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  • Waste collection and disposal


CIS 12-0325 Brasseur G.
Waste sorting centre - Safety and health in waste sorting
Centre de tri - La prévention profite du tri des déchets [en francés]
This richly- illustrated article presents the activities of an enterprise specialized in waste sorting. The opening in 2011 of a state-of-the art sorting plant contributed towards viewing waste truly as a raw material.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2011, No.722, p.2-11. Illus.
Centre_de_tri_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en francés]

CIS 12-0006 Disposal of radioactive waste - Specific safety requirements
This safety standard establishes safety requirements relating to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types. It sets out the safety objective and criteria for the protection of persons and the environment against radiation risks arising from disposal facilities for radioactive waste in operation and after closure. In order to meet the criteria, measures may need to be taken in site selection and evaluation and in the design, construction, operation and closure of the disposal facility. The requirements are essential from a safety perspective and failure to meet any of the requirements would require action to be taken.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2011. xvi, 62p. 26 ref.
Disposal_of_radioactive_waste_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]
Stockage_définitif_des_déchets_radioactifs_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en francés]

CIS 11-0861 Dupéry M., Fabin C., Le Corre E., Montchamp E., Montléon P.Y., Nicolazzo P., Petitfour R., Vilaine C., Wargon C.
Vibrations, power trucks and earthmoving equipment: epidemiological, ergonomical and metrological surveys
Vibrations, chariots automoteurs et engins de chantier: enquêtes épidémiologique, ergonomique et métrologique [en francés]
An ergonomic observation and measurement survey of whole-body vibration exposure was carried out at six waste treatment facilities on six types of trucks (compactors, bulldozers, excavators, loaders, dump trucks and power trucks). In half of the cases, vibration emissions were above the values triggering preventive actions. Simultaneously, two questionnaire surveys was carried out, the first among employers and workers using construction site equipment, power trucks for materials handling or fork-lift trucks for the purpose of assessing their knowledge of vibration hazards, the other among workers on their state of health. These surveys confirm the widespread ignorance of vibration hazards.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd quarter 2011, No.126, p.261-274. Illus. 14 ref.
TF_192.pdf [en francés]

CIS 11-0218 Richez J.P., Brasseur G., Clergiot J.
Renewable energies - Towards sustainability in occupational safety and health
Energies renouvelables - Vers un développement durable de la prévention [en francés]
This collection of articles reviews the specific occupational safety and health hazards related to the construction and operation of equipment for producing biogas and solar, wind and geothermal energy.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.18-34. Illus.
Energies_renouvelables.pdf [en inglés]


CIS 11-0712 de la Torre S., Gasimbi I., Bhat D., Posner J., Noel M., Masembe V., Songa J., Hossain I.
Protecting at risk cadres of health workers from medical transmission of HIV and hepatitis B and C through injection safety interventions
This study on work practices and awareness of HIV and hepatitis B and C among medical waste disposal workers in several developing countries was presented in a poster session at an international symposium on HIV and emerging infectious diseases held on 24-26 March 2010 in Marseille, France. The study was part of a broader programme aimed to improve injection safety and healthcare waste management practices in eleven developing countries. Cross-sectional studies were carried out to evaluate progress in these areas. Observations of waste management practices and interviews were carried out with waste handlers at several sited. Surveys across countries showed that majority are aware of HIV, but not of hepatitis B or C. In Kenya, 91% of waste handlers mentioned HIV, but only 33% mentioned hepatitis B, and 5% hepatitis C. Only three waste handlers reported receiving all three doses of the hepatitis B vaccination in Kenya while in Uganda, only one waste handler interviewed was fully vaccinated at follow-up. The percent of waste handlers who reported having personal protective equipment varied widely between countries, with 55% in Kenya reporting having heavy duty gloves and boots, while only 7% of waste handlers reporting the same in Haiti. Implications of these findings are discussed.
2010, Vol.7, Suppl.1, p.152.
Protecting_at_risk.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 11-0651 Cordier S., Lehébel A., Amar E., Anzivino-Viricel L., Hours M., Monfort C., Chevrier C., Chiron M., Robert-Gnansia E.
Maternal residence near municipal waste incinerators and the risk of urinary tract birth defects
Waste incineration releases a mixture of chemicals with high embryotoxic potential into the atmosphere, including heavy metals, dioxins and dibenzofurans. A previous study reported an association between the risk of urinary tract birth defects and residence in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). The objective of this study was to test this association. A population-based case-control study compared 304 infants diagnosed with urinary tract birth defects in the Rhône-Alpes region of France in 2001-2003 with a random sample of 226 population controls, frequency-matched for infant sex, year and place of birth. Exposure to dioxins in early pregnancy at the place of residence, used as a tracer of the mixture released by 21 active waste incinerators, was predicted with second-generation Gaussian modelling. Other industrial emissions of dioxins, population density and neighbourhood deprivation were also assessed. Individual risk factors including consumption of local food were obtained by interviews. Risk was increased for mothers exposed to dioxins above the median at the beginning of pregnancy (odds ratio 2.95). This study confirms the previous observation of a link between the risk of urinary tract birth defects and exposure to MSWI emissions in early pregnancy.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.67, No.7, p.493-499. 21 ref.
Maternal_residence.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 11-0511 Athanasiou M., Makrynos G., Dounias G.
Respiratory health of municipal solid waste workers
The objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory health of municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs). One hundred and eighty-four municipal employees of a locality in Greece (104 MSWWs and 80 controls) participated in a cross-sectional study. All participants were asked to fill in a slightly modified version of the Medical Research Council questionnaire. Lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Spirometry revealed reduced mean forced vital capacity (FVC) and one-second forced expiratory volume (as a percentage of predicted values) in MSWWs compared with controls. After adjustment for smoking status, only the decline in FVC was statistically significant. Prevalence of all respiratory symptoms was higher in MSWWs than in controls. After adjustment for confounding factors, the difference reached statistical significance for morning cough, cough on exertion and sore throat.
Occupational Medicine, 2010, Vol.60, p.618-623. 24 ref.

CIS 11-0397 Canalejas Pérez P., Gadea Carrera E., Solórzano Fábrega M.
Recogida, transporte y almacenamiento de residuos sanitarios
This information note addresses the management of various types of medical wastes, and in particular the way they should be collected, transported and stored prior to disposal. It also presents the regulations which apply in the various Spanish autonomous communities.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus.
NTP_853.pdf [en español]

CIS 11-0245 Brasseur G.
Good protection requires identifying hazards
Une bonne protection passe par une identification du risque [en francés]
This article presents the approach implemented by an enterprise specialized in the disposal of harmful waste, aimed at improving the evaluation of workers' occupational exposures.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2010, No.711, p.38-40. Illus.
Une_bonne_protection.pdf [en francés]

CIS 11-0063 Ravallec C., Vaudoux D.
Waste sorting centres - Managing occupational safety and health while being surrounded by waste
Centres de tri - Ménager la prévention au milieu des déchets [en francés]
France has set itself the objective of recycling 75% of consumer product packaging by 2012. To meet this goal, waste sorting centres are increasingly automated. However, workers are still faced with physically strenuous working conditions, with numerous risks of occupational diseases and accidents. This collection of articles focuses on occupational safety and health in waste sorting centres.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2010, No.705, p.16-29. Illus. 6 ref.
Centres_de_tri.pdf [en francés]

CIS 10-0416 Engkvist I.L.
Working conditions at recycling centres in Sweden - Physical and psychosocial work environment
The aim of this study was to investigate physical and psychosocial working conditions for employees at recycling centres in Sweden, to describe how they were perceived, to compare differences between subgroups, and further to identify proposals for improvement. The study population comprised 122 employees of 42 recycling centres which responded a postal questionnaire. Of these, 32 employees from 16 recycling centres were interviewed, as well as their employer. The work at recycling centres was reported to be a meaningful service job comprising many social interactions with users, but also substantial physical strain. There was a high frequency of injuries and minor injuries. Several risks were identified. There is a need for several preventive actions, including better planning when building recycling centres, better machines and equipment, and more training, especially in handling hazardous waste.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.347-354. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 10-0157 Kawakami T., Khai T.T.
WARM - Work adjustment for recycling and managing waste
Safe and efficient waste collection systems are the foundation for recycling and managing waste and protecting our environment. Waste collectors contribute to cleaning our environment through their collection work day-by-day. However, waste collectors often face many risks associated with their collection work such as handling heavy and dangerous waste, traffic accidents, or hot working environment. This training manual aims to improve the safety, health and efficiency of waste collection work. It uses many illustrations of good examples that waste collectors and managers can put to immediate use, based on the ILO's participatory training approaches. It promotes practical collaborative actions between waste collectors and the community for establishing safety and efficient waste collection systems.
ILO Subregional Office for East Asia, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, P.O. Box 2-349, Bangkok 10200, Thailand, 2009. v, 77p. Illus. 32 ref. [en inglés]


CIS 12-0228 Véchot L.N., Hare J.A.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of the applicability of Dewar tests for screening hazardous waste treatment
In the waste treatment sector, the exothermic reaction incompatibility of mixtures is often determined by recording the temperature rise after mixing samples in a beaker. Instead, the use of non-pressurized Dewar vessels has been proposed by some parts of the industry as an improvement, because their cooling rates and heat losses are closer to bulk containers. Temperature rises of between 6-10°C in the Dewar vessel over a period of 10 minutes have been suggested by the industry to indicate an exothermic reaction of concern, with gas bubblers being used to indicate any gas generation. Specialist inspectors have questioned the validity of these test methods for scale-up to large volumes. The objective of this work was therefore to investigate the range of applicability of the proposed technique. It was found, in particular, that the proposed ten-minute timescale could be insufficient to detect a runaway reaction. A number of other limitations to scale-up are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. vi, 77p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Assessment_of_the_applicability_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]

CIS 12-0293
Noble Denton BOMEL Limited, Health and Safety Executive
Update to mapping health and safety standards in the UK waste industry
This report describes an update to a previous study on the nature of the United Kingdom waste industry and its safety and health standards. Employment figures were updated and it is estimated that around 176,000 workers were employed in waste and recycling services in 2005/06. This employment figure was combined with updated accident numbers to reveal that the overall accident rate for workers in the waste industry has been decreasing. High risk areas appeared to have remained relatively constant over a ten-year period. Industries providing general public services and sewage/refuse disposal remained significant. Handling sprains, trips and "struck-by" accidents were the most prolific types of accident. Occupations most likely to be involved in accidents were those related to refuse handling and driver jobs, and individuals were likely to have been collecting or handling refuse when they had the accident.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. viii, 72p. Illus. 9 ref.
Update_to_mapping_health_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en inglés]

CIS 11-0517 Martuzzi M., Mitis F., Bianchi F., Minichilli F., Comba P., Fazzo L.
Cancer mortality and congenital anomalies in a region of Italy with intense environmental pressure due to waste
Waste management in the Campania region has been characterised, since the 1980s, by widespread uncontrolled and illegal practices of waste dumping, generating concerns over the health implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible adverse health effects of such environmental pressure. The health effects of waste-related environmental exposures in Campania were assessed in 196 municipalities of the provinces of Naples and Caserta. Poisson regression was used to analyse the association between health outcomes and environmental contamination due to waste. Statistically significant excess relative risks (ERR) in high-index compared with low-index (unexposed) municipalities were found for all-cause mortality (9.2% in men and 12.4% in women) and liver cancer (19.3% in men and 29.1% in women). Increased risks were also found for all cancer mortality (both sexes), stomach and lung cancer (in men). Statistically significant ERRs were found for congenital anomalies of the internal urogenital system (82.7%) and of the central nervous system (83.5%). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.725-732. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 10-0168 Benning C.
Safety during garbage collection - Health is not a disposable product
Sicherheit bei der Abfallsammlung - Gesundheit ist keine Wegwerfware [en alemán]
Garbage collection involves a high accident risk. In Germany, one out of ten garbage collectors falls victim to an occupational accident every year resulting in an average of 20 lost workdays. The work is also strenuous, especially with regard to the ageing of the working population. This article addresses the main hazards which lead to accidents during garbage collection and their causes. New and temporary workers are especially at risk and should be trained. A qualification in the form of a "garbage collector's certificate" to be acquired before starting to work would improve the professional status.
Faktor Arbeitsschutz, 2009, No.2, p.6-9. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 09-1270 Dżaman K., Wojdas A., Rapiejko P., Jurkiewicz D.
Taste and smell perception among sewage treatment and landfill workers
The study investigated the functioning of the taste and smell senses in workers employed at a sewage treatment plant and landfill in Poland. The study population was divided into three groups: sewage workers, landfill workers and laboratory workers. Taste disorders were noted in nearly 20% of subjects in each study group examined before work, and in 50% of sewage workers, 40% of landfill workers and 28% of laboratory workers examined after work. Before work, the smell disorders concerned 32% in the group of sewage workers, 6% of laboratory workers and 22% of landfill workers. After the working hours, these values increased to 40%, 8% and 38%, respectively.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.3, p.227-234. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 09-626 Pizon A.F., Schwartz A.R., Shum L.M., Rittenberger J.C., Lower D.R., Giannoutsos S., Virji M.A., Krasowski M.D.
Toxicology laboratory analysis and human exposure to p-chloroaniline
A 20 year-old man working at a chemical waste plant developed dizziness, abdominal pain and nausea. Following medical examinations which revealed cyanosis and methaemoglobinaemia, methylene blue administration led to complete recovery without sequelae. p-Chloroaniline was later identified as the chemical involved. The subject denied direct contact with the chemical, but was not wearing a respirator during work. GC/MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) confirmed p-chloroaniline and its primary metabolite, p-chloroacetanilide, in the patient's urine.
Clinical Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.132-136. Illus. 12 ref.


CIS 11-0260 Shanks E.
Health and Safety Executive
Glass recycling - Noise exposure from simulated roadside collection of recyclable glass - Follow-up measurements
This report describes the results of trials carried out relating to the noise exposure of workers engaged in roadside collection of glass for recycling. Previous tests under controlled conditions had established the dominant sources of noise when glass is collected into metal troughs on a roadside collection vehicle, and identified working factors likely to affect noise exposure. The trials described here were carried out to assess the effect of modifications to the design of the troughs on the noise levels produced. Results show that lining collection troughs with a suitable resilient material, and providing a flap to partially cover the opening of the trough, can significantly reduce the noise levels produced compared to a standard metal trough. Within the context of the reductions in noise that have been shown, working factors such as the speed and method of depositing glass in to the collection troughs remain a factor in the noise levels produced, with rapid depositing producing the highest noise levels and also preventing the full benefits of the modifications to the collection trough being realized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 43p. Illus. 5 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_651.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 09-467 Campos Vasconcelos R., de Paula Antunes Lima F., Medeiros da Silveira Abreu A.C., Ribeiro Silva R.C., Camarotto J.A., Pires Murta E.
The "reduction" strategy and the workload of a big city garbage collectors. A case study based on Ergonomic Work Analysis
A estratégia de "redução" e a carga de trabalho dos coletores de lixo domiciliar de uma grande cidade: estudo de caso baseado na Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho [en portugués]
The so called "reduction" process consists in preparing garbage bags to be collected piling up intermediate stocks before they are loaded on trucks. Garbage collectors' activity was studied through Ergonomic Work Analysis, supplemented by physiological and biomechanical workload measuring. As far as work organization is concerned, it was observed that when garbage collectors adopt this strategy they improve their work rhythm; they have more possibilities to separate garbage, such as plastic bags containing glass pieces from the rest; they manage to interact more with co-workers and communicate better with local residents on better ways of garbage packing. As regards health and safety, when garbage collectors follow this process they are less liable to getting cut, to being run over, to falling down or to having quarrels with drivers, and their tasks are performed with less biomechanical load. It is concluded that the "reduction" strategy not only decreases biomechanical load and exposure to risks, but also improves residential garbage collection.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2008, Vol.33, No.117, p.50-59. Illus. 17 ref. [en portugués]

CIS 09-368 Used lamps processing - Guide to hazard evaluation at collection points and at collection and recycling enterprises
La filière des lampes usagées - Aide au repérage des risques dans les points de collecte et les entreprises de collecte et de recyclage [en francés]
This booklet is aimed at enterprises involved in the disposal of used lamps (including retailers, neighbourhood waste collection centres, electricians, refuse collection centres, large users and recycling enterprises) as well as at occupational safety and health specialists. Its objective is to provide guidance for occupational hazard evaluation during the various phases of the elimination chain (collection, sorting, regrouping and transport). It proposes solutions for reducing risks during each step.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 2008. 19p. Illus. Price: EUR 4.20. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed6043.pdf [en francés]

CIS 09-412 Navia R., Bezama A.
Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: An overview
The new Chilean Hazardous Waste Management Regulation came into force on 12 June 2004. During the next 180 days (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was required to present a Hazardous Waste Management Plan if the facility generated more than 12 tons/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. This article describes three case studies on the hazardous waste management plans carried out in facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood products facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified, minimization measures were implemented, and reuses and recycling options were evaluated.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Oct. 2008, Vol.158, No.1. p.177-184. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 09-133 Shih T.S., Lu P.Y., Chen C.H., Soo J.C., Tsai C.L., Tsai P.J.
Exposure profiles and source identifications for workers exposed to crystalline silica during a municipal waste incinerator relining period
In this study, respirable crystalline silica exposures to furnace relining workers were assessed by conducting personal respirable dust sampling. All samples were analyzed for their tridymite, cristobalite and quartz contents using X-ray diffraction. Results show that quartz was the only detectable crystalline silica content. The operations with the highest levels of respirable quartz exposure were different from those for which respirable dust exposure levels were the most important. Nearly all workers' respirable quartz exposures exceeded the TLV-TWA (0.025mg/m3) indicating appropriate control strategies should be taken immediately.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 2008, Vol.154, Nos.1-3, p.469-475. 21 ref.

CIS 09-170 Li X.R., Koseki H., Iwata Y.
Risk assessment on processing facility of raw organic garbage
This article presents work done in order to investigate the cause of an explosion during the processing of raw garbage in a volume-reduction processing facility at a Japanese shopping mall. Variable onset temperatures of the exothermal reaction were found as a function of oil content, decreasing from 150°C in the samples containing 10.9-14.1% oil to 114°C when the oil content reached 40%. The disposal process was then simulated in a laboratory-scale facility heated by hot air of 150°C blown into the bottom through nozzles. In the case of the dried garbage containing 14.1% oil, white smoke emitted after several hours, accompanied by an abrupt rise of the temperatures in particular at the bottom of the facility. The maximum temperature reached 1070°C, accompanied by the emission of several gases, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and ethane. Probable mechanisms explaining the observed explosion are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 2008, Vol.154, Nos.1-3, p.38-43. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 08-1386 Gavrilova E.
Gestión integral de excedentes industriales y manejo especial de residuos peligrosos
This article discusses trends in industrial waste disposal in Colombia during the last few decades, until the organization of waste recovery and recycling supply chains, and the integrated management of wastes. It also presents a pilot project for the disposal of used refrigerators, including the recovery of refrigerants that are harmful to the environment.
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug. 2008, Vol.54, No.320, p.47-51. Illus.

CIS 08-1385 Richard A.M.
Waste: From sorting to disposal, steps of coherent and optimized waste management
Déchets: du tri à l'évacuation, les étapes d'une gestion rigoureuse et optimale [en francés]
Construction site waste management is both an environmental and business necessity. Good management begins with an analysis of the production processes so as to minimize waste at the source, and includes sorting, which lowers disposal costs. Key issues concerning special waste (plaster, asbestos) are highlighted in a box.
Prévention BTP, May 2008, No.107, p.34-36. Illus.

CIS 08-895 Rapp R., Henry F., Fontaine J.R.
Air diffusion in sorting rooms at domestic waste treatment centres - Study of the ventilation characteristics of four air input systems
Diffusion de l'air dans les salles de tri des centres de traitement des ordures ménagères - Etude des caractéristiques aérauliques de quatre dispositifs d'introduction de l'air [en francés]
The INRS recommends that an overhead air supply island be placed above each workstation in domestic waste sorting premises. In this study, the aerological performance of various types of air supply islands were evaluated based on measured air velocities at the exit of the unit and at the breathing level of potential operators. It was found that a system comprised of a simple casing with a single perforated grill (perforation ratio above 45%) is insufficient to ensure a properly- directed flow. Acceptable performance can be obtained with two grills (perforation ratio below 32%) or with a casing fitted with a filter.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2008, No.210, p.15-24. Illus. 6 ref.


CIS 08-646 Chollot A.
Study of CMRs in hazardous waste
Etude des composés CMR dans les déchets dangereux [en francés]
This article presents the findings of a study on the exposure of waste disposal workers to carcinogens, mutagens and reprotoxic agents (CMRs). A first part describes the methodology used for the survey. Next, the results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. A final section outlines proposed operating procedures for improving protection against risks posed by CMRs, including the formalization of information transfer to the parties concerned.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.73-88. Illus. 9 ref.$File/pr31.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-644 Savary B., Vincent R.
Centres for the collection of diffuse hazardous wastes - Characterization of potential hazards
Les centres de regroupement des déchets dangereux diffus - Caractérisation des risques potentiels [en francés]
The complexity of managing the disposal of low-concentration hazardous wastes is due to their nature and their highly-diverse sources. Furthermore, they are often contained in small-sized packaging. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical hazards in hazardous waste collection facilities. Work procedures in several centres were observed. These procedures are essentially manual and the protective measures implemented are often inadequate. The problem is even more pronounced for the collection of household hazardous waste, given that no analyses are carried out on wastes collected from public waste disposal facilities and no information on the possible presence of hazardous chemicals is currently communicated to the processing operators. Various measures aimed at improving the flow of information to the operators of waste disposal facilities are proposed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.23-29. 9 ref.$File/ND2278.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-402 Savary B., Vincent R.
Characterization of potential chemical risks in the treatment of various waste streams
Caractérisation des risques chimiques potentiels dans quelques filières de traitement des déchets [en francés]
Changes in waste treatment regulations require the development of management systems specific to certain waste products, with the emergence of new processes. The aim of this study was to characterise the potential chemical risks for car waste, electric and electronic equipment waste, industrial packaging, toxic waste in dispersed quantities and feathers and down. Following a description of the processes concerned, chemical agents were identified and the number of potentially-exposed employees was estimated. Most treatment processes involve one or more manual operations before and after the waste shredding operations. In both cases, employees are exposed through the respiratory tract to liquid waste vapours or solid waste dust. Manual dismantling operations currently used for treating electrical and electronic equipment waste will not be able to meet future needs given the strong projected growth in waste volumes. Necessary mechanisation of waste treatment is likely to modify worker exposure to chemical agents in this waste processing chain.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2007, No.207, p.59-75. Illus. 49 ref.$File/ND2271.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-463 Rosenberg N.
Non-infectious occupational respiratory diseases due to biological agents - Sector of waste collection, sorting and recovery
Affections respiratoires professionnelles non infectieuses dues aux agents biologiques - Secteur des déchets: collecte, tri et valorisation [en francés]
This information sheet describes the main respiratory symptoms faced by workers involved in collecting and sorting household waste. These include hypersensitivity pneumopathy, organic dust toxic syndrome, ocular, nasal and bronchial irritation symptoms and chronic bronchitis. Prevention is based on avoiding the inhalation of dusts and microorganisms. It includes the design and layout of equipment, machinery and containers, ventilation of work premises, work organization and the use of personal protective equipment suited to the types of exposures and activities.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2007, No.110, p.229-236. Illus. 27 ref.$File/TR39.pdf [en francés]

CIS 07-1339 Waché O.
Desarrollo sostenible y prevención
Développement durable et prévention [en francés]
Este dossier trata del desarrollo sostenible en el sector de la construcción y las obras públicas. Temas tratados: selección de los residuos en las obras; utilización de productos y materiales de construcción respetuosos con el medio ambiente; materiales de construcción a base de productos naturales (madera, ladrillos de tierra cocida, aislamiento a base de cáñamo); seguridad en la selección y el reciclado de residuos
Prévention BTP, July-Aug. 2007, No.98, p.36-47. Illus.

CIS 07-1338 Sagot F.
Desechos de las obras - Desde la selección in situ a los centros de tratamiento
Déchets de chantier - Du tri sur site aux centres de traitement [en francés]
A partir del 1 de julio de 2002, en los vertederos de Francia solamente se aceptan residuos inertes que no se hayan podido tratar o reciclar. Consecuentemente, las empresas de construcción y obras públicas deberán limitar su producción y seleccionarlos in situ, a fin de reducir los costes de vertido. Este artículo presenta un ejemplo de la organización de los flujos de residuos de una obra
Prévention BTP, July-Aug. 2007, No.98, p.28-29. Illus.

CIS 07-816 Brasseur G.
Residuos - Demoler sin riesgos lo que se ha construido
Déchets - Déconstruire sans risques ce que l'on a construit [en francés]
El sector de los residuos debe respetar a un mismo tiempo la protección del medio ambiente y la protección de la salud de sus trabajadores. Este dossier trata de las reglamentaciones específicas aplicables a la recogida, el transporte, el tratamiento y la eliminación de los residuos. En el sumario: eliminación de los residuos eléctricos y electrónicos; reciclado de los vehículos de motor; evaluación de la exposición al benceno durante las operaciones de vaciado de los depósitos de combustible de vehículos accidentados; obligaciones en materia de embalaje y transporte de los residuos
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2007, No.669, p.22-33. Illus$file/TS669page23.pdf?openelement [en francés]


CIS 07-817 Sagot F.
Descontaminación de suelos, atención, peligro!
Dépollution des sols, attention danger! [en francés]
Este dossier trata de la descontaminación de suelos, actividad que esta experimentando un rápido crecimiento por razón de la escasez de suelo, lo que induce a los promotores inmobiliarios a interesarse por antiguas zonas industriales. En el sumario: situación actual; comentarios del vicepresidente de la unión profesional de empresas francesas de descontaminación de terrenos; riesgos relacionados con los diversos tipos de tratamiento y su prevención; comentarios del director de una empresa de descontaminación; reglas que deben observarse en una obra típica; medidas de protección adoptadas por una empresa encargada de la descontaminación de un terreno que sufrió una contaminación ilegal salvaje, con presencia de solventes
Prévention BTP, Dec. 2006, No.91, p.39-47. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 07-676
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Fachausschuss "Tiefbau" der Berufsgenossenschaftlichen Zentrale für Sicherheit und Gesundheit (BGZ)
Zonas contaminadas
Kontaminierte Bereiche [en alemán]
Código de buenas prácticas aplicables a los siguientes casos: trabajos de reparación en vertederos, trabajos de limpieza de suelos y locales contaminados (con excepción de la eliminación de materiales que contienen amianto), trabajos de construcción o de demolición de instalaciones contaminadas o de limpieza tras un incendio. Entre las medidas de protección cabe citar: limitación del acceso, protección contra el fuego y las explosiones, primeros auxilios, vigilancia médica prestada por un medico del trabajo, protección contra los accidentes provocados por maquinaria de movimiento de tierras, protección contra la inhalación de sustancias nocivas y provisión de equipos de protección individual. Actualización del Código referenciado en CIS 04-66.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Straße 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, rev.ed., Feb. 2006. 66p. Price: EUR 6.80. [en alemán]

CIS 07-714 Missel T., Felten C.
Control de la eficacia de las medidas de protección técnica en las empresas de tratamiento de residuos mediante recuento correlativo de partículas
Wirksamkeitsüberprüfung Technischer Schutzmaßnahmen in der Abfallwirtschaft mit der Korrelierten Partikelzählung [en alemán]
Las normas técnicas alemanas sobre riesgos biológicos, TRBA 211 de septiembre de 2001, limitan la concentración de hongos en la atmósfera de las plantas de compostaje a 50.000UFC/m3 de aire. En este estudio se trataba de saber si se puede utilizar el recuento de partículas como alternativa a los métodos de cultivo biológico para la determinación de la concentración de agentes microbianos en el aire. Las determinaciones comparativas de los microorganismos y las partículas de polvo, realizados en más de 300 puestos de trabajo en las empresas de compostaje ha demostrado que la composición de los bioaerosoles es prácticamente uniforme. Por ello, se propone que, en este tipo de empresas, la concentración de microorganismos se evalúe mediante la medición de las partículas de polvo.
Ergo-Med, May-June 2006, Vol.60, No.3, p.84-89. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 07-663 Guía de seguridad para el manejo y la eliminación de los químicos utilizados en la fabricación ilícita de drogas
La gestión, el almacenamiento y la eliminación sin riesgo de los productos químicos utilizados y los residuos generados en los laboratorios clandestinos de droga plantea un problema a las autoridades. Destinada a las autoridades responsables, esta guía de seguridad describe diferentes métodos para eliminar los productos químicos específicos utilizados para la fabricación de drogas ilícitas.
United Nations, Sales Section, New York, USA, 2006. 89p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [en español]

CIS 07-196 Bondéelle A., Delmotte H., Gauron C.
Residuos radioactivos procedentes de hospitales - Radiación bajo control
Déchets hospitaliers radioactifs - Rayonnements sous contrôle [en francés]
Este trabajo centra su atención en las prácticas y disposiciones reglamentarias francesas en materia de tratamiento de los desechos radioactivos de los hospitales. Temas tratados: evolución de la reglamentación; papel de la persona responsable; esquema de un sistema de gestión (clasificación, almacenamiento, eliminación) de los efluentes y desechos de actividades medicas contaminados por elementos radiactivos; formación e información; glosario.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2006, No.664, p.21-29. Illus. 16 ref.$File/TS664page20.pdf?OpenElement [en francés]

CIS 06-1390 Duchet M., Grosmann J.L., Hugues J., Fontaine J.R., Terrier C.
Diseño de los centros de clasificación de los residuos industriales comunes y de los residuos de obras.
Conception des centres de tri des déchets industriels banals et des déchets de chantier [en francés]
Este folleto presenta las recomendaciones especificas en materia de salud, de seguridad y de condiciones de trabajo para el personal de centros de clasificación de residuos industriales comunes (DIB) y desechos de obras. Estas recomendaciones son aplicables a los proyectos de creación o reforma de centros de clasificación de DIB. Asimismo, se pueden utilizar para evaluar los riesgos profesionales en un centro de clasificación ya existente. Esta herramienta de trabajo trata de implicar al conjunto de personas y organismos relacionados con el proyecto (personas que dan ordenes, jefes de obra, proyectistas y coordinadores de obra) para integrar lo máximo posible la prevención de los riesgos profesionales durante el desarrollo del proyecto.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Feb. 2006. 49p. Illus. Index. Price: EUR 8.00. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed948.pdf [en francés]


CIS 08-107 da Silva M.C., Fassa A.G., Siqueira C.E., Kriebel D.
El mundo del trabajo: traperos brasileños
World at work: Brazilian ragpickers [en inglés]
Este estudio transversal se ha realizado para evaluar las condiciones de trabajo de los traperos en una ciudad de Brasil. La muestra estaba constituida por 455 traperos y se comparó con una muestra de 535 individuos que no eran traperos pero que habitaban en idénticos barrios pobres. El estudio se efectuó mediante entrevistas con los interesados. Se comentan los resultados relacionados con la naturaleza del trabajo, las posturas, las exposiciones y otros factores de riesgo
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2005, Vol.62, No.10, p.736-740. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 07-1132 Snarska B.
Cómo utilizar y eliminar el amianto con absoluta seguridad
Jak bezpiecznie użytkować i usuwać azbest [en polonés]
Se enumeran y comentan las variedades de amianto y los productos que lo contienen, utilizados en Polonia. Asimismo, se explican los métodos de utilización y la forma de eliminarlo con seguridad, así como los requisitos jurídicos al respecto
Prewencja i Rehabilitacja, 2005, No.3, p.12-19. Illus.

CIS 07-721 Dounias G., Kypraiou E., Rachiotis G., Tsovili E., Kostopoulos S.
Prevalencia de marcadores del virus de la hepatitis B entre los basureros municipales de Karatsini (Grecia)
Prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers in municipal solid waste workers in Keratsini (Greece) [en inglés]
El objetivo de este estudio transversal era evaluar la prevalencia de marcadores del virus de la hepatitis B (VHB) entre trabajadores municipales afectos a la recogida de basuras sólidas. El estudio se ha realizado sobre 166 basureros de la ciudad de Keratsini, en Grecia. Se evaluó la prevalencia de marcadores biológicos de infección por el VHB (HbsAg, anti-Hbc, anti-Hbs) así como su asociación con la exposición a la basura y con diferentes factores socio-demográficos. Se observó una diferencia significativa entre los individuos expuestos y los no expuestos a las basuras, respecto de la prevalencia de positividad anti-Hbc. En el caso de los trabajadores más viejos, la prevalencia de positividad anti-Hbc era significativamente más alta. Los basureros anti-Hbc positivos estaban menos instruidos que los trabajadores no expuestos. El análisis mediante regresión logística puso en evidencia el hecho de que la exposición a las basuras y la edad estaban asociados independientemente con la positividad anti-Hbc. Se concluye que la exposición profesional a basuras podría estar asociada a la adquisición de una infección por el VHB. Debería considerarse la inmunización de los basureros para evitar el riesgo de infección por VHB.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.55, No.1, p.60-63. 22 ref.

CIS 06-1206 Gestión de los residuos procedentes de la utilización de sustancias radioactivas en medicina, en la industria, en la agricultura, en investigación y en la enseñanza.
Obraščenie s radioaktivnymi othodami, obrazujuščimisja v rezul'tate ispol'zovanija radioaktivnyh materialov v medicine, sel'skom hozjajstve, issledovanijah i obrazovanii [en ruso]
Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education [en inglés]
Gong ye nong ye yan jiu he jiao xue ying yong zhong chan sheng de fei wu de guan li [en chino]
Esta guía de seguridad muestra recomendaciones y consejos prácticos sobre el respeto de las exigencias de seguridad relacionadas con la gestión de los residuos radioactivos. Comenta el papel y las responsabilidades de los diferentes organismos implicados en gestionar la eliminación de residuos radioactivos así como en el transporte de materiales radioactivos. Esta guía va dirigida a las entidades que generan y tratan los residuos radioactivos de forma centralizada, así como a los organismos responsables de reglamentar tales actividades.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2005. xii, 73p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: EUR 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [en inglés] [en ruso] [en chino]

CIS 06-703 Darves-Bornoz M., Welitz G.
Prevención de riesgos en zonas de compactado.
Prévention des risques en zone de compactage [en francés]
Los campactadoras de residuos permiten reducir el volumen de productos tales como cartones, recortes, impresos, botellas de plástico y residuos industriales. Esta ficha práctica de seguridad trata de las compactadoras de residuos horizontales hidráulicas, en las que la carga se realiza de forma manual. El principal riesgo asociado a la utilización de este tipo de equipos son los de aplastamiento por el elemento prensador durante el funcionamiento normal, es decir la carga de los residuos, la recuperación de los residuos inapropiados, y la eliminación de los atascos. En el sumario: principales causas de accidente; medidas preventivas (elección del compactador, control del acceso, equipos de protección individual, consignas de seguridad, información de los trabajadores, medidas de organización).
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2005, No.655, insert 4p. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 06-595 Roberge B., Baril M., Bariteau C.
Riegos en las instalaciones para la gestión de los residuos de materiales peligrosos - cual es la situación actual?
Des risques dans les centres de transferts des matières dangereuses résiduelles - Qu'en est-il? [en francés]
De manera general, la industria garantiza la eliminación de los materiales residuales peligrosos en instalaciones especializadas adecuadas. Las personas que trabajan en tales centros están expuestas cotidianamente a diversos riesgos que pueden afectar a su salud. Este articulo trata de este sector en Québec, Canadá, sobre la base de la visita a seis de estos centros. Presenta una descripción de los establecimientos, los procesos utilizados, así como los riesgos y peligros para los trabajadores, relacionados con los factores químicos, físicos, ergonómicos o de seguridad. Concluye que existen riesgos de alteraciones osteomusculares y de accidente de trabajo derivados de un diseño de los puestos de trabajo en los que han primado criterios de productividad y flexibilidad sobre los criterios ergonómicos.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2005, Vol.21, No.3, p.14-17. 7 ref.

CIS 05-649 Roberge B., Baril M., Bariteau C.
Documentación de los riesgos en los centros de transferencia de materias peligrosas residuales.
Documentation des risques dans les centres de transfert des matières dangereuses résiduelles [en francés]
En los últimos años, se han producido varios accidentes de trabajo, algunos de ellos mortales, en el sector de las materias residuales peligrosas, incluidas las actividades relacionadas con la limpieza industrial. Este estudio se promovió como resultado de una demanda del Comité Paritario del Medio Ambiente (CPM), constituido por representantes de la Comisión para la Salud y Seguridad en el Trabajo (CSST) de Québec y profesionales del sector. Se investigaron los riesgos para la salud y la seguridad, así como los factores de riesgo en los centros de transferencia de materiales peligrosos, documentando los procedimientos y los equipos utilizados, los materiales tratados, los riesgos químicos, microbiológicos y ergonómicos a los que estaban sometidos los trabajadores, la seguridad relativa a las tareas efectuadas, y a la formación en materia de prevención. Toda esta documentación provee a los gestores de los centros de transferencia de residuos peligrosos de una herramienta útil para que puedan implantar medidas preventivas.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. i, 21p. 12 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [en francés]

CIS 05-635 Kumagai S., Koda S.
Concentraciones de dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas y de dibenzofuranos policlorados en las muestras de suero de trabajadores de una planta de incineración de residuos infecciosos de Japón.
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentrations in serum samples of workers at an infectious waste incineration plant in Japan [en inglés]
Entre los años 1998 y 2000 se comprobó que la suma de las concentraciones de dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD) y de dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF) en el gas de escape de una planta incineradora de residuos infecciosos era considerablemente más elevada que el límite legal de 80mg/m3 de equivalentes tóxicos (TEQ). El incinerador entró en servicio en noviembre del año 2000. Este estudio trataba de establecer si los empleados que trabajaban en esta planta incineradora habían estado expuestos a niveles altos de PCDD y de PCDF. A cinco trabajadores expuestos y a cinco controles se les practicaron análisis de sangre un mes y 16 meses después del cese de la exposición. Asimismo, se recogieron cenizas residuales del incinerador así como polvo depositado sobre este y sobre la cinta trasportadora, donde se encontraron valores TEQ, respectivamente, de 44 y 10ng/g. Un mes después del cese de la exposición profesional a dioxinas, el TEQ medio entre los trabajadores expuestos era de 49,1pg/g de lípidos, es decir 2,7 veces más alto que entre los controles. Al cabo de 16 meses, se seguía manteniendo 1,6 veces más elevado que en los controles.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2005, Vol.2, No.2, p.120-125. 36 ref.

CIS 05-670 Chollot A., Rodriguez C., Courtois B., Dornier G.
Desechos de equipos eléctricos y electrónicos
Déchets d'équipements électriques et électroniques [en francés]
Según la Directiva europea 75/442/CEE, los desechos de equipos eléctricos y electrónicos (DEEE) incluyen la totalidad de sus componentes, así como los submontajes y consumibles que forman parte del equipo al efectuar el raspado en seco. La normativa prevista para finales de 2006 requerirá la recuperación anual de 4 kg de DEEE por habitante y las tasas de reciclado deberán superar el 70% en función del tipo de residuo. Como resultado, se están instalando nuevas cadenas de procesado de residuos cuya tarea entraña un riesgo potencial para la salud de los trabajadores. Contenido de esta hoja informativa: tipos de DEEE; descripción del procesado de residuos; riesgos laborales (polvo, riesgo químico, riesgo biológico); medidas preventivas, reglamentación, trabajos del INRS en este campo.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2005. 4p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed5029.pdf [en francés]


CIS 07-21
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Revista del trabajador: colectores de residuos - pilas y baterías en los desechos urbanos - reducción de los desechos de los domicilios.
Revista do trabalhador: Coletores de lixo - Pilhas e baterias no lixo urbano - Redução do lixo domiciliar [en portugués]
La primera de estas videocintas examina las condiciones de trabajo de los colectores de desechos, la segunda pone de manifiesto el problema de la eliminación de un número, creciente de día en día, de baterías y pilas en las basuras urbanas. La tercera trata de la necesidad de reducir las cantidades de basuras generadas y de sensibilizar sobre la importancia del reciclaje de los desechos.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Three videotapes (VHS format), 14min, 11min and 13min.

CIS 05-465 Heldal K.K., Eduard W.
Asociaciones entre síntomas agudos y exposición a bioaerosoles durante la recogida de desechos domésticos
Associations between acute symptoms and bioaerosol exposure during the collection of household waste [en inglés]
Este estudio investiga la relación entre los síntomas asociados con el trabajo y la exposición a bioaerosoles en 22 trabajadores de la recogida de basura. Durante todo el turno de trabajo, se determinaron las exposiciones totales a bacterias, esporas fúngicas, endotoxinas y polvo total. Los datos sobre los síntomas experimentados durante el trabajo fueron recopilados a través de un cuestionario. Los niveles medianos de exposición a cocos y esporas fúngicas fueron 0,4 y 0,1 x 106m3, respectivamente, mientras las exposiciones a bacilos, endotoxinas y polvo fueron bajas. Los síntomas comunicados con más frecuencia fueron cansancio inusual (24%), cefalea (22%), tos (15%), irritación ocular y nasal (10% y 17%). Los resultados sugieren que la irritación nasal aguda está asociada con la exposición a bacterias. La exposición a bacilos se asocia también con irritación nasal y cansancio inusual. Por último, es probable que la tos esté asociada con la exposición a esporas fúngicas.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.253-260. Illus. 23 ref.

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