Retail industry - 201 entries found
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Grant K.A., Habes D.J., Baron S.L., Sweeney M.H., Piacitelli L.A., Putz-Anderson V., Fine L.J.
Ergonomic evaluation of checkstand designs in the retail food industry - A report based on expert assessment
The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is conducting an industry-wide study to evaluate the prevalence and possible causes of musculoskeletal disorders among retail food workers. An objective of this research is to evaluate the relationship between upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) and different checkstand designs. This article describes initial activities to identify ergonomic stressors associated with five common checkstand types found in the US. A panel of ergonomic experts was convened to rate the degree of biomechanical stress placed on specific body areas (neck, shoulders, elbows, hand/wrist, and back) by 13 different checkstand configurations. The panel reviewed cashier work activities recorded on videotape, and design specifications collected during site visits to different grocery stores. The experts agreed that certain checkstand features are more likely to impose substantial biomechanical stresses on cashiers than others.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 1993, Vol.8, No.11, p.929-936. Illus. 16 ref.
Harber P., Bloswick D., Beck J., Peňa L., Baker D., Lee J.
Supermarket checker motions and cumulative trauma risk
The relationship between specific motions and symptoms consistent with upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders (UECTDs) was investigated in 50 supermarket checkers. Each completed a questionnaire concerning UECTD symptoms; each participant was videotaped while performing checking work. Relationships between an individual's motion indices and symptom indices were analyzed by determining the percent of subjects "positive" for symptoms in each quartile of motion index, by rank correlation, and by regression of symptom scores on principal components of motions. Trends toward relationship of wrist flexion and extension, lumbar flexion, and pronation with hand-wrist-lower arm and carpal tunnel syndrome were noted. Principal components regression confirmed that extension and flexion were related to these two symptom outcomes. This study suggests that postural loading can be determined on an individual basis in a meaningful fashion, that interventions that decrease such loading may be beneficial and that certain repetitive motions cause UECTD symptoms.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.35, No.8, p.805-811. Illus. 16 ref.
Harber P., Bloswick D., Luo J., Beck J., Greer D., Peña L.F.
Work-related symptoms and checkstand configuration - An experimental study
Supermarket checkers are known to be at risk of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. Forty-two experienced checkers checked a standard "market basket" of items on an experimental checkstand. The counter height could be adjusted and the pre-scan queuing area length (between conveyor belt and laser scanner) could be set to "near" or "far" lengths. Both counter height and queuing length had significant effects on symptoms. Furthermore, the height of the subject affected the degree and direction of the impact of the checkstand configuration differences. Thus, optimization of design may be experimentally evaluated. Modification of postural as well as frequency loading may be beneficial, and adjustability for the individual may be advisable.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1993, Vol.54, No.7, p.371-375. Illus. 11 ref.
Magna B., Cantoni S.
Occupational accidents in food supermarkets
Infortuni sul lavoro nel settore grande distribuzione alimentare [in Italian]
The application of a systematic method of reading accident registers is proposed for food supermarkets. The study covered 461 accidents occurring in the five-year period 1986-1990 in 25 food supermarkets in the area of Milan, Italy. The proposed method is based on the identification of each accident according to a special coding scheme. Subsequent analysis may pinpoint the principal causes of accidents and the appropriate protective measures to be taken.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1993, Vol.84, No.3, p.226-231. Illus. 6 réf.
Health and Safety Commission
Local authorities report on health and safety in service industries 1991-92
Part 1 of this report provides an insight into the ways in which local authorities are carrying out their health and safety enforcement duties and describes some of the work done by the Health and Safety Executive/Local Authority Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA). Part 2 contains case studies of some fatal accidents which occurred in the LA enforced sector and special studies of accidents in retail, hotel and catering, and the leisure industry. Part 3 provides accident statistics and analysis, information about LA enforcement activity and trends, details of injuries in retail, hotel and catering and food handling and information on risks to part-time employees.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. xiv, 130p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: GBP 5.75.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen (National Board of Occupational Safety and Health)
Supermarket check-out cashiers [Sweden]
Arbete i utgångskassa [in Swedish]
This directive replaces AFS 1986:1 (CIS 86-2056). It regulates the OSH aspects of work by check-out cashiers in self-service retail establishments. It covers: design (number, equipment) of check-out systems; planning and management of such systems in order to minimize stress among operators; minimum requirements for seating, temperature and ventilation; noise limitations; minimum lighting levels; avoidance of violence.
Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 15p. Illus.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Guidance note for manual handling in the retail industry
Contents of this guidance note: a systematic approach to manual handling; employee consultation when identifying, assessing and controlling risks in manual handling tasks; design of workplaces, equipment and work practices; risk identification; risk assessment; risk control (general problems and solutions, reduction of manual handling, work organization, reduction of reaching, twisting and bending, workplace layout, use of lifting and moving equipment, training and education, protective clothing, workplace maintenance); review and evaluation of control measures.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Feb. 1992. vii, 63p. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/D2EC376B-910B-4CCB-9B81-87E0C438E1D9/0/ManualHandlingRetailIndustry.pdf [in English]
Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region - Proceedings of the meetings of 24 May, 15 November and 13 December 1991
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de Bordeaux et de sa région - Séances du 24 mai, du 15 novembre et du 13 décembre 1991 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of 24 May, 15 November and 13 December 1991 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region (France): Health and safety in the use of composite materials in the aircraft industry; comments on the problems associated with the notification of occupational diseases under the French Scheme (example of Schedule 64 (intoxication due to carbon monoxide); repercussions of work on perinatal problems in rural settings (survey of 534 women); conditions of work; comparison of the results of objective and subjective analysis; work in tropical countries: update of specific preventive measures; medical problems due to laser check-out workstations in supermarkets; problem of aptitude to apprenticeship in the case of a subject suffering from tuberous sclerosis: a case study; survey of occupational deafness cases diagnosed in the unit of occupational diseases in Bordeaux; the concept of occupational risk (danger, risk, cyndinics); compulsory vaccination against hepatitis B (Law of 18 Jan. 1991; Order of 15 March 1991: CIS 91-1754).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.6, p.426-442.
Supermarket check-out personnel - How to improve their working conditions
Les caissières de magasin - Vers une amélioration des conditions de travail du personnel d'encaissement des magasins [in French]
Update of a study (CIS 82-2064) concerning the design and layout of supermarket check-out workstations. Recent European trends and the introduction of scanning devices have been taken into account. Themes covered: selection criteria for cash registers; general and special rules for good workplace design; ergonomic measures; electric installations; mechanical safety; prevention of attacks by customers; noise; lighting, thermal environment. Work parameters analyzed include staff training, working hours, environmental factors and occupational health conditions.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2nd edition, Oct. 1992. 31p. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in retail and wholesale warehouses
Contents of this guide: legal duties; staff training; reporting accidents, diseases and other incidents; first aid; environment and welfare (warehouse design and layout, heating, lighting, ventilation, personal protective equipment); electrical safety (fixed electrical installations, portable equipment, steam and water pressure cleaners); occupational health (control of hazardous substances, noise reduction and hearing protection, prevention of upper-limb disorders); storage systems; manual handling; mechanical handling (lift trucks, order picking machines, scissor lifts, conveyors); automated storage and retrieval systems; vehicular operations; cold stores; storage of packaged dangerous substances.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. vi, 73p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 7.50.
Orgel D.L., Milliron M.J., Frederick L.J.
Musculoskeletal discomfort in grocery express checkstand workers - An ergonomic intervention study
An ergonomic study of grocery store cashiers was carried out in response to symptoms of musculoskeletal discomfort following the introduction of a new express checkstand. Workplace changes were then instituted, namely placement of a physical barrier to reduce trunk flexion from overreaching, installation of an adjustable keyboard to reduce static shoulder stress, and employee education concerning good workplace practices to reduce musculoskeletal stress and fatigue. There was a statistically significant reduction in neck, upper back, or shoulder discomfort but not arm, forearm, or wrist discomfort. There was also a significant reduction in use of medication and days to recover from discomfort but no change in overall number of employees with symptoms or in hours able to operate the checkstand without discomfort. Ergonomic interventions directed to the anatomical site of greatest employee concern are likely to be effective.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1992, Vol.34, No.8, p.815-818. 8 ref.
Inspecting your store - A guide for retailers and employees
Contents of this guide: importance of regular planned workplace inspections; legal requirements; guidelines on establishing procedures, preparing for and carrying out store inspections, reporting findings and recommendations and following up. Sample checklists and recording forms are included.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 250 Yonge Street, 28th Floor, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2N4, Canada, 1992. 36p. Illus. Price: CAD 2.35 (IAPA members), CAD 3.55 (non-members).
Harber P., Pena L., Bland G., Beck J.
Upper extremity symptoms in supermarket workers
Upper extremity symptoms in supermarket checkout workers, particularly those who use laser scanners, were evaluated using a questionnaire administered by trained interviewers to 124 supermarket workers. Summary indices of exposure (short-term and long-term) as well as indices of past personal illnesses and personal activities were employed. Outcome data were summarised by four composite symptom indices. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that hours of checking work in the preceding two weeks and cumulative weighted years of work were associated with adverse upper extremity symptoms. Symptoms involved both the proximal and distal parts of the upper extremities.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1992, Vol.22, No.6, p.873-884. 19 ref.
Strasser H., Böhlemann J., Keller E.
Electromyographic and subjective assessment of muscle strain during typical work-related movements at checkout counters for developing the modules of a system of known strain
Elektromyographische und subjektive Ermittlung der Muskelbeanspruchung bei arbeitstypischen Bewegungen an Kassenarbeitsplätzen zur Entwicklung von Bausteinen eines Systems vorbestimmter Beanspruchung [in German]
The muscle strain caused by moving 2kg on an experimental set-up simulating a checkout counter was measured on 10 volunteers by electromyography. All movements made while facing the counter and passing the weight from left to right turned out to be less straining than those made facing the cash register or passing goods from right to left. The results of the electromyographic and subjective assessments can be used for predicting the muscular strain caused by various designs of checkout counters.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1992, Vol.46, No.2, p.70-76. Illus. 23 ref.
Harber P., Bloswick D., Peña L., Beck J., Lee J., Baker D.
The ergonomic challenge of repetitive motion with varying ergonomic stresses - Characterizing supermarket checking work
This study employed a new method of ergonomic characterisation to describe quantitatively the actions associated with checking-out in supermarkets. Eight object types were selected to represent the variety of items in a supermarket. Nine types of motion were coded for each of the eight objects, with ten replications for each subject (n=50). The motions coded were: grip type, wrist flexion, wrist extension, radial deviation, ulnar deviation, supination, pronation, body (lumbar) flexion, and drag versus lift. The results were then weighted according to relative frequency of the object type. In this manner, an ergonomic risk index can be assigned to each specific object type. This method permits identification of objects presenting the greatest risk and allows specificity of prevention interventions (object redesign, work practice change), as well as providing a quantitative measure to evaluate work station redesign.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1992, Vol.34, No.5, p.518-528. Illus. 9 ref.
Check-out workplaces and jobs in self-service retail establishments - Ergonomical aspects and job content [Netherlands]
Kassawerk in zelfbedieningswinkels - Ergonomische en functie-inhoudelijke aspecten [in Dutch]
This directive presents practical and directly useful guidelines for the ergonomic design of check-out workplaces and jobs in supermarkets and similar establishments. Relevant passages of the Working Conditions Act (CIS 92-351) are quoted and commented on.
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 90804, 2509 LV Den Haag, Netherlands, 1992. 23p. Illus. 20 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Local authorities report on health and safety in service industries 1990/91
This report reviews the work of local authorities in Great Britain during 1990/91 and highlights some of the major initiatives carried forward by the Health and Safety Executive/Local Authority Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA). Part 1 describes the work done by HELA and its sub-committees during the year. Part 2 contains case studies of some fatal accidents which occurred in the LA enforced sector and special studies of accidents in warehouses and to peripatetic workers. Part 3 includes accident statistics and their analysis along with information about the LA enforcement activity.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. viii, 85p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 4.75.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Manual handling in the retail industry
Illustrated brochure usable for the safety training of workers in the retail industry.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1992. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
Check list for the retail trade
Checklista för detaljhandel [in Swedish]
This safety check list designed for the retail trade includes 72 items covering the following areas: incoming goods; stock rooms; cured meats and delicatessen; cold-storage rooms; shopping areas; cash points; security; general questions.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 1991. 8p.
Morgenstern H., Kelsh M., Kraus J., Margolis W.
A cross-sectional study of hand/wrist symptoms in female grocery checkers
In 1986 1,345 grocery checkers who belonged to one union local in south-central California were interviewed by means of questionnaire. Among the 1,058 female respondents (82% response rate), a 12% prevalence of hand/wrist symptoms characteristic of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was found. Symptom prevalence was positively associated with age, average work hours per week, years worked as a checker, and use of diuretics. The estimated effect of years worked as a checker was greater for younger subjects than for older subjects, in whom the association reversed, suggesting the selective loss of symptomatic workers from their jobs (a form of the healthy-worker effect). Although no effects were found for specific job-related activities, it was estimated that CTS symptoms in at least three of every five symptomatic workers were attributable to occupational exposures.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.20, No.2, p.209-218. 29 ref.
Working conditions and health among night workers in the Japanese service industry
Sābisu sangyō ni okeru shinya rōdō no rōdō eisei [in Japanese]
This questionnaire survey was conducted to clarify the relationships between night work conditions and psychosomatic complaints in the service industry. The subjects were full-time workers (N=307) and part-time workers (N=300) who were working in 3 service industries in which business hours were prolonged after 10 p.m. or covered a full 24 hours: convenience stores, family restaurants and fastfood restaurants, business hotels. 37.8% of full-time workers, and 81.7% of part-time workers expressed satisfaction with night work. The major reasons were "higher salaries", "more free time for themselves" and "suitability to their life styles". However, the job scope and responsibility of night work were much heavier than those of day work. 32.9%-43.4% of subjects excluding hotel clerks experienced night-work in addition to scheduled working days during the month preceding the study. As for psychosomatic symptoms, 64% of the subjects complained that they felt "a tendency to become fatigued", and it was the most frequent complaint. Factors related to night work which increased psychosomatic complaints were "working in family restaurants or fastfood restaurants", "doing same jobs at night as during the day", "night work in addition to scheduled working days", "less opportunity to take rests or naps during night work", and "difficulty to be granted their requests to decide working schedules".
Ōhara shakai mondai kenkyūjo zasshi - Journal of the Ohara Institute for Social Research, 25 Nov. 1991, No.396, p.62-72. 6 ref.
Method of rating at cash-register workplaces
Bewertungsschema Kassenarbeitsplätze [in German]
This article describes a method for the ergonomic evaluation of the layout of cash-register workplaces in supermarkets. This methods covers: design of equipment, work postures and body movements as well as work-rest schedules. Each factor is graded according to its importance, using ergonomic principles. The application of this method can ensure that the equipment is adapted to a sitting work posture.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, 1991, No.2, p.18-20. Illus. 6 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Local authorities report on health and safety in service industries 1989/90
This report reviews the achievements of local authorities (LAs) in 1989/90 and looks at the major initiatives that have taken place through the Health and Safety Executive/Local Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA). Part 1: enforcement responsibilities of LAs; liaison arrangements with HELA and its sub-committees; future concerns and priorities. Part 2: case studies of fatal accidents and how they could have been avoided; types of accidents occurring to peripatetic workers. Part 3: nationwide LA health and safety statistics. Tables include: reported injuries by employment status, kind of accident, industry and severity of injury; injury rates and trends (1986-87/1989-90) for activities mainly enforced by LAs; national estimates of LA premises, visits and enforcement action.
HMSO Books, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 46p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 3.50.
Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment (Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid)
Safety Decree for Commercial and Non-commercial Services: Text and notes 1990 [Netherlands]
Veiligheidsbesluit restgroepen: tekst en toelichting 1990 [in Dutch]
The decree, which went into force on 1 October 1990, sets out additional rules (within the framework of the Working Environment Act) for the sector of commercial and non-commercial services. This sector comprises: offices, warehouses, hospitals, health care facilities, the hotel and catering industry, and wholesale and retail trade. Provisions in this decree concern: lighting and windows, cleanliness, temperature and ventilation, prevention of accidents, providing first aid in case of accidents, prevention of fires and explosions, prevention of hazards by noise and vibration, control of hazardous substances, personal protection equipment, sanitary facilities, size of the workroom, duties of employer and employees.
SDU Uitgeverij, Den Haag, Netherlands, 1990. 68p.
Evaluation of a supermarket twin-checkout involving forward and backward operation
Twin-checkouts involving both traditional goods handling from the front to the rear, as well as the reverse operation, were evaluated from an ergonomics viewpoint using a variety of methods. The dynamic demands of goods handling were also examined so as to evaluate the operator's workload. Results support the conclusion that the new backward system and twin-checkouts are not inferior to traditional single checkouts. A working technique where the arm moves from behind to the front involves a better approach to accounting for physiological characteristics and allows a better fitting of the task to the operators.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 1990, Vol.21, No.1, p.7-14. Illus. 23 ref.
Page M., Hough A.
Ergonomic aspects of escalators used in retail organisations
This document comprises the following reports on research carried out by the Institute of Consumer Ergonomics: summary report of the collection of data on escalator accidents; an ergonomic evaluation of deflector devices on escalators in retail organisations; an expert appraisal of escalator warning signs; the establishment of user expectations on the siting of stop buttons; the collection of data on escalator incidents and accidents.
Health and Safety Executive, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Trinity Road, Bootle L20 3QY, Merseyside, United Kingdom, 1988. 261p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 40.00.
Health and Safety Executive
A guide to the OSRP Act 1963
This guide gives advice on the requirements of the Offices, Shops and Railway Premises Act 1963 (see CIS 89-17). Contents: premises to which the Act applies; general requirements (the physical environment, welfare facilities, passageways, machine safety, prohibition of heavy owrk, first aid); fire precautions; responsibility for complying with the provisions of the Act; exemption; overlapping with provisions of other Acts; reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences; enforcement. Appendices include detailed guidance on the scope of the Act, authorities responsible for enforcing the act in different classes of premises and extracts from other relevant legislation.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 15p. Price: GBP 3.00.
Nehéz M., Nehéz I., Vetró G., Csankó J., Lévay S., Maurer J., Dési I.
Cytogenetic examination of commercial clerks who sell pesticides
Peszticideket is forgalmazó kereskedelmi alkalmazottak citogenetikai vizsgálata [in Hungarian]
A cytological study was carried out among 35 commercial clerks (12 women and 23 men) exposed to pesticides in the course of their work and among 53 controls (23 women and 30 men). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups in the incidence of chromosome alterations.
Egészségtudomány, 1989, Vol.33, p.275-278. 41 ref.
The prevalence of musculo-skeletal symptoms in supermarket workers
A questionnaire was administered to all employees of 7 supermarkets in Australia ranging in size from 15 to 171 employees, with a response rate of 73%. The staff of supermarkets was predominantly young, female and transient. One-third reported regular symptoms in some part of their body. Checkout departments had the highest rates for almost all body areas. The lower back, lower limbs and feet were the body areas with the highest rates. A positive and significant correlation was found between proportion of time spent standing and symptoms in the lower limb and foot, especially in checkout departments where 90% of the time was spent standing in one place. It was concluded that there was an excess of symptoms appearing in checkout operators, and therefore, the operating methods of checkout departments warrant revision.
Ergonomics, Apr. 1989, Vol.32, No.4, p.359-371. Illus. Bibl.
Safe handling of containers on rollers
Sicherer Umgang mit Rollbehältern [in German]
Manually handled containers on rollers mostly consist of wooden pallets on wheels to which two side walls with a maximum height of 1.35m are attached. When fully loaded they may weigh approx. 300kg. Three accidents with rolling containers are described. Their causes are identified: overloading, too steep transport paths, inadequate wheel design. Suggestions for the safe handling of roller containers are provided.
Schaufenster Sicherheit, Mitteilungsblatt der Berufsgenossenschaft für den Einzelhandel, May 1988, No.2, p.16-19. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Offices, Shops and Railway Premises Act 1963 [United Kingdom]
Detailed abstract of the original Act (1963) and of regulations issued under it, for display in a prominent position in all premises to which the Act applies except covered market places. Contents: scope of the Act (offices, railway premises, canteens catering to persons working in such premises); general requirements (the physical environment, welfare facilities, passageways, machine safety, prohibition of heavy work, first aid); fire precautions; exemptions; duties of employers, occupiers of premises and employees; enforcement. A list of dangerous machines as specified in the Prescribed Dangerous Machines Order 1964 is appended.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1988. 3rd ed. 16p. Price: GBP 0.75 (GBP 15.00 for 25 copies).
Margolis W., Kraus G.F.
The prevalence of carpal tunnel symptoms in female supermarket checkers
Prévalence du syndrome du canal carpien chez les caissières de supermarché [in French]
Translation into French of an article published in the Journal of Occupational Medicine (Dec. 1987, Vol.29, No.12, p.953-956) and abstracted under CIS 88-1374. Summary: A questionnaire survey was made of 1087 checkers 18-49 years of age. There was an overall prevalence of self-reported carpal-tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptoms of 62.5%. Prevalence rates were related to use of laser scanners, age, years worked as a checker, and average number of hours worked per week. The findings were similar when more restrictive criteria of CTS symptoms were used. Use of estrogens was not positively related to reported CTS symptoms.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 11p.
Margolis W., Kraus J.F.
The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms in female supermarket checkers
A questionnaire survey was made of 1087 checkers 18-49 years of age. There was an overall prevalence of self-reported carpal-tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptoms of 62.5%. Prevalence rates were related to use of laser scanners, age, years worked as a checker, and average number of hours worked per week. The findings were similar when more restrictive criteria of CTS symptoms were used. Use of estrogens was not positively related to reported CTS symptoms.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1987, Vol.29, No.12, p.953-956. Illus. 15 ref.
General regulations on occupational health and safety in commercial, office and service establishments [Portugal]
Regulamento geral de higiene e segurança do trabalho nos estabelecimentos comerciais, de escritório e serviços [in Portuguese]
Decree specifying general safety and hygienic conditions in these workplaces, and constituting the adoption in Portugal of ILO Convention and Recommendation No.120. Also available in a separate booklet published as part of the series Cadernos de Divulgação (No.21) by: Direcção-Geral de Higiene e Segurança do Trabalho, Av. da República, 84-4.°, 1600 Lisboa, Portugal (37p.).
Diário da República, 20 Aug. 1986, I Série, No.190, p.2099-2106.
Fire safety standards in commercial enterprises [Portugal]
Normas de segurança contra riscos de incêndio a aplicar em estabelecimentos comerciais [in Portuguese]
Decree establishing minimum fire safety standards to be applied in Portuguese commercial enterprises, covering: responsibilities; emergency exits; fire resistance of construction materials; electrical installations; presence of combustible materials; ventilation systems; lifts; alarms and emergency measures; safety instructions. This decree is also available in a separate booklet published as part of the series Cadernos de Divulgação (No.22) by: Direcção-Geral de Higiene e Segurança do Trabalho, Av. da República, 84-4.°, 1600 Lisboa, Portugal (27p.).
Diário da República, 19 Aug. 1986, I Série, No.189, p.2080-2085.
Rocher M., Vacheret J.M., Vandevyver B.
Preliminary study of accident risks in very large and medium-sized supermarkets
Enquête préliminaire sur les risques d'accidents dans les hypermarchés et supermarchés [in French]
In view of the lack of information on hazards in large stores, the survey was carried out on a small but varied sample of stores using the following methods: general on-site observation; documentary analysis (accident reports, characteristics of the population concerned); interviews with store managers, safety officers, members of CHSCTs (Committees on Safety, Health and Working Conditions); study of the trade by bibliographical analysis and contact with staff and safety specialists. The report analyses the collected data: store organisation, attitudes by different categories of staff to safety and to working condition, risk factors, proposed action.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1986, No.125, Note No.1604-125-86, p.477-493. Illus. 44 ref.
Work in supermarket check-out systems
Arbete i utgångskassa [in Swedish]
These regulations (effective 1 Apr. 1987) apply to the workplaces of self-service shop cashiers. They lay down that the design, equipment and number of check-out cash systems should be adapted to the size of the shop and protect the cashiers from accidents and physical or mental stress, that the cashiers' tasks should be planned and organised so as to avoid undue stress, that the workplace should be designed for seated work and provide for free leg movement, that the seat should be adjustable and enable the operator to work standing, that the cashiers' tasks should not involve awkward movements, that the personnel should not be exposed to draught nor to excessive temperatures, that the noise level should be low enough to allow normal speech communication with the customers, that the illumination level should be adapted to the price-reading task, that the prices should be well legible, and that the check-out work should be organised so as to avoid the risk of violence and armed robbery. Detailed commentaries.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 23 Jan. 1986. 15p. Illus.
Agersnap F., Engstrøm H., Larsen H.H.
New technology in supermarkets - Denmark
Ny teknologi i supermarkeder [in Danish]
This report presents the results of the research organised by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions on the effects of technical development in supermarkets in Denmark. Contents: introduction and background information; technology in use and forecasts for new equipment; introduction and implementation of new technology; work organisation in Danish supermarkets; impact of the new technology on consumers; conclusions. The publication also includes the comments of the social partners and the government representatives from the Colloquium on the Impact of Technological Development on Supermarkets, held in Dublin 27-28 September 1984.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1985. 98p. Illus. (English language version). Bibl. Price: BEF 350; DKK 64.00; IEP 5.70.
Weinzorn P., Maline J., Nallard G.
New technology in supermarkets - France
Nouvelles technologies dans les supermarchés - France [in French]
This report presents the results of the research organised by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions on the effects of technological development in supermarkets in France. Contents: the retail trade and automation in France; automation potential; assessment of the number of stores likely to be affected by automation by 1990; assessment of the number of cash-desks likely to be automatised by 1990; assessment of the number of cashier work contracts likely to be affected by 1990; tasks, functions and work organisation affected by the new technology; problems for the imminent future. Also included are the comments of the social partners and the government representatives from the Colloquium on the Impact of Technological Development on Supermarkets, held in Dublin, 27-28 September 1984.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Longhlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1985. 95p. (English language version). Price: BEF 400; IEP 6.50.
New technology in supermarkets - Netherlands
Nieuwe technologie in supermarkten - Nederlands [in Dutch]
This report presents the results of the research organised by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions on the effects of technological development in supermarkets in the Netherlands. Contents: introduction; historical development of the grocery trade in the Netherlands; applications of technology in supermarkets; its effect on organisational structure and working conditions; its effects on the consumer; summary of the chief findings and conclusions. The publication also includes the comments of the social partners and the government representatives from the Colloquium on the Impact of Technological Development on Supermarkets, held in Dublin 27-28 September 1984.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1985. 119p. (English language version). Price: BEF 350; NLG 19.50; IEP 5.70. 5 ref.
McGann B., Coldrick A.
New technology in supermarkets - Ireland
This report presents the results of the research organised by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions on the effects of technological development in supermarkets in Ireland. Contents: general background information on supermarket development in Ireland; the present situation; supermarket management and new technology; supermarket staff and new technology; the customer (shopping habits, attitudes towards supermarkets and technology, urban-rural differences, future trends); conclusions. The publication also includes the comments of the social partners and the government representatives from the Colloquium on the Impact of Technological Development on Supermarkets, held in Dublin 27-28 September 1984.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1985. 84p. Price: BEF 300; IEP 4.90; GBP 4.50.
van Ketel W.G.
Occupational contact with coins in nickel-allergic patients
Seven female cashiers with a history of eczema from wearing nickel-containing jewelry all gave positive reactions to nickel sulfate in patch tests. However, only 1 of the 7 had eczema produced or aggravated by contact with coins. Thus, it is doubtful that a patient with a clear case of nickel allergy should always be advised against working as a cashier.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1985, Vol.12, No.2, p.108-124. 4 ref.
Safety of electrically energized office machines
Sécurité des machines de bureau alimentées par l'énergie électrique [in French]
This international standard applies to electric machines designed to be used in offices or shops (e.g. typewriters, calculating machines, accounting machines, cash registers, staplers, duplicators, pencil sharpeners, document shredding machines, drawing machines, motor-operated files, dictation equipment, etc.). It does not apply to data processing equipment. The standard covers safety for the operator and the service personnel and contains definitions of terms used and requirements for: test, rating, marking and instructions, protection against electric shock, heating, leakage current, moisture resistance, insulation resistance, endurance, abnormal operation and fault conditions, stability and mechanical hazards, construction, internal wiring, supply connection and external flexible cables, earthing, creepage distances, ionising radiation, ozone. Replaces the 1972 version (CIS 72-2105).
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1985. 219p. Illus. Price: SF.239.00.
Phytophotodermatitis among grocery workers
14 out of 52 employees at a supermarket developed rashes in the upper extremities, with residual blistering or hyperpigmentation. There was a positive correlation between these symptoms and current exposure to fresh vegetables and flowers at work, and to ultraviolet light in a tanning salon. A multiplicative interaction between these factors is suggested in the aetiology of these cases.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Feb. 1985, Vol.235, No.6, p.753. Illus. 3 ref.
Doelen Vander J., MacDonald H.
Cashier workstation ergonomics
Ergonomic principles related to cashier workstations are discussed and some commonly used models are evaluated. Aspects covered: health effects (fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders, tendinitis); causes (poor lighting, glare, poor labelling and poor design of the cash desk); ergonomic factors (work surface height, forward reach, work posture, vision). Recommendations: working surface height should be kept at elbow height when the arms are hanging relaxed at the side. Forward reach should be kept to a minimum. Turning, twisting or bending should be minimised by redesign of equipment. Seated operators who do not have to lift heavy objects have less difficulty than standing cashiers. Sources of glare should be eliminated.
Occupational Health in Ontario, Winter 1985, Vol.6, No.1, p.26-33. 4 ref.
Occupational hazards and diseases in commerce and offices
Les risques professionnels et les maladies professionnelles dans le commerce et les bureaux [in French]
This report was prepared to serve as a basis for discussion at the 9th session of the Advisory Committee on salaried employees and professional workers, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 17-25 April 1985 and convened by the Governing Body of the ILO. Aspects covered: general outline of occupational hazards in commerce and offices and the impact of new technologies; postural strain of office workers and supermarket cashiers; mental and physical stress; fatigue; work with video display terminals.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1985. 54p. Bibl. Price: SF.12.50.
Shops Act, 1983, 1984 [Barbados]
Act concerning safety, health and working conditions in shops (including places used for the storage or reception of goods).
Official Gazette (Barbados), Supplement, 8 Mar. 1984. 22p.
Working conditions in the retail industry
Les conditions de travail dans la distribution [in French]
Study of work organisation in supermarkets. 4 examples: Sunday work; flexible work scheduling (adaptation of working hours to suit individual convenience within a team of cashiers); part-time work; receiving of incoming goods. The introduction of new technology (management computers) is also discussed.
Lettre d'information de l'ANACT, Jan. 1984, No.82, p.1-9. Illus.
Wilson J.R., Grey S.M.
Reach requirements and job attitudes at laser-scanner checkout systems
Ergonomic and psychological evaluation of the use of laser-scanner checkout systems by cashiers at supermarkets. The 2 areas of concern investigated were the reach requirements to operate the system and job satisfaction. The studied layout was found to be inadequate for small operators. Job satisfaction was low for operators of both laser scanners and electronic cash-registers.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1984, Vol.27, No.12, p.1247-1266.
Henkel W., Morgenstern E., Rublack H.
Ergometric examinations of trade workers
Ergometrische Untersuchungen bei Beschäftigten des Binnenhandels [in German]
The purpose of this research was to compare the spiroergometric measurements of workload with the estimates presented by Spitzer and Hettinger. Women working in the storage and transport of goods in supermarket warehouses were tested. The transport equations of Spitzer and Hettinger were found to underestimate the physical effort of women, and thus must be corrected. The appropriate correction factors are given.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1983, Vol.29, No.2, p.108-109. 5 ref.
Ham-slicing machines - Gravity-fed electric slicers
Machines à couper le jambon - Trancheurs électriques à gravité [in French]
This technical safety data sheet, intended for management and workers, examines workplace hazards and means of preventing them. The sheet gives: its scope of application, descriptions of equipment, a review of the principal laws and regulations applicable in France, the extent of conformity of the equipment with the rules, advice on the acquisition and installation of ham-slicers, means of protection against cuts and electrical accidents, recommendations for maintenance and verification. The hazards and preventive measures are summarised in a table.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1983, No.112, Note No.1433-112-83, p.315-324. Illus. 10 ref.
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