Diseases of the respiratory system (except for pneumoconiosis & similar) - 2,965 entradas encontradas
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Pizon A.F., Schwartz A.R., Shum L.M., Rittenberger J.C., Lower D.R., Giannoutsos S., Virji M.A., Krasowski M.D.
Toxicology laboratory analysis and human exposure to p-chloroaniline
A 20 year-old man working at a chemical waste plant developed dizziness, abdominal pain and nausea. Following medical examinations which revealed cyanosis and methaemoglobinaemia, methylene blue administration led to complete recovery without sequelae. p-Chloroaniline was later identified as the chemical involved. The subject denied direct contact with the chemical, but was not wearing a respirator during work. GC/MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) confirmed p-chloroaniline and its primary metabolite, p-chloroacetanilide, in the patient's urine.
Clinical Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.132-136. Illus. 12 ref.
Metalworking fluids - Allergens, exposure, and skin and respiratory effects
It is estimated that 20,000 workers in Finland are occupationally exposed to metalworking fluids. Many studies have addressed the adverse skin and respiratory effects of these fluids. Despite the general improvements in occupational hygiene over the last decades, the health effects seem not to have disappeared. Worldwide, exposed workers still suffer from contact dermatoses and respiratory symptoms. This thesis reviews studies carried out in Finland during 2002-2005 on respiratory and skin exposure to specific components of metalworking fluids. It also examines skin and respiratory symptoms in a cross-sectional study among machinist and office workers of 64 companies.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2009. 106p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 22.95.
van Rooy F.G.B.G.J., Smit L.A.M., Houba R., Zaat V.A.C., Rooyackers J.M., Heederik D.J.
A cross-sectional study of lung function and respiratory symptoms among chemical workers producing diacetyl for food flavourings
Four workers of a diacetyl (also known as 2,3-butanedione) plant in the Netherlands were diagnosed with a bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. This lead to an investigation of exposures, respiratory symptoms, lung function and exposure-response relationships in a cohort of 175 workers having worked at the plant between 1960 and 2003. Lung function and questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms were compared to a general population sample and to an unexposed internal reference group. Compared to the two reference groups, diacetyl exposed workers reported significantly more respiratory symptoms, daily cough and asthma. A relationship between exposure and FEV1 was also observed. The excess of respiratory symptoms in this retrospective cohort suggests that diacetyl production poses an occupational hazard.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.66, No.2, p.105-110. Illus. 16 ref.
Cummings K.J., Boylstein R.J., Cox-Ganser J.
Report on respiratory and dermal conditions among machine shop workers
In 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a confidential Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) request from workers of a machine shop, reporting recurrent pneumonias, asthma and other respiratory symptoms as well as rashes and skin irritation that they related to the metalworking fluid (MWF). NIOSH investigators conducted telephone interviews with workers, treating physicians, company management and safety officials, and the director of the company's referral occupational health clinic. They reviewed medical records and environmental monitoring conducted by the company. They also conducted microbiological tests on samples of MWF collected from the machine shop. The investigators found that workers' symptoms and diagnoses were consistent with those associated with exposure to MWF. Workers in the machine shop reported not receiving training on the health hazards of MWF and not being provided respiratory protection; furthermore, they are not included in a medical surveillance program. As a result of this investigation, NIOSH made a number of recommendations with respect to training, exposure surveillance, ventilation, and supply of personal protective equipment.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. v, 52p. Illus. 19 ref.
HETA_2007-0263-3069.pdf [en inglés]
Donroe J.A., Maurtua-Neumann P.J., Gilman R.H., Acosta A.T., Cain G., Parker J.E., Carhuaricra J.C., Retimozo Padilla J.J., Mendoza D., Zimic M., Moore D.A.
Surveillance for early silicosis in high altitude miners using pulse oximetry
Two cross-sectional studies in a high altitude region of Peru evaluated the role of pulse oximetry for detection of silicosis in high-altitude miners. In the first study, exercise pulse oximetry and chest radiographs were used to evaluate 343 silica-exposed miners and 141 unexposed subjects for evidence of silicosis. The second study investigated the association between exercise oxygen saturation and silicosis in 32 non-silicotic and 65 silicotic miners. Age, resting oxygen saturation and years of mining employment were found to be associated with silicosis. Pulse oximetry should be further investigated as a screening tool for silicosis at high altitudes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.3, p.187-192. Illus. 27 ref.
Pedra F., Testa Tambellini A., De Bragança Pereira B., Carioca da Costa A., Albuquerque de Castro H.
Mesothelioma mortality in Brazil, 1980-2003
Although asbestos causes asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma, it remains widely used in Brazil, mostly in cement-fiber products. This article reports the Brazilian mesothelioma mortality trend 1980-2003. Mesothelioma mortality rates increased over the period studied, from 0.56 to 1.01 deaths per 1,000,000 habitants. The total number of mesothelioma deaths nationwide in the period studied was 2414, with the majority (1415) in the Southeast region. Mortality was highest among males and persons over the age of 65. Given the history of asbestos exposure in Brazil, findings support the need for policies that limit or ban the use of this product.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.3, p.170-175. Illus. 28 ref.
Bang K.M., Mazurek J.M., Syamlal G., Wood J.M.
Asbestos mortality surveillance in the United States, 1970-2004
To describe the demographic, geographic, and occupational distribution of asbestosis mortality in the United States during 1970-2004, this study identified a total of 25,413 asbestosis deaths. National, state, and county death rates were calculated, age-adjusted to the 2000 standard population. Industry- and occupation-specific proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were also calculated, adjusted for age, sex and race, using available data. The overall U.S. age-adjusted asbestosis death rate was 4.1 per million of population per year; the rate for males (10.4) was nearly 35-fold higher than that for females (0.3). It increased significantly from 0.6 to 6.9 per million of population from 1970 to 2000, and then declined to 6.3 in 2004. High asbestosis death rates occurred predominantly, though not exclusively, in coastal areas. Industries with highest PMRs included ship and boat building and repairing (PMR 18.5) and miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products (PMR 15.9). Occupations with highest PMRs included insulation workers (PMR 109.2) and boilermakers (PMR 21.3).
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.3, p.161-169. Illus. 52 ref.
Malo J.L., Gautrin D., Maghni K., Martin J.
Bronchial irritation syndrome - From epidemiological monitoring to the mechanisms
Le syndrome d'irritation bronchique - De la surveillance épidémiologique aux mécanismes [en francés]
Bronchial irritation syndrome is a form of occupational asthma that manifests itself following exposure to a high concentration or to several low exposures to a non-specific irritant. The worker then develops respiratory symptoms suggestive of asthma that can lead to a permanent functional disorder. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors and characteristics of bronchial irritation among workers having been exposed to irritants. It involved 115 workers newly hired between 1995 and 2004 in a metalworking industry, who were followed several times over a period of a few years by means of pulmonary function tests and questionnaires, in particular on their possible accidental exposure to chlorine. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. vii, 38p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-574.pdf [en francés]
Pinheiro G.A., Antao V.C., Wood J.M., Wassell J.T.
Occupational risks for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis mortality in the United States
The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). It involved analyzing mortality data for "other interstitial pulmonary diseases with fibrosis," deriving age-adjusted mortality rates for 1999-2003, and assessing occupational risks for 1999, by calculating proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) and mortality odds ratios (MORs) using a matched case-control approach. A total of 84,010 IPF deaths were identified, with an age-adjusted mortality rate of 75.7 deaths/million. Mortality rates were highest among males, whites, and those aged 85 and older. Three industry categories with potential occupational exposures recognized as risk factors for IPF were identified: "Wood buildings and mobile homes" (PMR 4.5, MOR 5.3), "Metal mining" (PMR 2.4, MOR 2.2) and "Fabricated structural metal products" (PMR 1.9, MOR 1.7). Workers in these industry categories may benefit from toxicological studies and improved surveillance for this disease.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol. 14, No.2, p.117-123. Illus. 31 ref.
Stayner L., Kuempel E., Gilbert S., Hein M., Dement J.
An epidemiological study of the role of chrysotile asbestos fibre dimensions in determining respiratory disease risk in exposed workers
The relation between cumulative exposure to asbestos, pathological grade of pulmonary fibrosis, and lung burden of asbestos at death was explored in a deceased population of former workers in an asbestos textile plant in South Carolina. Estimates of cumulative, mean, and peak exposures were available for 54 workers. Autopsy records and lung tissue samples were obtained from hospital files. Cumulative exposures to asbestos and lung fibre burdens were both found to be strongly correlated with the severity of asbestosis. The data also supported the hypothesis that the high prevalence of asbestosis and lung cancer in this population resulted from exposure to long fibres of chrysotile.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.65, No.9, p.613-619. Illus. 25 ref.
Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Schachter E.N., Kern J., Deckovic-Vukres V., Trosic I., Chiarelli A.
Respiratory function in pesticide workers
Pesticide aerosols are frequently toxic irritants associated with respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities in 82 workers employed in processing pesticides and in 60 unexposed controls employed in a soft drink bottling plant. Data were subjected to logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was greater among pesticide workers than among controls. There was a high prevalence of acute symptoms during the work shift in pesticide workers. Ventilatory capacity showed significant reductions in all tests. The effects of smoking and work exposure were different in men and women.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1299-1305. 28 ref.
Pintos J., Parent M.E., Rousseau M.C., Case B.W., Siemiatycki J.
Occupational exposure to asbestos and man-made vitreous fibers, and risk of lung cancer: Evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of occupational exposure to asbestos and man-made vitreous fibres (MMVF) on the risk of lung cancer in two population-based case-control studies entailing exposure at lower levels than in historic cohort studies. Study I (1979 to 1986) comprised 857 exposed cases and 1066 population and cancer controls. Study II (1996 to 2001) comprised 858 cases and 1295 population controls. A detailed job history was obtained to evaluate lifetime occupational exposure to 294 agents, including asbestos and MMVF. Increased risks were found for substantial exposure to asbestos (odds ratio 1.78). However, results for MMVF were inconclusive (odds ratio 1.10).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1273-1281. 34 ref.
Alleged daytime somnolence in a professional driver: Approaching the fitness for duty determination
In 2006, a task force of occupational and environmental physicians published consensus recommendations for screening and evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in commercial motor vehicle operators. OSA is a common and serious sleep disorder associated with daytime psychomotor impairment, as well as an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This article illustrates the use of the task force's recommendations to guide the fitness for duty evaluation of a school bus driver referred due to somnolence at work, his subsequent treatment and safe return to work.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep 2008, Vol.50, No.9, p.1086-1088. 10 ref.
Gaughan D.M., Cox-Ganser J.M., Enright P.L., Castellan R.M., Wagner G.R., Hobbs G.R., Bledsoe T.A., Siegel P.D., Kreiss K., Weissman D.N.
Acute upper and lower respiratory effects in wildland firefighters
To assess acute respiratory effects experienced by wildland firefighters, two crews were studied by means of questionnaires, spirometry, and measurement of albumin, eosinophilic cationic protein, and myeloperoxidase as indicators of inflammation in sputum and nasal lavage fluid. Assessments were made pre-season, post-fire, and post-season. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep 2008, Vol.50, No.9, p.1019-1028. Illus. 41 ref.
Jönsson L.S., Littorin M., Axmon A., Jönsson B.A.G., Broberg K.
Lung function in relation to 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and genetic effect modification among rubber workers in Sweden
The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of impaired lung function among Swedish rubber workers. Included in the study were 159 rubber exposed and 118 unexposed controls. Urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (a marker of carbon disulfide and vulcanization fumes) were assessed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes were analyzed by Taqman-based allelic discrimination and conventional polymerase chain reaction. There was an association between increasing levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and impaired lung function among exposed workers. The association was modified by glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 (GSTA1)-52 and GSTP1-114. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep 2008, Vol.50, No.9, p.1006-1012. 43 ref.
Protecting health care workers from tuberculosis
The resurgence of cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and the emergence of drug-resistant strains of TB have increased the risk that health care workers (HCWs) may acquire serious TB infections which may not respond to usual therapy. These ACGIH guidelines explain the multiple steps needed to reduce this risk, which include: periodical training of HCWs to maintain awareness of the potential risks of TB; optimizing the design, ventilation and patient flow in clinical spaces; periodic TB surveillance testing of HCWs; use of appropriate respiratory protection; active infection control procedures; updating of written TB control plans.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.852-855. 32 ref.
Ebbehøj N.E., Hein H.O., Suadicani P., Gyntelberg F.
Occupational organic solvent exposure, smoking, and prevalence of chronic bronchitis - An epidemiological study of 3387 men
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the interaction between smoking and long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents on the prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB). Data on 3387 men aged 63 ±10 years were collected by means of a questionnaire on health, lifestyle, working conditions and exposure to solvents, together with a clinical examination including measurements of height, weight, and peak-flow. CB was observed in 461 subjects (14.4%). Current smoking and the interaction of smoking and occupational exposure to organic solvents for five years or more were the factors most strongly associated with prevalence of CB. In the solvent-exposed group, odds ratio for CB was 7.0 for current smokers compared to non-smokers, while it was only 3.7 in the unexposed group. Possible reasons for this increased risk are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.730-735. 16 ref.
Mirabelli D., Calisti R., Barone-Adesi F., Fornero E., Merletti F., Magnani C.
Excess of mesotheliomas after exposure to chrysotile in Balangero, Italy
Chrysotile from the mine in Balangero, Italy, is considered to be free of tremolite. In an earlier cohort study of miners and millers working on this site, only two pleural cancers were reported, suggesting that chrysotile has a low potency for inducing mesothelioma. However, follow-up ended in 1987. To complete the assessment, this study searched the regional cancer registry for cases of pleural mesothelioma among employees of the mine, employees of subcontractors and individuals exposed to mine tailings. Four new cases of pleural mesothelioma were identified among blue-collar workers in the mine, in addition to the two reported in the earlier cohort study. Thus, six mesotheliomas occurred, compared to the 1.5 expected. A further 14 mesothelioma cases occurred among other site workers and 13 among other persons exposed to chrysotile, providing further evidence that even tremolite-free chrysotile is carcinogenic.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.65, No.12, p.815-819. 21 ref.
Sauni R., Kauppi P., Alanko K., Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Tuppurainen M., Hannu T.
Occupational asthma caused by sculptured nails containing methacrylates
This article presents two clinical cases of occupational asthma caused by methacrylates among nail technicians applying artificial nails. In both cases, occupational asthma was diagnosed on the basis of a work simulation test combined with the patient's history of occupational exposure and respiratory symptoms. Asthmatic reactions were observed in the bronchial provocation test with methacrylates. Implications are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.51, No.12, p.968-974. Illus. 31 ref.
Jeebhay M.F., Robins T.G., Miller M.E., Bateman E., Smuts M., Baatjies R., Lopata A.L.
Occupational allergy and asthma among salt water fish processing workers
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of allergic symptoms, allergic sensitization, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and asthma among workers processing saltwater fish. Subjects were 594 workers in two processing plants who responded to a modified European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire and who underwent skin tests using extracts of common airborne allergens, fresh fish and fishmeal, as well as spirometry and methacholine challenge tests. Findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.899-910. 50 ref.
Interpretation of the "positive" methacholine challenge
This article reviews potential causes of a positive methacholine challenge other than asthma or reactive airways dysfunction syndrome which have been reported in the medical literature. Factors which may be associated with a positive methacholine test include test methodology, normal variation of bronchial hyperreactivity in the general population and numerous medical conditions. In cases of inhalation exposure evaluations, alternative explanations must be considered when determining whether a causal association exists between the exposure and a positive methacholine test result.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.769-781. Approx. 120 ref.
Zachou K., Papamichalis P.A., Dalekos G.N.
Severe pharyngitis in stockbreeders: An unusual presentation of brucellosis
Brucellosis is a known occupational hazard for shepherds, abattoir workers, veterinarians, dairy industry workers and personnel in microbiological laboratories. Two cases in stockbreeders who presented with high-grade fever and severe exudative pharyngitis, accompanied by severe odynophagia in the first and a history of relapsing tonsillitis in the second are recorded. It is therefore recommended to include brucellosis in the differential diagnosis of febrile patients suffering from unexplained pharyngitis or tonsillitis who belong to high-risk occupational groups.
Occupational Medicine, 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.305-307. 8 ref.
Nanoparticles and pulmonary effects
Nanoparticules et effets pulmonaires [en francés]
Little is known on the effects of human exposure to nanoparticles. However, there have been many studies on ultrafine particles, which are notably present in motor exhausts and urban pollution, but are also formed as undesirable side products in some industrial processes such as welding, thermal degradation and metal treatment. They cause cardiorespiratory effects among susceptible subjects. By analogy, one can expect that nanoparticles will cause similar effects.
Travail et santé, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.4, p.44-45. Illus.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and work
Broncho-pneumopathie chronique obstructive (BPCO) et travail [en francés]
Review of a one-day conference on work-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) held in Paris, France, on 21 December 2007. Papers were presented in one of four sessions: state of knowledge in 2007; screening and early diagnosis of COPD; practical experiences in screening for COPD; continuing to work while suffering from COPD.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2008, Vol.48, No.3, p.279-288.
Mingomataj E.Ç., Gjata E., Xhixha F., Hyso E.
A case of isocyanate-induced asthma possibly complicated by food allergy after peanut consumption: A case report
A 50-year male worker employed as vehicle body painter for eight years complained about breathlessness, wheezing, sneezing, nasal obstruction and excessive production of mucus during the use of an acrylic enamel paint. Symptoms occurred 15-20 minutes after workplace exposure and usually persisted until evening, or at times, up to two consecutive days. The symptoms were associated with a decrease in lung function. The use of inhaled adrenergic bronchio-dilatators and steroids relieved the symptoms. Three years earlier, the patient had developed an anaphylactic reaction due to peanut consumption, experiencing urticaria, angioedema and airway obstruction. Both cases gave rise to IgE-mediated symptoms, suggesting an induced Th2 profile.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Nov. 2008, Vol.3, No.29, 4p. 21 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-29.pdf [en inglés]
Miles S.E., Sandrini A., Johnson A.R., Yates D.H.
Clinical consequences of asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening: A review
Asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) resulting from asbestos exposure is increasingly common due to the large number of workers previously exposed to asbestos. It may coexist with asbestos-related pleural plaques but has a distinctly different pathogenesis, which is gradually becoming understood. High resolution computed tomography (CT) is more sensitive and specific than chest radiography for the diagnosis of diffuse pleural thickening, and several classification systems for asbestos-related disorders have been devised. DPT may be associated with symptoms such as dyspnoea and chest pain. It causes a restrictive defect on lung function and in rare cases results in respiratory failure and death. Treatment is primarily supportive.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Sep. 2008, Vol.3, No.20, 10p. Illus. 67 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-20.pdf [en inglés]
Li X., Sundquist J., Sundquist K.
Socioeconomic and occupational groups and risk of asthma in Sweden
The objective of this study was to investigate possible associations between hospitalization for asthma, socioeconomic status and occupation in Sweden. A nationwide database was constructed by linking Swedish Census data to the Hospital Discharge Register from 1987 to 2004. The hospital diagnoses of asthma were based on the International Classification of Diseases. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated for different socioeconomic and occupational groups. A total of 13,202 male and 11,876 female hospitalizations for asthma were retrieved for ages above 30 years. The socioeconomic groups with less than nine years of education were associated with a significantly increased risk of hospitalization for asthma. Findings are discussed with reference to specific occupations with increased risk of asthma among men and women.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.58, p.161-168. 33 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/kqn009v1 [en inglés]
Munier C., Kinsella R.
The prevalence and impact of voice problems in primary school teachers
Teachers have been identified as being at increased risk of developing an occupational voice disorder. Primary school teachers are particularly at risk as they have little opportunity for voice rest during the working day. To analyse the prevalence and impact of voice problems, an 85-item questionnaire was administered to 550 primary school teachers from 42 schools in the greater Dublin area, Ireland. A response rate of 55% was obtained. Results suggest that 27% suffered from a voice problem and 53% from an intermittent voice problem, while only 20% had no voice problem. Teachers of the junior classes were more vulnerable to developing a voice problem than those of senior classes. The most common symptoms were dry throat and vocal fatigue. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.74-76. Illus. 9 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/74 [en inglés]
Non-infectious occupational respiratory diseases due to air conditioning/humidifying systems
Affections respiratoires professionnelles non infectieuses dues aux humidificateurs/climatiseurs [en francés]
Occupational non-infectious respiratory diseases due to air conditioning or humidifying systems are caused by moulds or bacteria that colonize the water used to humidify the air by vaporization. They include humidifier fever, humidifier lung, rhinitis and asthma. These diseases are currently rare in occupational settings thanks to improved understanding of the risks, which are taken into account early in the design phase of the equipment. In practice in cases of collective outbreaks, a simple visual inspection of humidification system is performed, followed by cleaning after having identified the critical locations.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2008, No.116, p.533-542. Illus. 41 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TR%2044/$File/TR44.pdf [en francés]
Syurin S.A., Nikanov A.N., Chashchin V.P., Shilov V.V., Frolova N.M., Tarnovskaja E.V.
Assessment of risk factors for chronic bronchitis: Case study of nickel industry workers in the Barents region
Ocenka faktorov riska hroničeskogo bronhita u rabočih nikelevoj promyšlennosti Barenc Regiona [en ruso]
The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate risk factors for chronic bronchitis (CB) among workers of a nickel plant in an Arctic region of Russia. It involved 810 workers exposed to potential risk factors and 202 unexposed controls. The investigation included a questionnaire, examination by a physician, spirometry and chest radiography. The main risk factors were smoking (odds ratio (OR) 8.9), followed by exposure to sulfur dioxide (OR 6.35) and nickel aerosols (OR 4.92) and nickel dust (OR 5.30). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2008, Vol.11, No.3, p.80-81 (English); p.82-83 (Russian). Illus. 7 ref.
Park E.K., Hannaford-Turner K.M., Hyland R.A., Johnson A.R., Yates D.H.
Asbestos-related occupational lung diseases in NSW, Australia and potential exposure of the general population
Asbestos is a fibrous silicate which is recognized as causing a variety of lung disorders including malignant mesothelioma of the pleura, lung cancer and asbestosis. Asbestos use has been banned in most developed countries but exposure risk still exists under strict regulation in occupational settings and also occasionally in domestic settings. Although the hazards of asbestos are well known in developed countries, awareness of its adverse health effects is less in other parts of the world, particularly when exposure occurs in non-occupational settings. Experience of asbestos use and its adverse health effects in developed countries such as Australia have resulted in development of expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of asbestos-related diseases as well as in screening and this can be used to help developing countries facing the issue of asbestos exposure.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.6, p.535-540. 43 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_6_535.pdf [en inglés]
González Domínguez M.E., Rueda Ygueravide M.D., Gutiérrez Fernández D., Gómez Gutiérrez J.M., León Jiménez A., Pérez Álvarez J.
Exposición a contaminantes ambientales y patología respiratoria
This investigation was carried out following an outbreak of five cases of respiratory symptoms among workers of an aerospace industry in Spain exposed to various chemicals. Measurements included airborne aluminium dust, trichloroethylene and ethylene glycol. Workers were subjected to skin tests, blood tests, chest radiography, spirometry, metacholine challenge tests and electrocardiography. The peak-flow measurement and the direct bronchial hyperactivity test using metacholine were negative. The allergic tests performed were also generally negative. These findings practically exclude work-related asthma. These cases may have been caused by a reactive airways dysfunction syndrome having occurred at a specific moment before the investigation was carried out. Further implications of these findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.41-46. 12 ref.
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v54n213/original3.pdf [en español]
Preller L., Balder H.F., Tielemans E., van den Brandt P.A., Goldbohm R.A.
Occupational lung cancer risk among men in the Netherlands
The objective of this study was to assess male lung cancer risks for industrial sectors in the Netherlands. Associations were studied in a cohort of 58,279 men aged 55-69 years. Data on 1920 incident lung cancer cases were available after 11.3 years of follow-up. Using Cox proportional models, risks were estimated for blue collar workers in 26 industrial sectors. Adjusted for confounders, an increased risk of lung cancer was observed for employment for ≥15 years in blue collar jobs in the "electronics and optical instruments" industry (relative risk RR 1.99), "construction and homebuilding business" (RR 1.64) and "railway company" (RR 2.40). Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.65, No.4, p.249-254. 32 ref.
Carder M., McNamee R., Beverland I., Elton R., Van Tongeren M., Cohen G.R., Boyd J., MacNee W., Agius R.M.
Interacting effects of particulate pollution and cold temperature on cardiorespiratory mortality in Scotland
In this study Poisson regression models were used to investigate the relationship between lagged black smoke concentration and daily mortality, and whether the effect of black smoke on cardiorespiratory mortality was modified by cold temperature for three Scottish cities from January 1981 to December 2001. For all-cause respiratory and non-cardiorespiratory mortality, there was a significant association between mortality and lagged black smoke concentration. Generally the maximum black smoke effect occurred at lag 0, although these estimates were not statistically significant. A 10µg/m3 increase in the daily mean black smoke concentration on any given day was associated with a 1.68% increase in all-cause mortality and a 0.43%, 5.36% and 2.13% increase in cardiovascular, respiratory and non-cardiorespiratory mortality, respectively, over the ensuing 30-day period. The results of this study suggest a greater effect of black smoke on mortality at low temperatures. Since extremes of cold and particulate pollution may coexist, for example during temperature inversion, these results may have important public health implications.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.197-204. Illus. 34 ref.
Pierl C.B., Gebel M., Gross I., Becker D., Johnen G., Rihs H.P., Donhuijsen K., Lepentsiotis V., Meier M., Schulze J., Brüning T.
Occupational risks for adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in the German wood industry
To examine the risk of wood dust and chemical exposures for adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (ADCN) among German woodworkers, a case-control study with 86 male ADCN cases and 204 controls was conducted in the German woodworking industries. Cumulative and average wood-dust exposure was quantified with a job-exposure matrix based on wood-dust measurements at recent and historical workplaces. Probabilities of exposure to wood preservatives, stains, varnishes, and formaldehyde were semi-quantitatively rated. ADCN occurred relatively more frequently among wood workers that had worked as cabinet makers or joiners than as saw millers. Average exposure to inhalable wood dust ≥5mg/m3 was associated with a high risk (OR 48.47) compared to levels below 3.5mg/m3. Exposure between 3.5 and 5mg/m3 was also found to pose a risk (OR 10.54). Exposure to pigment stains before 1970 was associated with an increased risk. No significant associations were estimated for wood preservatives, varnishes, and formaldehyde.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.191-196. 26 ref.
Boggia B., Farinaro E., Grieco L., Lucariello A., Carbone U.
Burden of smoking and occupational exposure on etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in workers of Southern Italy
This study evaluates the burden of smoking and occupational exposure on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A diagnostic protocol was applied to a sample of 2019 workers of Southern Italy at baseline and after five and ten years. Exposures were evaluated by means of questionnaires and regulatory documents supplied by employers. Taking into account individual and occupational exposure levels, the sample was divided in four groups. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Higher COPD prevalence and incidence were observed in the most exposed group. Smoking habits and occupational exposure were confirmed as risk factors for COPD and an interaction between smoking and certain occupational exposures was observed. Smoking cessation programs could play an important role reducing the risk of COPD, in view of the synergism with occupational exposures observed in certain activities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.366-370. Illus. 30 ref.
Talmage J.B., Hudson T.B., Hegmann K.T., Thiese M.S.
Consensus criteria for screening commercial drivers for obstructive sleep apnea: Evidence of efficacy
To validate the recently published consensus criteria for screening commercial drivers for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a large sample of commercial drivers was screened for OSA at an occupational medicine clinic and those screening positive were referred for overnight polysomnography. Among the 1443 individuals drivers examined, 190 (13%) of screened positive for OSA. Of these, 134 underwent polysomnography and 94.8% had OSA. The proposed screening criteria were found to have a high predictive value in this population. This study lends further support for mandatory screening of commercial drivers for OSA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.324-329. 9 ref.
Krstev S., Ji B.T., Shu X.O., Gao Y.T., Blair A., Lubin J., Vermeulen R., Dosemeci M., Zheng W., Rothman N., Chow W.H.
Occupation and chronic bronchitis among Chinese women
The objective of this study was to examine the association between occupation and chronic bronchitis among a cross section of Chinese women who participated in the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Cases were 4873 women with self-reported physician-diagnosed bronchitis during adulthood. Controls were 9746 women randomly selected from Shanghai Women's Health Study participants, matched with the cases by year of birth and age at diagnosis. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate the association between chronic bronchitis and occupation, adjusting for smoking, education, family income and concurrent asthma. Excess prevalences of bronchitis were found for textile occupation (odds ratio OR 1.09) and industry (OR 1.11), welders (OR 1.40), packing and baling workers (OR 1.39) and warehousing (OR 1.58). Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.50, No.1, p.64-71. 43 ref.
Rosenkvist L., Klokker M., Katholm M.
Upper respiratory infections and barotraumas in commercial pilots: A retrospective survey
The 948 commercial pilots having visited the Danish Aero Medical Centre during a six-month period were given a questionnaire on symptoms of upper respiratory infections (URI) and barotrauma incidence in relation to flying with a common cold. Every pilot declared having experienced one to two URIs per year. 57.2% reported themselves unfit, while 42.8% continued with their flying duties despite their symptoms. Of the latter group, 78.0% reported taking decongestant medication. More than one-third of the pilots (37.6%) reported having experienced one or more episodes of ear barotrauma, mainly during descent, whereas 19.5% reported one or more sinus barotrauma incidents during their flying career. The findings show that not all pilots and airline companies consider URI a valid reason for unfitness to fly despite the risk for acute incapacitation.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.79, No.10, p.960-963. 18 ref.
Wiebert P., Svartengren M., Lindberg M., Hemmingsson T., Lundberg I., Nise G.
Mortality, morbidity and occupational exposure to airway-irritating agents among men with a respiratory diagnosis in adolescence
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of an airway diagnosis in adolescence on future health and occupation in Swedish men. A cohort of 49,321 men born in 1949-51 was constituted on the basis of data from four national registers. A job-exposure matrix for airway-irritating substances was specially developed for application on the conscription cohort. Subjects were divided into three groups: healthy, asthmatics and subjects with allergic rhinitis without concurrent asthma. The prevalence of asthma was 1.8%, including 0.45% of severe asthma, and the prevalence of allergic rhinitis 2.7%. Further, asthmatics had an increased risk for morbidity and mortality compared to healthy subjects and subjects with allergic rhinitis. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.65, No.2, p.120-125. Illus. 33 ref.
Weinmann S., Vollmer W.M., Breen V., Heumann M., Hnizdo E., Villnave J., Doney B., Graziani M., McBurnie M.A., Buist A.S.
COPD and occupational exposures: A case-control study
This case-control study evaluated the association between occupational exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) based on lifetime occupational history. A total of 388 cases aged 45 years and older with COPD were compared with 356 controls matched by age, sex and smoking history. Odds ratios for exposure to eight occupational hazard categories and three composite measures of exposure were computed using logistic regression. Occupational exposures most strongly associated with COPD were diesel exhaust, irritant gases and vapors, mineral dust and metal dust. The composite measures describing aggregate exposure to gases, vapors, solvents, or sensitizers (GVSS) and aggregate exposure to dust, GVSS, or diesel exhaust were also associated with COPD. In the small group of never-smokers, a similar pattern was evident.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2008, Vol.50, No.5, p.561-569. Illus. 34 ref.
Sahakian N., Kullman G., Lynch D., Kreiss K.
Asthma arising in flavoring-exposed food production workers
While working for a small family-owned popcorn popping company, all of the three non-smoking workers developed a respiratory disease. The specifics of these cases and their exposures were investigated. Personal air samples were obtained and analyzed by GC/MS. The air samples were found to contain different aldehydes. The data from interview and medical records, together with high resolution computed tomograms of the chest indicated the presence of occupational asthma in all the three workers and possible bronchiolitis obliterans in two of them. These findings emphasize the need for exposure reduction and medical surveillance among workers exposed to flavouring chemicals, and provides evidence for an increased risk of occupational asthma and bronchiolitis obliterans among these workers.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd Quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.2, p.173-177. 9 ref.
Hamaguchi T., Omae K., Takebayashi T., Kikuchi Y., Yoshioka N., Nishiwaki Y., Tanaka A., Hirata M., Taguchi O., Chonan T.
Exposure to hardly soluble indium compounds in ITO production and recycling plants is a new risk for interstitial lung damage
The objective of this case-control study was to identify the effects of indium on the lung and to assess possible dose-response relationships. It involved 93 male indium-exposed and 93 male non-exposed workers from four indium and tin oxide manufacturing and recycling plants. Indium in serum (In-S) was determined as a biomarker of exposure. Geometric means of In-S were 8.25ng/ml in the exposed workers and 0.25ng/ml in the non-exposed workers. The maximum concentration of In-S was 116.9ng/ml. Data on respiratory symptoms and job histories were obtained by means of questionnaires. Participants were also subjected to spirometry, high-resolution computerised tomography (HRCT) of the chest, serum KL-6, serum SP-A, serum SP-D and serum CRP. Serum biomarkers and HRCT indicate that exposure to hardly-soluble indium compound dust may represent a risk for interstitial lung damage. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.65, No.1, p.51-55. Illus. 24 ref.
Radon K., Gerhardinger U., Schulze A., Zock J.P., Norback D., Toren K., Jarvis D., Held L., Heinrich J., Leynaert B., Nowak D., Kogevinas M.
Occupation and adult onset of rhinitis in the general population
The objective of this prospective study was to analyse the association between occupational exposure and adult onset of rhinitis. The data of 4994 participants in European Community Respiratory Health Survey who were symptom-free at baseline were analysed. The baseline study took place in 1991-1995 and the follow-up in 1998-2003. Data were collected by means of interviews. Occurrence of rhinitis was based on self-reports of participants, and occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of their job title. The incidence of allergic rhinitis, perennial rhinitis and both conditions was 12%, 11% and 3%, respectively. Compared to office workers, male medical professionals were at increased risk of new onset of allergic rhinitis (odds ratio OR 3.0). Risks were reduced in metal workers not involved in metal making or treating (OR 0.3). For perennial rhinitis ORs were significantly increased in cleaners (OR 1.4). Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.65, No.1, p.38-43. Illus. 28 ref.
Théodore J., Baud F.
Chlore [en francés]
Chlorine is widely used in industry. Its toxicity primarily results in respiratory diseases, although acute exposure can also cause eye damage. Acute poisoning is rare but can be fatal. In cases of occupational respiratory diseases, the prognosis is generally positive following removal from exposure. Carcinogenic risks are possible but have been difficult to prove in humans. There is currently no specific treatment for chlorine poisoning, but all acute exposures require hospital observation, even in the absence of symptoms. Preventive measures play an important role in limiting this chemical hazard. Regular medical supervision of exposed workers is required for detecting symptoms which may be potentially highly incapacitating.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3nd Quarter 2008, No.160, 5p. 28 ref.
Interpretation of the "positive" methacholine challenge
The methacholine challenge test is used in confirming the diagnosis of asthma, occupational asthma or reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) through the identification of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). While the sensitivity of the test in diagnosing clinically significant asthma is excellent, its specificity is poor. Since there are many conditions which have been associated with BHR, a positive test must be interpreted cautiously. This article reviews potential causes of a positive methacholine challenge other than asthma or RADS which are reported in medical literature. In cases of inhalation exposure evaluations, alternative explanations must be considered when determining whether a causal association exists between the exposure and a positive methacholine test result.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.769-781. Approx. 120 ref.
Asthma due to chloramine among swimming pool personnel
L'asthme aux chloramines chez le personnel des piscines [en francés]
This article describes three new cases of respiratory disease due to chloramines among swimming pool personnel in the Paris region. The causes of respiratory diseases among these workers exposed to chloramine emissions by inhalation are reviewed through a literature survey. In France, the occupational nature of these diseases is recognized. Job changes which are often necessary are not easy to implement among these workers, a majority of whom are furthermore young and in good health. Given the need to address various toxicity risk factors, the task of managing and monitoring the quality of swimming-pool water must be left to personnel that are diligent and particularly well trained in chlorination processes. Rules to be followed for limiting chloramine concentration in swimming pools are summarized.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.48, No.2, p.105-116. Illus. 34 ref.
L'asthme du boulanger [en francés]
Flour is the primary cause of occupational asthma in France. Bakers are constantly exposed to flour dust in the course of their job and are the most affected. Respiratory allergies (asthma and rhinitis) are particularly common in this occupation and can arise at any given time during bakers' careers. Among workers notifying these diseases, one in four is a baker. Contents of this Internet document on bakers' asthma: prevention initiatives of the French national occupational disease insurance for salaried workers (CNAMTS); simple and effective prevention measures; information aimed at bakers; joint initiatives with machinery suppliers; "Safer tools 2008" campaign; educational and recreational comic book.
Caisse Nationale de l'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salariés (CNAMTS), 26-50 av. du professeur André Lemierre, 75986 Paris cedex 20, France, 2008. Internet document (HTML format). 8 ref.
http://www.risquesprofessionnels.ameli.fr/fr/AccueilDossiers/AccueilDossiers_asthmeboulanger_1.php [en francés]
Miles S.E., Sandrini A., Johnson A.R., Yates D.H.
Clinical consequences of asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening: A review
Asbestos-related diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) is increasingly common due to the large number of workers previously exposed to asbestos. It may coexist with asbestos related pleural plaques but has a distinctly different pathology. The pathogenesis of this condition as distinct from pleural plaques is gradually becoming understood. Benign asbestos-related pleural effusions commonly antedate the development of DPT. High resolution computed tomography is more sensitive and specific than chest radiography for the diagnosis of DPT. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography scanning may be useful in distinguishing between DPT and malignant mesothelioma. DPT may be associated with symptoms such as dyspnoea and chest pain. It affects lung function but rarely results in respiratory failure or death.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 8 Sep. 2008, Vol.20, No.3, 10p. Illus. 67 ref.
Ramroth H., Dietz A., Ahrens W., Becher H.
Occupational wood dust exposure and the risk of laryngeal cancer: A population based case-control study in Germany
To investigate the effect of exposure to wood dust on the risk of laryngeal cancer, a population-based case-control study was conducted in South-West Germany between 1998 and 2000 with 257 histologically-confirmed cases (236 men, 21 women) and 769 population-based controls (702 men, 67 women) matched by age and sex. Occupational exposures and other risk factors were obtained through interviews using a detailed questionnaire. A total of 43 cases (41 men, 2 women) and 107 controls (105 men, 2 women) reported wood dust exposure. A strong effect on laryngeal cancer risk after adjustment for smoking, alcohol and social status was observed for high exposure to hardwood dust (odds ratio OR 2.6) and to softwood dust (OR 2.2).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.51, No.9, p.648-655. 37 ref.
Girdler-Brown B.V., White N.W., Ehrlich R.I., Churchyard G.J.
The burden of silicosis, pulmonary tuberculosis and COPD among former Basotho goldminers
The burden of silicosis, pulmonary tuberculosis and COPD is described in 624 South African gold miners 18 months after cessation of work. Questionnaires were administered, and spirometry, chest radiography, tuberculosis investigations and urine HIV antibody assays were performed. The mean age of subjects was 49.4 years and their mean employment duration 25.6 years. Most subjects had had jobs with medium (26.5%) or high (65.4%) dust exposure. Current smoking rate was 35%, with ever smoking 61%. HIV antibodies were detected in the urine in 22.3%. Prevalences were: silicosis 24.6%, past tuberculosis 26%, current tuberculosis 6.2%, airflow obstruction 13.4% and chronic productive cough 17.7%. Almost 50% of these miners had at least one of these respiratory conditions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.51, No.9, p.640-647. Illus. 25 ref.
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