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Health care services - 1,917 entries found

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CIS 08-624 Safe maternity and the world of work
Maternité sans risques et le monde du travail [in French]
La maternidad sin riesgo y el mundo del trabajo [in Spanish]
Maternal mortality is very high in developing countries. This report explains how it can be reduced by action at the workplace. It argues that while decent work and poverty reduction are key to improving the health of women everywhere, social health protection is essential to protect women and their families against the financial burden of maternal health care. Social health protection provides financial accessibility to health care services. Main topics covered in this booklet: reality and reasons for maternal mortality; improving maternity protection and health through the workplace; implementing, extending and improving social health protection; promoting decent work for health workers. An appendix lists the countries having ratified various international labour standards with particular relevance to maternity and to health workers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. vi, 28p. Illus. 55 ref. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]

CIS 08-649 Gil Micharet M.S., Barriga Medina F.J., Pérez de Villar Grande J.A.
Latex allergies among health care workers (I). Medical surveillance
Alergia al latex en los trabajadores sanitarios (I). Vigilancia de la salud [in Spanish]
Latex allergy is an important health issue among heath services workers given its high prevalence and the severity of reactions it can cause. Following a brief overview of the epidemiology and clinical data of latex allergies, this article goes on to propose a medical surveillance protocol for identifying workers likely to develop latex sensitization, and to make an early diagnosis allowing the implementation of measures for avoiding the incidence and progress of the disease.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Sep. 2007, Vol.LIII, No.208, p.53-61. 32 ref.

CIS 08-335 Coutanceau C.
Critical approach to the prevention of occupational cancers
Approche critique de la prévention des cancers professionnels [in French]
The findings of a survey carried out in three hospitals in the Greater Paris area, aimed at collecting data on occupational exposure to carcinogens among cancer patients, are presented. Between 2002 and 2006, a total of 665 patients participated in the study. Data were collected by means of physician-administered questionnaires during structured interviews. Findings are discussed with reference to the sectors of activity that involve exposure to carcinogens (building, woodworking, mechanical engineering, metalworking, vehicle servicing, cleaning and agriculture). It was found that workers were often exposed to several carcinogens during their working life.
Préventique-Sécurité, July-Aug. 2007, No.94, p.47-50. Illus.

CIS 08-422 Waste anesthetic gases - Occupational hazards in hospitals
Gases anestésicos residuales - Riesgos ocupacionales en los hospitales [in Spanish]
Small amounts of volatile anaesthetic gases can leak from the patient's anaesthetic breathing circuit into the air of operating rooms during delivery of anaesthesia. These gases may also be exhaled by patients recovering from anaesthesia. They generally include both nitrous oxide and halogenated anaesthetics such as halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane, and methoxyflurane. The halogenated anaesthetics are often administered in combination with nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide and some of the halogenated anaesthetics may pose a hazard to hospital workers. The purpose of this booklet is to increase awareness about the adverse health effects of anaesthetic gases among hospital workers. It describes how workers are exposed to anaesthetic gases, recommends work practices to reduce these exposures and identifies methods to minimize leakage of anaesthetic gases into the work environment.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2007. iii, 9p. 9 ref. [in English] [in Spanish]

CIS 08-329 Sambo L.G., Kisting S., Alli B., Wilburn S., Eijkemans G., Ansa V.O., Anah M.U., Udoma E.J., Umoh M.S., Gold D., Comlan P., Ezinah F., Nambo Wezet G., Anyunzoghe E.S., Ossoubita B.O., Kibwage J.K., Momanyi G.M., Odondo A.J., Lekei E.E., Akhabuhaya J., Mkalaga H., Clarke E.E., Sutherland D.K.
Infectious diseases
Collection of articles on infectious diseases of relevance to African countries. Contents: ILO programme on HIV/AIDS and the world of work; protecting health care workers from occupational exposure to HIV, hepatitis and other bloodborne pathogens; reducing occupational risks to HIV and hepatitis B virus exposure among health care workers in Nigeria. Other topics: addressing psychosocial issues in Africa through the ILO's SOLVE programme; occupational safety and health (OSH) problems among wood processing workers in Gabon; OSH concerns of smallholder tobacco farmers in Kenya; OSH issues in pesticide formulation plants in Tanzania; OSH initiatives aimed at health care workers in Ghana.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 2007, Vol.17, No.2, p.31-55 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 08-465 Lot F.
Surveillance of occupational contamination by HIV, HCV and HBV among health care personnel
Surveillance des contaminations professionnelles par le VIH, le VHC et le VHB chez le personnel de santé [in French]
The surveillance of occupational seroconversions among health care personnel is in effect since 1991 for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, or AIDS virus), since 1997 for HCV (or hepatitis C virus) and since 2005 for HBV (or hepatitis B virus). Between 1983 and 2005, 14 HIV seroconversions were notified. Within this surveillance programme, there were also 34 notifications of presumed HIV infections. With respect to HCV, 55 occupational seroconversions were counted between 1991 and 2005. In almost all cases, seroconversions were the result of a percutaneous skin injury. Close to half of the HIV and HCV seroconversions were related to accidents involving an exposure to blood when the putting away or disposal of equipment and therefore could have been avoided by following usual precautions. To this day, no occupational contaminations by HBV have been notified.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2007, No.109, p.51-60. Illus. 13 ref.$File/TF158.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-466 Gómez Murcia J.E., Flórez C.M., Mejía Rodríguez S., González Ó ., Cajigas de Acosta B.E.
Biological safety in the health care sector
Bioseguridad en el sector salud [in Spanish]
Contents of this collection of articles on biological safety in the health care sector: classification of biological waste and infection hazards; biological safety standards and procedures in hospital settings; importance of having equipment that can limit the ambient concentration of infectious agents; biological safety and pathogens; criteria for the selection of single-use or re-usable protective clothing; waste management in hospital settings; workers exposed to blood-borne viral infections (HIV, HBV, HCV).
Protección y seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 2007, Vol.53, No.311, p.51-79. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 08-464 Migueres F., Pellissier G., Goyer F., Touche S., Alcouffe J., Fabin C., Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Abiteboul D.
Risk of exposure to blood when taking venous blood samples - Results of a survey in medical laboratories
Risque d'exposition au sang lors des prélèvements veineux - Résultats d'une étude dans des laboratoires d'analyses médicales [in French]
This study on the risk of incidents involving exposure to blood in France when taking venous blood samples involved three tasks: job observations by occupational physicians of the gestures carried when taking blood samples; evaluation of responses to a questionnaire on line addressed to biologists working in medical laboratories; survey among the main manufacturers of equipment used in laboratories. Findings concerning the incidence of needlestick injuries when taking blood samples, blood sampling systems, the use of protective gloves and the rate of hepatitis B vaccination are discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2007, No.110, p.173-184. Illus. 16 ref.$File/TF159.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-231 Hermoso de Mendoza Urrizoa J.
Absenteeism associated with burnout syndrome - Economic costs of occupational stress among health care staff in a hospital
Ausentismo asociado al síndrome de burnout - Costo económico del estrés laboral asistencial en un hospital [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between burnout and sickness absenteeism among health care staff in a Spanish hospital. It was carried out by means of a questionnaire based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) addressed to 582 women workers employed in various units of a 410-bed hospital. A total of 402 valid responses were analysed. Results indicate an association between the level of emotional exhaustion and absenteeism. Other findings are discussed.
Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente, 2nd Quarter, 2007, Vol.14, No.52, p.14-20. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 08-83 Sánchez-Arcilla Conejo I.
Prevention of occupational risk factors for tuberculosis
Prevención de riesgos laborales por tuberculosis [in Spanish]
The key aspects of the prevention of tuberculosis among workers of health care centres, old-age pensioners' homes and prisons include an early diagnosis, sanitary measures for protecting the work environment and an effective medical supervision programme. Topics addressed in this review article on the prevention of tuberculosis at the workplace: epidemiology of tuberculosis; tuberculosis as an occupational disease; collective protection measures; personal protection measures; medical supervision.
Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente, 1st Quarter, 2007, Vol.14, No.51, p.13-18. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 08-82 Bertoldi C.M.L., Proença R.P.C., Galego G.N., Da Costa S.P.
Conditions of work in food preparation as risk factors of lower limb venous disease
Condiciones de trabajo en la producción de comidas como factores de riesgo para la enfermedad venosa de miembros inferiores [in Spanish]
This study evaluated the factors influencing the onset or severity of lower limb venous disease among workers of the catering unit of a Brazlilian hospital. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, clinical examinations and water displacement volumetry of the lower extremities. In addition, on site direct observations of daily tasks were carried out. The presence of varying degrees of venous disease was observed in 78% of the cases, with an average volumetry variation of 5.13%. Risk factors were found to include standing at work during long periods of time, elevated temperature and humidity, weight carrying and being overweight.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr. 2007, Vol.LII, No.206, p.25-32. 34 ref.

CIS 08-35 Domínguez Fernández M., Gabilondo Larrañaga E., Fernández Gómez E., Muñoz Fernández J., Rico Alonso F.
Employee participation in the evaluation of occupational hazards
Implicación de las personas en la evaluación de riesgos laborales [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational hazards in hospital operating theatres. The SOBANE methodology (screening, observation, analysis and expertise, see CIS 03-632) was adopted, which involves the participation of staff. It allowed obtaining specific information leading to the implementation of corrective measures. A high level of satisfaction (87%) was obtained. Findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr. 2007, Vol.LII, No.206, p.15-20. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 08-213 Benvant Nácher S., Machí Alapont M., Moliner Sales I., Soto Ferrando P.
Evaluation of biological hazards at the Rey Don Jaime hospital
Evaluación de riesgo biológico en el hospital Rey Don Jaime [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological hazards faced by the staff of a Spanish hospital and to recommend appropriate preventive measures. The biological hazards were evaluated using the Biogaval methodology. Work involved identifying the microorganisms most likely to be present, and evaluating their health hazards and transmission mechanisms, the percentage of the target populations that are vaccinated and the effectiveness of hygiene measures. High levels of airborne microbial transmission were observed, with the nursing staff of emergency units being particularly at risk.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr. 2007, Vol.LII, No.206, p.9-14. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 08-131 Møller L., Stöver H., Jürgens R., Gatherer A., Nikogosian H.
Health in prisons - A WHO guide to the essentials in prison health
Based on the experience of many European countries, this guide describes the steps prison systems should take to protect the health of prisoners and prison staff. This requires that all persons working in prisons understand how imprisonment affects health, what prisoners' health needs are and how to provide health services. Other essential elements include awareness of internationally-recommended standards for prison health; providing professional care with the same professional ethics as in other health services and promoting a whole-prison approach to care, health and well-being of people in custody.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. xvi, 179p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: CHF 40.00, USD 36.00 (CHF 28.00, USD 25.20 in developing countries) [in English]

CIS 08-112 Forastieri V.
Providing occupational safety and health services to workers in agriculture
Contents of this article on providing occupational safety and health services to workers in the agricultural sector in Africa: technological development and agriculture; occupational accidents and injuries; occupational and work-related diseases; underreporting; access to health services; coverage of agricultural workers by national legislation and regional standards; trends in social responsibility and certification initiatives in agricultural production; ILO standards on safety and health in agriculture; ILO African regional programme on safety and health in agriculture; challenges in providing safety and health services to agricultural workers.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2007, Vol.17, No.1, p.4-7. Illus. 13 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-212 Moy L.
Spread cheat
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSSH) 2002 of the United Kingdom (see CIS 03-1023) also covers biological agents, which include microorganisms, cell cultures or human endoparasites that can cause infection, allergy toxicity, or otherwise create a hazard to human health. Biological hazards are present in many workplaces, but particularly so in hospitals and the health-care sector. They can pose a significant threat to workers' health. This article outlines how these risks can be reduced, based on a suitable and sufficient risk assessment, coupled with effective infection control measures.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 2007, Vol.25, No.8, p.47-50. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 08-156 Flyvholm M.A., Bach B., Rose M., Frydendall Jepsen K.
Self-reported hand eczema in a hospital population
The objective of this study was to obtain data on the prevalence of hand eczema among hospital workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1909 employees of a Danish hospital. The response rate was 65.3%. The overall frequency of self-reported hand eczema within the past 12 months was 23%. Divided into job groups, the frequencies varied from 8% to 32% and were significantly higher among assistant nurses (32%), nurses (30%) and nursing aids (27%). For the individual departments, the hand eczema frequencies varied from 7% to 50%, with the highest frequencies reported at medical and surgical wards. Hand eczema was more frequent among users of protective gloves, among workers washing their hands more than 20 times per day, among women and among younger age groups.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2007, Vol.57, No.2, p.110-115. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 08-88 Barchino Ortiz L, Cabrera Fernández E., Moreno Manzano G., Heras Mendaza F., Conde-Salazar Gómez L.
Occupational skin diseases among workers providing care to older persons
Dermatosis profesionales en cuidadores de ancianos [in Spanish]
Health care workers specialized in providing care to older persons may have an increased risk of occupational skin damage due to their regular exposure to skin irritants and constant wet work. This retrospective study involved 41 such health care workers, all women, who consulted an occupational dermatology institute in Spain over an 11-year period. The most common location affected was the hands. Of the skin diseases clinically diagnosed, endogenous eczema showed the highest prevalence (39.6%) followed by irritant contact dermatitis (27.1%), allergic contact dermatitis (12.5%), asymptomatic diseases (10.4%) and allergy to natural rubber latex (4.2%).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, June 2007, Vol.LIII, No.207, p.35-46. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 08-211 Pérez Bermúdez B., Nieto Sánchez A.B.
Biological exposure to blood-borne pathogens and temporary work
Exposición biológica a patógenos hemáticos y temporalidad laboral [in Spanish]
Incidents involving the risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens, particularly through needle-stick injuries, are common in the health care sector. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of these incidents among regular and temporary health care workers at a Spanish university hospital. All reported incidents occurring within a period of twelve months were analysed. Logistic regressions were performed using the dependant variables of age, sex, level of seniority, place where the incident occurred, injured body part, causal agent, work shift, way in which the incident was caused, and the month and day of the injury. The odds ratio of such incidents was found to be 1.96 among temporary workers. No other variables were found to have a significant effect.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, June 2007, Vol.LIII, No.207, p.13-19. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 08-121 Kines P., Hannerz H., Mikkelsen K.L., Tüchsen F.
Industrial sectors with high risk of women's hospital-treated injuries
Women's occupational injury rates are converging with those of men. In this study, the associations between working womens' hospital treated injury rates, industrial sector and injured body area were analyzed to provide better-focused injury prevention of women's hazardous jobs. Women's standardized hospital treatment ratios (SHR) and the excess fraction for five body regions (head/neck, thorax, back, upper and lower extremities) were calculated for 58 industrial sectors in Denmark for 1999-2003. Five industrial sectors had significantly high SHRs for all body regions. These were: cleaning, laundries and dry cleaning; transport of passengers; hotels and restaurants; hospitals; transport of goods.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2007, Vol.50, No.1, p.13-21. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 08-98 Issues in social protection - Discussion paper 19 - Social health protection: An ILO strategy towards universal access to health care
Questions de protection sociale - Document de travail 19 - La protection sociale de la santé: Stratégie de l'OIT pour un accès universel aux soins de santé [in French]
Temas de protección social - Documento de debate 19 - Protección social de la salud: Una estrategia de la OIT para el acceso universal a la asistencia médica [in Spanish]
This consultation document is a contribution to the assignment that the International Labour Conference bestowed on the ILO, namely to launch a global campaign for the extension of social security for all. It is hoped that the document will stimulate a wide debate between all parties concerned as to how to provide some form of social security to the majority of the world's populations and to ensure that the human right to social security can be made a reality in the shortest possible time. Contents: definition of social protection; financing of social protection; coverage of social protection and access to health services; ILO strategy for achieving universal coverage in social health protection.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. v, 88p. Illus. 167 ref. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]

CIS 07-1324 Bos E., Krol B., van der Star L., Groothoff J.
Risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints in non-specialized nurses, IC nurses, operation room nurses, and X-ray technologists
This cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence rates of musculoskeletal complaints of neck-shoulder and low back musculoskeletal complaints among hospital nurses, and to analyse the relationship between these complaints and various work-related risk factors. The study population consisted of 3169 nurses affiliated to eight university hospitals in the Netherlands. Subjects included non-specialized nurses, operation theatre nurses, intensive care nurses and X-ray technologists. Data were obtained by means of self-administered questionnaires and subjected to logistic regression analyses for all relevant risk factors. The overall prevalences of musculoskeletal complaints were 76% for low back pain and 60% for neck and shoulder pain. Operation theatre nurses reported more neck and shoulder complaints than non-specialized nurses, while intensive care nurses reported less severe low back complaints than non-specialized nurses. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2007, Vol.80, No.3, p.198-206. 22 ref.

CIS 07-1305 Phakthongsuk P., Sangsupawanich P., Musigsan A., Thammakumpee G.
Work-related respiratory symptoms among cotton-fabric sewing workers
Workers employed in the sewing unit of a 700-bed hospital in the Philippines complained of cough, shortness of breath, and tightness in the chest. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the sewing workers and dust concentration in the workplace. The study involved 22 sewing workers and 22 housekeepers as controls. All the participants responded to the respiratory symptoms questionnaire and underwent spirometric measurements, skin prick tests, chest radiography and methacholine inhalation tests. The sewing workers reported more phlegm, chest tightness and eye irritation than controls. Neither clinical investigations nor respiratory function provided evidence for a significant difference between the sewing workers and the control group. Although the total and respiratory dust concentrations were within normal limits, ventilation improvements were implemented to decrease dust concentrations.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1st Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.1, p.17-24. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 07-1347 Lu J.L.
Multiple interactions of hazard exposures, role stressors and situational factors, and burnout among nurses
This cross-sectional study investigated the interaction between situational factors, role stressors, hazard exposure and personal factors among 135 nurses in a hospital in the Philippines. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. More than half (58.5%) of the respondents reported being ill due to work in the past year, and 59.3% missed work because of an illness. Regression analysis showed that factors associated with burnout were role stress, hazard exposure, self-efficacy, age, number of working years, illness in the past 12 months, migraine, dizziness, sleep disorder, cough and colds, and diarrhoea. After multiple regression analysis, organizational role stress, migraine, age and illness in the past 12 months were found to be significant predictors of burnout.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2007, Vol.13, No.1, p.73-82. 34 ref.

CIS 07-1478 Cartier B.
Avian influenza/Risk of pandemic - Protection of health care personnel
Vogelgrippe/Pandemie: Schutz des Arbeitnehmenden im Gesundheitswesen [in German]
Grippe aviaire/Risque de pandémie - Protection des personnes travaillant dans le secteur de la santé [in French]
In the event where avian influenza would become pandemic, health care personnel would be the most exposed. Swiss law requires that employers implement the necessary preventive measures to ensure the protection of workers. These measures include: information of personnel; use of personal protective equipment; proper application of hygiene measures; early screening of infected persons; separation from other patients and unprotected staff.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2007, No.78, p.71-73. 8 ref. ((part)) [in French] ((part)) [in German]

CIS 07-1377 Gresie-Brusin D.F., Kielkowski D., Baker A., Channa K., Rees D.
Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide during pregnancy and association with adverse reproductive outcomes
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to ethylene oxide during pregnancy and adverse reproductive outcomes. The study population consisted of women working during 2004 at hospital sterilising units using ethylene oxide in a South African province. Data on the outcome of the pregnancy were gathered by means of questionnaires. Data on exposure to ethylene oxide during pregnancy was obtained from walk-through surveys, questionnaires and workplace atmosphere measurements. A total of 98 singleton pregnancies were analysed. Measurements of ethylene oxide showed that operators of sterilising units were potentially over-exposed. There was a significantly increased risk of spontaneous abortion (prevalence odds ratio POR 20.8) and pregnancy loss (POR 8.6) for women highly exposed to ethylene oxide compared to low exposed pregnancies. No associations were found between exposure to ethylene oxide and stillbirth.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2007, Vol.80, No.7, p.559-565. 19 ref.

CIS 07-1437 Medical surveillance for health care workers exposed to hazardous drugs
Health care workers who handle, prepare or administer hazardous drugs may face risks to their own health such as skin rashes, cancer and reproductive disorders. It is recommended that employers establish a medical surveillance programme to protect workers exposed to hazardous drugs in the course of their work. This information sheet lists the key elements of such a medical surveillance programme.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Apr. 2007. 4p. Illus. 4 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1432 Preventing worker deaths and injuries when handling Micotil 300®
Prevención de muertes y lesiones de trabajadores por el uso de Micotil 300® [in Spanish]
Cattle farmers, veterinarians and other workers in contact with animals may be exposed to the animal antibiotic Micotil 300® through skin injuries from needlestick accidents, cuts or bites, as well as from contact with animal skin and biological matter. Cardiotoxic effects of Micotil 300®, including a reduced cardiac contractility and tachycardia, can be severe enough to cause death. It is recommended that extreme care be given to following safe drug handling and injection procedures to avoid the possibility of self injection. Although no antidote exists for Micotil 300®, exposed persons should seek immediate medical intervention as the drug's cardiotoxic effects may be reversed.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Apr. 2007. 4p. 6 ref. [in Spanish] [in English]

CIS 07-1152
Health and Safety Executive
Veterinary medicines - Safe use by farmers and other animal handlers
This leaflet provides guidance for farmers and other people who use veterinary medicines (including medicated feeds) as part of their work. It sets out practical steps for the protection of workers' health and safety and for compliance with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH, see CIS 03-1023). Update of document abstracted under CIS 98-1425.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, rev. ed., July 2007. 12p. 9 ref. [in English]


CIS 12-0333 Safe manual handling - Health care services
Topics addressed in this leaflet on safe manual handling in health care services: patient handling, transfer and lifting; other tasks (store room, cleaning, laundry, pharmacy).
Occupational Safety and Health Council, 19/F China United Centre, 28 Marble Road, North Point, Hong Kong, 2006. 5p. Illus.
Safe_manual_handling_Health_care_services_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 09-616 Blass K.
Initiative Neue Qualität der Arbeit (
Healthy health care practices in pensioners' homes
Gesund Pflegen in der Altenpflege [in German]
This report presents an analysis of work organization and workload among workers of two pensioners' homes. A survey of the workers subsequently enabled implementing measures aimed at reducing their workload.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin , Friedrich-Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany, 2nd ed., 2006. 96p. 55 ref. Price: EUR 5.00.,property=pdf,bereich=inqa,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf [in German]

CIS 09-615 Klein B,, Gaugisch P.
Initiative Neue Qualität der Arbeit (
Good work organization in pensioners' homes
Gute Arbeitsgestaltung in der Altenpflege [in German]
This booklet presents the results of a project aimed at using a self-appraisal system for improving working conditions in the sector of care to the elderly. It also shows how it is possible to obtain workers' participation in improving their working conditions.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin , Friedrich-Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany, 2nd ed., 2006. 70p. Illus. 55 ref. Price: EUR 5.00.,property=pdf,bereich=inqa,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf [in German]

CIS 09-747 Metz A.M., Neuhaus K., Kunze D.
Initiative Neue Qualität der Arbeit (
Healthy health care practices in hospitals
Gesund Pflegen im Krankenhaus [in German]
This booklet presents the results of a project aimed at reducing the psychological load among health care workers in a German clinic. A questionnaire for evaluating the occupational mental workload and work constraints was submitted to workers of six departments of the clinic. Analysis of the data allowed identifying and implementing measures aimed at promoting workers' health in these departments. The intervention was subsequently broadened to the whole clinic.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin , Friedrich-Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund, Germany, 2nd ed., 2006. 84p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: EUR 5.00.,property=pdf,bereich=inqa,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf [in German]

CIS 09-78 Siriruttanapruk S.
Integrating occupational health services into public health systems: A model developed with Thailand's primary care units
This report describes a collaborative project involving the International Labour Organization and Thailand's Ministry of Public Health resulting in the development of operational procedures for primary health care units. Health care workers were trained to provide health services to all types of workers, including home-based workers and agricultural workers. The model developed was found to be effective and could be usefully applied to other countries for providing similar occupational health services for workers in the informal economy.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. 87p. Illus. 39 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1457 Bloodborne facts - Protect yourself when handling sharps
A needlestick or a cut from a contaminated scalpel can lead to infection from hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus which causes AIDS. Although few cases of AIDS have been documented from occupational exposure, approximately 8700 health care workers each year contract hepatitis B. About 200 will die as a result. Aimed at health care personnel, this information sheet explains how to avoid the risk of cut and stick injuries (disposing of sharps in puncture-resistant containers, handling of sharps containers).
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, [2006]. 1p. [in English]

CIS 08-1102 Gebhardt H., Klußmann A., Maßbeck P., Topp S., Steinberg U.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Safety and health in emergency services
Sicherheit und gesundheit im Rettungsdienst [in German]
A survey was carried out during 2004 in the 22 emergency services of the German Red Cross to evaluate the physical workload and psychological stress among emergency services workers. A standardized questionnaire was addressed to 382 workers, among whom 202 responded (163 men and 39 women). In addition, a subgroup of 98 subjects was followed during 48 working days. Despite a high level of job satisfaction, a low average age (33 years for men and 25 years for women) and a good work capacity index, subjects reported neck and shoulder pain, as well as low back and knee pain. Cardiofrequency measurements during work showed more rapid increases during emergency interventions than during simple patient handling. Salivary cortisol levels also showed similar differences. However no significant differences were found as a function of gender and age. Other findings are discussed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 114p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: EUR 13.50.

CIS 08-993 Zarola A., Leather P.
Health and Safety Executive
Violence management training: The development of effective trainers in the delivery of violence management training in healthcare settings
The objectives of this research project was to identify the competencies that make for an effective violence management trainer and to review practices and procedures associated with the selection, development and management of trainers. It was carried out by means of literature surveys, together with interviews and focus groups involving trainers and managers of a number of healthcare units in the United Kingdom. Findings are discussed. Recommendations are grouped under the following headings: regulation of violence management training; trainer competencies; role of violence management trainer; trainer selection; trainer support and development; organizational capability in tackling work-related violence; further research.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. xii, 87p. Illus. 13 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-989 Cormack H., Cross S., Whittington C.
Health and Safety Executive
Identifying and evaluating the social and psychological impact of workplace accidents and ill-health incidents on employees
This study examined the impact of serious workplace-related injury and ill health on individuals in two work sectors identified as priority areas, namely the construction sector and the healthcare sector. It involved telephone interviews with a sample of employees who had experienced a serious workplace accident or suffered from a reportable illness, followed by personal home interviews with a limited subset of the more serious cases and their family members. The study shows that serious work-related accidents and illnesses can have a widespread impact on individuals and their families. Many may be unable to return to work, need a change of job or role to accommodate new restrictions, or approach their work with a level of caution not previously in evidence. Many also experience physical problems and economic consequences, both in terms of loss of income and the need for extra expenditure associated with the accident or illness.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. iv, 363p. Illus. 18 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-716 Elder A., Paterson C.
Sharps injuries in UK health care: A review of injury rates, viral transmission and potential efficacy of safety devices
The objective of this literature survey was to review data on sharps injuries and occupational blood-borne virus transmission in health care services in the United Kingdom. Findings are discussed. Although injuries remain common, confirmed viral transmission in the United Kingdom has been relatively rare. The degree of under-reporting of sharps injuries may be as much as 10-fold. Safety-engineered devices such as blunt suture needles and safety cannulae were found to be effective in reducing injury rates.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.56, No.8, p.566-574. 83 ref.

CIS 08-661 Niven K.
Health and Safety Executive
An evaluation of chemical disinfecting agents used in endoscopy suites in the NHS
The objective of this research project was to evaluate alternatives to glutaraldehyde for the disinfection of endoscopes. Their benefits and limitations are discussed. The work was undertaken because of the historically high number of cases of occupational asthma caused by glutaraldehyde. It concludes that there is no single most appropriate disinfectant. Many users are moving away from glutaraldehyde towards other products, some of which are also regarded as potential respiratory allergens. The report includes approaches for limiting exposures to disinfecting agents based on HSE's COSHH Essentials (see CIS 00-675), including ventilation and containment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. 28p. Illus. 102 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-742 Zarola A., Leather P.
Health and Safety Executive
Violence and aggression management training for trainers and managers
Workplace violence management training programmes in the health care sector constitutes a central part of the strategy for combating work-related violence and aggression. The objective of this research was to directly assess the usefulness of violence management training. The report includes various evaluation tools, cases studies and guidance documents in the field of violence management training. Based on the conclusions of this report, a second document gives guidance on good practice in the content and delivery of such training.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. xii, 83p. Illus. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-597 Fishwick D., Bradshaw L., Curran A., Davies J.
Health and Safety Executive
Routes of referral for occupational asthma - A national study
The aim of this study was to document the routes of referral for cases of occupational asthma recruited from six hospitals in the United Kingdom. The study comprised both a retrospective and prospective element. The retrospective study involved collating information regarding cases of occupational asthma reported previously to Surveillance of Work Related and Occupational Respiratory Disease scheme (SWORD). In the prospective study, individuals presenting as new and possible cases of occupational asthma were recruited from each of the collaborating hospitals, and the diagnosis was assessed according to an agreed standard. In addition, the route of referral for these patients and detail of their cases was explored by administering a standard questionnaire to the patients. Findings are discussed and several recommendations are made for reducing the incidence of asthma caused by exposure to substances at the workplace.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. x, 53p. Illus. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-339 Trinkoff A.M., Le R., Geiger-Brown J., Lipscomb J., Lang G.
Longitudinal relationship of work hours, mandatory overtime, and on-call to musculoskeletal problems in nurses
Nurses are at high risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) with low back pain being the most frequently occurring MSD. Nurses are also likely to work extended schedules (long hours, on-call, mandatory overtime, working on days off). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between extended work schedules and MSDs among nurses. It was carried out in the form of a longitudinal survey of 2,617 nurses. Schedule characteristics increasing MSD risk included workdays of 13h or more, off-shifts, weekend work, work during time off (while sick or on days off), overtime or on-call. These increases in risk were not explained by psychological demands, but were largely explained by physical demands.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2006, Vol.49, No.11, p.964-971. 40 ref.

CIS 08-366 Nurses
L'infirmier [in French]
Nurses practice their occupation in various sectors of activity, including health care, preventive care and humanitarian missions. They are an integral part of the medical team. They participate in setting the diagnosis and provide the specific health and hygiene care required by patients. This occupational medical information note summarizes the work of nurses together with the main occupational hazards they face. Contents: description; place of work; work organization; tasks (characteristics, risk factors, effects on health); tools and equipment; products, materials and patients; work clothes; work and health.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2006, Vol.46, No.4, insert, 2p.

CIS 08-472 Ayas N.T., Barger L.K., Cade B.E., Hashimoto D.M., Rosner B., Cronin J.W., Speizer F.E., Czeisler C.A.
Extended work duration and the risk of self-reported percutaneous injuries in interns
The objective of this cohort study was to assess the relationship between extended work duration and rates of percutaneous injuries among interns in the United States. 2737 of the 18447 interns in the United States were surveyed each month between July 2002 and May 2003 on their work schedules and the possible occurrence of percutaneous injuries. A total of 498 percutaneous injuries were reported (0.029/intern-month). Lapse in concentration and fatigue were the two most commonly reported contributing factors (64% and 31% of injuries, respectively). Percutaneous injuries were more frequent during extended work compared with non-extended work (1.31/1000 opportunities vs. 0.76/1000 opportunities, respectively; odds ratio [OR] 1.61). Injuries were more frequent during the night-time than during the daytime (1.48/1000 opportunities vs. 0.70/1000 opportunities, respectively; OR, 2.04).
Journal of the American Medical Association, Sep. 2006, Vol.296, No.9, p.1055-1062. 21 ref.

CIS 08-217 Abiteboul D.
Infection hazards faced by health care personnel
Risques infectieux professionnels pour le personnel de santé [in French]
While accidents that involve exposure to blood have been widely studied and have given rise to so-called universal precautions which form the basis of preventive measures against infection hazards among health care personnel, there also exist other forms of contamination. There are many potentially responsible pathogens, but epidemiological data that would allow the quantification of the hazard are lacking. The pathogens are also often responsible for nosocomial infections, thus making the protection of staff and patients closely related and justifying the implementation of standard precautions, completed where appropriate by specific measures applicable to exposures from aerosols, droplets or direct contact. These technical measures must be accompanied by appropriate medical prevention (vaccination, medical treatment after exposure and medical supervision).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2006, No.152, 13p. Illus. 88 ref.

CIS 08-90 Foo C.C.I., Goon A.T.J., Leow Y.H., Goh C.L.
Adverse skin reactions to personal protective equipment against severe acute respiratory syndrome - A descriptive study in Singapore
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of skin reactions to PPE among healthcare workers in Singapore during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak Healthcare workers exposed to SARS in affected countries were required to use of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as the N95 mask, gloves and gowns. The healthcare staff of two hospitals was surveyed using questionnaires. A total of 322 questionnaires were returned (participation rate 94.7%). 14.3% of the respondents were doctors, 73.0% nurses and 12.7% other ancillary staff. 109 (35.5%) of the 307 staff who used masks regularly reported acne (59.6%), facial itch (51.4%) and rash (35.8%) from N95 mask use. 64 (21.4%) of the 299 who used gloves reported dry skin (73.4%), itch (56.3%) and rash (37.5%).
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2006, Vol.55, No.5, p.291-294. 6 ref.

CIS 07-1439 Best practices for the safe use of glutaraldehyde in health care
This guide describes best practices for the safe use of glutaraldehyde in health care facilities. Glutaraldehyde is used widely as a cold sterilizing agent to disinfect a variety of heat-sensitive instruments, such as endoscopes, bronchoscopes and dialysis equipment. In addition, health care employees may be exposed to glutaraldehyde in its uses as a hardener in X-ray developing and as a tissue fixative in histology and pathology labs. Glutaraldehyde has been linked with a variety of health effects including asthma, breathing difficulties, respiratory irritation, and skin rashes. This guide describes engineering controls, work practices and facility design considerations that will help reduce employee exposure to glutaraldehyde. It includes recommendations for personal protective equipment, employee training, exposure monitoring, disposal practices, and spill and cleanup procedures. The use of alternatives to glutaraldehyde is also addressed.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2006. 44p. 51 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1479 Sulsky S.I., Birk T., Cohen L.C., Luippold R.S., Heidenreich M.J., Nunes A.
Effectiveness of measures to prevent needlestick injuries among employees in health professions
Wirksamkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit präventiver Maßnahmen zur Vermeidung von Nadelstichverletzungen bei Beschäftigten in Gesundheitsberufen [in German]
The pathogens of greatest concern that may be transmitted by a needlestick injury (NSI) are hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. The objective of this literature survey was to critically review and summarize the published literature on NSI, with the main focus on studies evaluating the effectiveness and cost aspects of the implementation of safer devices in hospitals. More than 2300 publications were identified, among which 61 met the quality and inclusion criteria. Nurses and physicians were the most likely to report NSI and NSI were most likely to occur in patient and operating rooms. However, widespread underreporting makes it impossible to accurately estimate the risks. Engineering controls, especially the introduction of safety-designed devices, were found to be effective in reducing the number of reported NSI. Other findings are discussed.
Hauptverband der Gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (Hvbg), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Mar. 2006. 122p. 104 ref. [in German] [in English]

CIS 07-1124 Crippa M., Belleri L., Mistrello G., Tedoldi C., Alessio L.
Prevention of latex allergy among health care workers and in the general population: Latex protein content in devices commonly used in hospitals and general practice
In this study, the latex protein content in devices commonly used in medical practice and in consumer products was investigated. Total allergenic potency was evaluated by a modified RAST-inhibition assay and a quantitative determination of single allergens by using a commercial ELISA kit. A high level of inhibition was found in medical devices, such as elastic bandage (81.57%), tourniquet (74.09%), Foley urinary catheter (68.35%), Penrose drainage (67.25%) and taping (39.6%), and in common devices, such as rubber inner-sole (84.20%), toy balloons (78.62%), latex mattress (74.27%), household rubber gloves (49.10%), working gloves (38.25%) and inflatable floating mattresses (32.10%). The study confirmed that many natural rubber items commonly used in the operating theatre, emergency room and other hospital departments can release substantial amounts of latex proteins.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.79, No.7, p.550-557. Illus. 33 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1224 Koehoorn M., Demers P.A., Hertzman C., Village J., Kennedy S.M.
Work organization and musculoskeletal injuries among a cohort of health care workers
This study investigated the relationship between work-organization factors (job control, job demands and workload) and the risk of lower-body musculoskeletal injury among health care workers. A four-year, retrospective cohort study of 3769 heath care workers was carried out at a hospital in the Canadian province of British Columbia. A job-exposure matrix was constructed for the work-organization factors from survey and administrative data. Musculoskeletal injuries resulting in workers' compensation claims were ascertained from the injury database of the hospital's occupational health and safety department. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Results indicate that work-organization characteristics (job control and workload) were associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries resulting in a compensation claim. These associations remained after the effects of demographic and biomechanical factors were taken into consideration.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.32, No.4, p.285-293. 34 ref.

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