampling and analytical methodology are provided in table form.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1985, Vol.46, No.4, p.192-196. Illus. 7 ref.
Castegnaro M., Malaveille C., Brouet I., Michelon J., Barek J.
Destruction of aromatic amines in laboratory wastes through oxidation with potassium permanganate/sulfuric acid into non-mutagenic derivatives
Description of the experimental conditions for the complete degradation of 9 aromatic amines (benzidine; o-tolidine; o-dianisidine; 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine; 4-aminobiphenyl; 1- and 2-naphthylamine; 4,4' - methylene bis(2-chloroaniline); m-toluenediamine). The corresponding degradation products were found to be non-mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1985, Vol.46, No.4, p.187-191. Illus. 23 ref.
Lunn G., Sansone E.B.
Validation of techniques for the destruction of dimethyl sulfate
The efficiency of the technique for neutralising dimethyl sulfate (DMS) based on the degradation of DMS with NaOH (1mol/L), sodium carbonate (1mol/L) or ammonium hydroxide (1.5mol/L) solutions has been tested and confirmed. Complete destruction times for DMS in several solvants are given. Reaction products were methanol or methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamine.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1985, Vol.46, No.3, p.111-114. 20 ref.
Castegnaro M., Alvarez M., Iovu M., Sansone E.B., Telling G.M., Williams D.T.
Descontaminación de los laboratorios y destrucción de las sustancias cancerígenas contenidas en los residuos que en ellos se generan: algunos éteres halogenados
Laboratory decontamination and destruction of carcinogens in laboratory wastes: Some haloethers [en inglés]
Temas tratados: éter metílico de clorometilo; éter bis (clorometílico); CIRC; control de la polución; descripción técnica; eliminación de residuos peligrosos; éteres halogenados; manuales; sustancias cancerígenas; trabajos de laboratorio.
Centre international de Recherche sur le Cancer (CIRC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, Francia, 1984. 53p. Ilus. 77 ref.
Mohammed-Brahim B., Mokhtari L., Mokhtari Z.
Intestinal parasite infection among municipal cleaners in the city of Oran (Algeria)
Les parasitoses intestinales chez les travailleurs du service communal de nettoiement de la ville d'Oran [en francés]
Comparative study involving 223 exposed workers and 230 controls. Findings: the prevalence of intestinal parasite infection is significantly higher among the exposed group than among the controls; infection is not significantly related to the nature of the work (sewer workers, loaders, sweepers) or to length of service. Infection rate for each parasite is higher among the exposed workers than among the controls.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.4, p.255-257. Illus. 7 ref.
Disposal of potentially contaminated animal wastes
This data sheet outlines the planning and procedures necessary for the safe handling and disposal of animal wastes encountered in biomedical laboratories, veterinary, clinical, research or teaching institutions and animal quarantine units.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, Rev. 1984. 4p. 12 ref.
Hazards and toxic materials: Safe handling and disposal
Contents: laboratory work; toxicity; fires and explosions; personal protective equipment; respiratory protective equipment; legislation, regulations and implementation; dioxin, dibenzofurans and related compounds; medical care and surveillance programme for hazardous waste workers.
John Wiley & Sons Limited, Distribution Centre, Shripney, Bognor Regis, West Sussex, United Kingdom, 1984. Illus. 296p. Index. Bibl. Price: £35.80.
Hazardous waste site clean-up: A 'hot' problem
A programme is described for the protection of workers involved in clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. Planning, preparation, training, emergency procedures and appropriate levels of protection for known and unknown hazards are discussed.
National Safety News, July 1984, Vol.130, No.1, p.38-41. Illus.
Kemper H.C.G., van Aalst R., Jongert T., Rijks G., Verschuur R.
Study of the work load of domestic garbage collectors at Haarlem
Onderzoek naar de arbeidsbelasting van Haarlemse huisvuilbeladers [en holandés]
Study carried out with a view to evaluating organisational changes in garbage collection (once a week only instead of twice a week before, replacement of dust bins by polyethylene bags): 10 garbage collectors were selected and subjected to ergometric tests (measurement of maximum pulling strength, maximum aerobic endurance, heart rate and oxygen uptake). The results of these laboratory tests and of measurements made during actual garbage collection in 2 Netherlands towns under different conditions are given. A comparison of the results reveals that none of the garbage collectors exceeded the maximum permissible weight of 15kg per throw, and that there were no obvious differences in heart rate between the 2 towns.
Tijdschrift voor sociale gezondheidszorg, 15 Aug. 1984, Vol.62, No.16, p.635-641. Illus. 14 ref.
Eisenhower B.M., Oakes T.W., Braunstein H.M.
Hazardous materials management and control program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Environmental protection
This programme provides the personnel of a large research establishment in the USA with specific guidelines for the procurement, use, storage, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. It ensures that employees, the general public and the environment are protected according to US regulations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1984, Vol.45, No.4, p.212-221. Illus. 21 ref.
Legislative and regulatory texts: conditions of work, occupational safety and health; prevention of technical hazards, fire, environmental protection, list of safety equipment suppliers
Textes législatifs et réglementaires: conditions de travail, sécurité, hygiène; prévention des risques techniques, incendie, protection de l'environnement, répertoire des fournisseurs de la sécurité [en francés]
This special issue follows that of July-Aug. 1983 (CIS 83-2093). It provides a consolidation of OSH laws and regulations published in France between June 1983 and June 1984. The texts are grouped into: (A) Conditions of work, safety and health: occupational accidents, the workplace air, noise, OSH committees, lighting, training, institutions representing employees, rights of workers, occupational diseases, industrial medicne; (B) prevention of technical risks; agriculture, pressure vessels, construction, electricity, building site machinery, gas installations, lifting and handling, machines, radioactive substances, mines and quarries; ionising radiation, dangerous substances, aerial ropeways and cables, agricultural and forestry tractors; (c) fires; (D) protection of the environment; (E) measuring instruments, standardisation; safety equipment suppliers.
Revue de la sécurité, July-Aug. 1984, Vol.20, No.213, p.6-181. Illus.
Guidelines for developing a wastewater safety program
Manual for managers. Contents: suggestions for writing a safety programme, development of management policy, safe design of the wastewater system, safety training, safety promotion, how to conduct an accident investigation, safety inspections. The manual is intended for use by the individual responsible for the safety effort, and should be used in conjuntion with other sources of safety information (32 sources are cited).
Water Pollution Control Federation, 601 Wythe Street, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA, 1983. 44p. Illus. 32 ref. Index.
Safety and health in wastewater systems
This manual is intended for operators, managers and others responsible for employee safety and health. It describes industry practices and recent safety procedures applicable to the wastewater industry. Its loose-leaf format is intended to allow users to insert additional materials where appropriate and to customise the manual's contents to fit the conditions at a given wastewater facility. Contents: general considerations, safety and occupational health programmes, personal protective apparel and equipment, a guide for safe practices in treatment plant operations, a guide for safe practices in maintenance operations, a guide for safe practices in laboratory operations, a guide for safe practices in confined spaces and for the use of gases, toxic and hazardous materials in wastewater systems, emergency procedures. A glossary defines 29 terms.
Water Pollution Control Federation, 601 Wythe Street, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA, 1983. 106p. Illus. Bibl.
Castegnaro M., Benard M., van Broekhoven L.W., Fine D., Massey R., Sansone E.B., Smith P.L.R., Spiegelhalder B., Stacchini A., Telling G., Vallon J.J.
Laboratory decontamination and destruction of carcinogens in laboratory wastes: some N-nitrosoamides
Although previously published methods for the destruction of nitrosamines also degrade nitrosamides, the products in the latter case may be carcinogenic or otherwise harmful. This report gives safe methods of destruction of 5 representative nitrosamides: N-nitroso-N-methylurea, N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, N-nitroso-N-methylurethane, N-nitroso-N-ethylurethane and N-nitroso-N'-nitro-N-methylguanidine.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1983. 65p. 61 ref. Price: US$10.00; SF.20.00.
HM Scientific Consultants
The disposal of hazardous wastes
Contents of this monograph on the disposal of hazardous wastes: general aspects of the problem in the United Kingdom; the effects of relevant legislation; industrial hazardous wastes management; major methods for the disposal of hazardous wastes; disposal of radioactive wastes; the disposal of laboratory wastes (including, particularly, the spillage of laboratory chemicals and the disposal of infected equipment and substances).
Science Reviews, 28 High Ash Drive, Leeds LS17 8RA, United Kingdom, and 707 Foulk Road, Suite 102, Wilmington, DE 19803, USA, 1983. 104p. 98 ref. Price: £6.50 (United Kingdom), US$12.00 (USA).
Castegnaro M., Ellen G., Lafontaine M., van der Plas H.C., Sansons E.B., Tucker S.P.
Laboratory decontamination and destruction of carcinogens in laboratory wastes: some hydrazines
This monograph covers: hydrazine, methylhydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, procarbazine hydrochloride. Four reagents are proposed for eliminating the carcinogenic potential of these compounds: nickel-aluminium alloys in potassium hydroxide solution; potassium permanganate in aqueous sulfuric acid; potassium iodate; hypochlorites.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1983. 95p. 140 ref. Price: SF.20.00.
Šelygin B.L., Bahirev V.I., Gudzjuk V.L.
Safe burnerless combustion of highly flammable liquid wastes from petrochemical production
Bezforsunočnoe ognevoe obezvreživanie legkovosplamenjajuščihsja othodov neftehimičeskih proizvodstv [en ruso]
Wastes such as piperylene fractions can be burned in an air-lift combustion chamber at a rate of 700-4000kg/h. The waste can contain up to 10% water and 5% solids. Contaminated wastewater can be fed to the chamber along with combustion waste. Complete combustion is assured by feeding air to the incinerator at 3 levels. Diagrams, specifications and descriptive equations of the incinarator are given.
Himičeskaja promyšlennost', 1983, No.11, p.22-24. Illus. 6 ref.
Vehicle-mounted trash compactors
Sopkomprimeringsaggregat på fordon [en sueco]
This notification (effective 1 July 1985) applies to compactors which are fed by a pusher and which have fixed or moving hoppers to receive trash. It requires that all garbage trucks which present a crushing hazard during loading or feeding be equipped with manual controls, and that the controls be protected against accidental operation.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 25 Nov. 1983. 7p.
Armand B., Carlsson E., Jonsson R.
Working conditions in the handling of faecal matter - Bases for the development of regulations
Arbetsmiljö vid latrinhantering - Underlag för föreskriftsarbete [en sueco]
Report on the exposure to potentially harmful factors (microorganisms, chemicals, gases, dust, accident agencies) of workers who collect faecal matter (at vacation homes, campsites, etc.) and process it. Contents: technical matters (containers for collection and transport; processing, e.g., waste-site dumping, sewage cleaning, composting; container-handling equipment; logistics of collection and transport); description of working conditions during different phases of handling (collection of containers on trucks or boats, processing with screw separators, presses, grinders, etc.); disinfectants; bacteriological sampling.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 46p. 17 ref.
Decker D.W., Clark C.S., Elia V.J., Kominsky J.R., Trapp J.H.
Worker exposure to organic vapors at a liquid chemical waste incinerator
The incineration unit surveyed employed a rotary kiln and a cyclone furnace (liquid injection) with a common combustion chamber to burn liquid industrial chemical wastes in tank truck quantities. Benzene, butanone, toluene and xylene were selected for monitoring. Personal and area sampling with charcoal tubes followed by gas chromatographic analysis was used for the evaluation. Exposure was well below the action level (50% of TLV) for all compounds tested except benzene (NIOSH standard). The tasks with the highest exposure were the cleaning of pump strainers, benzene distillation in the laboratory and storage tank entry.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1983, Vol.44, No.4, p.296-300. Illus. 6 ref.
Des Rosiers P.E.
Remedial measures for wastes containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs): destruction, containment or process modification
Destruction measures discussed are photolysis, microbiological techniques, incineration (land-based, at-sea), chemical methods (alkaline dehydrochlorination, catalytic reduction with iron chlorides, catalytic oxidation with ruthenium tetroxide, micellar catalysis with chloroiodides, chlorolysis), landfill. Alternative manufacturing processes for 2,4,5-trichlorophenol are discussed on account of the risk of reactor explosions.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1983, Vol.27, No.1, p.57-72. Illus. 51 ref.
Doby J.M., Guiguen C., Duval J.M., Deunff J.
Intestinal parasitosis in sewer workers
Les parasitoses intestinales chez les égoutiers [en francés]
The faeces of 80 municipal workers (sewer cleaners, street cleaners, sewage treatment personnel, etc.) and of 300 controls were examined. The risk of faecal contamination was much higher in the municipal workers than in the control population. Simple preventive measures proved to be effective in reducing the frequency of parasitic infection. Unlike a previous survey, this one gives no clear answer to the question whether dysentry should be included in a list of professional diseases.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.1, p.21-25. 8 ref.
Pereira da Silva E.
Occupational health conditions of garbage workers in São Paulo
Condições de saúde ocupacional dos lixeiros de São Paulo [en portugués]
A 5-year statistical analysis of the accident, occupational disease and absenteeism rates of garbage collectors in São Paulo, using street cleaners in the same city as a control group. Garbage collectors had accident rates 4-6 times higher than street cleaners. The highest relative incidence of disease was that of respiratory diseases (2.5 times higher) and skin infections (1.8 times higher). The average length of sickness was 12.5 days for the garbage collectors, against 8.4 days for the control group. Mortality rates and useful life extectancy rates were also examined.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-June 1983, Vol.11, No.42, p.30-35. Illus. 5 ref.
Les déchets hospitaliers [en francés]
A model for the organisation of collection and treatment of hospital waste is presented, with emphasis on the provision of appropriate equipment, development of procedures and training and information of personnel. Aspects covered: applicable Belgian regulations; specific materials and hazards; complicating factors in the treatment of hospital wastes; classification and sources of different wastes; waste collection; worker information; choice and location of receptacles; double-bagging of highly infectious refuse; general principles of organisation; radioactive and toxic wastes. Different procedures are illustrated by means of flow charts. A set of slides was prepared which is available to teachers of waste-handling procedures.
Promosafe, Apr. 1983, Vol.10, No.67, p.18-23. 5 ref.
Laboratory decontamination and destruction of carcinogens in laboratory wastes: Some polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons
Three methods using: potassium permanganate under acidic conditions; concentrated sulfuric acid; and aqueous saturated potassium permanganate solution, are described for the destruction of a selection of benzanthracenes, benzo(a)pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene. The preferred method is indicated for these wastes as pure substances, in solutions in oil and various organic solvents, in aqueous solution, in spills, and as contaminants in glassware and petri dishes.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1983. 81p. Illus. 183 ref. Price: SF.20.00.
Mayhew J.J., Sodaro G.M., Carroll D.W.
A hazardous waste site management plan
This manual contains an overview of legal and liability considerations in the USA and protocols for: site discovery; management preparation; preliminary investigation; investigation and analysis; site assessment; action plans. Appendices cover: legal overview; safety and health; samplers and sampling procedures for hazardous waste streams; drum opening, sampling and consolidation; lagoons; land fills; ground water.
Chemical Manufacturers Association, 2501 M Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20037, USA. 1982. 308p. Illus. Price: US$25.00.
Streng D.R., Martin W.F., Wallace L.P., Kleiner G., Gift J., Weitzman D.
Hazardous waste sites and hazardous substance emergencies
This worker bulletin provides information about appropriate protection when handling hazardous substance emergencies or working at dump sites. Contents: the hazards you face and routes of exposure; protection; safe working methods; personal protective equipment; protective clothing (splash suits and fully encapsulating suits); respirators and their use (air-purifying, atmosphere-supplying); mechanical equipment safety; heat stress; contamination and decontamination; emergency information and procedures; medical surveillance programme; health and safety programme.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Dec. 1982. 22p. Illus.
Larsen K.O., Hanel H.K.
Effect of exposure to organophosphorus compounds on S-cholinesterase in workers removing poisonous depots
Biological monitoring and control of safety precautions against parathion, malathion and methylparathion was performed by measurement of serum cholinesterase (SCh) activity of 62 workers. SCh activity was depressed in the majority compared with preexposure values. Levels returned to baseline when exposure ceased; some workers needed about 6 months for this to occur. Values were never pathological, nor were there symptoms of poisoning. Measurement of SCh activity is an adequate and sensitive method of monitoring exposure to organophosphorus compounds.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1982, Vol.8, No.3, p.222-226. 9 ref.
Castegnaro M., Eisenbrand G., Ellen G., Keefer L., Klein D., Sansone E.B., Spincer D., Telling G., Webb K.
Laboratory decontamination and destruction of carcinogens in laboratory wastes: Some N-nitrosamines
Details are presented of 5 methods for the laboratory degradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodipropylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine, N-nitrosopiperidine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosomorpholine, and N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine, prior to disposal of otherwise carcinogenic waste.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, 1982. 73p. Price: SF.18.00.
Residential waste collection - Hazard recognition and prevention
Advice and recommendations to assist residential waste collectors identify, evaluate and eliminate major hazards of refuse collection. Part 1 on minimising the hazards of waste collection gives a general overview of waste collection hazards and makes general recommendations. Part 2 covers specific on-the-jobs hazards (travelling, sizing up the load, loading, compacting and unloading, weather extremes), uses photographs and brief explanations to illustrate hazards and makes specific recommendations for driver and collector protection.
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, Mar. 1982. 84p. Illus. 6 ref.
Safety specifications for powered shredder/grinders and shredder/baggers
This standard, which was approved on 10 Nov. 1981 by the American National Standards Institute, applies to rotary and hammermill shredder/baggers and shredder/grinders for organic refuse. Sections deal with: definitions; control; shields and guarding requirements; servicing; electrical requirements; labelling; performance tests; operator safety instructions.
American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 10 Nov. 1982. 12p. Illus.
National Technical Committees for Public Utilities, Building and Civil Engineering, Refractory Materials, Transport and Materials Handling, French Social Security Fund
Household refuse disposal and treatment
Traitement des ordures ménagères [en francés]
Recommendation adopted on 18, 25, 26 Nov. and 3 and 21 Dec. 1981, with commentaries, concerning general and particular measures concerning vehicles, trucks, loading and unloading bays, refuse pits, processing equipment, fire prevention, personnel, and supervision of means for protection.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1982, No.107, Note No.1384-107-82 (Recommendation No.206), p.301-304.
Costello R.J., King M.V.
Protecting workers who clean up hazardous waste sites
Following a fire and explosion among 40,000 drums of unlabelled chemical waste at a dump site, air sampling and personal sampling were used to determine exposure levels of male clean-up workers. Workers monitored included manual drum handlers, heavy equipment operators, other equipment operators and technicians assisting with personal protective equipment. Chemicals of concern included: organic vapours, metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, cyanide compounds and dioxins. No excessive exposure to chemical substances by inhalation was found, but continuous use of respiratory protective equipment and other personal protective devices was necessary because of frequent drum ruptures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1982, Vol.43, No.1, p.12-17. Illus. 15 ref.
Health matrix - toxic waste isolation
A health matrix used to protect the community and workers during removal of 800,000 cubic yards of chemical waste and contaminated soil surrounding a hexachlorocyclopentadiene plant to isolation in a clay-lined vault is described. Potential exposures were determined by collection of information on the chemicals present and their toxicity and by qualitative analyses of site samples. 7 potentially dangerous chlorinated hydrocarbons were identified. A hygiene protocol was developed before the waste was moved and medical screening was carried out before and during the work. Personal monitoring was used to determine significant changes in exposure during the move.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1982, Vol.43. No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 22 ref.
Joint Tech. Committee of the Interprofessional Group and for Transport and Materials Handling, National Health Insurance Fund (Comités techniques nationaux des activités du groupe interprofessionnel et des industries des transports et de la manutention, Caisse nat. de l'assurance-maladie)
Urban garbage collection
Collecte des déchets urbains [en francés]
Recommendation adopted by the 2 committees on 30 Jan. and 17 June 1981, respectively. Safety recommendations on garbage collection work, the equipment of garbage collection vehicles in general, with particular reference to trucks other than the dump-type. Personal protective equipment, worker training and supervision.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1982, No.106, Note No.1371-106-82 (Recommendation No.202), p.139-140.
Ordinance No.56/1981 (18 Nov.) of the Council of Ministers concerning activities connected with the monitoring and decontamination of harmful waste; Ordonnance No.27/1992 (30 Jan.) of the Government concerning the modification of Ordinance No.56/1981... [Hungary]
A Minisztertanács 56/1981. sz. rendelete a veszélyes hulladékok keletkezésének ellenőrzéséről és az azok ártalmatlanításával kapcsolatos tevékenységekről; A Kormány 27/1992. rendelete a ... 56/1981. rendelet módósításáról [en húngaro]
Contents of the original Ordinance (effective 1 Jan. 1982): scope (exclusions: radioactive waste, municipal waste, waste from municipal water-purification plants, environmental pollutants); general restrictions; monitoring of waste formation; temporary storage and transport of dangerous waste; decontamination; measures for the prevention of environmental damage due to dangerous waste; penalties. In annex: list of waste materials covered by the Ordinance, with hazard classification and industrial source. The modification Ordinance (effective 7 Feb. 1992) introduces changes in the attribution of responsibilities regarding harmful waste and it eliminates the scope restriction regarding environmental pollutants.
Magyar Közlöny, 18 Nov. 1981, No.69, p.1022-1040; 30 Jan. 1992, No.11, p.189-192.
Upton D., Donelson V.
Proper disposal of liquid laboratory wastes containing sodium azide
The hazards of explosions resulting from reaction of sodium azide (NaN3) with copper or lead in the drainage systems of laboratory sinks are described. Such reactions occur when diagnostic products containing NaN3 are disposed of without adequate flushing. A 15min flushing with water is recommended after such disposal. Blocked sinks should be treated with a 10% aqueous NaOH solution. Torches and snakes should not be used on clogged traps.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1981, Vol.42, No.11, p.A-16 to A-18. 6 ref.
Weitzman D., Cohen Jonas L.
Industrial hygiene program for hazardous waste site investigations
The commitment to investigate and clean-up hazardous waste sites in the US is expected to result in the potential exposure of scientists, engineers, and field technicians inspecting sites, workers of various construction trades involved in remedial action, and emergency, transportation and laboratory personnel to a wide range of dangerous substances. An Environmental Protection Agency occupatonal safety and health programme for this work includes elements of individual responsibility, training, medical surveillance, evaluation and controls. The use of personal protective equipment is the main element in exposure control.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1981, Vol.42, No.9, p.653-655. 6 ref.
National Joint Technical Committees for the Metal Trades, for Transport and Materials Handling (Comités techniques nationaux des industries de la métallurgie, des transports et de la manutention, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie)
Use of lorry-mounted skips for collecting and discharging domestic and industrial waste
Utilisation des bennes amovibles pour l'enlèvement et le déchargement des ordures et des déchets industriels [en francés]
This recommendation adopted by 3 the technical committees on 4, 7 and 18 June 1981 respectively, categorises the hazards of lorry-mounted skips by type of skip (gantry-type skips, pull-on skips, hydraulic-boom skips) and the technical source of the hazard. Safety measures are recommended covering instruction, training and equipment of skip workers, skip man¿uvring (especially that of gantry skips) and skip equipment.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1981, No.105, Note No.1355-105-81 (Recommendation No.194), p.607-610. Illus.
Castegnaro M., Hunt D.C., Sansone E.B., Schuller P.L., Siriwardana M.G., Telling G.M., Van Egmond H.P., Walker E.A., Davis W.
Laboratory decontamination and destruction of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in laboratory wastes.
In descriptions of 4 methods, sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate methods are used for the destruction of aflatoxins in non-specific laboratory wastes, ammonia for animal feed and litter waste, and quicklime for carcass waste. Nomenclature and chemical and physical data for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and some of their metabolites and degradation products are provided in an appendix.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372, Lyon Cedex 2, France, 1980. 59p. 99 ref. Price: SF.18.00.
Duckett E.J., Wagner J., Welker R., Rogers B., Usdin V.
Physical chemical and microbiological analyses of dusts at a resource recovery plant.
Dusts were sampled with a multi-stage impactor equipped with a pre-collector. Dusts were primarily fibrous organic materials, mainly non-respirable. Microbiological aerosol concentrations are reported and discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1980, Vol.41, No.12, p.908-914. Illus. 24 ref.
Brigham F., Radl G.W., Tossing N., Wegner K.
Working conditions in city cleaning departments
Arbeitsbedingungen bei der Stadtreinigung [en alemán]
Report of an investigation of working conditions of refuse collectors and street cleaners. General outline of research methods, methodology applied, cleaning systems (especially ergonomic aspects and accident hazards), techniques of workload evaluation, medical examinations, laboratory tests, environmental factors (weather conditions, noise, vibration, dust, harmful substances). Regulations and standards currently effective in the Federal Republic of Germany are tested against the realities of working conditions, and a new text of safety and health regulations for these occupations is analysed. Final evaluation of the work situation, with proposals for improvement (design and layout of the driver's cab for a street sweeper, organisational measures, reduction of physical workload, ergonomic and technical measures, medical supervision, hearing protection, weather protection, weather protective clothing).
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 17 02 02, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. 179p. Illus. 36 ref. Price: DM.22.50.
Rogers H.W., Shaff R.E., Mullican M.R.
Problems of waste chemical handling at a large biomedical research facility.
Handling and disposal methods for the chemical wastes arising at the National Institutes of Health (U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare), a large biomedical laboratory complex, are described with emphasis on the operational and management problems posed. A study of incinerators which may be suitable for dealing with a large proportion of the wastes is described, which has led to a more detailed investigation of one of the most promising units.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1980, Vol.4, No.2, p.191-205, Illus. 6 ref.
Joint Technical Commitee for the Water, Gas and Electricity Industries, French National Health Insurance Fund (Comité technique national des industries de l'eau, du gaz et de l'électricité, Caisse nationale française de l'assurance-maladie).
Treatment of household refuse
Traitement des ordures ménagères. [en francés]
This recommendation was adopted on 26 Nov. 1979. It covers general and particular measures concerning vehicles and machinery, ramps and pits, bins, processing equipment, fire safety; measures concern personnel and monitoring of protection measures. Commentaries are made on the text with respect to the main hazards and the measures recommended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1980, No.99, Note No.1254-99-80 (Recommendation No.168), p.291-294.
Lundholm M., Rylander R.
Occupational symptoms among compost workers.
Studies are reported at an experimental compost plant where household garbage is crushed and milled with sewage sludge from a sewage water treatment plant. Symptoms occurring in 11 workers were compared with those in 41 water work employees: compost workers reported nausea in 2, headache in 5, fever in 1 and diarrhoea in 4 cases (diarrhoea only in 2 controls). The number of colony-forming units of gram-negative rods per m3 air was high where household garbage was loaded onto the conveyor belt, and at the mill outlet. Application of closed system operation and local ventilation where necessary should not present a problem in compost plants.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1980, Vol.22, No.4, p.256-257. 7 ref.
Develop safety practices for electrokinetic treatment of mine waste
Procedures which would minimise or eliminate safety hazards associated with the electrokinetic dewatering process, used in the treatment of wet soils and sludges, were identified, evaluated, and developed. The hazards included emission of toxic and volatile gases, electrical shock, accidental detonation of explosives, and electrochemical corrosion of metal objects. The existing literature and safety regulations were reviewed, mine personnel were interviewed, and the physical and mechanical properties of the process, and the physical characteristics of the material to be dewatered, were examined. Safety regulations are recommended.
U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, P.O. Box 631, Vicksburg, Miss. 39180, USA, July 1979. 73p. Illus. 17 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, 1 Oct. 1979.
Müllbeseitigung [en alemán]
Contents of these safety regulations: scope; definition of technical terms; provisions concerning personal protective equipment issued to staff, sanitary facilities, reversing of vehicles, equipment of vehicles and plant used for refuse collection, behaviour of refuse collectors, storage of dustbins, and treatment and dumping of refuse. Appended: rules for enforcement and comments.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany. 10 and 12p.
Disposal of potentially contaminated animal wastes.
This data sheet outlines the planning and procedures necessary for safe handling and disposal of potentially contaminated animal wastes encountered in: biochemical laboratory facilities; veterinary, clinical, research, or teaching institutions; animal quarantine units; and other facilities where diseased animals are housed. Definitions; general and specific requirements for safe handling programmes, training programmes, pre-employment and periodical medical examinations, isolation facilities, air locks, sterilisers, shower and changing rooms, personal protective equipment, waste handling procedures (solid wastes - combustible and noncombustible; liquid wastes; radioactive biological wastes).
Data Sheet 1-679-79, Revised 1979, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1978. 4p. 19 ref.
Irlweck K., Streit S.
Urinary 90Sr concentration in occupationally exposed and nonexposed persons in Austria.
Results of a 2-year study (quarterly urinalysis) in workers handling low-level radioactive wastes are reported. 90Sr concentrations were generally 0.5-5.OpCi/l. Results were higher in 2 workers involved in accidental dispersion of waste material. Concentrations were below 2pCi/l in all non-exposed persons.
Health Physics, July 1979, Vol.37, No.1, p.163-165. 6 ref.
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