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  • Waste collection and disposal

1993

CIS 95-2025 Reyes Soto M.
Prevención de riesgos en el proceso de recolección de residuos sólidos
Contenido de esta guía de carácter formativo: descripción del proceso de recolección y eliminación de residuos; análisis estadístico de los accidentes de trabajo registrados en las empresas de recolección de residuos; prevención de los riesgos (recogida de los residuos en los hogares y vertederos, transporte de residuos, eliminación definitiva de los residuos, protección personal, mantenimiento de los vehículos, condiciones de higiene); programa de prevención de los riesgos de accidente; lista de responsabilidades en la prevención de riesgos. Glosario. Anexo: disposiciones legales específicas aplicables a la recogida y eliminación de residuos.
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad, Casilla 14565, Correo Central, Santiago de Chile, Chile, 1993. 48p. Ilus.

CIS 95-158 Sociedad de Medicina, Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo de Estrasburgo - Sesión del 26 de marzo de 1993
Société de médecine, d'hygiène et de sécurité du travail de Strasbourg - Séance du 26 mars 1993 [en francés]
Temas de las comunicaciones presentadas en la sesión del 26 de marzo de 1993 de la Sociedad de Medicina, Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo de Estrasburgo (Francia): proteccion personal o factor de riesgo?. Programa de una acción de prevención contra los perjuicios del tabaco en una gran empresa; estudio ergonómico del puesto de basurero.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1993, vol.54, n°8, p.695-700.

CIS 94-1877 Practical safety guide - Dangerous products for people and the environment - 1994-1997
Traité pratique de sécurité - Produits dangereux pour l'homme et l'environnement - 1994-1997 [en francés]
This guide is aimed in particular at those responsible for safety in the preparation of impact studies and internal operation plans. It deals in detail with the responsibilities tied to the possession and use of dangerous substances and their wastes, as well as with the problems due to their acute and chronic toxicity under normal working conditions. Summary: Part I - survey of French legislation concerning chemical products, occupational safety, environmental protection, enterprises classified as dangerous, wastes and transport of dangerous materials. Part II - general knowledge concerning dangerous products, hazards connected with their use, waste management, storage and containers. Part III - collection of data sheets (> 150) chosen because of their toxicity, fire hazard or widespread use in non-chemical industry.
Centre national de Prévention et de Protection, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 5th ed., Dec. 1993. 1205p. Illus. Index.

CIS 94-1710 Eckhardt D., Otto J., Steidinger M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Fundamentals of a model safety analysis for the dismantling of ammunition
Grundzüge für eine Mustersicherheitsbetrachtung zum Delaborieren von Lagermunition [en alemán]
An optimized procedure for the dismantling of discarded large calibre ammunition is derived. The mistakes which can possibly be made at each step of the dismantling procedure and their consequences are analyzed and the possibilities of prevention or protection are indicated. Summaries in English, French and German.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. ii, 109p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: DEM 23.00.

CIS 94-1768 Wilhelm V.
Health protection in microbiological soil cleanup
Arbeitsschutz bei der mikrobiologischen Bodensanierung [en alemán]
Two main approaches are used in Germany for microbiological soil cleanup: conditions for microbial breakdown of soil pollutants are optimized by adding nutrients and by adjusting the pH-value and moisture content; microorganisms are added to the soil in large quantities. In both cases, personal protective equipment is commensurate with the hazards posed by the microorganisms, which are classified into four groups by German law.
Tiefbau, Dec. 1993, Vol.105, No.12, p.895-896, 898-899. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 94-1172 Conforti J.V.
Hazardous waste handling - Pocket guide
Pocket guide to hazardous waste handling written for workers. Contents: review of the law (requirements of OSHA's Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response standard (CIS 89-1420), safety and health program, site characterization and analysis, site control, training, medical surveillance, engineering controls, work practice, handling drums and containers, decontamination, emergency response, illumination); hazards present at a typical site (heat stress, explosive atmospheres, toxic hazards, radiation); sampling and monitoring; personal protective equipment; signs and symptoms of overexposure; glossary.
Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 77p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders.

CIS 94-962 Wilhelm V.
Occupational safety and health on waste disposal sites - Hazards and pollution by gas emissions
Arbeitsschutz an Deponien - Gefährdungen und Belastungen durch Deponiegas [en alemán]
Anaerobic decomposition of the organic components in waste produces a gas which consists mainly of carbon dioxide and methane. It also contains traces of harmful substances such as dichloromethane, hydrogen sulfide, benzene and vinyl chloride. A design of outgassing facilities which prevents explosions and health hazards is outlined.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1993, Vol.105, No.9, p.614-616, 618-619. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 94-927 Other services
Anden service- og tjenesteydelse [en danés]
Volume No.16 of a series of monographs covering occupational safety and health in all sectors of the Danish economy. This volume covers most services, including the military, waste disposal and treatment, sewer work and hairdressing. The sectors are quite diverse, and cannot be treated together. In the military, noise, musculoskeletal and skin problems are the most important. The main problems of the waste disposal sector are accidents, musculoskeletal stress, skin and biological hazards. The sewage sector is similar to the waste sector with the problems of vibration and climate in addition. For hairdressers, skin, respiratory and musculoskeletal problems predominate.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1993. 70p. 24 ref. Price: DKK 100.00.

CIS 94-886 Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene - Meetings of 13 Oct., 10 Nov., 8 Dec. 1992 and 12 Jan. 1993
Société de médecine et d'hygiène du travail - Séances des 13 octobre, 10 novembre, 8 décembre 1992 et 12 janvier 1993 [en francés]
Themes of papers presented at the meetings of 13 Oct., 10 Nov., 8 Dec. 1992 and 12 Jan. 1993 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene (France): the clothing industry in the centre of Paris (recommendation to include arthrosis of the navicular bone of the hand in the French Schedule as an occupational disease among garment-cutters); protection of garbage workers against risks due to medical refuse present in domestic waste; occupational lead poisoning in connection with the renovation of an older building; cholinesterases: value of isolated variations of their levels; one case of thallium poisoning in a mineralogy laboratory; a case of chronic transfusion hepatitis affecting a nurse; occupational stress: in-plant experimental approach; sleep apnoea and aptitude to work in fire brigades; comments on the Decree of 29 May 1992 pertaining to the prohibition of smoking at work.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.7, p.587-606.

CIS 94-594
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Occupational health in waste disposal services - Papers presented at a conference in Dortmund, Germany, on 3 and 4 November 1992
Arbeitsschutz in der Abfallwirtschaft - Vorträge der Fachtagung am 3. und 4. November 1992 in Dortmund [en alemán]
Subjects addressed at this conference: the Waste Disposal Act in Germany and its effects on waste treatment and disposal methods; health protection during collection, handling, transport, storage, and treatment of waste and recycling material; disposal of hazardous waste; exposure to and protection from harmful substances.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. 261p. Illus. Price: DEM 40.00.

CIS 93-1658 Saxena J.
Hazard assessment of chemicals. Volume 8
This volume comprises six subject reviews in area of chemical hazard assessment: risk assessment in the remedy selection process at hazardous waste sites; the status of interactions data in risk assessment of chemical mixtures; essentiality versus toxicity - some considerations in the risk assessment of essential trace elements; hazard ranking system for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites; contamination assessment of sediments in freshwater ecosystems; monoclonal antibodies and their use in measurement of environmental contaminants.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke RG24 0PR, Hants., United Kingdom, 1993. xii, 332p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 71.00.

CIS 93-1641 Sloan W.M.
Site selection for new hazardous waste management facilities
This guide outlines essential planning considerations and model siting processes for hazardous waste facilities of all types. It deals extensively with the role of social acceptability in siting processes and lays out policy and technical options that may be chosen, adapted or used to refine existing processes. Contents: purpose and general approach; the need for hazardous waste facilities and preferred management measures (including sources and estimates of waste arisings); overview of siting processes (responsibilities for facility development, criteria used in site selection, presenting, describing and evaluating a project); health and environment risk assessment; social and economic assessment.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. xiv, 118p. 53 ref. Price: CHF 21.00, USD 18.90 (developing countries CHF 14.70).

CIS 93-1078 Council Decision 93/98/EEC of 1 February 1993 on the conclusion, on behalf of the Community, of the Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal (Basel Convention) [CEC]
Décision du Conseil 93/98/CEE du 1er février 1993 relative à la conclusion, au nom de la Communauté, de la convention sur le contrôle des mouvements transfrontières de déchets dangereux et de leur élimination (Convention de Bâle) [CCE] [en francés]
Council decision approving on behalf of the Community the Basel Convention. The Convention itself covers the following aspects: scope, definitions, national definitions of hazardous wastes, general obligations, designation of the competent authorities and focal point, transboundary movement between Parties and from a party through States which are not Parties, duty to re-import, illegal traffic, international cooperation, bilateral, multilateral and regional agreements, consultations on liability, transmission of information, financial aspects, conference to the Parties, secretariat, amendment, settlement of disputes, signature, ratification, accession, right to vote, entry into force. Annexes: categories of wastes to be controlled, list of hazardous characteristics, disposal operations, information to be provided on notification and on the movement document, arbitration.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 16 Feb. 1993, Vol.36, No.L.39, p.1-22.

CIS 93-1304
Proctor & Redfern Limited
Options for the treatment/destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB-contaminated equipment
Options pour le traitement ou la destruction des biphényles polychlorés (BPC) et de l'équipement contaminé par des BPC [en francés]
This report provides options for the treatment and destruction of liquids and equipment containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In addition, waste transformer and capacitor decontamination and destruction technologies are described and recommended options provided. Appendices include: Canadian stationary PCB destruction facilities; U.S. PCB phase-out program and disposal options; mineral oil transformer decontamination methods; a description of commercial and near-commercial mobile/transportable PCB incinerators; decontamination technologies for waste transformers.
Environmental Protection Publications, Technology Development Branch, Conservation and Protection, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3, Canada, 1991. xiii, 41p. Illus. 4 ref.

1992

CIS 96-2133 El barrendero
Le ripeur [en francés]
En el sumario de esta ficha médico profesional dedicada a los barrenderos: definición; características del trabajo; descripción de las actividades; zonas normales de trabajo, herramientas, equipo, productos utilizados, movimiento de manos y posturas; riesgos y estrés del trabajo (relacionado con el entorno, el equipo, los productos utilizados, las horas de trabajo, la carga de trabajo física y mental); efectos y patologías profesionales; prevención (colectiva, individual, higiene y seguridad, medidas específicas de primeros auxilios); reglamentación aplicable en Francia; condiciones particulares de salud a vigilar (consejos sobre aptitudes). Notas finales: se recomienda no bajarse en marcha de los camiones de basura, respetar las normativas de higiene locales y desarrollar la cooperación entre las empresas y el gobierno local.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1992, vol.32, n°2. Encarte.

CIS 95-492
Health and Safety Executive
Una excavación limpia
A clean sweep [en inglés]
Cinta de video sobre los riesgos de la contrucción en zonas contaminadas y cómo actuar en materia de prevención. Acompañada por la publicación "La protección de los trabajadores y la población en general durante el desarrollo de las zonas contaminadas".
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, Reino Unido, 1992. Videocasete. Duración: 22min. Precio: GBP 33,62 (alquiler), GBP 85,10 (venta). Folleto incluse. ###

CIS 95-621 Wöstmann U.
Evaluación de los riesgos que presentan los lugares contaminados
Arbeitssicherheit bei der Erkundung von Altlasten [en alemán]
Para evaluar los riesgos que presentan los lugares contaminados, se procedió a la toma de muestras de aire y suelo. La política de protección sobre este tipo de trabajo supone rehacer la historia del lugar, de manera que pueda disponerse de información sobre el tipo de contaminantes que se pueden encontrar en él. El lugar se clasifica en función de la toxicidad y la concentración de las sustancias existentes. Se pueden distinguir cuatro clases y cada una de ellas requiere la adopción de equipos y trajes de protección específicos.
Sicherheitsingenieur, feb. 1992, vol.23, n°2, p.12-19. Ilus. 2 ref.

CIS 94-1670 Sarpong J.Y.
Report on industrial waste management project in Tema. Part 1
Part 1 of this report presents the results of an investigation into waste disposal in the textile, paint, soap and metal extraction industries in Tema, Ghana. Analysis of liquid effluents from all factories showed that mercury concentrations were far above the standard values of five comparable countries; daily average concentrations of other trace metals were slightly above the comparative standard values. Gaseous emissions (including sulfur dioxide, chlorine, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen fluoride) were not quantified. Solid wastes showed high concentrations of lead, mercury, chromium, manganese and aluminium. A number of recommendations are made for the prevention, reduction and treatment of waste effluents.
Department of Factories Inspectorate, Ministry of Mobilization and Social Welfare, P.O. Box 62, Tema, Ghana, 1992. v, 48p. 7 ref.

CIS 94-420 Ley N°24.051 - Residuos peligrosos
This law deals with the safe production, handling, transportation, treatment and final disposal of dangerous wastes. Contents: creation of a National Register of Producers and Handlers of Dangerous Wastes, and the requirements of information to be submitted to this Register by enterprises that produce, transport, treat, or dispose of dangerous wastes; responsibilities; enforcement. In annex: detailed lists of dangerous wastes (by category and definition); codes for dangerous properties; definition of disposal operations; definition of operations that may lead to recycling and other forms of resource recuperation.
Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, 17 Jan. 1992, Year 100, No.27,307, p.1-4.

CIS 94-654 Bauder R., Waldner-Sander S., Wölfle M., Urlaub G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Surveillance while working with special category waste. Exposure control on special waste disposal sites
Überwachungskonzepte bei der Sonderabfallentsorgung [en alemán]
In the special waste disposal industry the handling of multi-component mixtures is a normal operation. The composition of these is often unknown or constantly changing. In order to avoid risks to health, the German Ordinance concerning Hazardous Substances (see CIS 92-18) provides monitoring of adherence to maximum or recommended levels. In the report it is shown that monitoring of the workplace in the field of special category waste disposal in accordance with the Technical Guidance Rules for Chemical Substances (TRGS 402 and 403) is only achievable in conjunction with considerable expenditure and does not allow any assessment of future exposure levels. Suitable monitoring concepts for each area of special category waste disposal, based essentially on preventive measures for minimizing exposure to hazardous substances, are examined. Monitoring is shown to be neither sufficient nor practical, and protection of the workers and preventive measures are necessary. Suggested guidelines for practical procedures are presented. Summaries in English and French.
Wirtschaftverlag NW, Verlag für neuen Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 101110, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1992. x, 271p. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 93-904 Ma X.F., Babish J.G., Scarlett J.M., Gutenmann W.H., Lisk D.J.
Mutagens in urine sampled repetitively from municipal refuse incinerator workers and water treatment workers
The frequency of mutagens was measured in three urine samples collected at weekly intervals from each of 37 workers in four refuse incinerators and 35 (control) workers from eight water treatment plants. Comparison of the first urine samples showed that incinerator workers had a significantly increased risk of both direct-acting mutagens and promutagens compared to the water treatment workers. There was no significant difference between the two groups for the second and third samples. Factors that influence production of mutagenic compounds during refuse incineration and subsequent worker exposure are discussed.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Dec. 1992, Vol.37, No.4, p.483-494. 19 ref.

CIS 93-911 Kintz P., Tracqui A., Mangin P.
Accidental death caused by the absorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol through the skin
A fatality resulting from skin absorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol is presented. A 33 year-old male disposing of industrial waste was splattered over portions of his right thigh and right arm with a pure solution of the chemical. Less than 10% of his body surface was contaminated. Within 20 minutes he experienced a seizure and collapsed. The compound was quantified using gas chromatography and confirmation was obtained with mass spectrometry. Blood concentration was 24.3mg/L. Other drugs, including ethanol, were not detected.
Archives of Toxicology, Apr. 1992, Vol.66, No.4, p.298-299. 7 ref.

CIS 93-470
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Guidelines for work in contaminated areas
Richtlinien für Arbeiten in kontaminierten Bereichen [en alemán]
Contents: scope (exclusion of emergency response, normal waste disposal, radioactive sites, removal of explosive material or asbestos, work in sewage treatment facilities, sites contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, work with genetically engineered organisms); definitions; general requirements, contracts; coordination of contractors; supervision; limitations on young workers and women, and on working alone; hazard communication and documentation; workplace monitoring; preliminary investigations; construction work; supplemental provisions for installations for decontamination of soil, liquids or building materials (including microbially contaminated soils); fire safety; first aid and rescue; personal emergency information cards; medical surveillance; personal protective equipment. Appendices: sample forms; lists of pertinent laws, directives, safety rules and standards.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Apr. 1992. 50p.

CIS 93-518 Bresnitz E.A., Roseman J., Becker D., Gracely E.
Morbidity among municipal waste incinerator workers
Incinerator workers are exposed to many toxic compounds, most notably heavy metals. Medical and exposure monitoring data of an actively employed cohort of Philadelphia incinerator workers were evaluated following an Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry site survey and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) health hazard evaluation (HHE). Medical analysis was limited to the 86 male workers who participated in the HHE out of the 105 active employees. Although there was some evidence of an increased risk of exposure to products of incinerator waste, the few elevated biological tests could not be related to exposure classification. Additional studies are needed to assess the potential health effects of municipal waste incinerator by-products.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1992, Vol.22, No.3, p.363-378. 28 ref.

CIS 93-673 Emery R., Sprau D., Lao Y.J., Pryor W.
Release of bacterial aerosols during infectious waste compaction - An initial hazard evaluation for healthcare workers
Compaction of infectious waste is not currently used in healthcare institutions and biomedical research laboratories because the process may lead to the release of infectious aerosols. To determine whether bacterial releases can be adequately controlled by a compaction device specially designed for the task, a prototype infectious waste compactor was challenged by compressing waste containing known quantities of indicator bacteria. Samples were collected to monitor bacterial releases and surface contamination. The data collected from this initial evaluation show that indicator bacteria were released from the unit. Modifications to the design and operation of this type of compactor are proposed as suggestions that may improve system performance relating to the health and safety of workers. A critical review of the experimental procedures used in the study is also included.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1992, Vol.53, No.5, p.339-345. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 93-624
Health Services Advisory Committee
Safe disposal of clinical waste
This guidance is intended to enable employers to develop appropriate policies for the handling and disposing of clinical waste. Contents: categories of clinical waste for local risk assessments; health, safety and environmental legislation; development of a clinical waste policy; general principles for safe disposal of clinical waste (means of segregation, waste containers, storage, transport, handling, training, personal protection, accidents and incidents, spillages); areas or activities needing special consideration; final disposal.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. iv, 20p. 27 ref. Price: GBP 4.50.

CIS 93-209 Paoletti L., Puledda S.
An approach to the classification and assessment of asbestos-containing wastes - Description of a survey conducted in an industrial area
Un approccio al problema della classificazione e valutazione dei rifiuti contenenti amianto - Descrizione di una indagine condotta in un'area industriale [en italiano]
A survey was conducted in a disused textile plant, located in an urban area, where large quantities of solid wastes were stocked. They resulted from the dismantling of the heating system and contained different types of asbestos. The aim of the survey was to classify the wastes according to the criteria established by Italian law (Presidential Decree No.915, 1982), which requires that "dusts and free fibres" be accounted for when determining the concentration of asbestos in waste. This legislation leaves two main questions open: (1) the choice of the analytical method for asbestos determination to be used to obtain basic information for waste classification; (2) the criteria to be used to define "free fibres" in waste. A general approach to the solution of these issues is offered and applied to the case in question as a possible practical model of environmental pollution control in this specific field.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.83, No.4, p.371-380. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 93-267 Exposure of man to dioxins - A perspective on industrial waste incineration
The current knowledge of the occurrence, mechanism of formation and environmental fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) is reviewed. Emissions of these materials originating from industrial waste incinerators are examined along with exposure levels, toxicological properties and human health impacts. In man, the only clearly established toxic effect of these compounds is a severe form of acne called chloracne, which is observed after high accidental exposure. Data on other effects, including cancer, are inconclusive.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. van Nieuwenhuyse 4, (Bte.6), 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 1992. 91p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-93 Malmros P.
Get wise on waste - A book about health and waste-handling
English version of a brochure for workers and managers, originally published as Nårskraldet skal ta's (CIS 92-1837). It summarises the physical, chemical and biological hazards encountered in waste sorting (microbial infections, allergies to microorganisms and postural problems are the most widespread). An overview of appropriate working methods and equipment is also presented. A list of Danish Working Environment Service reports, directives and guidelines giving more detailed background and instructions is appended.
Danish Working Environment Service, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 Kobenhavn Ø, Denmark, 1992. 36p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: DKK 80.00 + VAT.

CIS 93-190 Frank U., Esposito C., Sullivan D.
Personnel protection through reconnaissance robotics at Superfund remedial sites
Investigation, mitigation, and clean-up of hazardous materials at US Superfund (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) sites normally requires on-site workers to perform potentially dangerous functions. Workers conducting air monitoring risk dermal, ocular and inhalation exposure to hazardous chemicals, while those performing excavations also risk potential exposure to fire, explosion, and other physical injury. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) current efforts to protect its workers include the use of robotic devices. The paper describes the demonstration of a commercially available robotic platform modified and equipped for air monitoring and the ongoing research for the development of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) system to detect buried chemical waste drums.
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, Mar. 1992, Vol.42, No.3, p.341-345. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 92-2073 Luttman A., Laurig W., Jäger M.
Logistical and ergonomic transportation capacity for refuse collection workers - A work physiology field study
The work flow and the electrocardiogram were recorded throughout whole shifts for six male refuse collection workers who transported and emptied 1.1m3 refuse containers. The work pulse rate increased with the work rate and reached such high values that regular work breaks should have been provided. The necessary duration of the breaks was calculated to be 10min per working hour. A transportation-capacity model suitable for determination of both logistical and ergonomic transportation capacities is provided for planning the deployment of refuse workers.
Ergonomics, Sep. 1992, Vol.35, No.9, p.1045-1061. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 92-1837 Malmros P.
When it's time to take out the trash - A book on waste sorting
Når skraldet skal ta's - En bog om affaldssortering [en danés]
Brochure for workers and managers summarising the physical, chemical and biological hazards encountered in waste sorting; microorganisms (infection, allergy) and ergonomic problems (posture) are the most widespread. An overview of appropriate working methods and equipment is also presented. A list of Danish Working Environment Service reports, directives and guidelines giving more detailed background and instructions is appended.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1992. 36p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: DKK 80.00 + VAT.

CIS 92-1951 Dutkiewicz T., Rolecki R., Kończalik J., Świątczak J.
The impact of the chemical industry on the human environment
This article describes the emission of dust and gases into the atmosphere, and of liquid and solid wastes produced by the chemical industry into the environment in general. The impact of the chemical industry on the environment is analysed. Some hazardous agents occurring in the work environment and the resulting morbidity and sickness absenteeism rates among workers in the chemical industry are discussed.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.1, p.13-26. Illus. 21 ref.

1991

CIS 95-700 Gadea Carrera E., Guardino Solá X.
Eliminación de residuos en el laboratorio: procedimientos generales
Contenido de esta nota informativa sobre los principios generales de la eliminación de residuos en laboratorio; clasificación de los residuos; factores a tomar en consideración; métodos de eliminación de residuos; métodos generales de aplicación en función del tipo de residuos; recomendaciones de carácter general.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, España, 1991. 4p. 4 ref.

CIS 95-20 Directiva del Consejo del 12 de diciembre de 1991, relativa a los residuos peligrosos; Directiva 94/31/CE del Consejo, del 27-6-1994, modificando la Directiva 91/689/CEE sobre residuos peligrosos [Comunidades Europeas]
Council Directive of 12.12.1991 on hazardous waste; Council Directive 94/31/CE of 27.6.1994 amending Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste [European Communities] [en inglés]
Directive du Conseil, du 12 décembre 1991, relative aux déchets dangereux; Directive 94/31/CE du Conseil, du 27.6.1994, modifiant la directive 91/689/CEE relative aux déchets dangereux [Communautés européennes] [en francés]
Esta Directiva debe ser obligatoriamente adoptada por los Estados Miembros antes del 12-12-1993 (prolongada hasta el 27-6-1995 por la modificación). Su objetivo es el acercamiento de las legislaciones de los Estados miembros sobre la gestión controlada de los residuos peligrosos. Las disposiciones principales conciernen a: la obligatoriedad del registro e identificación de los residuos peligrosos en cada lugar donde realicen vertidos de residuos (descargas); la prohibición de mezclar residuos peligrosos (salvo condiciones especiales); la aplicación de algunas disposiciones de la Directiva 75/442/CEE; el embalaje y etiquetado, la inspección e identificación de los residuos peligrosos en su recogida, transporte y almacenamiento; elaboración de un plan de gestión de los residuos peligrosos; protección del medio ambiente en situaciones de emergencia; declaración a la Comisión de los datos concernientes a las empresas que garantizan la eliminación y/o la valorización de los residuos peligrosos. La Directiva 78/319/CEE (CIS 94-1816) sobre residuos tóxicos y peligrosos queda derogada desde el 12-12-1993 (fecha cambiada al 27-6-1995 por la enmienda). En anexo: categorías o clases genéricas de residuos peligrosos caracterizadas por su naturaleza o por la actividad que los ha producido; componentes que hacen peligrosos a los residuos; propiedades que tienen los residuos peligrosos.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 31 dic. 1991, vol.34, n°L 377, p.20-27; 2 jul. 1994, vol.37, n°L 168, p.28.

CIS 95-345 Göttlich E., Bardtke D.
Crecimiento bacteriano derivado del tratamiento de basuras
Keimemissionen bei der Müllverarbeitung [en alemán]
Resumen de los resultados de recuentos de bacterias y hongos en el aire de instalaciones de tratamiento de basuras. Se han detectado concentraciones patógenas de bacterias del género salmonella, pseudomona y estafilococo, así como de hongos del género aspergillus, penicillium y actinomycetos termófilos. En lo que respecta a los actinomycetos termófilos, en determinados puestos de trabajo se han llegado a detectar concentraciones de hasta 3,8 x 107 colonias/m3, Estas concentraciones corresponden a las que pueden entrañar la aparición de una alveolitis alérgica entre los trabajadores agrícolas. La concentración de bacterias alcanzó las 106 colonias/m3, es decir muy superior al valor umbral de 103 colonias/m3.
Entsorgungs-Technik, dic. 1991, vol.3, n°6, p.32-35. Ilus. 22 ref.

CIS 93-1593 Health hazards from new technologies
Gesundheitsgefahren durch neue Technologien [en alemán]
Papers presented at a conference organised by the German construction workers' union at Bochum, Germany, 28 Apr. 1990. Working groups dealt with health, technological and environmental aspects of asbestos removal, decontamination of polluted soils, recycling of construction materials and workplace chemicals. Themes common to two or more of these areas are protective equipment, waste disposal and information dissemination.
Industriegewerkschaft Bau-Steine-Erden, Postfach 10 11 44, Bockenheimer Landstrasse 73-77, 60325 Frankfurt am Main 1, Germany, May 1991. 242p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1495 Guidelines for management of chemicals and hazardous waste in schools
This training guide explains the purpose, development and monitoring of a chemical and hazardous waste management plan for schools. Features of a plan are described: management guidelines; purchasing; inventory; use and storage; and proper disposal. Relevant federal and Alberta legislation are also cited. Appendices include chemical storage guidelines, procedures for transporting waste chemicals from school laboratories and a copy of the Alberta Hazardous Waste Regulation (Alberta Regulation 505/87).
Alberta Special Waste Management Corporation, 610, 10909 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3L9, Canada, 1991. 33, 11p. Illus.

CIS 93-560 Lunn G., Sansone E.B.
Validated methods for degrading hazardous chemicals - Some halogenated compounds
Two techniques were investigated for degrading a number of halogenated compounds of commercial and research importance. In one, reductive dehalogenation with nickel-aluminum alloy in potassium hydroxide solution was used. The products were generally those obtained by replacing the halogen with hydrogen although concomitant reduction of other groups was also observed. In the second, refluxing with ethanolic potassium hydroxide was used. The products were the corresponding ethyl ethers. In all cases, the compounds were completely degraded and only non-mutagenic reaction mixtures were produced.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1991, Vol.52, No.6, p.252-257. 22 ref.

CIS 93-163 Colombi A.
Health risks for waste disposal industry workers
Rischi per la salute degli operatori nell'industria dello smaltimento dei rifiuti [en italiano]
Literature review.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1991, Vol.82, No.4, p.299-313. 44 ref.

CIS 92-1840
The Labor Institute
Hazardous waste workbook
This training manual is designed for use by worker-trainers teaching courses for hazardous waste workers and chemical emergency responders. It uses a non-lecture approach called the Small Group Activity Method. Twelve activities are covered: job fear (relationship between job security and the protection of health, safety and the environment); assessing hazardous waste problems; tackling toxic chemical myths; use of Material Safety Data Sheets; evaluation of exposure monitoring reports; control of toxic hazards; respiratory protection; evaluation of company medical surveillance programmes; legal aspects; strenghtening the Health and Safety Committee; evaluating emergency response plans; relating to the community. An accompanying document provides an 8-hour refresher course.
Apex Press, Council on International and Public Affairs, Inc., 777 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA, 5th edition, 1991. 2 vols. Illus. 18 ref. Index.

CIS 92-1985 Levine S.P., Turpin R.D., Gochfeld M.
Protecting personnel at hazardous waste sites - Current issues
The article critically reviews the importance of historical developments in the field of hazardous waste management and cleanup in the US, including waste already deposited at thousands of sites and waste being generated in day-to-day industrial operations. Government regulations for the protection of personnel at hazardous waste sites are outlined. The article considers issues of primary preventive strategies (e.g. air monitoring) and secondary preventive strategies (e.g. medical surveillance) and makes recommendations.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 1991, Vol.6, No.12, p.1007-1014. 44 ref.

CIS 92-1647 Linins I., Klein R.C., Gershey E.L.
Management of mixed wastes from biomedical research
Mixed radioactive and chemical wastes generated by biomedical research were characterised, and various treatment methods for reducing their volume were evaluated. These wastes consist primarily of organic solvents used in the extraction and purification of radiolabelled biomolecules that are contaminated with low levels of long-lived radionuclides. Rockefeller University's mixed wastes fall into three broad chemical categories: phenol/chloroform, acetonitrile/water, and mixtures of miscellaneous solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and other hazardous chemicals. Most of these mixed wastes can be effectively rendered into non-radioactive chemical and aqueous radioactive waste, both of which can be disposed of in accordance with existing regulations. However, such treatment, if not done properly, presents potential occupational hazards from the direct handling of waste materials. Deregulation of certain mixed wastes would be the safest, most cost-effective, and practical method of handling the problem.
Health Physics, Sep. 1991, Vol.61, No.3, p.421-426. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 92-1722 Miyazaki S., Kumaki T., Suzuki A., Chimata S.
Questionnaire survey concerning the health of garbage collection workers
Seisō jigyō jūjisha no kenkō ni kansuru ankēto chōsa [en japonés]
Garbage collectors working for the Tokyo municipal government were surveyed at random. Interviews were then conducted with the workers who reported suffering from lumbago. Answers to the questionnaire concerning the cause of the lumbago were analysed for significant factors. The lumbago incidence was 20.2% of the total surveyed. Lumbago risk is elevated among these workers as a consequence of their occupation. Interviews showed that 21.4% of the subjects had lumbago at the time of the interview, and 40.6% said they had continuous or occasional pain at the waist within the preceding month. The main factor for lumbago is the garbage container collection method. This fact is cited by many of the afflicted. The nature of lifting accidents fully supports this conclusion. Accidents are likely to occur with containers of unknown or abnormally heavy content. To prevent lumbago, improvement of garbage containers, and of collection and disposal methods must be addressed.
Occupational Health Journal, May 1991, Vol.14, No.3, p.40-47.

CIS 92-1281 Castegnaro M., Barek J., Jacob J., Kirso U., Lafontaine M., Sansone E.B., Telling G.M., Vu Duc T.
Ministry of the Environment (France)
Laboratory decontamination and destruction of carcinogens in laboratory wastes - Some polycyclic heterocyclic hydrocarbons
The following polycyclic heterocyclic hydrocarbons are considered: dibenz[a,j]acridine, dibenz[a,h]acridine, 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and 13H-dibenzo[a,i]carbazole. Reagents proposed for eliminating the carcinogenic potential of these compounds include: potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide and iron(II) chloride, and concentrated sulfuric acid.
Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom, 1991. 50p. 66 ref. Price: GBP 8.00.

CIS 92-1280 Castegnaro M., Barek J., Frémy J.M., Lafontaine M., Miraglia M., Sansone E.B., Telling G.M.
Ministry of the Environment (France)
Laboratory decontamination and destruction of carcinogens in laboratory wastes - Some mycotoxins
The following mycotoxins are considered: citrinin, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. Methods proposed for eliminating the carcinogenic potential of these compounds include: treatment using sodium hypochlorite, ammoniation, and treatment with potassium permanganate under alkaline conditions that does not generate mutagenic species.
Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom, 1991. 63p. 99 ref. Price: GBP 11.00.

CIS 92-1275 Goublier R.
Education and training relating to hazardous wastes in France
This study examines the education and training provision and needs of personnel involved in all aspects of hazardous waste management in France: hazardous waste treatment/disposal and transportation, clean-up of contaminated sites, regulation of hazardous waste management and emergency services. Background information on hazardous waste management is also summarised, including definitions and statistics, principal disposal routes and waste management practices, and a brief discussion of legislative requirements concerning education and training. Specific training needs are identified.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 48p.

CIS 92-1274 Buijtenhek H.S., Kremers G.J., Van der Veldon J.P.L.M.
Education and training relating to hazardous wastes in the Netherlands
This study examines the education and training provision and needs of personnel involved in all aspects of hazardous waste management in the Netherlands: hazardous waste treatment/disposal and transportation, clean-up of contaminated sites, regulation of hazardous waste management and emergency services. Background information on hazardous waste management is also summarised, including definitions and statistics, principal disposal routes and waste management practices, and a brief discussion of legislative requirements concerning education and training. Specific training needs are identified.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 82p.

CIS 92-1273 Fortunati G.U.
Education and training relating to hazardous wastes in Italy
This study examines the education and training provision and needs of personnel involved in all aspects of hazardous waste management in Italy: hazardous waste treatment/disposal and transportation, clean-up of contaminated sites, regulation of hazardous waste management and emergency services. Background information on hazardous waste management is also summarised, including definitions and statistics, principal disposal routes and waste management practices, and a brief discussion of legislative requirements concerning education and training. Specific training needs are identified.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 169p.

CIS 92-1272 Noeke J., Timm J.
Education and training relating to hazardous wastes in Germany
This study examines the education and training provision and needs of personnel involved in all aspects of hazardous waste management in Germany: hazardous waste treatment/disposal and transportation, clean-up of contaminated sites, regulation of hazardous waste management and emergency services. Background information on hazardous waste management is also summarised, including definitions and statistics, principal disposal routes and waste management practices, and a brief discussion of legislative requirements concerning education and training. Specific training needs are identified.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 168p. Illus.

CIS 92-1271 Education and training relating to hazardous wastes in Denmark
This study examines the education and training provision and needs of personnel involved in all aspects of hazardous waste management in Denmark: hazardous waste treatment/disposal and transportation, clean-up of contaminated sites, regulation of hazardous waste management and emergency services. Background information on hazardous waste management is also summarised, including definitions and statistics, principal disposal routes and waste management practices, and a brief discussion of legislative requirements concerning education and training. Specific training needs are identified.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 83p. Bibl.ref.

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