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  • Waste collection and disposal

1991

CIS 92-1271 Education and training relating to hazardous wastes in Denmark
This study examines the education and training provision and needs of personnel involved in all aspects of hazardous waste management in Denmark: hazardous waste treatment/disposal and transportation, clean-up of contaminated sites, regulation of hazardous waste management and emergency services. Background information on hazardous waste management is also summarised, including definitions and statistics, principal disposal routes and waste management practices, and a brief discussion of legislative requirements concerning education and training. Specific training needs are identified.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 83p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 92-1270 Reis M.
Education and training relating to hazardous wastes in Portugal
This study examines the education and training provision and needs of personnel involved in all aspects of hazardous waste management in Portugal: hazardous waste treatment/disposal and transportation, clean-up of contaminated sites, regulation of hazardous waste management and emergency services. Background information on hazardous waste management is also summarised, including definitions and statistics, principal disposal routes and waste management practices, and a brief discussion of legislative requirements concerning education and training. Specific training needs are identified.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 51p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 92-1269 Education and training relating to hazardous wastes in Greece
This study examines the education and training provision and needs of personnel involved in all aspects of hazardous waste management in Greece: hazardous waste treatment/disposal and transportation, clean-up of contaminated sites, regulation of hazardous waste management and emergency services. Background information on hazardous waste management is also summarised, including definitions and statistics, principal disposal routes and waste management practices, and a brief discussion of legislative requirements concerning education and training. Specific training needs are identified.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 31p.

CIS 92-1268 Hannequart M.
Education and training relating to hazardous wastes in Luxembourg
Education et formation dans le domaine des déchets dangereux au Luxembourg [en francés]
This study examines the education and training provision and needs of personnel involved in all aspects of hazardous waste management in Luxembourg: hazardous waste treatment/disposal and transportation, clean-up of contaminated sites, regulation of hazardous waste management and emergency services. Background information on hazardous waste management is also summarised, including definitions and statistics, principal disposal routes and waste management practices, and a brief discussion of legislation requirements concerning education and training. Specific training needs are identified.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 140p.

CIS 92-1267 Haines R.C., Bardsley D.A.
Education and training relating to hazardous wastes in the United Kingdom
This study examines the education and training provision and needs of personnel involved in all aspects of hazardous waste management in the United Kingdom: hazardous waste treatment/disposal and transportation, clean-up of contaminated sites, regulation of hazardous waste management and emergency services. Background information on hazardous waste management is also summarised, including definitions and statistics, principal disposal routes and waste management practices, and a brief discussion of legislative requirements concerning education and training. Specific training needs are identified.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 49p.

CIS 92-1266 Kearney J.A.
Education and training relating to hazardous wastes in Ireland
This study examines the education and training provision and needs of personnel involved in all aspects of hazardous waste management in Ireland: hazardous waste treatment/disposal and transportation, clean-up of contaminated sites, regulation of hazardous waste management and emergency services. Background information on hazardous waste management is also summarised, including definitions and statistics, principal disposal routes and waste management practices, and a brief discussion of legislative requirements concerning education and training. Specific training needs are identified.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 24p.

CIS 92-1030 Vincent-Ballereau F., Lafaix C.
Prevention of blood transmitted infections in health care personnel: How to choose the containers for the disposal of sampling materials
Prévention des infections transmises par le sang chez les personnels de santé: comment choisir les conteneurs destinés à recueillir le matériel de prélèvement ou d'injection? [en francés]
The study of different types of containers usable for the disposal of sampling and injection instruments has led to the establishment of 10 quality criteria. Those are described in detail in order to provide guidance to the user.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 1991, No.2, p.146-151. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 92-865 Udasin I.G., Buckler G., Gochfeld M.
Quality assurance audits of medical surveillance programs for hazardous waste workers
The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Regulation (29 CFR 1910.120, see CIS 89-1420) requires medical surveillance examinations for hazardous waste workers. The consistency and appropriateness of the services provided under the Regulation were investigated as part of a quality control audit. The medical surveillance examinations performed by various clinical facilities for the employees of several environmental consulting firms were audited. The study revealed that in most cases the required paperwork was completed. However, many components of a complete occupational history were not performed. Spirometric examinations were often performed incorrectly. Documentation of baseline tests was not uniformly done, nor were patients always informed of their examination findings. This suggests that further efforts should be made to educate physicians and nurses providing medical surveillance and other services to hazardous waste workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1991, Vol.33, No.11, p.1170-1174. 14 ref.

CIS 92-906 Koustas R.N.
Control of incidental asbestos exposure at hazardous waste sites
This paper discusses asbestos regulations in the US that are not part of Superfund and examines how these regulations can help to identify, evaluate and manage the risk associated with Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) at hazardous waste cleanup sites. Unless one knows where to look for ACM at hazardous waste sites, it may go undetected even after all the traditional sampling is done. Although the U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is currently developing a policy for evaluating risk from asbestos exposure at certain Superfund sites, information from existing regulations can be used to manage hazards associated with asbestos exposure at hazardous waste sites. This paper also identifies where to find governmental agency personnel and consultants who may be retained for site-specific help.
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, July 1991, Vol.41, No.7, p.1004-1009. 12 ref.

CIS 92-563 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [en alemán]
Updates to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases, abstracted under CIS 90-955. Update 16 covers: determining asbestos fibres in air, choosing air monitoring equipment and methods, criteria for testing laboratories, sampling isocyanates, diffusion sampler certification, 1990 German eposure limits (MAKs), hazardous wastes. Update 17 replaces many of the detector tube data sheets of the original publication, and includes reproductions of some sheets as overhead projection transparencies. Update 18 includes more transparencies and a toluene determination method, in addition to a German detector tube standard and the latest versions of the German Ordinance and Technical Rules on hazardous substances. Update 19 presents new or updated texts of German and European Community regulations on hazardous substances and hazardous wastes.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Justus-von Leibig-Str. 1, D-W-8920 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 16.-19. Ergänzungslieferung, Feb.-Oct. 1991. Approx. 200 + 200 + 200 + 120p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

1990

CIS 94-518 Who should handle garbage?
Hvem skal ta' skraldet? [en danés]
The work on sorting garbage for the purpose of recycling, turning organic waste into soil etc. was originally done entirely in central locations. The first one in Denmark opened in 1986. Chronic asthma developed very quickly in some of the workers, because of exposure to endotoxins in the waste. Later on, sorting at the source e.g. in homes was introduced. The video explains reasons for the problems of sorting garbage in central locations. It shows technical and job organization improvements in modern plant. The video also outlines other OSH aspects such as ergonomics, repetitive work, and noise.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1990. Videotape (25min).

CIS 92-1598 Kobayashi Y.
Industrial hygiene management associated with waste
Haikibutsu shori ni okeru rōdō eisei kanri [en japonés]
This article examines occupational accidents in the waste disposal industry during recent years in Japan. The number of accidents is high compared to other industries. Most accidents occur during collection and transportation. Hydrogen sulfide poisoning, oxygen deficiency, carbon monoxide poisoning and organic solvent poisoning are the most frequent health hazards. Industrial hygiene management at each stage of waste disposal, aiming at minimising accidents, is discussed. Preventive measures and first aid treatments for the above-mentioned gas poisonings, oxygen deficiency and asbestos exposure are also listed.
Journal of the Japan Society for Safety Engineering - Anzen kōgaku, 15 Dec. 1990, Vol.29, No.6, p.451-458. 10 ref.

CIS 91-1962 Malmros P.
Problems with the working environment in solid waste treatment
The purpose of this report is to present the scientific state of the art in waste treatment in Denmark, to specify requirements for new plants and to propose improvements to existing plants. Contents: design and operation of a high-technology waste sorting plant and incidences of occupational disease; findings of occupational hygiene studies at this and other plants and experience from labour inspection districts; the working environment and statistics on occupational accidents and diseases in connection with traditional waste treatment (sewage treatment, refuse collection, handling of waste and incinerators); preventive measures. An annex discusses ergonomic hazards associated with certain manual operations and suggests preventive measures.
Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København, Denmark, 1990. 27p. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 91-1637 Udo de Haes H.A., Vonkeman G.H., Huppes G.
Cadmium policy: from prohibition to control
In this document the problems of cadmium are analysed using a material flow chart approach, a method which charts all flows of the substance through the environment and through the economy. On the basis of this analysis, a long-term control strategy is outlined. This includes restricting diffuse emissions (eg via artificial fertilisers or incinerating plants), stopping the use of cadmium for a number of non-essential applications (particularly in PVC), and collection of cadmium-containing products (in particular, batteries). Because cadmium also enters the economy as a contaminant in zinc and phosphorous ore, other measures are necessary, such as restricting the use of new zinc and phosphorous and not recycling cadmium-containing products.
Commissie Lange Termijn Milieubeleid, Prinses Margrietplantsoen 20, Postbus 90740, 2509 LS 'S-Gravenhage, Netherlands, 1991. 34p. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 91-1218 Lukassowitz I.
Minimising dioxin emissions into the environment is urgently needed in order to reduce dioxin levels
Eintragsminimierung zur Reduzierung der Dioxinbelastung dringend erforderlich [en alemán]
The Federal Bureau of Health and the Environmenal Protection Agency of Germany have prepared a report on measures to reduce dioxin emissions. Excerpts of the recommended measures are presented. They address: reduction of dioxin emissions from waste incineration, smelting and metalworking plants as well as the pulp and paper industry; prohibition of the use of brominated and chlorinated plastics in flammable equipment; prohibition of any increase in existing dioxin pollution of the soil.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt, 1990, No.8, p.350-354.

CIS 91-1216 Cawley W.A., Jefcoat I.A.
Solidification/stabilization mechanisms and applications
Proceedings of the Gulf Coast Hazardous Substance Research Center second annual symposium on mechanisms and applications of solidification/stabilisation, held at Beaumont, Texas, USA, 15-16 February 1990. Topics covered: overview of solidification/stabilisation (S/S) technologies for hazardous waste treatment; use of S/S methods with reference to hazardous waste landfill leachate treatment residue, phenolic waste, acid refinery sludges, technetium in cement-based grouts, heavy metals in latex modified portland cement matrices; spectroscopic and leaching studies of solidified toxic metals; immobilisation of As, Cd, Cr, and Pb in soil; selecting appropriate S/S methods; overview of immobilisation technologies; leaching mechanisms and the theory and application of leach models.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1990, Vol.24, Nos.2+3, p.103-314. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 91-1366 Disposal of potentially contaminated animal wastes
This data sheet is a revision of the 1984 edition (CIS 85-1003). It outlines the planning and procedures necessary for safe handling and disposal of potentially contaminated animal wastes in biomedical laboratory facilities, veterinary, clinical, research or teaching institutions, animal quarantine units, and other facilities where diseased animals are housed.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1990. 4p. 22 ref.

CIS 91-558 Storing and disposal of hazardous substances by universities
Gefahrstoff-Lagerung und Entsorgung an Hochschulinstituten [en alemán]
Criticism of negligent handling of hazardous substances by universities, mainly chemistry departments, in the Federal Republic of Germany is rebutted. All universities are trying to comply with the Ordinance concerning Hazardous Substances, effective since 1 Oct. 1986 (see CIS 88-1769). Requirements of the ordinance concerning storage, handling and disposal of hazardous substances that are easy to comply with by the universities, and those that require expenditures beyond their means, are outlined.
Nachrichten aus Chemie, Technik und Laboratorium, 1990, Vol.38, No.9, p.1065-1066, 1068. Illus.

CIS 91-561 Wagner T.P.
Hazardous waste identification and classification manual
Oriented toward compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of the USA, this manual deals with definitions, the process of identifying and classifying hazardous wastes, wastes that are exempted or excluded from the scope of the acts, characteristics of hazardous wastes, recycling, and transportation. Illustrative case studies are included. Appendices include a concise guide to waste identification and classification, synonyms of hazardous substances, extracts from Title 40 of the US Code of Federal Regulations and a glossary.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA; Chapman and Hall, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, United Kingdom, Aug. 1990. 239p. Illus. Index. Price: GBP 26.00.

CIS 90-1971 Handling, treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes
These UNEP guidelines provide a general definition of hazardous wastes and outline considerations for the development of waste management strategies which minimise adverse effects. Objectives of hazardous waste management are discussed along with the need for an appropriate institutional framework. A chapter on physical management discusses "cradle-to-grave" management of waste, waste identification, handling and storage, and treatment and disposal techniques. Regulatory activities are outlined with reference to the establishment of a central agency to act as a clearing house for information and a regulating body for waste management.
United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, 1990. 36p.

1989

CIS 92-721 Federal Act of 7 June 1989 Concerning the Cleanup of Contaminated Soil [Austria]
Altlastensanierungsgesetz [en alemán]
This law concerns the cleanup of contaminated soil, whether found at disused waste disposal sites or in other localities where there has been an accumulation of harmful substances. The law concerns: financial responsibility for the cleanup; notification, classification and evaluation of the contamination; carrying out of cleanup operations; relevant changes in laws concerning the environment and water management.
Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich, 29 June 1989, Year 1989, No.122, p.2503-2511.

CIS 92-998
Council on Scientific Affairs
Low-level radioactive wastes
As from 1 January 1993 each state in the USA must provide for safe disposal of its low-level radioactive wastes. This report considers the sources and make-up of such wastes, the risks involved, how states are planning to comply with the laws while ensuring the safety of the public, and environmental and technological factors to be considered in developing disposal facilities. Recommendations are made as to how physicians can help by informing and advising the public and public officials about the medical risks involved with the wastes and effective methods of dealing with them.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 4 Aug. 1989, Vol.262, No.5, p.669-674. 18 ref.

CIS 91-1839 A guide to the safe handling of sharps: Occupational health and safety manual for health care institutions
This training guide presents methods for the safe handling of sharps. Many of the recommendations have not been tested for effectiveness; most are based on logic and common sense, rather than scientific evaluation. Issues covered: disposal of used sharps, sharps containers, waste disposal, sharps contaminated with cytotoxic drugs, injury prevention, and puncture wound follow-up. A sample reporting form and survey are included.
Health Care Occupational Health and Safety Association, 150 Ferrand Drive, Don Mills, Ontario M3C 1H6, Canada, 1989. 31p. Illus. 75 ref.

CIS 91-951 Hazardous waste management guidelines for laboratories and other small quantity generators (in the United States)
Contents of this data sheet: overview of legal requirements in the USA; defining hazardous waste; classification of waste generators according to size; conditionally exempt small quantity generators; requirements for small quantity generators; managing hazardous waste activities; using outside expertise and the choice of consultants, transporters and facilities for waste treatment, storage and disposal; lab pack services; miscellaneous laboratory chemicals; emergency actions; waste minimisation.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991, USA, 1989. 7p. 6 ref.

CIS 91-424 Transport of hazardous wastes - Questions and answer manual
Le transport des déchets dangereux - Guide de questions et réponses [en francés]
This manual provides answers to those questions most commonly asked of waste dangerous goods inspectors. An introductory section provides a definition of hazardous wastes, explain how to use the Transport of Dangerous Goods Regulations and summarises the responsibilities of the consignor (generator) of the waste, the carrier, consignee (receiver), Transport Canada and Environment Canada. The questions and their answers are organised into logical groupings: classification of waste, documentation, safety marks, packaging, handling and training requirements; inspections and liabilities and emergency planning. Appendices provide an alphabetical list of definitions and a contact list organised by requirement.
Environmental Protection Publications, Conservation and Protection, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OH3, Canada, 1989. 60p. Index.

CIS 91-223 International conference on municipal waste combustion
Proceedings of the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combusion, held in Hollywood, Florida, USA, 11-14 April 1989. Topics covered: legislative activities in Europe, Canada and USA; planning and plant maintenance for municipal waste combustion (MWC); ash characterisation and leaching; risk and health effects; MWC performance and experiences in some US facilities; ash treatment, utilisation and disposal; sampling and analysis of ash and stack emissions; combustion technology; economic and social issues; flue gas cleaning; materials recovery and recycling; quality assurance and control.
Ministry of Supply and Services, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 1989. Vol.1: 714p. Vol.2: 799p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 90-1947 Cawley W.A., Hopper J.R.
Hazardous waste incineration: Current practices and future directions
Proceedings of the 1st Annual Gulf Coast Hazardous Substance Research Center Symposium on Hazardous Waste Incineration, held at Beaumont, Texas, USA, 23-24 February, 1989. Papers cover: trial burn tests and associated sampling and analysis methods; emission of products of incomplete combustion; development of real-time stack-gas analysis methods; combustion chamber dynamics for rotary kiln incineration; design and operation of a large regional incinerator; air pollution control equipment and continuous monitoring instrumentation; incinerator operations.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Nov. 1989, Vol.22, No.2, Special issue. 267p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 90-1640 Batstone R., Smith J.E., Wilson D.
The safe disposal of hazardous wastes: The special needs and problems of developing countries
This 3-volume report was sponsored by the World Bank, WHO and UNEP. Topics covered include classification of hazardous wastes, health and environmental effects, planning and infrastructure of hazardous waste management systems, treatment and disposal technologies, waste minimisation. The main emphasis is on management aspects and on technologies appropriate for implementing a region-wide hazardous waste management programme. Case studies from developing countries are included together with examples of various operating systems for hazardous waste tracking and disposal, waste survey questionnaires and techniques, and landfill design and management practices.
World Bank, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington D.C. 20433, USA, 1989. 3 vols. 823p. Illus. Bibl. Also available at WHO, Genève, Switzerland, and UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya.

CIS 90-1337
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Hazardous waste and emergency response
This booklet is an overview and summary of the OSHA standard on the same subject (CIS 89-1420). It discusses OSHA's requirements for hazardous waste operations and emergency response at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites, and summarises the steps an employer must take to protect the health and safety of workers in these environments. The components of a safety and health programme are described, covering the organisational workplan, site evaluation and control, information and training, personal protective equipment, monitoring and medical surveillance, decontamination. An emergency response plan is outlined as well as other provisions including engineering control and work practices, handling and labelling of containers, sanitation and record keeping.
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, USA, 1989. 20p.

CIS 90-1026
Council of Scientific Affairs
Infectious medical wastes
This Report by the Council on Scientific Affairs examines the current status of infectious hospital waste management and of state and federal regulations in the US to control such waste. It is concluded that existing regulations, accreditation programmes and guidelines, if adhered to and properly enforced, are adequate to ensure the safety of the public and the environment.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22-29 Sep. 1989, Vol.262, No.12, p.1669-1671. 17 ref.

CIS 90-783 Supervising hazardous waste operations
This material for a 1-day university-level course includes: review of state and federal (US) health and safety regulations concerning hazardous waste operations (including full text of 29 CFR Part 1910, see CIS 89-1420); elements of a good health and safety plan; liability for supervisors at hazardous waste sites; interacting with the press and communities; safety at hazardous waste sites; review of hazardous waste site fundamentals; practical aspects of site supervision; exercises; a toxic substances fact sheet on underground storage tanks.
Northwest Center for Occupational Health and Safety, Department of Environmental Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA, 1989. Illus.

CIS 90-394
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen
Hazardous waste [Sweden]
Riskavfall [en sueco]
These regulations (effective 1 Apr. 1990) apply to the handling of hazardous waste resulting from health and medical services, dental care, dispensaries and veterinary medicine. Contents: definitions; general; packing; storage; marking; personal protective equipment and vaccination; cleaning and hygiene. Detailed commentaries are appended.
LiberDistribution, 16289 Stockholm, Sweden, 14 Apr. 1989. 22p.

CIS 90-155 Baierl P.
Needle stick injuries in the hospital
Stichverletzungen im Krankenhaus [en alemán]
During disposal of hospital waste, a refuse collector was injured by a needle. The conditions prevailing at the time and site of the accident (e.g. lack of lighting, narrow hallway, lack of transport containers) are analysed and recommendations are made for the prevention of such accidents. These include hepatitis B immunisation, training of refuse collectors for the handling of harmful waste, providing enough containers and avoiding the recycling of waste.
Sicherheitsbeauftragter, 1989, Vol.24, No.9, p.24-27. Illus.

CIS 90-212 Hodgson M.J., Van Thiel D.H., Lauschus K., Karpf M.
Liver injury tests in hazardous waste workers: The role of obesity
The prevalence of fatty liver disease at autopsy ranges from 40% to 80% in Europe and North America, and liver injury tests are abnormal in up to 8% of healthy populations. Liver injury tests were therefore examined in a group of 325 workers without exposure to hepatotoxins to identify the influence of obesity and sex. There were clear correlations between obesity and serum levels of arginine aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. Women generally demonstrated lower levels of these enzymes. Workers with morbid obesity were substantially more likely to have abnormal liver injury tests. Obesity and sex must be considered in the interpretation of abnormal liver injury tests in hazardous waste workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1989, Vol.31, No.3, p.238-242. 23 ref.

CIS 90-241 Gudewill H.D.
Centralised preparation, supply and disposal of cytostatic drugs in a public hospital
Zentralisierte Zytostatika-Zubereitung und Ver- und Entsorgung in einem Kreiskrankenhaus [en alemán]
The equipment for centralised preparation of cytostatic drugs in a hospital includes a hood with air filter, an automatic shaker, containers for transporting the prepared drugs to their point of use, and equipment for sealing contaminated material into plastic bags for disposal. A form for documenting the use of cytostatic medication is included.
Sicherheitsbeauftragter, 1989, Vol.24, No.3, p.18-20, 22-24. Illus.

CIS 89-1885 Gustavsson P.
Mortality among workers at a municipal waste incinerator
Mortality was investigated among 176 male workers employed for at least 1 year between 1920 and 1985 at a municipal waste incinerator. Expected numbers of deaths from 1951 to 1985 were calculated from national and local death rates, standardised for age and calendar year. There was an excess of deaths from long cancer and, after long follow-up, for ischaemic heart disease. Analysis of duration of exposure supported that the excess of ischaemic heart disease was caused by occupational factors; the lung cancer cases were too few to permit conclusions in this respect. Exposure to combustion products and polycyclic aromatic compounds was common, but other occupational exposures may also have contributed to the risk excesses. Smoking habits were investigated and did not differ from the average for Swedish men in cities and towns. Some work operations are very dusty and should be performed only with appropriate protection devices.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1989, Vol.15, No.3, p.245-253. 28 ref.

CIS 89-1420
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
OSHA Final Rule - Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response [USA]
Final rule (effective 6 March 1990) regulating the safety and health of employees involved in clean-up operations at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites being cleaned up under government mandate. The rule also applies to certain other operations of hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal, and to any emergency response to incidents involving hazardous substances. Extensive commentary: background information; summary and explanation of standard (= final rule); regulatory and environmental impact.
Federal Register, 6 Mar. 1989, Vol.54, No.42, p.9295-9336. 23 ref.

CIS 89-1426 Basel convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal - Final Act [UNEP]
Convention de Bâle sur le contrôle des mouvements transfrontières de déchets dangereux et de leur élimination - Acte final [PNUE] [en francés]
The Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Global Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes was convened by the UNEP and held in Basel, Switzerland, from 20-22 March 1989. The adopted Convention, known as the "Basel Convention", defines "hazardous wastes" and proposes means to control their movements through national boundaries.
United Nations Environment Programme, Palais des Nations, 1211 Genève 10, Switzerland, Mar. 1989. 91p.

1988

CIS 93-226 Jaffery S.A.M.T., Burdett G.J., Rood A.P.
An investigation of airborne asbestos concentration in two UK buildings before, during and after the removal of asbestos
Some 185 air samples were taken in two buildings before, during and after the removal of sprayed amosite asbestos insulation from the ceiling void. The samples were analysed by optical phase contrast microscopy and transmission electron microscopy for fibres >5µm long. Tables show measured fibre concentrations during various activities. Results show that repeated impact or disturbance is required before concentrations in the vicinity of maintenance activities would approach the UK occupational limit. Samples taken some weeks after the completion of the removal showed that amosite concentrations remained higher than before the removal was attempted.
International Journal of Environmental Studies, 1988, Vol.32, p.169-180. 10 ref.

CIS 92-1421 Grand-Ducal Regulation of 1 Aug. 1988 concerning toxic and dangerous waste [Luxembourg]
Règlement grand-ducal du 1er août 1988 relatif aux déchets toxiques et dangereux [Luxembourg] [en francés]
Implementation in Luxembourg of European Directives 78/319/EEC (toxic and dangerous waste), 84/631/EEC (on the transborder shipment of dangerous waste) and their modifications and adaptations 85/469, 86/279 and 87/112. Main topics: responsibilities for elimination of harmful waste; special provisions concerning disposal and transborder shipment (provision of preliminary information, notification, acknowledgement of receipt, means of shipping); special procedures for non-ferrous metals; transportation within Luxembourg. In annex: list of 82 substances, with corresponding minimum quantities beyond which they are to be considered as toxic and dangerous wastes; sample notification forms; standard follow-up procedures in the case of transborder shipment of waste; list of relevant international instruments.
Mémorial - Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 22 Aug. 1988, A - n°47, p.898-921.

CIS 90-944 Ohse R., Schäcke G.
Medical check-up of workers decontaminating soil and ground water
Vorsorgeuntersuchungen bei Beschäftigten im Bereich der Boden- und Grundwassersanierung [en alemán]
The medical examinations required for workers decontaminating soil and ground water depend on the type and amount of environmental pollutants present at the work site. Based on the regulations of the ordinance on harmful substances (Federal Republic of Germany), effective 1 Oct. 1986, lists of required medical examinations have been compiled for 42 compounds or groups of compounds. Examples of these are provided.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1988, Vol.38, No.5, p.142-149. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 90-929 Lüdersdorf R., Schäcke G., Quantz D.
Determination of harmful substances during sanitation of contaminated soils
Messung gesundheitsschädlicher Stoffe bei der Sanierung kontaminierter Grundstücke [en alemán]
For selecting proper protection measures for soil decontamination workers the following steps are necessary: the chemical composition of soil samples must be determined; exposure to air pollutants during decontamination work must be assessed beforehand; when work has been started exposure to air pollutants must be monitored; personal and biological (e.g. blood, urine) samples have to be analysed.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1988, Vol.38, No.5, p.135-141. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 90-199 Leung H.W., Murray F.J., Paustenbach D.J.
A proposed occupational exposure limit for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
Wastes containing 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have been detected at many hazardous waste sites which in recent years have been in the processs of remediation. Concerns about worker exposure to TCDD-contaminated soil (dust) during remediation of hazardous waste sites have produced a need for an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for TCDD. The animal toxicology data and human experience with TCDD are reviewed, and an occupational exposure limit for TCDD is proposed. The data indicate than an 8-hr time-weighted average limit of 2ng/m3 is appropriate, and the associated risk would be consistent with other carcinogens at their corresponding OELs. A preliminary OEL of 0.2ng/m3 (200pg/m3) is recommended, however, in light of other sources of exposure because of TCDD's ubiquitousness in the environment, its unclear mechanism of action, and its rather long biological half-life in humans. This limit provides an ample margin of safety to prevent chloracne following repeated, acute exposure, and it addresses those chronic effects of TCDD observed in animal studies as well as those observed after accidental human exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1988, Vol.49, No.9, p.466-474. 74 ref.

CIS 90-191 Alam I.A., Husain T., Hoda A.
Management of hazardous materials at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
Information is gathered on the quantity and the nature of hazardous chemical waste materials generated by the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia) in order to prepare a temporary plan for their disposal. Since the amount of hazardous waste materials generated is small, land disposal is found to be the most economically feasible disposal method until a regional treatment facility becomes available. Guidelines for chemical storage are prepared, stressing the importance of keeping the quantity of chemicals stored to a minimum. A management plan for collection, transportation, and ultimate disposal of hazardous waste materials is outlined. A manual on safe chemical disposal practices in the laboratory is prepared and distributed to concerned departments of the University.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 1988, Vol.19, No.1, p.69-77. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 90-253 Croner's hazardous waste disposal guide
Contents of this guide on procedures for waste disposal in the United Kingdom: commentary (legislation, management, disposal options, contractors); disposal information (charts and index of chemicals); directory (addresses of relevant sources, contractors, authorities, associations, etc.).
Croner Publications Ltd., P.O. Box 291, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT2 6SX, United Kingdom, July 1989. 368p. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 89-1956 Neumann R.
Removal of asbestos-containing material, especially insulation
Entsorgung von asbesthaltigen Stoffen insbesondere Wärmedämmstoffe [en alemán]
Instructions on how to recognise asbestos-containing construction material on ships giving off respirable, hazardous dust are provided. The personal protective equipment to be worn for removal of the hazardous material comprises: disposable overalls, a respirator with air filter and protective gloves. During demolition work all openings on ships have to be sealed. Dust is to be collected and disposed of in plastic bags.
Schiffsingenieur-Journal, 1988, Vol.34, No.196, p.12-16.

CIS 89-1678 Neumann H.D., Sterzl M.
Noise exposure of garbage collectors
Lärmimmission bei der Arbeit des Müllwerkers [en alemán]
Noise exposure of garbage collectors over an 8-h work period was determined with the aid of 3 microphones attached to the helmet, shoulder and ear of each worker. Noise signals were recorded and integrated to 8-h averages. Even in communities with long travelling distances and a low number of garbage cans emptied per day, average exposure levels above 90dB(A) were obtained.
Sicherheitsingenieur, 1988, Vol.19. No.7, p.38-43. Illus.

CIS 89-1591 Schmincke E.
Risks of hazardous substances of a product group as examplified by the polymer polystyrene
Schadstoffrisiken einer Produktgruppe am Beispiel des Kunststoffs Polystyrol [en alemán]
Polystyrene is used as an example for describing a new method of assessing the risk posed by chemical products and materials. The method is based on identifying hazardous substances arising at various stages of production, use and disposal. In the case of polystyrene, many toxic substances develop during its 5 production stages. Its disposal, too, is full of risks while its uses pose no hazards other than the release of residual components. It is recommended to improve the risk evaluation method by including a comparative analysis of risks involved in the production, use and disposal of a suitable substitute.
WSI Mitteilungen, Feb. 1988, Vol.41, No.2, p.78-87. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 89-1626 Evaluation of anaerobic biodegradation
In making an environmental hazard assessment of a chemical, estimation of likely environmental concentrations is essential; the biodegradability of chemicals under anaerobic conditions can be an important determinant of these concentrations. After examining a number of methods for measuring anaerobic biodegradability, ECETOC proposes a test method that is simple, requires only a knowledge of the carbon content of the chemical under test and is applicable to poorly soluble compounds.
European Chemical Industry Ecology & Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, B.63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, June 1988. 42p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 89-1616 Krause G.
Liquids used at workplaces in industry - Supply and disposal - High safety requirements
Arbeitsflüssigkeiten - industrielle Versorgung und Entsorgung - Hohe Sicherheitsanforderungen [en alemán]
The described safety requirements in the Federal Republic of Germany concern the collection of solvents or spent lubricants and other harmful liquids and the design of bulk liquid containers. Spent harmful liquids may be collected in stationary or mobile containers. In the first case they are pumped into a tank truck, in the second case the containers are carried off for further professional treatment.
Industrie-Anzeiger, 1988, Vol.110, No.83, p.33-34. Illus.

CIS 89-1338 Ditz D.W.
The risk of hazardous waste spills from incineration at sea
A critical assessment is presented of the risk of spills from hazardous waste incineration aboard ocean going vessels. The likelihood of spills is estimated on the basis of recent domestic and worldwide chemical tanker experience. The probability of a spill is significant for projections of future ocean incineration demand. The severity of spills is explored using mathematical models of chemical transport and fate. This analysis is site specific and presents upper and lower bounds on the average pollutants concentration from spills of polychlorinated biphenyls in Mobile Bay (Gulf of Mexico). Severe impacts on the water quality and marine life in this region would result from spills of less than the capacity of a single incineration vessel. Some inherent uncertainties in the analysis of these risks bear strongly on the reliability of the programme, the adequacy of contingency plans, and current libiliaty requirements.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1988, Vol.17, No.2, p.149-167. Illus. 43 ref.

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