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Entertainment services and sports - 215 entries found

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CIS 07-613
Health and Safety Executive
Effective safety briefings for drivers at karting circuits
This information note explains how to give briefings to drivers on karting circuits. Topics covered: appropriate surroundings for the briefing; how to deliver the briefing; testing the knowledge of the drivers; briefing order; demonstrations and observation of other drivers; familiarisation with the kart and the track. A check-list of the aspects that a driver briefing should mention is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2003. 2p. 4 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-86
Health and Safety Executive
Management of firearms and other weapons in productions
This information note gives guidance on the management of weapons used as part of a production, including firearms, replicas and deactivated weapons. Main topics covered: legal aspects; definitions; qualifications and role of armourers; hazards associated with firearms and other weapons; risk assessment; responsibilities; precautionary measures; live and blank ammunition; training and briefing; recording and filming sequences; information of personnel; faults and misfires; noise; security and storage; notification to the police; replica and desactivated weapons; choice of weapons; safe zones; costumes.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2003. 6p. 3 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1986 Giga S.I., Hoel H., Cooper C.L.
Violence at work in the performing arts and in journalism
This working paper aims to identify issues relating to violence and stress affecting employees working in the media and the performing arts, covering a variety of jobs including acting, dancing, musical performance, media work and front-line journalism. Contents: sector-specific environment as originator of violence and stress at work; scope of violence and stress in media and entertainment; causes of violence and stress; information collection and reporting on violence and stress in media and entertainment; examples of cases of violence and stress in these sectors.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. vii, 20p. 55 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1163
Health and Safety Executive
Managing health and safety in swimming pools
This guidance note is aimed at swimming pool owners, operators and managers, as well as at persons involved in the design and building of pools. It addresses the risks associated with swimming pool operation, as well as precautions to help achieve a safer environment for both the public who use swimming pools and employees who work at them. It applies to all types of pools used for swimming or leisure, except for pools designed for medical or therapeutic purposes, paddling pools and private swimming pools on domestic premises. Contents: general management of health and safety; practical aspects of health and safety management; design of swimming pool layout and physical environment; requirements with respect to supervision and lifeguards; general maintenance; pool water treatment system. Specific aspects relating to the above issues are addressed in 10 appendices. Replaces CIS 03-710.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., Aug. 2003. vi, 130p. Illus. 116 ref. Index. Price: GBP 10.95.

CIS 03-690 Bourdouxhe M., Granger D., Toulouse G.
Exploratory study of musculoskeletal problems and accidents among film and video technicians
Etude exploratoire des problèmes musculosquelettiques et des accidents chez les techniciens du cinéma et de la vidéo [in French]
650 technicians in the film industry, representing one third of the total employment in the sector in the Province of Quebec, answered a questionnaire on musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs), accidents, working and employment conditions and non-occupational factors. Experienced technicians helped in interpreting the responses. Individual interviews with technicians working in jobs involving a high risk of MSDs were also carried out. A high incidence of MSDs was found, with 88% of the study population having experienced MAS symptoms at least once in the twelve months preceding the survey. The most common areas where pain was felt were the lower back (64%), the neck (55%) and the upper back and shoulders (40%). Most MSDs involved jobs typically held by women. The report also discusses the various types of accidents having occurred in this sector of activity, as well as the lack of sleep and stress factors.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, Quebec H3A 3C2, Canada, May 2003. vii, 135p. 95 ref. [in French]

CIS 03-601 Winkler C., Irwin J.N.
Health and Safety Executive
Contractorisation - Aspects of health and safety in the supply chain
This report investigates the reality behind the perceptions within the Health and Safety Executive that subcontracting is increasing health and safety risks, particularly in small enterprises. An investigation was undertaken with selected companies from the events, food processing and health service sectors. Two supply chains were selected in each of these sectors, consisting of a combination of customer and/or second tier suppliers. Questionnaires were used in face-to-face meetings with two or three individuals in each company, complemented by discussion to elicit wider views and opinions. The report provides information and recommendations that may be used as the basis for developing future guidance and action.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. x, 36p. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]

CIS 03-869 Laitinen H.M., Toppila E.M., Olkinuora P.S., Kuisma K.
Sound exposure among the Finnish National Opera personnel
The purpose of the study was to determine the noise exposure among the staff of the Finnish National Opera. An evaluation of sound exposure level due to individual and group rehearsals was also carried out. The measurements were made using individual noise dosimeters and fixed-point measurements. Although it was found that conductors, dancers and double bass players were exposed to levels below 85dB(A), the majority of opera staff were exposed to levels that exceeded this limit during both rehearsals and performances. When exposures exceed 85dB(A), the employer is required to develop a hearing conservation programme. There exist hearing protection devices designed specially for musicians. However, both education efforts and enforcement measures will be necessary to encourage more widespread use.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2003, Vol.18, No.3, p.177-182. Illus. 10 ref.


CIS 07-955
Health and Safety Executive
Buildings used for locations and temporary studios in film, television and theatre
This information sheet provides guidance on working safely in buildings used as locations or temporary studios in the film, television and theatre industry. Some of these buildings may be derelict, in a poor state of repair or designed for other functions, creating various safety and health problems requiring control. Topics addressed: United Kingdom legislation; hazards; responsibilities; control measures (with respect to the building structure, fire hazards, machinery and equipment, electricity, gas and water supplies, hazardous substances; debris, pests and vermin); workers' welfare facilities. A checklist for assessing the safety of buildings is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2002. 4p. 4 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-954
Health and Safety Executive
Stunts, fights and other potentially hazardous production activities
This information sheet provides guidance for the film and television industries on the risks associated with stunts and on their safe execution. Topics addressed: United Kingdom legislation; hazards; competence; responsibilities; risk assessment; control measures; briefing on the risks; rehearsal; execution.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2002. 4p. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-908
Health and Safety Executive
Special visual effects involving explosives or pyrotechnics used in film and television productions
In film or television productions, explosives and flammable materials are used to create the impression of a dramatic event. This information sheet provides guidance on the safe use of explosives or pyrotechnics in this sector. Topics addressed: United Kingdom legislation; hazards; competence of supervisors and technicians; responsibilities; hazard evaluation; control measures; briefing on the expected effect, the hazards and the controls; execution; misfires.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2002. 4p. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-612
Health and Safety Executive
Supervision of ropes courses
Ropes courses are built structures of pole and steel which may incorporate natural features such as trees and are designed to challenge participants in activities above ground level. This information sheet gives advice on the competencies needed to lead an activity using a ropes course. Topics covered: responsibilities with respect to safety; supervision of activities; leader competence; identification of group competence; medical condition and/or disabilities requiring special attention; group sizes; briefings; supervision between activities; normal operation procedures; technical advice; first aid; emergency action plan.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2002. 2p. 3 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-611
Health and Safety Executive
Maintenance of ropes courses
Ropes courses are built structures of pole and steel which may incorporate natural features such as trees and are designed to challenge participants in activities above ground level. This information sheet gives advice on the maintenance of ropes courses. Topics covered: responsibilities with respect to safety; risks associated with the maintenance of rope courses; frequently asked questions on inspection and maintenance; inspection regime.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2002. 2p. 3 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1680 Performing arts under the spotlight
Les arts de la scène sous les projecteurs [in French]
This article describes in broad terms the new labour-employer agreement for the performing arts sector in the Netherlands. In the context of this agreement, a plan is prepared that refers to the expected physical and psychosocial workloads, amplified noise detrimental to health and the mode of reintegration foreseen in the event of disability. This plan, which constitutes an integral part of the agreement, lists the various activities and their risk factors, and specifies quantitative prevention goals.
Travail et bien-être, Dec. 2002, Vol.5, No.5, p.33-37. Illus.

CIS 03-710
Health and Safety Commission
Managing health and safety in swimming pools
10-12 persons drown each year in public swimming pools in the United Kingdom. Aimed primarily at owners and operators of public swimming pools but also at designers and manufacturers, this booklet provides guidance on the risks associated with swimming pool operation, and on precautions to help achieve a safer environment for both the public who use swimming pools, and employees who work at them. It updates an earlier version (see CIS 89-1237) by taking recent regulations into account. Contents: general management of health and safety; practical aspects of managing health and safety; physical environment; supervision arrangements to safeguard pool users; general maintenance of plant and equipment; pool water treatment system. 10 appendices.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2002. viii, 128p. lllus. 73 ref. Index. Price: GBP 10.50.

CIS 03-709
Health and Safety Executive
The event safety guide - A guide to health, safety and welfare at music and similar events
Contents of this guide to health, safety and welfare at music concerts: planning and management; venue and site design; fire safety; emergency planning; communication; crowd management; transport management; structures; barriers; electrical installations and lighting; food, drinks and water; merchandising and special licensing (for example for tattooing, body piercing, etc.); amusements, attractions and promotional displays; sanitary facilities; waste management; noise and vibration; special effects, fireworks and pyrotechnics; camping; people with special needs; medical, ambulance and first-air management; information and welfare; children; performers; TV and media; stadium music events; arena events; large events; small events; classical music events; unfenced or unticketted events; all-night musical events; unlicensed events; health and safety responsibilities.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2002. vi, 218p. Illus. 163 ref. Index. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 03-794 Pelham T.W., Holt L.E., Moss M.A.
Exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in enclosed ice arenas
This literature review summarizes the latest information on the cardiorespiratory effects of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in enclosed ice rinks. Sources of CO and NO2 emissions are identified. Current standards for these agents, as well as methods of controlling the emissions, dispersion, and evacuation are presented. Findings indicate that air pollutants such as CO and NO2 which are present in enclosed skating facilities may exacerbate possible pre-existing pathogenic conditions among persons who spend considerable time in these environments. Considering the popularity of ice hockey, speed skating and figure skating, and the hundreds of hours that a sensitive person may spend each year in these environments, it is important to conduct further research in this area. From the findings and conclusions of the research reviewed in this paper, ten recommendations are made.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.59, No.4, p.224-233. 72 ref.

CIS 03-94
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in audio-visual production - Your legal duties
This booklet is aimed at persons working in the broadcasting, video production and advertising sectors. It explains the legal obligations and responsibilities of investors, clients, production companies, producers, contractors, designers, suppliers and workers. It also refers to the duties of employers (production company or producer) under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 to ensure that the demand of the task do not exceed employees' ability to carry out the work safely and to ensure training. It also explains how to carry out a risk assessment and outlines the responsibilities of employers with respect to the safety and health of self-employed workers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2002. 15p. 7ref. [in English]

CIS 03-409 Smeatham D.
Health and Safety Executive
Noise levels and noise exposure of workers in pubs and clubs - A review of the literature
This report consists of a review of the literature published since 1985 on noise levels and noise exposure to workers in pubs and clubs. Differences in opinion, scientific rigour and derived conclusions make it difficult to estimate the number of individuals whose hearing will be impaired as a result of this exposure. Establishments in the entertainment sector often do not take action to reduce the noise level because of their perception of consumers' preference for loud music. Finally, there is a lack of practical guidance and experience in these issues among local authority safety and health inspectors.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 82p. Illus. 147 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 02-1887 Moschandreas D.J., Chu P.
Occupant perception of indoor air and comfort in four hospitality environments
This article reports on a survey of customer and staff perceptions of indoor air quality at two restaurants, a billiard hall and a casino. The survey was conducted at each environment for eight days: two weekend days on two consecutive weekends and four weekdays. Occupant perception of environmental, comfort and physical variables was measured using a questionnaire. Significant differences of occupant environment perception were identified among customers and staff. The acceptability of the environment was found to be affected by temperature, occupant density, occupant smoking status, odour perception, health conditions, sensitivity to chemicals and enjoyment of activities.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, p.47-54. Illus. 15 ref.


CIS 03-1721
Health and Safety Executive
Diving in benign conditions, and in pools, tanks, aquariums and helicopter underwater escape training
Diving at work is subject to the provisions of the Diving at Work Regulations 1997 (see CIS 97-1785). This information sheet deals with the application of these regulations where diving work is carried out in closed artificial environments. Contents: diving in benign conditions; diving in swimming pools; diving in tanks; diving in aquariums; diving in helicopter underwater escape training; equivalence of recreational diving qualifications.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2001. 2p. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1233 Bourdouxhe M., Toulouse G.
Health and safety among film technicians working extended shifts
This study of film technicians' work schedules and occupational hazards was based on 650 responses to a questionnaire given to film technicians, interviews with producers and technicians and a review of the literature on freelancers, on the effects of intermittent work and on risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries. Work schedules showed a tendency to extremely long work shifts (14 hours per day on average, and up to 19 hours in some cases). Occupational constraints and work schedules were found to relate to an increased risk of work-related injuries. Technicians identified fatigue associated with work schedules as the principal risk of accidents and one of the factors responsible for causing or aggravating their many musculoskeletal injuries. In addition to work schedules, stress and physical workload were also an important risk factors, particularly when demanding tasks had to be performed under severe time constraints.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.113-118. 18 ref.

CIS 03-923
Health and Safety Executive
Passenger-carrying miniature railways - Guidance on safe practice
Aimed at operators of miniature railways carrying passengers and open to the public, this booklet explains how to work safely and comply with legislation concerning the safety of employees, volunteers and the general public. Contents: introduction; risk assessment; track; infrastructure; signalling; level crossings; operation; maintenance. Appendices include: guidance on health and safety legislation; example of an incident report form; HSE form for reporting injuries or dangerous occurrences.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 22p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: GBP 5.95.

CIS 03-828 Héry M., Massin N., Gagnaire F.
Chlorine and swimming pools
Chlore et piscines [in French]
Disinfection of swimming-pool water is usually carried out by using chlorine, which reacts with nitrogen-containing substances from bathers to form chloramines, and in particular nitrogen trichloride, a highly-volatile substance that causes eye and respiratory irritations often encountered by swimming-pool staff. Technical solutions exist for lowering the atmospheric concentration of this substance to levels below 0.3-0.5mg/m3 which generally give rise to complaints. Contents of this information sheet on chlorine and swimming pools: formation of chloramines; irritating properties of nitrogen trichloride; methods of sampling and analysis of nitrogen trichloride; exposure levels in different types of swimming pools; effects of exposure to nitrogen trichloride on health; aeration for eliminating nitrogen trichloride.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2001, No.131, 3p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 03-793 Badinier-Paganon I., Deschamps F.
Exposure of swimming-pool lifeguards to chlorinated compounds
Exposition des maîtres nageurs aux dérivés chlorés [in French]
Disinfection of swimming pool water is carried out using chlorinated agents that react with nitrogen-containing human residues. This results in the formation of chloramines, which include nitrogen trichloride (chloramine-T). These compounds may be responsible for chronic symptoms such as eye, rhinopharyngeal and bronchial irritations with a dose-effect relationship. However, cases of chronic bronchitis or asthma are not frequent. Chloramine-T solutions used in the disinfection of walls, floors and sanitary facilities may induce sensitizations confirmed with specific IgE detection. Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome may occur with massive accidental exposure to chlorinated compounds. Primary prevention consists in gas extraction systems to maintain atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated agents at acceptable levels.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 2001, Vol.62, No.6, p.477-481. 16 ref.

CIS 02-1293 Vincent J.
The social situation of musical performers in Africa, Asia and Latin America
La situation sociale des artistes-interprètes de la musique en Asie, en Afrique et en Amérique latine [in French]
The ILO commissioned this study as part of the background work for a symposium on the impact of information technologies on employment, working conditions and labour-management relations in the media and entertainment industries. It reviews international legal standards concerning labour law and intellectual property law, as well as the general legal framework at the national level for musical performers. Data were based on responses to detailed questionnaires sent to union organizations, associations for the defence of musicians and government bodies in 54 countries. Topics addressed included hours of work, protection of health, inspection of working conditions and professional training. It is recommended that the ILO take a number of initiatives to promote training in information technology, protection of intellectual property rights and social security coverage for musical performers. Appendix 1 (detailed presentation of the situation of musical performers) and Appendix 9 (state of ratification of ILO Conventions applicable to musical performers) are available in the French version only.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. viii, 110p. 17 ref.

CIS 02-271 Gérardin F., Muller-Rodriguez N., Quenis B.
Trichloramine stripping in swimming pool buffer tanks - Study of various gas/liquid contact systems
Strippage de la trichloramine dans les bacs tampons des piscines - Etude de différents contacteurs gaz/liquide [in French]
The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of four gas/liquid contactors. These systems can be adapted to the buffer tanks of public swimming pools to extract, by stripping, the trichloramine present in re-circulated water of pools. Work was carried out on a pilot scale, enabling several parameters to be varied. The results confirmed the satisfactory levels of extraction that were found during full-scale trials, where up over 60% reductions in concentration of atmospheric trichloramine achieved, and enabled the determination of the design parameters for each system. An example of design calculations for these four systems for a typical buffer tank is included.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.184, Note No.2153-184-01, p.25-36. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 01-1233
Health and Safety Executive
Safe use and operation of play inflatables, including bouncy castles
This information sheet provides guidance for those involved in the design, manufacture, importation, supply, inspection and safe use of inflatable devices used for play by young children, in particular to bounce, climb or slide. These devices are made from flexible fabrics, are kept inflated by blowers and rely on air pressure to maintain their shape. This guidance lists the possible hazards and outlines the precautions that need to be taken to avoid them. Contents include: inspections; buying and selling of inflatable devices; information to be provided by the supplier; recognized hazards; design considerations; maintenance; safe operation; training and accident reporting.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2001. 6p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 01-796 Keith M.M., Cann B., Brophy J.T., Hellyer D., Day M., Egan S., Mayville K., Watterson A.
Identifying and prioritizing gaming workers' health and safety concerns using mapping for data collection
Gaming occupation workers suffer from a variety accidents and illnesses, and have and multiple health and safety concerns. Using participatory action research principles, 51 gaming workers in the province of Ontario (Canada) and 20 gaming workers in the province of Manitoba were consulted during focus group sessions. Mapping was used to survey the participants' health concerns, perceived occupational hazards and the impact of working conditions on their personal lives. Participants were then asked to prioritize their concerns and make recommendations for improvements. Results show that gaming workers from both provinces identified similar health, hazard and psycho-social concerns. They prioritized the issues of stress, ergonomics, air quality (including second-hand smoke and temperature), biological hazards, physical hazards and noise.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.39, No.1, p.42-51. 46 ref.


CIS 03-240 Chan R.F.M., Chow C.Y., Lee G.P.S., To L.K., Tsang X.Y.S., Yeung S.S., Yeung E.W.
Self-perceived exertion level and objective evaluation of neuromuscular fatigue in a training session of orchestral violin players
Fourteen professional violin players volunteered in this study to investigate the relationship between self-perceived exertion level and an objective measurement of muscle fatigue before and after rehearsal sessions. Training-induced exertion was evaluated by the Borg scale ratings. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record the fatigue level of the upper trapezius muscles before and after a training session. Medium frequency (MF) signals were selected from the EMG recordings and used to document the fatigue rate of this muscle. A 79% prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal complaints was found, with the neck and shoulder region accounting for 57.1% of the areas reported. There was also a significant increase in self-perceived exertion fatigue after the training session. Regression analysis revealed no significant difference in the slopes of MF on both trapezius muscles, before and after the training sessions. The disparity in the subjective perception with the objective findings indicated that the violinists' self-perceived exertion arises from multiple sources.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 2000, Vol.31, No.4, p.335-341. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 02-1854 Héry M., Dornier G.
Chloramines in swimming pools and in the food industry
Chloramines dans les piscines et l'agroalimentaire [in French]
Thanks to its outstanding bactericidal properties, its low cost and the ease of use of some if its compounds, chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant. In recent years, a large number of questions were addressed to the French National research and safety institute for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases (INRS) by workers engaged in activities using chlorine, in particular in swimming pools and in the food industry. This information sheet was prepared in order to provide answers to the concerns of workers exposed to chlorine and who are often subject to eye or respiratory irritation. Contents: chlorine chemistry and the formation of chloramines, substances which the primary irritants; determination of chloramines in swimming pools and in the food industry; current activities of INRS and its collaborating organizations; protective measures that need to be implemented in swimming pools and in the food industry.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2000. 4p. Illus. 7 ref. Can also be found on the site:

CIS 02-1791 Pendergrass S.M., Krake A.M., Jaycox L.B.
Development of a versatile method for the detection of nicotine in air
Nicotine is present in environmental tobacco smoke and is used as a greenhouse insecticide. Exposure to nicotine can result in adverse health effects as nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, tachycardia, hypertension, convulsions and cardiac arrhythmia. This paper describes the development of an improved sampling and analytical methodology for nicotine, capable of accommodating the wide spread of nicotine levels and sampling requirements necessary to evaluate exposures among diverse occupational groups such as casino workers, airline flight attendants or greenhouse employees. A XAD-4 sorbent tube was selected for the collection of airborne nicotine. Analytical methodology for the separation, identification and quantification of nicotine by gas chromatography followed by either flame ionization detection or by nitrogen and phosphorous detection is described. This new method was published in the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2000, Vol.61, No.4, p.469-472. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 02-244 de Gaudemaris R., Jalbert M., Barnavol B., Flores J.L., Artières P., Isnard E.
Assessment of ski-lift operators' deficiencies and incapacities (data from an epidemiological study of 3910 subjects)
Evaluation des déficiences et incapacités dans la profession des remontées mécaniques (à partir d'une étude épidémiologique conduite chez 3910 salariés) [in French]
Health problems in professional ski-lift operators were investigated by means of cross-sectional epidemiological study carried out on a representative sample of 3910 workers. Health problems were sought by a standardized clinical examination and incapacity for work by individualized questionnaire centred on the principal work tasks. Statistical analysis showed that the size or altitude of the resort did not affect the type of health problem or work problem. Multivariate analysis enabled the identification of three groups of workers assigned to maintenance tasks, a first group of 1192 subjects with no incapacity and the remaining 406 (2 groups) with health problems and work incapacities. A logistic regression examined the contributory factors appearing in these incapacitated groups. Among these subjects aged over 30, age was not a major factor and the link between health problems such as osteoarticular problems or cardiovascular problems and incapacity for work was weak. The strongest links were with activities where preventive measures could be useful, such as pylon work, important displacements or long workdays.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.29-39. 17 ref.

CIS 01-715
Health and Safety Executive
Fairgrounds and amusement parks - Guidance on safe practice
This loose-leaf binder provides guidance on safe practice for those professionally involved in activities at fairgrounds and amusement parks: designers, manufacturers, installers, importers, suppliers and repairers of fairground equipment; inspection bodies; fair organizers; controllers; operators and attendants. A section on general health and safety management covers risk assessment. Appendices cover relevant legislation, managing the design process, contents of an operations manual, safe use of electrical equipment, fire precautions and gas safety. Replaces CIS 97-1924.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, reprint, Oct. 2000. vi, 120p. (loose-leaf). Illus. 53 ref. Index. Price: GBP 12.00.

CIS 00-445 Lacombe A.M.
Job study: Stagehand
Etude du poste de machiniste de théâtre [in French]
The job of stagehand is considered to be heavy work by employees themselves, with little employee turnover and few lost workdays. This study was conducted to assess the true workload of this job. It was based on heart rate monitoring and timed observation. The results showed that the job can be classified as "relatively heavy" according to strenuousness scoring tables and that the heavy physical workload is due to manual handling and work postures.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40 No.1, p.19-24. 5 ref.


CIS 03-400 Groothoff B.
Incorporating effective noise control in music entertainment venues? Yes, it can be done
Following complaints from workers in music entertainment, a study of 30 businesses in the Brisbane area (Queensland, Australia) was conducted during 1996. Results showed that, in all but one case, noise exposure exceeded permissible levels. In none of the venues were hearing protectors worn during exposure to loud music, nor were other control measures in place. Virtually all operators demonstrated a lack of knowledge about their workplace health and safety obligations. To assist operators in meeting their legal obligations, extensive consultations were given by health and safety inspectors. In 1998, 14 of the original venues still operating were revisited. It was found that, although generally noise levels were still excessive, venue operators' knowledge of their obligations had improved. Eight venues had sound limiters installed and hearing protectors were available in 12 venues, with seven businesses actively enforcing their use by staff.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1999, Vol.15, No.6, p.543-550. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 03-267
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
BG Principles - Inspections of safety installations and machinery used in theatrical productions
BG-Grundsätze - Prüfung von sicherheitstechnischen und maschinentechnischen Einrichtungen in Veranstaltungs- und Produktionsstätten für szenische Darstellung [in German]
This document reproduces the full text of guideline BGG 912 of the German mutual occupational accident insurance association on the inspection of safety installations and machinery used in theatrical productions. Contents: scope; definitions; responsibilities of company management and experts; types of inspection (before commissioning, following important modifications, inspections by experts, regular inspections, subsequent inspections); presentation of the inspection results. Appendices include a list of items to be checked during the visual verification of proper operation, and related directives, rules and standards (see also CIS 03-266).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, July 1999. 28p. Illus.

CIS 03-266
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
BG Principles - Accreditation of experts for the inspection of safety installations and machinery used in theatrical productions
BG-Grundsätze - Ermächtigung von Sachverständigen für die Prüfung von sicherheitstechnischen und maschinentechnischen Einrichtungen in Veranstaltungs- und Produktionsstätten für szenische Darstellung [in German]
This document reproduces the full text of guideline BGG 912-1 of the German mutual occupational accident insurance association concerning the principles of accreditation in Germany for experts for the inspection of safety installations and machinery used in theatrical productions. Contents: process of accreditation; qualifications; duties of experts; duration of the validity of the accreditation; withdrawal of the accreditation. An example of an accreditation application form is appended (see also CIS 03-267).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, July 1999. 7p.

CIS 02-483 Fenner P., Leahy S., Buhk A., Dawes P.
Prevention of drowning: Visual scanning and attention span in lifeguards
The safety of the swimming public is dependent on effective continuous scanning techniques by lifeguards patrolling the area. Similar scanning skills are needed in other professions which require concentration for repetitive, monotonous or boring tasks. These include airline pilots, air search and rescue personnel, and long-distance train or bus drivers. To date, very little has been published on effective methods for lifeguards to use when scanning their area of responsibility. Techniques that influence visual scanning effectiveness and concentration spans, or assist in the prevention of boredom, are presented and discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1999, Vol.15, No.1, p.61-66. 24 ref.

CIS 02-252
Conseil National de la Scénographie
Guide to safety in the performing arts
Mémento de la sécurité dans le spectacle vivant [in French]
This safety guide presents the requirements aimed at improving the safety and health of all persons participating in the creation or presentation of performances. It lists the main hazards linked to such activities and presents an approach enabling the person responsible for safety at the theatre or in the performing group to implement simple measures. Certain technical recommendations applicable to the design and installation of settings are also presented, even though the are not the object of current legal requirements in France.
CRAM de l'Ile de France, 17/19 Av. de Flandre, 75014 Paris, France, 1999. 64p. Illus.

CIS 01-529
Health and Safety Executive
Working together on firework displays - A guide to safety for firework organisers and operators
This booklet is an updated guidance (see CIS 95-1482) on legislation, training, responsibilities and competence relevant to firework display organisers and operators. It addresses aerial and nonaerial fireworks and bonfires, various hazards, spectator safety, emergency procedures, setting up and firing the fireworks, clearing up after the display, legal requirements as well as training courses, licencing and control of noise nuisance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1999. iv, 32p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: GBP 8.95.

CIS 00-775 Aggazzotti G., Fantuzzi G., Righi E., Predieri G.
The evaluation of exposure to chloroform (CHCl3) in indoor swimming pools and the biological monitoring of exposed subjects
La valutazione dell'esposizione a cloroformio (CHCl3) nelle piscine coperte e il monitoraggio biologico dei soggetti esposti [in Italian]
Exposure to chloroform in indoor swimming pools was investigated. After having determined the optimal conditions for environmental and biological surveillance of chloroform, a survey of occupationally exposed subjects as well as of the users of swimming pools was conducted in order to determine the amount of chloroform absorbed and its elimination kinetics. Dosage in blood and in the alveolar air are good indicators of exposure, the latter being simpler to undertake.
Prevenzione oggi, 1999, Vol.XI, No.2, p.49-76. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 00-895 Shaffer H.J., Vander Bilt J., Hall M.N.
Gambling, drinking, smoking and other health risk activities among casino employees
A sample of full-time casino employees was surveyed about gambling, drinking, smoking and other health risk behaviours. Respondents were also asked about their use of the employee assistance program (EAP) and perceived obstacles towards using the EAP. Casino employees were found to have a higher prevalence of past-year pathological gambling behaviour than the general adult population, a lower prevalence of past-year problem gambling and a higher prevalence of smoking, alcohol abuse and depression. The majority of non-smoking respondents in this sample were exposed to second-hand smoke. Employees reported low participation in the company's EAP. The results of this study suggest that casino management should consider improving problem gambling screening for employees who visit EAPs, even if employees present other problems (e.g., alcohol problems) as their primary concerns, increasing employees' awareness of EAPs, increasing health promotion and education through channels other than company EAPs, and creating smoke-free working areas.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.36, No.3, p.365-378. 37 ref.

CIS 99-2077 Turner-Stokes L., Reid K.
Three-dimensional motion analysis of upper limb movement in the bowing arm of string-playing musicians
A protocol was developed for analysis of bowing arm movements using a motion analysis system which included definition of marker sites, positioning of the musician within the calibrated area and standardized bowing sequences. This protocol was then used to determine whether the system was sensitive to differences between instrument types and to variation in bowing style and technique between individual players. The ranges of movement in the shoulder, elbow and wrist were compared among instrument groups in a cohort of 39 asymptomatic string players. The system gave reproducible results on repeated testing, and demonstrated clear differences between instruments, as well as stylistic differences between players. Range of shoulder movement increased progressively towards the upper register of the cello and decreased on the violin. Maximum elevation of the shoulder was significantly greater on the cello, while elbow flexion, and therefore range, was consistently greater on the violin. The increased range of shouldermovement in the upper register of the cello may contribute to the greater prevalence of neck and shoulder symptoms among cellists. Topics: elbow; ergonomic evaluation; motion study; musculoskeletal diseases; musicians; posture recording; shoulder; upper extremity disorders.
Clinical Biomechanics, July 1999, Vol.14, No.6, p.426-433. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 99-978 Matéfi L.
Prevention of hearing damage among musicians
Gehörschadenprophylaxe bei Musikern [in German]
Prophylaxie des lésions de l'ouïe chez les musiciens [in French]
Topics: age-linked differences; hearing loss; hearing protection; musicians; noise level measurement; noise level; sex-linked differences.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, Spring 1999, No.71, p.5-9. Illus.


CIS 01-217 Richoux C., Loth D., Teyssou M.
Impact on hearing of the exposure of classical orchestra musicians to sound
Conséquences auditives de l'exposition sonore de musiciens d'orchestres de musique classique [in French]
Topics: age-linked differences; hearing loss; musicians; noise charts; noise dosimetry; noise level measurement; noise level; questionnaire survey; theatres; vibration.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1998, No.76, p.351-357. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 00-795 Massin N., Bohadana A.B., Wild P., Héry M., Toamain J.P., Hubert G.
Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness in lifeguards exposed to nitrogen trichloride in indoor swimming pools
The objective of the study was to measure the levels of exposure to nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) in the atmosphere of indoor swimming pools and to examine how they relate to irritant and chronic respiratory symptoms, indices of pulmonary function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in lifeguards working in the pools. 334 lifeguards recruited from 46 public swimming pools and 17 leisure centre swimming pools were examined. Mean NCl3 concentrations were greater in leisure than in public pools. A significant concentration-response relation was found between irritant eye, nasal and throat symptoms - but not chronic respiratory symptoms - and exposure concentrations. The data show that lifeguards exposed to NCl3 in indoor swimming pools are at risk of developing irritant eye, nose and throat symptoms. Exposure to NCl3 does not seem to carry the risk of developing permanent bronchial hyperresponsiveness, but this association might have been influenced by self selection.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.55, No.4, p.258-263. 22 ref.

CIS 99-1903 Evans R.W., Evans R.I., Carvajal S.
Survey of injuries among West End performers
A retrospective survey of 269 performers appearing in 20 productions in the West End of London, United Kingdom, showed that, in current productions, 46% of all performers sustained at least one injury, with an average of 0.87 injuries per performer. Lower extremity injuries were the most common for dancers and actors, with neck and back injuries the second most common. Sprains and strains were the most common diagnoses. 61% of performers thought that their injuries were preventable. Factors significantly affecting the risk of injury included female sex, a history of previous injuries, missed performances due to previous injuries, more physically demanding roles and performing on raked (angled) stages. Topics: entertainment services; injuries; location of injury; questionnaire survey; risk factors; sprains; strain injuries; theatres.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.55, No.9, p.585-593. 8 ref.

CIS 99-1319
Health and Safety Executive
Acquisition and use of explosives by historical societies
Topics: entertainment services; explosives; firearms; gunpowder; legislation; responsibilities; safe working methods; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 24p. Illus. Price: GBP 3.50.

CIS 99-852 Massin N., Toamain J.P., Bohadana A., Héry M., Wild P.
Swimming instructors and life guards: A high rate of ocular and respiratory irritation signs
Maîtres nageurs: un taux élevé de signes d'irritations oculaires et respiratoires [in French]
Topics: chlorine and compounds; chronic respiratory diseases; exposure evaluation; eye irritation; irritants; maximal expiratory flow; nitrogen chlorides; nitrogen trichloride; questionnaire survey; swimming pools; ventilatory capacity.
Travail et sécurité, May 1998, No.572, p.36-39. Illus.

CIS 99-1001
Health and Safety Executive
Working at heights in the broadcasting and entertainment industries
Topics: data sheet; entertainment services; falling objects; falls of persons; hazard evaluation; ladders; protection against falls from heights; scaffolds; step ladders; work at height.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Sep. 1998. 2p. 11 ref.

CIS 99-155 Heuer W.
The accident prevention rule "Venues of Theatrical Production and Performance" (GUV 6.15)
Unfallverhütungsvorschrift "Veranstaltungs- und Produktionsstätten für szenische Darstellung" (GUV 6.15) [in German]
Topics: comment on directive; entertainment services; film industry; Germany; legislation; protection against falling objects; protection against falls from heights; safety engineering; safety rules; theatres.
Gesundheitsschutz aktuell, 1998, Vol.30, No.1, p.7-11. Illus.

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