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Retail industry - 201 entries found

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CIS 02-1572 Bicycle and motorcycle sales and repair shops
Comercio y talleres de bicicletas y motocicletas [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in bicycle and motorcycle sales and repair shops and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 51p. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1576 Flower shops
Floristerías [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in flower shops and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; method for risk assessment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 41p. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1284 Dousson C., Ferrand C., Grossetête A., Biermé J., Amar M., Balland E., Barbin M.C., Lambert R., Guth B., Royer X., Hours M.
State of health of workers of large retail chains: Epigrandis, a descriptive study in the Department of Rhône
Etat de santé des salariés de la grande distribution: Epigrandis, une étude descriptive dans le département du Rhône [in French]
There are only a few detailed epidemiological studies of jobs in the retail sector apart from that of cashiers, who represent one third of all those employed in the sector. The objectives of the study presented in this article were to highlight the state of health of all categories of employees by type of retail outlet and sex, to describe the conditions of work and their possible effects on health, to identify possible differences between small and large supermarkets, and to better understand and correct conditions of work which appear to be the source of occupational diseases. This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 860 randomly-selected workers in the retail sector in the French Department of Rhône, representing 10% of the sector's workforce. Data were compiled by company physicians during medical examinations over a one-year period, based on responses to questionnaires, interviews and clinical examinations. The study highlighted signs of psychosomatic illness, but further research would be required to identify the specific causal factors.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.89, p.29-49. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 02-1471 Hidri A., Hajaij K., Said A., Kahouach L.
Study of the working conditions of women cashiers at a large retailer in Sousse
Etude des conditions de travail des caissières d'une grande surface de distribution à Sousse [in French]
The objective of this study was to design a cash register for a large Tunisian retail chain, taking into account ergonomic and safety criteria. The project involved analysing the causes of absenteeism among the cashiers (all women), carrying out ergonomic analyses of their workplaces and working conditions and conducting a detailed study of the ergonomic risk factors due to the equipment and the workload. It was possible to make several recommendations with respect to ergonomic improvements (position of the bar code on the articles sold, workplace layout and design, work organization, lighting and the thermal environment).
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2002, No.20, p.22-29. Illus.


CIS 03-259
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Enterprise-level success factors using the example of the retail sector
Betriebliche Erfolgsfaktoren am Beispiel des Handels [in German]
Proceedings of a conference on enterprise-level success factors with respect to occupational safety and health in the retail sector, held in Düsseldorf, Germany, 14-17 May 2001. Topics: future trends; optimizing the interfaces in distribution logistics, innovative approaches for improved enterprise-level value chain performance; occupational safety and health as an integral part of human resource policy; designing and implementing occupational safety and health in the retail sector, including through the involvement of trade unions; cooperative prevention concepts in the retail sector; innovative questions concerning occupational safety and environmental protection in the logistics chain.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 160p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 28.50.

CIS 02-1294 Cabeças J.M., Graça L.
Evaluation of the working conditions of supermarket cashiers
Avaliação das condições de trabalho em postos de caixa de supermercados [in Portuguese]
This study of the working conditions of supermarket cashiers involved 235 cashiers and 65 supervisors or supporting staff. Several methodologies were adopted for evaluating the ergonomics of the work stations, perceptions of ill health and musculoskeletal symptoms (backaches, muscular pain in arms and legs), signs of discomfort and workload. The following problems were highlighted: poor work postures due to the absence of lumbar support in the seats used; lifting of heavy loads; insufficient lighting; noise; rise of the pulse rate. Recommendations are made with respect to the layout of the work stations. Detailed summaries in Portuguese, English and French.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, July 2001. 176p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 02-979 Faulkner K.A., Landsittel D.P., Hendricks S.A.
Robbery characteristics and employee injuries in convenience stores
Convenience store employees are at risk of injuries related to robberies. A prospective cohort study of 460 convenience store robberies was conducted from 1 February 1995 to 30 September 1996 to highlight possible associations between injury, robbery circumstances and work environments. Data sources included police reports, employee interviews, store evaluations and relevant census data. Injury risk was found to be strongly associated with the following factors: employee resistance, robberies without firearms or money taken, daytime and merchandise robberies, stores with limited escape routes and no cash limit policy or drop safe, older clerks, surrounding areas with lower valued buildings, less expensive rent, more vacant structures, and younger residents. Numerous inter-correlations between these characteristics were identified. Employee training, store procedures and store layout designs are important factors to consider for reducing robbery-related injuries.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.703-709. 19 ref.

CIS 02-190 Binet-Mageau M., Alcouffe J., Sauvagère J., Montéléon M.P.Y.
Study of low back pain at a Paris retailer of consumer electronics and media publications
Etude des lombalgies dans une entreprise parisienne de distribution de produits électroniques "grand public" et culturels [in French]
Back pain was studied in a among workers of a large consumer electronics and media publications retail chain. The questionnaire-based epidemiological survey was conducted by the occupational physician during regular annual checks between 1 October 1999 and 30 September 2000. The sample consisted of 377 workers (222 men et 155 women). The prevalence of back pain during the 12 months studied was 36.6%, without differences between men and women. In most cases, it consisted of simple backache, only 2.4% of workers being affected by severe back pain (with sciatic pain). Risk factors included strenuous postures during work and high occupational or non-occupational workloads. The occupational physician appeared to be a better judge than the worker of the level of physical workload.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.2, p.179-184. 7 ref.


CIS 03-452 Chouchan D.
From the cash register to work organization in the French supermarket chain Carrefour
Carrefour passe de la caisse à l'organisation du travail [in French]
Overview of the efforts undertaken by a large retail chain in France for the improvement of the ergonomics of checkout counters and of the working conditions of women supermarket cashiers. The specifications of a new type of checkout counter was the subject of a detailed study with the involvement of the INRS. This article takes stock of the situation following the adoption of these checkout counters in several supermarkets. Topics addressed: new checkout counter design; worker management of working hours; counter and seat ergonomics; musculoskeletal diseases (low back pain, cervical column pain); work organization.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2000, Part I, No.600, p.30-35. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 02-223 Alcouffe J., Hays G., Mzabi M., Reffet H.
Employees of frozen-food departments
Employé de magasin de surgelés [in French]
The sale of frozen foods has grown rapidly during the last decades, and there are now shops specialized in these products. Various jobs and their constraints are described. The physical workload is high, resulting in a "quite heavy" to "heavy" classification for these jobs. Thermal stress is lower than generally imagined, and are mostly limited to the hands. The mental workload is not negligible. The article makes several recommendations for improving working conditions. It also contains (as an insert) an information sheet on working in frozen-food shops, whose contents include: definition and characteristics of the occupation; description of activities (workplaces, tools and equipment, products and work procedures, movements and postures, personal protective equipment); risks and stresses of the job (connected with the environment, the equipment, the products used, the working hours, the physical and mental workload); occupational diseases and accidents; prevention of hazards (collective, personal, OSH measures); regulations applicable in France.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.4, p.401-407. + Insert 2p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 00-561 Dempsey P.G., McGorry R.R., Cotnam J., Braun T.W.
Ergonomics investigation of retail ice cream operations
An ergonomics evaluation of retail ice cream shops, including field and laboratory data collection, was conducted with the goal of providing recommendations to enhance the health, safety and productivity of shop employees. A primary focus of the investigation was quantifying the task demands of scooping ice cream. This goal was accomplished through the use of a custom-designed instrumented ice cream scoop. Data were collected at an ice cream shop under typical conditions, while the laboratory experiment investigated task demands of ice cream scooping over a range of realistic temperatures. Recommendations to improve operations in retail ice cream shops are presented.
Applied Ergonomics, Apr. 2000, Vol.31, No.2, p.121-130. Illus. 13 ref.


CIS 02-755 Larisch J., Bieber D., Hien W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Quality management and integrated occupational safety and health in food retailing - Workshops and preliminary reports
Qualitätsmanagement und integrierter Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz in Lebensmittelhandel - Workshops und Zwischenberichte [in German]
This publication includes preliminary reports and proceedings of a series of workshops on improving occupational safety and health in warehousing and logistics in the food retail sector. A leading German food retail chain with 9500 shops, 30 warehouses and 5000 persons employed in logistics participated in the study. Opportunities to combine quality management and occupational safety and health are identified. Improvements in occupational health can be achieved though participation in worksite health programmes proposed by the insurance company. Continuous health and accident reporting systems are strong stimulators of preventive measures and result in improvements in both safety and health.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. xviii, 548p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Price: EUR 40.00.

CIS 00-1468 Pan C.S., Gardner L.I., Landsittel D.P., Hendricks S.A., Chiou S.S., Punnett L.
Ergonomic exposure assessment: An application of the PATH systematic observation method to retail workers
Biomechanical stressor variables in relation to job title, sex and back-belt status in 134 retail store workers were examined. A modification of the PATH (Postures, Activities, Tools, and Handling) systematic measurement method was employed. Analysis indicated that the frequencies of bent or twisted postures followed the pattern of unloaders > stockers > department managers. For weight handled per lift, lower, or carry, the pattern was unloaders > department managers > stockers. The mean lifting frequencies per hour were 35.9 for department managers, 48.8 for stockers and 137.4 for unloaders. Back-belt-wearing percentages were higher for unloaders (63%) compared with stockers (48%) and department managers (25%). Back-belt-wearing workers had higher levels of stressor variables, including arm position, twisting, weight handled and number of lifts per hour. The method is applicable in studies that require crude distinctions among stressor variables but which may be sufficient when implementing intervention studies and control strategies for many material-handling-intensive jobs.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.5, No.2, p.79-87. 29 ref.

CIS 00-1036 Office safety
Collection of articles on office safety from an Indian perspective. Topics covered: summary of hazards in office work; the nature of office and clerical work; safety in the retail industry; fire safety in offices; ocular and visual problems in office workers; repetitive motion injuries in computer users; safe use of computers; safety of chairs; safety of lifts; mobile phone hazards. Some of the articles are reproductions of articles in the ILO Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.XXX, No.1, Special issue, p.13-50. Illus.

CIS 99-1871 Kraus J.F., McArthur D.L.
Back supports and back injuries: A second visit with the Home Depot cohort study data on low-back injuries
Back supports have been controversial as means of reducing injuries to the lower back. Diverse issues bear on the interpretation of data obtained in a major epidemiologic investigation of the utility of back supports in the retail-trade home improvement industry. These concerns are focused on alternative explanations for the changes in injury rates observed over the six-year study period, on individual and group factors other than the use of the back support that might have contributed to reducing the risk of injury, and on related methodologic issues. Each issue is addressed with specific reference to how it might affect the analyses and the conclusion that supports show a protective effect. Topics: back belts; backache; epidemiologic study; frequency rates; lifting of loads; manual lifting; materials handling; musculoskeletal diseases; personal protective equipment; retail trade.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.9-13. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 99-1214 Peek-Asa C., Erickson R., Krauss J.F.
Traumatic occupational fatalities in the retail industry, United States 1992-1996
Work-related deaths in the retail industry were examined using the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries from 1992 to 1996. Occupational fatality rates were calculated by age, gender and type of establishment, and characteristics of occupational deaths in the retail industry were compared to other industries. Liquor stores had the highest work-related fatality rates.The two leading causes of death in the retail industry were violence (69.5%) and motor vehicle crashes (19.3%). Females, younger, minority, and foreign-born workers were more likely to be killed in retail than in other industries. Deaths in the retail industry were more likely to bein small businesses, after normal business hours, and in urban settings. Workers in the retail industry were at lower risk of most types of workplace deaths but had a markedly increased risk of violent death than had workers in other industries. Topics: age-linked differences; fatalities; high-risk groups; mortality; occupational accidents; retail trade; sex-linked differences; statistics; USA; violence.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.186-191. 17 ref.


CIS 01-269 Jean C.
Labelling of garments in the store - A case study in ergonomics
Etiqueter des vêtements en magasin - Une étude de cas en ergonomie [in French]
Topics: ergonomic evaluation; hand; job study; labelling; manual handling; musculoskeletal diseases; repetitive work; retail trade; shoulder; textile, garment and related trades workers; women; work posture; wrist.
Travail et santé, Dec. 1998, Vol.14, No.4, p.16-20. Illus. 3 réf.

CIS 00-1358 Goudifa P., Gueguen-Lafont S., Haentjens C., Munier A., Poher M., Pommet C.
Workers in supermarkets
L'employé de libre-service dans les grandes surfaces [in French]
Topics: cold workplaces; ergonomics; job study; manual handling; physical workload; retail trade; service and sales workers; supermarkets; work posture; work time schedules.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 4th Quarter 1998, Vol.38 No.4, p.393-400. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 00-1331 Laraqui C.H., Caubet A., Harourate K., Mehdaoui Z., Laraqui O., Verger C.
Prevalence of respiratory disorders among poultry retailers
Prévalence des troubles respiratoires chez les marchands de volailles [in French]
A retrospective cohort survey was used to evaluate the prevalence of clinical symptoms, skin reactions and respiratory disorders among subjects exposed to poultry in comparison with unexposed individuals. Among the exposed cohort, 77% had clinical symptoms compared with 46% among the unexposed controls. Rhinitis, asthma, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, cough and bronchitis were significantly more frequent among those exposed than the controls. The cause of respiratory disorders was exposure to poultry, as shown by the fact that its prevalence was 1.8-fold higher among non-smokers exposed to poultry than among non-smokers unexposed to poultry. A variable degree of respiratory obstruction was found among 40% of the exposed individuals versus 14% in the unexposed individuals. Skin tests were positive in 22 % of the exposed compared with 15% of the unexposed. Among the 22 exposed individuals with positive skin tests, 6 had allergic reactions to feathers, 7 to moulds and 1 to cereals. These alarming results emphasize the importance of adopting medical and technical prevention measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1998, Vol.59, No.8, p.574-580. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 99-1714 Estill C.F., Kroemer K.H.E.
Evaluation of supermarket bagging using a wrist motion monitor
Wrist motions required to bag groceries were quantified using a wrist motion monitor. The wrist motions included deviations, velocities, and accelerations for flexion-extension, radial-ulnar, and pronation-supination directions. The independent variables were handle type and object location. Objects with finger thumb couplings required more extreme pronations, greater wrist velocities for pronation-supination deviations, and greater wrist accelerations for pronation-supination deviations than did other objects. Objects with 10cm hand couplings required more extreme flexion, larger ranges of movement for radial-ulnar deviations and pronation-supination deviations, and greater wrist velocities in the radial-ulnar and pronation-supination directions than did 5cm objects. The right and front locations required more extreme deviations than did the left and back locations. Because finger thumb and 10cm hand couplings require larger wrist deviations and greater velocities, these objects may pose a greater risk of developing cumulative trauma disorders to the bagger. Topics: bagging; body mechanics; cashiers, tellers and related clerks; design of equipment; ergonomic evaluation; fingers; forearm rotation; median nerve; musculoskeletal diseases; packing, filling; repetitive strain injury; supermarkets; work posture; workplace design; wrist.
Human Factors, Dec. 1998, Vol.40, No.4, p.624-632. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 99-774
Health and Safety Executive
Checkouts and musculoskeletal disorders
Topics: cashiers and ticket clerks; check lists; ergonomic evaluation; hazard evaluation; musculoskeletal diseases; risk factors; safety guides; supermarkets; training manuals; training material; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 15p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 98-1530 Mackay C., Burton K., Boocock M., Tillotson M., Dickinson C.
Health and Safety Executive
Musculoskeletal disorders in supermarket cashiers
Topics: body mechanics; cashiers and ticket clerks; ergonomic evaluation; ergonomics; frequency rates; hazard evaluation; laser-scanner checkout systems; legislation; literature survey; musculoskeletal diseases; physical workload; psychological effects; questionnaire survey; reach distance; report; seats and working surfaces; sickness absenteeism; subjective assessment; supermarkets; symptoms; United Kingdom; work design; work posture; workplace design.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, May 1998. viii, 138p. Illus. 64 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 98-1267 Hoffman M.S.
Impact on retail checkout ergonomics of scanner technology evolution and package design
Topics: design of equipment; ergonomics; laser-scanner checkout systems; retail trade; supermarkets; technical development; USA; workplace design.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 1998, Vol.21, No.6, p.423-431. Illus. 13 ref.


CIS 98-917 Banco L., Lapidus G., Monopoli J., Zavoski R.
The safe teen work project: A study to reduce cutting injuries among young and inexperienced workers
Topics: economic aspects; finger injuries; hand injuries; hand knives; information of personnel; retail trade; shops; supermarkets; USA; wounds; young persons.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1997, Vol. 31, No.5, p.619-622. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 98-1011 Kraus J.F., Brown Schaffer K., McArthur D.L., Peek-Asa C.
Epidemiology of acute low back injury in employees of a large home improvement retail company
Topics: age-linked differences; backache; epidemiologic study; lifting of loads; materials handling; retail trade; sex-linked differences; USA.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Oct. 1997, Vol.146 No.8, p.637-645. Illus. 62 ref.

CIS 97-1920
Health and Safety Commission
Local authorities report on health and safety in service industries containing statistics for 1995-96
This report provides summary information on the nature of accidents in service sector premises for the period 1995-1996 and describes the inspection, enforcement and other activities of the Health and Safety Executive/Local Authority Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA). An annex provides comprehensive information on local authority activity, accident case studies and detailed statistical data.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, June 1997. iii, 10p. Annex 135p.

CIS 97-1743 Amandus H.E., et al.
Convenience store robberies in selected metropolitan areas - Risk factors for employee injury
Analysis of data on 1835 convenience store robberies in metropolitan areas of the USA showed that 59% of robberies occurred at night, 47% occurred in stores previously robbed in the study period, 63% involved the use of a firearm, and 12% were associated with an injury to at least one employee. In a subset of 758 robberies, factors associated with lower probability of employee injury included firearm use, robbery occurrence in stores that had been robbed several times, having money stolen, and the presence of a customer in the store. Employee risk of injury was not significantly different between one- and multiple-employee stores.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1997, Vol.39, No.5, p.442-447. 10 ref.


CIS 98-176
Health and Safety Commission
Local authorities report on health and safety in service industries containing statistics for 1994-95
Topics: enforcement; hotel industry; inspection; occupational accidents; offices; report of activities; retail trade; shops; statistical aspects; United Kingdom; wholesale trade.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iv, 8p. Illus.

CIS 97-138 Gleiche G.
Occupational safety and health in pharmacies
Arbeitssicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz in der Apotheke [in German]
This book on occupational safety and health in pharmacies covers: safe design of workplaces; fire and explosion hazards and prevention; electrical safety; safe storage and handling of compressed gas cylinders (oxygen cylinders) and of harmful and dangerous substances; disposal of harmful waste; organization of first aid and the supply of personal protective equipment. Occupational safety and health checklists for pharmacies are included.
Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstraße 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 1996. 221 p. Illus. Index. Price: DEM 58.00.

CIS 96-1907 Amandus H.E., et al.
Employee injuries and convenience store robberies in selected metropolitan areas
The number of robberies and robbery-related injuries to employees in convenience stores during 1992 or 1993 was estimated for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. Of a total of 1835 such incidents, 12 involved homicides of convenience store employees and 219 resulted in nonfatal injuries. The risk of homicide or injury to these employees was high in many areas. There is a need for more effective robbery prevention and injury control programmes in the convenience store industry.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1996, Vol.38, No.7, p.714-720. 9 ref.

CIS 96-1414 Tong D.
Salt dermatitis in the aquarium industry
Three short case reports are presented of aquarium shop workers with irritant contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to dried sea salt crusts. Preventive measures include tight fitting lids on tanks, workplace hygiene, and protective gloves of sufficient length.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1996, Vol.34, No.1, p.59-60. Illus. 3 ref.


CIS 96-2142 The retail store demonstrator
La démonstratrice [in French]
Contents of this occupational data sheet devoted to demonstrators (sales people demonstrating a new product/brand in supermarkets, department stores etc.): definition; characteristics of the occupation; description of activities; risks and stresses of the job (connected with the environment, the equipment, the products used, the working hours, the physical and mental workload); occupational diseases (nervous fatigue, blood circulation problems, backache) and accidents (falls and slips); prevention of hazards (collective, personal, specific first-aid measures); regulations applicable in France; particular health conditions to watch. Final remarks: working conditions vary a great deal among products and shops, which makes the task of the occupational physician difficult.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1995, Vol.35, No.4. Insert.

CIS 96-1902 Jahn J., Stubben W.
Ergonomic design of service counters in supermarkets
Gestalten von Bedienungstheken [in German]
The work postures of personnel at service counters in use in supermarkets in Europe were determined through the study of videotapes and photographs. The dimensions of service counters were compared with anthropometric data. A questionnaire was applied to the personnel to determine job satisfaction and work-related problems.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. 152p.+annexes. Illus. 26 ref. Price: DEM 43.50.

CIS 96-1728 Retail trade
Butiksområdet [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in the Danish retail trade. The main working environment problems are: strain injuries and skin diseases. Strain injuries are most common in supermarkets and department stores, especially at check-out counters. The enterprises where skin diseases are most common are butcher shops, supermarkets and department stores; the workers most at risk are those in the food sector. Another factor is the thermal environment. Cashiers are also exposed to psychological stress. In supermarkets and department stores occupational accidents are common. Complications of pregnancy are also a factor. Some groups are exposed to other factors; for example, workers in car and motorcycle shops are exposed to high levels of chemicals.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 66p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.

CIS 96-1094 Tong D.
Coral dermatitis in the aquarium industry
Case report of an aquarium shop worker with a history of hay fever and contact allergy to prawns who developed dermatitis after contact with coral while changing a tank. Previous reports of skin reactions to corals had been of divers in the natural habitat of these organisms.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1995, Vol.33, No.3, p.207-208. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 96-78 What every employee should know about retail security
Training booklet about retail security: shoplifting; other criminal activity (theft, fraud, robbery, burglary); prevention of retail crime; what to do in case of robbery. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1995. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###

CIS 95-2286 Carrasco C., Coleman N., Healey S., Lusted M.
Packing products for customers - An ergonomics evaluation of three supermarket checkouts
An ergonomic evaluation was carried out on three different designs of checkout workstations which require the operator to stand while they scan the products, pack them into plastic bags and transfer the packed bags to the customer. Musculoskeletal load and exertion were measured, subjective rankings obtained and productivity was examined. Some of the variables measured showed significant differences in postural load between the workstations. The results of the evaluation formed the basis of recommendations for an improved workstation design.
Applied Ergonomics, Apr. 1995, Vol.26, No.2, p. 101-108. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 95-1710
Health and Safety Commission
Local authorities report on health and safety in the service industries
This report provides summary information on the nature of accidents in service sector premises for the period 1993-1994 and details of local authorities' enforcement action. A total of 25,865 injuries were reported, including 5,695 major injuries and 51 fatalities. The highest rates of major injury occurred in the recreational industry and wholesale sector. Slips and falls accounted for over 40% of all injuries; handling, lifting and carrying accounted for 36% of over-3-day injuries. The work of the Health and Safety Executive/Local Authority Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA) for the same period is reviewed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 7p.

CIS 95-1919
Health and Safety Executive
Preventing violence to retail staff
Contents of this guide: the nature of violence, those at risk and causes of violence or aggression; developing a policy statement on how to control risk (staff consultation, identification of the problem, incident reporting, selecting preventative measures and checking that the measures work); preventative measures (workplace design, revision of working procedures, installation of security systems); staff training; networking with other local businesses; post incident support for staff; issues concerning small businesses and working alone; legal aspects.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. v, 37p. 5 ref. Price: GBP 6.95.


CIS 96-2137 The cashier
La caissière de libre-service [in French]
Contents of this occupational data sheet devoted to cashiers in supermarkets: definition; characteristics of the occupation; description of activities: normal work areas, equipment, products handled, hand movements and postures; risks and stresses of the job (connected with the environment, the equipment, the working hours, the physical and mental workload); occupational diseases and accidents; prevention of hazards (collective, personal, specific first-aid measures); regulations applicable in France; particular health conditions to watch. Final remarks: it is recommended for occupational physicians to monitor changing technologies as they affect the working conditions of cashiers.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1994, Vol.34, No.1. Insert.

CIS 96-77 What you should know about safety in the store
Training booklet about safety in shops: avoiding slips, trips and falls; safe movements and handling of objects; working at heights; fire safety; machinery and tools; emergency preparedness. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1994. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###

CIS 95-2077 Johnson E.S.
Cancer mortality among workers in the meat department of supermarkets
Cancer mortality for the period 1949 to 1989 was compared in a previously studied cohort of 10,841 members of a local meatcutters' union in Baltimore, Maryland (USA), who worked in the meat department of supermarkets, after an extended follow-up of nine years (1981-1989). Among women, an SMR of 1.6 and a PMR of 1.5 for lung cancer were found. For men, the SMR for cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx was 1.8, and for colon cancer it was 1.5. The respective PMRs were 1.9 and 1.5. Whereas the role of non-occupational factors needs to be taken into account before occupational factors can be implicated in the occurrence of the excess of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx, and colon cancer in men, there is reason to suspect that occupational factors may be responsible for the lung cancer excess in women. Thus exposures that occur predominantly in women, such as exposure to fumes during wrapping and labelling, should be investigated as to their role in this excess.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1994, Vol.51, No.8, p.541-547. 53 ref.

CIS 95-2296 Villar Fernández F., Carretero Ruiz R., Alvarez Brime C., Hoyo Delgado A., Sanz Merinero J.A.
Methodological guide to the ergonomic study of supermarket cashier work
Guía metodológica para el estudio ergonómico del trabajo de "cajera de hipermercado" [in Spanish]
This survey of ergonomical research methods covers: methodology of ergonomic research; observations at the beginning of the study; analysis and evaluation of study factors (individual characteristics and opinions; job task requirements; workstation design; lighting conditions; microclimate conditions; environmental noise; physical and mental workload; work organization and psychosocial factors). In annex: sample workplace plan; example of a workstation layout (horizontal and lateral views); list of product purchases used for the task simulation; analysis of the hand and eye movements of check-out personnel; analysis of microclimate data; analysis of arm position during the work cycle; sample questionnaire used for surveying check-out personnel.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 68[+70]p. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 95-1896 Osorio A.M., Ames R.G., Jones J., Castorina J., Rempel D., Estrin W., Thompson D.
Carpal tunnel syndrome among grocery store workers
A study was carried out among 56 grocery store workers at a large supermarket in California, USA. Forceful and repetitive wrist motion was measured using a job classification scheme, and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was assessed by means of a medical questionnaire and measurements of median sensory nerve conduction. Overall prevalence of CTS was 23%. The relative risk of CTS-like symptoms between high risk workers (checkers, meat cutters and cake decorators) and all other employees was 8.3%. Basic principles of good ergonomic design should be used to prevent or diminish the risk of musculoskeletal injury among these workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1994, Vol.25, No.2, p.229-245. 31 ref.

CIS 95-1160 Armed hold-ups and cash handling. A guide to protecting people and profits from armed hold-ups
This guide outlines a range of work practices and principles of workplace design for reducing the incidence and severity of armed robbery. Contents: main targets (small retail businesses) and characteristics of robbers; layout of premises, use of security devices and adequate lighting; cash minimization and use of time delay safes; safe transfer of cash; staff training; armed hold-up survival rules; identifying robbers; post hold-up procedures; dealing with post traumatic stress; assessment of business premises.
WorkCover Authority, 400 Kent Street, Sydney 2000, New South Wales, Australia, 1994. 20p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: AUD 4.95 plus AUD 2.50 postage.

CIS 95-1146 Supermarket checkout personnel
Les "hyper caissières" [in French]
An ergonomic analysis of the work of supermarket checkout personnel reveals that scanner use and bagging by tellers is associated with high task repetitivity and work speed as well as high levels of manual handling. These stress factors generate ill health effects in even such a young population as well as an increase in the incidence of occupational diseases. This report stresses the need of a dialogue between all social partners, including specialists of retail trade, builders, industrial physicians, safety professionals, workers, consumers' associations, etc., in order to be able to improve the layout of existing workstations, as well as to develop new work contexts in line with the evolution of the functions of checkout personnel.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France. 38p. Illus. 18 ref. Off-print of an article published in "Travail et sécurité", Jan. 1994.

CIS 95-759 Grant K.A., Habes D.J., Baron S.L.
An ergonomics evaluation of cashier work activities at checker-unload workstations
Work activities of grocery cashiers at checker-unload workstations were recorded on videotape and compared with those of cashiers using a front-facing, customer-unload workstation. Results indicated that postures and movements associated with removing items from the customer's cart at checker-unload workstations placed additional stresses on the cashier: an increased frequency of long reaches, awkward shoulder postures and lifts was observed. These stresses can be mitigated by eliminating checker-unload operations, providing checkouts with conveyor belts and by alternative work practices.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1994, Vol.25, No.5, p.310-318. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 95-105 Electricity and worker safety
Electricidad y la seguridad del trabajador [in Spanish]
Videotape and user's manual on electrical safety in the workplace, with particular attention paid to workers in commercial enterprises.
Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU), 30 E. 29th Street, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1994. 1 videotape + Manual (42p., illus.). ###

CIS 95-273
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Guidance note for the control of workplace hazardous substances in the retail sector
This document provides guidance for retailers and retail warehouse operators on compliance with current legislation concerning hazardous substances. Contents: duties and responsibilities of employers, suppliers and purchasers; employee consultation; provision of employee training; risk assessment (identification of hazardous substances, sources of information, evaluation of exposure and health risks, types of assessment, recording of assessment reports); exposure control measures; emergency procedures.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, May 1994. viii, 25p. 15 ref. [in English]


CIS 96-2136 The sales assistant in newspaper, tobacco and gift shops [situated in train stations]
Le vendeur en kiosque de librairie, tabac, cadeaux [in French]
Contents of this occupational data sheet devoted to assistants in small shops in train stations: definition; characteristics of the occupation; description of activities: normal work areas, normal activities, particular job environment, hand movements and postures; risks and stresses of the job (connected with the environment, the equipment, the merchandise sold, the working hours, the physical and mental workload); occupational diseases and accidents; prevention of hazards (collective, personal, OSH measures); regulations applicable in France (no special legislation exists); particular health conditions to watch (work aptitude). Final remarks: it is recommended to improve the collaboration of the enterprises involved and to improve the workstations.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1993, Vol.33, No.3. Insert.

CIS 95-1906 Grant K.A., Habes D.J., Baron S.L., Sweeney M.H., Piacitelli L.A., Putz-Anderson V., Fine L.J.
Ergonomic evaluation of checkstand designs in the retail food industry - A report based on expert assessment
The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is conducting an industry-wide study to evaluate the prevalence and possible causes of musculoskeletal disorders among retail food workers. An objective of this research is to evaluate the relationship between upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) and different checkstand designs. This article describes initial activities to identify ergonomic stressors associated with five common checkstand types found in the US. A panel of ergonomic experts was convened to rate the degree of biomechanical stress placed on specific body areas (neck, shoulders, elbows, hand/wrist, and back) by 13 different checkstand configurations. The panel reviewed cashier work activities recorded on videotape, and design specifications collected during site visits to different grocery stores. The experts agreed that certain checkstand features are more likely to impose substantial biomechanical stresses on cashiers than others.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 1993, Vol.8, No.11, p.929-936. Illus. 16 ref.

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