Office work - 1,210 entries found
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De Berardis B., Paoletti L.
Characterization of the thoracic fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM10) in an urban area and in an adjacent office building
Caratterizzazione della frazione toracica (PM10) del particolato aerodisperso in un sito urbano ed in un ambiente indoor limitrofo [in Italian]
Airborne particulate matter (PM10) was collected in an urban area (in Rome, Italy) and in an adjacent office building. Samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. A statistical analysis method allowed to identify seven groups of similar particles in the particulate matter and a seasonal trend was demonstrated with an increase in the aluminium-silicate particles and a minor increment in sulfate particles during summer. The results suggest that the characteristics of indoor PM10 depend mostly on the nature of outdoor particulates in the vicinity.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.206-214. Illus. 19 ref.
Camilucci L., Campopiano A., Casciardi S., Fioravanti F., Ramires D.
Exposure to artificial mineral fibres in public buildings
Esposizione a fibre minerali artificiali in edifici pubblici [in Italian]
Man-made mineral fibres used as insulating materials instead of asbestos may be dispersed in office buildings. In several surveys, samples were analysed by phase contrast optical and scanning electron microscopy. The measured airborne fibre concentrations did not show significant man-made mineral fibre dispersion in the environment.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.32-38. Illus. 23 ref.
Nakanishi N., Yoshida H., Okamoto M., Nakamura K., Uzura S., Suzuki K., Tatara K.
Hematocrit and risk for hypertension in middle-aged Japanese male office workers
The association of haematocrit with the development of hypertension over nine years was studied in 784 hypertension-free Japanese men aged 40 to 59 years. It was found that after correcting for other potential factors of hypertension, the relation between increased haematocrit and definite hypertension was statistically significant. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk for definite hypertension compared with haematocrit > 43.8% was 1.00, with 43.8-45.2% it was 1.29, with 45.3-46.3% it was 1.35, with 46.4-48.1% it was 1.96, and with > 48.2% it was 2.06. These results suggest that elevated haematocrit is closely associated with the development of hypertension in middle-aged Japanese men.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2001, Vol.39, No.1, p.17-20. 15 ref.
Dzida W., Hofmann B., Freitag R., Redtenbacher W., Baggen R., Geis T., Beimel J., Zurheiden C., Hampe-Neteler W., Hartwig R., Peters H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Software usability - ErgoNorm: Conformity and non-conformity of software with usability standards (EN ISO 9241 Parts 10 and 11)
Gebrauchstauglichkeit von Software - ErgoNorm: Ein Verfahren zur Konformitätsprüfung von Software auf der Grundlage von DIN EN ISO 9241 Teile 10 und 11 [in German]
This report describes ErgoNorm, a two-part method for evaluating the usability of software applications based on the ISO 9241 standard (parts 10 and 11, for the latter see CIS 98-1534). The first part of the method applies to users; it consists of a subjective evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of the software application, highlighting difficulties of use and possible deviations from the standard. The second part of the method is aimed at ergonomics experts who focus on compliance with the standard. By using the method, it is possible to highlight the ergonomic deficiencies of the software application and their consequences, thereby actively contributing to improving their quality.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 241p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: EUR 19.50.
Skulberg K.R., Skyberg K., Eduard W., Goffeng L.O., Vistnes A.I., Levy F., Kjuus H.
Effects of electric field reduction in visual display units on skin symptoms
120 office workers in 11 companies with reported facial skin complaints were randomly selected for this double blind study. Static electric fields surrounding visual display unit were reduced in the intervention group but not in the control group. The intervention group reported significantly fewer facial skin complaints than did the control group. The specified intervention can probably help reduce facial skin complaints in workers in offices with high dust concentrations.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.140-145. 21 ref.
Newsham G.R., Veitch J.A.
Lighting quality recommendations for VDT offices: A new method of derivation
In an experiment in a mock-up office space, occupants were given control over dimmable lighting circuits after a day working under pseudo-random lighting conditions. Data analysis indicated that the lighting experienced during the day influenced the changes in lighting made at the end of the day. Occupants chose to reduce screen glare if any existed. Even after allowing for the effect of glare, desktop illuminance at day's end varied with the illuminance experienced during the day. Regression of these end-of-day choices relative to the illuminance experienced during the day can yield a preferred illuminance, equivalent to the daytime illuminance at which no change was preferred at day's end. Using this method, preferred illuminance in the range 200-500 lux and luminance ratio were derived. The deviation between participants' lighting preferences and the lighting they experienced during the day was a significant predictor of participant mood and satisfaction. The article is followed by comments by other experts in the field (D.J. Carter and P.Boyce), together with reactions to these comments by the authors.
Lighting Research and Technology, 2001, Vol.33, No.2, p.97-116. Illus. 28 ref.
Lewis R.J., Fogleman M., Deeb J., Crandall E., Agopsowicz D.
Effectiveness of a VDT ergonomics training program
An evaluation of changes introduced in work posture adjustment at visual display terminal (VDT) work stations, due to an ergonomics training course. There were significant reductions in the severity of musculoskeletal symptoms, but no such reductions were detected for the presence of symptoms. A long-term study is suggested to detect statistically significant changes.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.119-131. Illus. 22 ref.
Fostervold K.I., Buckmann E., Lie I.
VDU-screen filters: Remedy or the ubiquitous Hawthorne effect?
Health hazards attributed in office work to exposure to electrical fields surrounding CRT displays units were investigated without confirming the assumed protection given by screen filters. The results appear to be explained by other facts influencing employees e.g. subject reactivity, known also as the Hawthorne effect (improvement is due to psychological factors related to the subject's awareness that he/she is participating in an experiment).
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.107-118. Illus. 34 ref.
Salerno D.F., Franzblau A., Armstrong T.J., Werner R.A., Becker M.P.
Test-retest reliability of the upper extremity questionnaire among keyboard operators
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the reliability of the self-administered Upper Extremity Questionnaire used in epidemiological studies. A two-part assessment was conducted among 138 keyboard operators. Test-retest reliability was analysed using various statistical evaluation tools. Logistic regression models were used to test the effect of demographic and work-related factors on reliability. It was found that the reliability of items on the Upper Extremity Questionnaire was generally good to excellent. Reports of symptom severity and interference with work were less stable. Demographic and work-related factors were not statistically significant in modelling the variation in reliability. Repeated use of the questionnaire with similar results suggests that the findings are applicable to a larger working population.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.655-666. 36 ref.
Mocci F., Serra A., Corrias G.A.
Psychological factors and visual fatigue in working with video display terminals
To examine the importance of psychological factors in complaints about visual health reported by banking officers who work at video display terminals (VDTs), a group of 212 subjects without organic vision disturbances were selected among a population of 385 bank workers. They were administered three questionnaires, the NIOSH job stress questionnaire, a questionnaire investigating subjective discomfort related to environmental and lighting conditions of the workplace, and a questionnaire on the existence of vision disturbances. Social support, group conflict, self-esteem, work satisfaction, and under-use of skills were found to be predictors of vision complaints. Social support also played a part as a moderating factor in the stress and strain model, which accounted for 30% of the variance. Subjective environmental factors were not found to be strong predictors of the symptoms. In conclusion, some of the complaints concerning visual health reported by VDT workers are likely to be indirect expressions of psychological discomfort related to working conditions.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.58, No.4, p.267-271. 36 ref.
Lintula M., Nevala-Puranen N., Louhevaara V.
Effects of Ergorest arm supports on muscle strain and wrist positions during the use of the mouse and keyboard in work with visual display units: A work site intervention
The effects of Ergorest arm supports on wrist angles and musculoskeletal strain in the neck-shoulder-arm region and electrical activity in the shoulder and arm muscles were studied during typing or the use of the mouse in work with a visual display unit (VDU). 21 women were divided into three groups (one arm support, two arm supports, and control). Measurements were carried out before and after the six-week intervention. The wrist extension of the mouse hand, the muscle activity of the trapezius muscle, and the subjective discomfort ratings indicated that two arm supports were better than one during work with a mouse. The Ergorest arm support alleviates muscle and joint strain in VDU work when used for both arms.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.103-116. Illus. 23 ref.
Dowler E., Kappes B., Fenaughty A., Pemberton G.
Effects of neutral posture on muscle tension during computer use
The objective of this study was to develop a new approach for evaluating seated work positions. 67 office workers who use a Visual Display Terminal (VDT) during a major portion of their working day were evaluated. Muscle tension was measured by surface electromyography (sEMG) while participants were asked to adopt four selected working postures. Pain was measured before and after ergonomic intervention on the Nordic scale, which was modified for this study. Adjustable workstations were used to place participants in desired positions during the testing sessions and the extended intervention period. Results indicate that this ergonomic intervention may have positive effects on muscle tension and pain, significant enough to encourage employers to implement training and workstation modifications following these guidelines.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.61-78. Illus. 21 ref.
McLean L., Tingley M., Scott R.N., Rickards J.
Computer terminal work and the benefit of microbreaks
Microbreaks are scheduled rest breaks taken to prevent the onset or progression of cumulative trauma disorders in the computerized workstation environment. The benefit of microbreaks by investigating myoelectric signal (MES) behaviour, perceived discomfort, and worker productivity while individuals performed their usual keying work were examined. Participants (all women) provided data from working sessions where they took no breaks, and from working sessions where they took microbreaks at their own discretion (control), microbreaks at 20min intervals, and microbreaks at 40min intervals. Four main muscle areas were studied: the cervical extensors, the lumbar erector spinae, the upper trapezius/supraspinatus, and the wrist and finger extensors. It was determined that microbreaks had a positive effect on reducing discomfort in all areas studied during computer terminal work, particularly when breaks were taken at 20min intervals. Microbreaks showed no evidence of a detrimental effect on worker productivity.
Applied Ergonomics, June 2001, Vol.32, No.3, p.225-237. Illus. 35 ref.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are among the most commonly occurring hazards in office work. They are the result of poorly-designed workstations and inadequate job design. Two common types of WMSD are muscular strain in the neck, shoulders and back due to prolonged sitting, and injury to joints and muscles due to excessive repetitive movements. The objective of this guide is to help develop an office ergonomics programme for the prevention of WMSDs. It is aimed at managers, supervisors, safety and health representatives, persons doing office work at home and occupational health and safety professionals. Contents: ergonomic hazards at the workplace; office ergonomics programmes: ergonomic regulations, standards and guidelines; sources of additional information. Document also available in French at CCOHS.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 4th ed., 2001. 109p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere).
Order No.247/2001 of 20 May 2001 of the Government concerning the minimum safety and health requirements of work with visual display terminals [Slovak Republic]
Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky z 20. mája 2001 o minimálnych bezpečnostných a zdravotných požiadavkách pri práci so zobrazovacími jednotkami [in Slovak]
Order specifying the duties of employers related to the use of VDU terminals by their employees, as well as work-rest schedules related to such activities.
Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 30 June 2001, No.104, p.2638-2641.
Prevention of risks to health from work at data display screens
Prevención de riesgos en puestos de trabajo con pantallas de visualización de datos [in Spanish]
This booklet describes the characteristics of a work position in front of a computer screen and its ergonomic environment (work surface, chair, footrest, copy holder, work posture, equipment layout, lighting, arrangement of workplaces within the office, thermal environment). The ergonomics of the computer application used (ease of use, efficiency and suitability to the task at hand), the work organization and psychological issues (anxiety, stress) linked to work at computer screens are also important elements that need to be taken into account when conducting a job study. Appendices include: forms for conducting job studies of display-screen workplaces and self-evaluation exercises, including answers and comments.
IBERMUTUAMUR, Ramírez de Arellano 27, 28403 Madrid, Spain, 3rd Rev.ed., 2001. 64p. Illus. 21 ref.
Alvarez E., Antonsson A.B.
Checklist for datascreen workplaces in an office environment
This checklist is designed to enable workers to conduct ergonomic inspections of workplaces involving work at screens in office environments. It consists of a series of questions grouped by the following topics: computer workplace; premises; work planning, conditions of work, workload and training.
Prevent, Box 20133, 104 60 Stockholm, Sweden, 2000. Internet document (pdf format). 6p.
http://www.prevent.se/doc_pdf/verktyg/pdf/checkbildsk_eng.pdf [in English]
Wolska A., Bugajska J., Drygała M., Najmiec A., Grabarczyk Z., Augustyńska D.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health at computer workstations - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy na stanowiskach z komputerami - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health at computer workstations is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 26+31p. 35+20 ref.
50 questions concerning work at screens
Le travail sur écran en 50 questions [in French]
This practical ergonomic guide consists of a compilation of 50 questions frequently asked by persons working on computer screens. For each question, it provides one or several solutions, ranked where possible by their ergonomic quality.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 3rd ed., May 2000. 29p. Illus. Price: EUR 5.10.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/F2A3325063AEA1E3C1256F09003F22E8/$FILE/ed923.pdf [in French]
Blomkvist A.C., Gard G.
Computer use in cold environments
This study addresses computer work in cold environments. It discusses the general conditions for such work, and specifically explores the use of fingers for data entry in the cold. Five cold workplaces involving the use of computers were studied. It was found that the effects of the cold were in line with those mentioned in the literature, with the manual lifting of heavy goods being most impairing activity. Subjects contended with strenuous working postures and cold fingers while holding the computers in their hands or arms. Different methods of entering data with keyboards or touch screens, including with the use of fingers or styluses, were studied. From an ergonomic standpoint, the use of a stylus is recommended for data entry. Finally, a supportive rack is recommended in the case of portable computers.
Applied Ergonomics, June 2000, Vol.31, No.3, p.239-245. Illus. 17 ref.
Lonne-Rahm S., Andersson B., Melin L., Schultzberg M., Arnetz B., Berg M.
Provocation with stress and electricity of patients with "sensitivity to electricity"
A total of 24 patients with self-reported skin symptoms when exposed to electromagnetic fields were tested in a provocation study, together with 12 controls matched by age and sex. Both groups were exposed to 30-minute periods of high or low stress situations, with and without simultaneous exposure to electromagnetic fields from a visual display unit. Stress was induced by requiring the participants to react to a random sequence of flashing lights while simultaneously solving complicated mathematical problems. Blood samples were analysed for levels of the stress-related hormones and the expression of different peptides, cellular markers and cytokines. Skin biopsies were also analysed for the occurrence of mast cells. Patients reported increased skin symptoms when they knew or believed that the electromagnetic field was turned on. However, there were no differences under blind conditions. Inflammatory mediators and mast cells in the skin were not affected by the stress exposure or by exposure to electromagnetic fields.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.42, No.5, p.512-516. 30 ref.
Bertini M., Fattorini E.
The effects of monotonous tasks on ultradian and circadian changes in alertness and mood and EEG levels of drowsiness for VDT work activities
Effetti della monotonia del compito sulle variazioni ultradiane e circadiane della vigilanza e dell'umore e sui livelli di sonnolenza EEG nelle attività lavorative ai videoterminali [in Italian]
The vigilance and wakefulness of six male workers on computer terminals were evaluated by examining electroencephalographic changes in their sleep patterns. The changes can be attributed to relaxed vigilance subsequent to the performance of monotonous work. This kind of work may result in unforeseeable periods of sleep during the performance of the task.
Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 2000, Vol.12, No.2, p.25-34. Illus. 20 ref.
Work without risk at your screen
Travaillez sans risque sur votre écran [in French]
Work at visual display screens under inappropriate conditions can give rise to health problems. This leaflet offers practical guidance for eliminating factors responsible for discomfort and fatigue. Contents include: characteristics of software applications; characteristics of the workplace for avoiding visual and postural fatigue; characteristics of the environmental conditions; work time schedules; medical supervision and visual aptitude.
Institut de Santé et de Sécurité au Travail, Bd. M. Khaznadar 5, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, no date. 8p. Illus.
Blomkvist A.C., Gard G.
Computer usage with cold hands: An experiment with pointing devices
Computers are occasionally used outdoors and in connection with cold store work. Cold hands and fingers can limit data input, as studied here. Six input devices, including trackballs, pens, and a mouse were tested by 19 participants in a screen target acquisition task with two target sizes under two experimental conditions, i.e. with a warm and with a cold right hand. Data measured were acquisition times, number of errors, participant's preferences, and observed handling of the devices. Effects of device, target size, and temperature were significant. Learning and attempts to improve handgrip were confirmed. Large-enough targets, a thick pen, and a mouse make computer work practicable in the cold. Direct visual feedback shortened acquisition times by half a second.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.429-450. Illus. 38 ref.
Haufler A.J., Feuerstein M., Huang G.D.
Job stress, upper extremity pain and functional limitations in symptomatic computer users
To study upper extremity pain and function, 124 symptomatic female office workers completed a questionnaire measuring demographics, medical history, work demands, perception of the work environment, work style, pain intensity, functional impact and time lost from work. Heightened job stress and the tendency to continue to work in a way that contributes to pain to ensure high quality were related to pain intensity at work and decreased function. These variables, in addition to hours worked per year, were related to increased pain experienced across the work week. The model tested did not predict the occurrence of lost time. These findings provide support for the association between job stress, work style, upper extremity pain and function impairment. Results are consistent with prior research indicating the potential significance of job stress and work style on symptom exacerbation and functional limitations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.507-515. 57 ref.
Stress and strain in the call centre
Belastung und Beanspruchung im Call-Center [in German]
The results of interviews and questionnaire surveys conducted in call centres in Germany are summarized. Employees in call centres spend long hours at visual display units while answering customer queries on the phone. Noise levels above 55dB(A), low humidity and inadequate furniture were observed at these workplaces. In interviews, managers of these units reported the following stress factors: simultaneous communication with many clients, uncertainty with regard to the callers' needs and handling complaints. The employees mainly reported constant time pressures, lack of recognition and frequently having to cope with new software. Evaluations of the results of questionnaire surveys on the neuropsychic stress among workers in call centres yielded lower stress scores for varied and demanding work than for monotonous work with low decision latitude.
Computer Fachwissen für Betriebs- und Personalräte, May 2000, Vol.9, No.5, p.4-11. Illus. 2 ref.
Office workplaces on construction sites
Büroarbeitsplätze auf Baustellen [in German]
Temporary offices are often installed at construction sites for technical and commercial personnel in order to enable them to react rapidly to changes or failures during the construction. However, these workplaces are not necessarily covered in the safety and health measures practiced on the site. This article reviews the main problems encountered in such offices: inappropriate office furniture; awkward thermal environment; too little space; storage of dangerous substances; inappropriate workplace location (near a crane); insufficient lighting. It is proposed that office workplaces on construction sites be integrated in the risk analysis in order to improve their safety. A check list for assessing VDU-workplaces on construction sites is included.
BAU-BG Aktuell, 2000, No.2, p.20-21. Illus.
Park M.Y., Kim J.Y., Shin J.H.
Ergonomic design and evaluation of a new VDT workstation chair with keyboard-mouse support
A new-concept VDT workstation chair with an adjustable keyboard and mouse support was designed, based upon the result of 3-D graphical simulations and the anthropometric specifications of the Korean population. A prototype chair was constructed with a keyboard and mouse support directly attached to the chair body. An experiment was conducted to compare the new workstation chair to a conventional computer chair without a keyboard-mouse support by measuring muscle fatigue and surveying subjective discomfort. Six volunteer subjects participated in six 1-hour word-processing sessions with the two chairs and three different work postures. Results indicate that the new-concept VDT chair generally improved subjective comfort level and reduced fatigue in the finger flexor and extensor, and the low back muscles. Implications of the new design and suggestions for further development are addressed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Nov. 2000, Vol.26, No.5, p.537-548. Illus. 19 ref.
Shieh K.K., Lin C.C.
Effects of screen type, ambient illumination, and color combination on VDT visual performance and subjective preference
The effects of screen type, ambient illumination, and the target and background colour combination on visual identification performance and subjective preference for visual display terminal (VDT) screen characteristics were studied. Screen type significantly affected visual performance, subjects performing better with the thin film transistor liquid crystal display than with the cathode ray tube. Visual performance was better under 450 lx ambient illumination versus 200 lx. Colour combination also significantly affected visual performance, with blue letters on a yellow background resulting in the best performance and purple-on-red the worst. These were also the best and worst subjective preferences.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Nov. 2000, Vol.26, No.5, p.527-536. Illus. 29 ref.
Abreu P., Cruz E.
Working while seated - How to prevent backache
Trabalhar sentado - como prevenir as dores na sua coluna [in Portuguese]
The aim of this guide and CD-ROM edited by the Portuguese association of physiotherapists is to prevent back problems and discomfort during work in a seated posture, particularly when working with a computer. Main topics covered: anatomy of spinal column; causes of back problems; causes of discomfort (muscular tension, psychological stress, disc lesions, spondylarthrosis); health consequences of incorrect seated posture and repetitive movements; correct posture and movements; ergonomic design of the workplace; exercises to be done at the workplace and at home; advice for a healthy lifestyle.
Associação Portuguesa de Fisioterapeutas, Lisboa, Portugal, 2000. 15p. Illus. + CD-ROM
Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) - Part 3: Visual display requirements - Amendment 1
Exigences ergonomiques pour le travail de bureau avec des terminaux à écrans de visualisation (TEV) - Partie 3: Exigences relatives aux écrans de visualisation - Amendement 1 [in French]
This is an amendment of the international standard ISO 9241-3 summarized in CIS 94-390. It describes a procedure for testing the visual quality of VDTs where the entire set of physical requirements cannot be applied, for example, to novel display technologies such as new types of flat panel display (such as electro-luminescent and field emission displays). The test consists of a search task and an assessment of visual comfort. The combination of test results will be referred to as the visual quality of a display. The intention is to provide a test method for displays that cannot otherwise be tested for conformance with this part of ISO 9241.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2000. iii, 13p. 40 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Although accidents are not frequent in offices, they do occur, and safety and health measures need to be adapted to the levels of risk. This booklet is aimed at employers or managers of small enterprises involving office work. It highlights the legal requirements in the United Kingdom and offers guidance on implementing appropriate prevention measures in an office working environment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2000. 16p. Illus. 16 ref.
International Labour Organization (ILO)
Working on CRT screens
Le travail sur écran de visualisation - T.E.V. [in French]
This tutorial kit for work on computer screens consists of 6 parts: complaints and rumours regarding computer screens; specific aspects of work at screens; definitions of the different types of work at screens; the screen environment (equipment and infrastructure, nature of the work and workload, work organization and conditions of work, challenges in the area of occupational medicine); ergonomics of the screen workplace (keyboard, screen, printer, work posture, lighting, sound and climatic conditions, radiation); ergonomic approach for improving the conditions of work at screens (design ergonomics and corrective ergonomics). Appendices are included on the nature of tasks, visual aspects and postural disorders.
Bureau international du Travail, Equipe multidisciplinaire pour l'Afrique Centrale, B.P. 13, Yaoundé, Cameroun, 2000. 3p., 3p., 6p., 17p., 18p., 21p. (6 folders in a box).
Health and Safety Executive
Display screen equipment work. Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 - Guidance on Regulations
This booklet provides guidance on the Health and Safety (Display Screen) Regulations 1992 (CIS 93-24), which came into force on 1 January 1993, and which implement Directive 90/270/EEC of 29 May 1990 (CIS 90-1069). Contents: type of equipment and categories of workers covered by the Regulations; analysis of workstations to assess and reduce risks associated with postural and visual problems, fatigue and stress; requirements for workstations (equipment, environment, interface between computer and user); daily work routine of users; eyes and eyesight (eyesight and vision screening tests and provision of corrective appliances); provision of training; provision of information; exemption certificates. Annexes include guidance on workstation minimum requirements and possible health effects of display screen equipment. Replaces CIS 93-543.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., 2000. iii, 45p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: GBP 5.75.
Ergonomic visual display fonts
Bildschirmschriften ergonomisch [in German]
Resolution and size of the characters of different fonts available on most computers have been optimized for good legibility in documents printed by high-resolution ink-jet or laser printers. Also, choices with regard to character size, font, line spaces and format for a text being typed into the computer are made with the printed version of the text in mind. As a result, the text is not optimized for legiblity on the VDU screen. It is recommended to retain a wider spacing between lines, a character size of 12 or 14 points and a left-aligned format up to the final editing step. For computers using mandatory company-specific fonts which might not be screen-optimized, a software programme called "delta-hinting" is available which automatically adjusts the selected format to optimum legibility on the VDU screen regardless of the printed format.
Computer Fachwissen für Betriebs- und Personalräte, Mar. 2000, Vol.9, No.3, p.27-30. Illus.
Nakanishi N., Nakamura K., Suzuki K., Matsuo Y., Tatara K.
Associations of body mass index and percentage body fat by bioelectrical impedance analysis with cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese male office workers
The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) (measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)) with cardiovascular risk factors (systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and triglycerides (TG)) were examined in 1,217 male office workers in Japan. Significant correlates were, in the order of relative importance: age, BMI, and alcohol intake for SBP and DBP; age, BMI, and alcohol intake for LDL-C; BMI, alcohol, and cigarette smoking for HDL-C; BMI, alcohol intake, age and cigarette smoking for LDL-C/HDL-C ratio; and BMI, age, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake for Log TG. Associations were also found between %BF by BIA and each risk factor but the results suggest that BMI may better reflect blood pressure or serum lipid profile.
Industrial Health, July 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.273-279. 36 ref.
Computers and data processing in the working environment
Datorn i arbetsmiljön [in Swedish]
Training manual on the ergonomics of computer use. Contents: overview of workplace issues; the ergonomy of computer work stations; vision and lighting; programming and system development; radiation, emissions and health effects; various types of computer screens and other computer equipment.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 4th Rev.ed., 2000. 92p. Illus. 38 ref.
Salerno D.F., Franzblau A., Werner R.A., Chung K.C., Schultz J.S., Becker M.P., Armstrong T.J.
Reliability of physical examination of the upper extremity among keyboard operators
To determine the empirical reliability of physical examination and anthropometry in a field study of upper extremity disorders, two experienced examiners independently performed provocative tests and procedures among 160 keyboard operators. Two additional examiners conducted anthropometric surveys. Inter-examiner reliability was assessed with observed agreement, kappa statistics and intra-class correlations. Except for the carpal compression test, physical examination contributed very little reliable information. This was attributed mainly to the low prevalence of positive findings and the generally mild nature of upper extremity disorders in this population. Although it may reduce bias, separating physical examination from medical history may contribute to the poor reliability of the findings. In epidemiological research among keyboard operators, tools such as questionnaires have shown to be more reliable.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.423-430. 36 ref.
Safety and health when working with VDUs
Segurança e saúde no trabalho com equipamentos dotados de visor [in Portuguese]
This leaflet provides information on the design of ergonomic workplaces for VDU users. Main topics covered: layout of the room, blinds, curtains, lighting, table height, position of the chair, footrest, keyboard, screen and clipboard, vision angle.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, no date. 4p. Illus.
Senecal S., Victor V., Choudat D., Hornez-Davin S., Conso F.
Semicircular lipoatrophy: 18 cases in the same company
Four cases of semicircular lipoatrophy having been reported, 58 employees of a telecommunication networking company were examined. 18 desk workers had subcutaneous depression, mostly bilateral. The position of the lesions on the thighs was different for each person, but it was observed that the height of the depression on the leg measured from the floor, plus the height of the shoe heel, was constant and at the same height as the desks (70cm). It is assumed that depression is due to repeated mechanical microtrauma.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2000, Vol.42, No.2, p.101-102. 13 ref.
Hernández Manso J.
Visual display units
Pantallas de visualización de datos [in Spanish]
This issue is devoted to the prevention of hazards related to working at screens. A first part presents the regulatory framework: Council Directive 90/270/EEC on the minimum safety and health requirements for work with display screen equipment; Royal Decree 488/1997 concerning the assessment and prevention of hazards from using equipment with visual display units (CIS 99-684) and the health surveillance Protocol applicable to visual display units. Articles cover various aspects related to visual display units: hazard evaluation among employees of public administrations; health surveillance protocol for hospital workers; integrating ergonomics in office work; computer vision syndrome; integrated management of musculoskeletal hazards; measurement variations in the contrast threshold during extended periods of work. UNE and ISO standards on visual display units are listed, and 94 literature references from the CIS database are included, together with 43 references drawn from HSELINE, 4 from MEDLINE and 3 from NIOSHTIC.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1999, Vol.XLVI, No.181-182, p.i-vi; 3-259 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Vicente Alepuz P.
Emergency plans in offices - Guide for their development
Planes de autoprotección en oficinas - Guía para su elaboración [in Spanish]
This document is aimed at persons in charge of the design, the organization and the implementation of emergency plans in office spaces and buildings. Contents: legislation; risk and evacuation conditions assessment; technical and organizational means of protection; organization and implementation of the emergency plan.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 121p. Illus. 19 ref.
Trabajo en oficinas [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in the office environment and corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 45p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_012.pdf [in Spanish]
Frevel A., Schankin H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Work and technology in building construction - Use of CAD, cooperation and communication
Arbeit und Technik im Bauhandwerk - CAD-Einsatz, Kooperation und Kommunikation [in German]
The aim of this project was to analyse to what extent better use of information technology (IT), and in particular computer-assisted design (CAD), could contribute towards improving working conditions, cooperation and communications among the different parties working on construction sites. The main advantage of IT is that all parties have access to the same complete and current data. The possibility of using a set of IT equipment consisting of a laptop computer, a printer, a digitizing tablet, a digital camera, a voice recorder and a mobile phone on a construction site was demonstrated. However, the use of IT on construction sites remains patchy and is not generalized. This report analyses the possible reasons for the current situation, and proposes several recommendations for encouraging the use of IT on construction sites.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 203p. Illus. 44 ref. Price: EUR 17.50.
Wieland R., Koller F.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
VDT workplaces on the test table of European Directives: Concepts, strategies and practical experiences
Bildschirmarbeit auf dem Prüfstand der EU-Richtlinien - Konzepte, Strategien und betriebliche Erfahrungen [in German]
This report describes SANUS, an approach for evaluating and organizing the layout of VDT workstations that take all current safety and health standards into account. The ergonomic aspects of computer hardware and software are discussed, together with the design of VDT workstation layouts that protect users' health while enhancing their productivity. Practical experiences in implementing SANUS in both small and large enterprises are presented. Results of these observations confirm the effectiveness of the SANUS approach.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 277p. Illus. 190 ref. Price: EUR 22.50.
What you need to know: Work with visual display units - What are the health concerns?
The use of VDUs at the workplace has become very widespread. This paper presents the main health hazard-related issues concerning VDUs, which include: radiation emission which causes adverse pregnancy outcomes, electrostatic and electromagnetic fields which may result in skin rashes, cataracts and visual complaints, photosensitive epilepsy, musculoskeletal disorders and stress-related complaints. The need for a multidisciplinary approach is highlighted, and guidelines for a suitable workstation and work environment, good work technique, work schedules and medical surveillance are outlined.
Singapore Medical Journal, 1999, Vol.40, No.9, p.612-613. 6 ref.
Indoor air quality health and safety guide
Indoor air quality (IAQ) problems occur in buildings where chemical or biological contaminants build up to levels that can adversely affect some occupants, causing headache, nausea, fatigue, drowsiness, throat dryness, skin rashes, eye and nose irritation, loss of concentration and general malaise. Building-related illness is a recognized occupational disease. This guide outlines how to identify potential IAQ problems and to take steps towards controlling these problems. Contents: IAQ as a occupational health concern; sources of IAQ problems; recognition of IAQ problems; evaluation and control of IAQ; ventilation; evaluation and control of the indoor environment; instruments of indoor air quality assessment; regulations, standards and guidelines; legislation; sources of additional information. Document also available in French at CCOHS.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2nd ed., 1999. ix, 132p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere).
Van de Leemput C.
Workspace layout design: Physical comfort, appropriation and social interactions
L'aménagement des espaces de travail: confort physique, appropriation et interactions sociales [in French]
The psychology of workspace allows the examination of the interactions between human behaviour and the structures in which people work from a new perspective. Through a historical analysis of the organization of the workspace in the technical and administrative sectors, this article reviews the interaction between changes in working organization and office layout. Workspace functionality is analysed along three dimensions: spatial layout, physical comfort and social relationships. Results show that open-space offices, with or without separations, are less functional and more constraining with respect to the establishment of social relationships. Not having a private workspace is also viewed as a negative element.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 1999, Vol.XXXVI, No.4, p.169-175. Illus. 5 ref.
Choffat P., Desbazelle A., Eugène G.
Study of workplaces which require the use of both a screen and a telephone in customer-service jobs
Etude de postes de travail utilisant le couple téléphone-écran dans les services de relation-clientèle [in French]
This study investigated the working conditions of a total of 150 operators working in call centres of three catalogue-sales companies. Subjects were predominantly women. The tasks performed, environmental conditions, work organization and work evaluation were analysed. Findings include a high mental workload, as well as a risk that productivity targets imposed on workers goals give rise to stress. The use that supervisors and managers make of productivity-measuring tools could have important consequences on the mental health of call centre workers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1999, Vol.60, No.8, p.755-759. 5 ref.
Applied Ergonomics - Case studies - Volume 2
This publication consists of a collection of 22 articles describing real cases of ergonomic evaluations and improvements, divided into five sections: manufacturing ergonomics; office ergonomics support ergonomics; (field sales activities, maintenance personnel); design ergonomics; ergonomics programs.
Engineering and Management Press, Customer Service, 25 Technology Park, Atlanta, Northcross, GA 30092, USA, 1999. 243p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
You can't do without lighting
L'indispensable lumière ... [in French]
The importance of lighting in the work environment is emphasized. To avoid visual fatigue, it is necessary for lighting to provide proper visual acuity and comfort, as well as contribute to a pleasant environment. The role of lighting specialists is described and examples of alterations of office lighting in order to improve worker comfort and satisfaction are provided. It is important that the lighting specialist be independent of lighting equipment manufacturers or their distribution channels.
Performances Humaines et Techniques, Mar.-Apr. 1999, No.99, p.14-15.
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