Teaching and educational institutions - 239 entries found
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- Teaching and educational institutions
The whispering classroom
Das flüsternde Klassenzimmer [in German]
The measurement of reverberation times in 230 classrooms of 30 schools in Germany and comparison of the results with the recommended reverberation times in the German standard DIN 18041 identified unsatisfactory acoustical conditions in one third of the classrooms. A low-cost method of noise control for noisy classrooms was developed which schools can easily install themselves. Ceilings were covered with soundproofing melamine foam panels 45 mm thick and additional sound-absorbing panels were placed on the walls to reduce the reverberation times of low-frequency noise. The easy-to-install sound control method was successfully applied in eight classrooms. More information on the sound control method for classrooms is available on the Internet: www.fluesterndesklassenzimmer.de
Inform, das Magazin der Unfallkasse Hessen, June 2006, No.2, p.8-9. Illus.
http://www.ukh.de/uploads/media/inform_02_2006_03.pdf [in German]
Ritvanen T., Louhevaara V., Helin P., Väisänen S., Hänninen O.
Responses of the autonomic nervous system during periods of perceived high and low work stress in younger and older female teachers
The aim of this study was to examine the response of the autonomic nervous system in younger and older healthy female teachers during work periods of perceived high and low stress. There were 14 participants in each group. In the younger group (average age 31 years), heart rate, cortisol excretion rate and psychosomatic symptoms were significantly higher during the high work stress period. The older participants (average age 54) experienced no decrease in their heart rate and cortisol excretion during the low stress period and they exhibited no significant decrease in blood pressure after the work in the evening during both periods. Recovery from stress among the older teachers was insufficient particularly in view of their elevated diastolic blood pressure during the low work stress period. Ergonomic and individually tailored measures in terms of work time control, specific relaxation techniques and a part-time retirement may improve the stress management of older teachers.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2006, Vol.37, No.3, p.311-318. Illus. 54 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational health services in higher and further education
Aimed at senior managers of further and higher education institutions, this guide explains the need to provide occupational health (OH) services. It advises on assessing the need for such a service, which varies according to the size and nature of the activities undertaken in each institution. Contents: definition of occupational health; occupational health in higher and further education; matching provision to needs; occupational health service provision; organization of an occupational health service; occupational health needs checklist. Appendices include the United Kingdom legal framework, an example of an OH policy, scope of an OH service, tendering, staffing and competence.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2006. iv, 32p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Healthy workplace, healthy workforce, better business delivery. Improving service delivery in universities and colleges through better occupational health
This booklet describes how the workplace has a significant impact on people's health and wellbeing and how poor management of workplace health can lead to work-related ill health and to high levels of sickness absence. It provides advice on how to implement effective occupational health management strategies.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. 6p. 9 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/misc743.pdf [in English]
Bauer J., Stamm A., Virnich K., Wissing K., Müller U., Wirsching M., Schaarschmidt U.
Correlation between burnout syndrome and psychological and psychosomatic symptoms among teachers
Burnout is the main cause of the increasing rates of premature retirement among schoolteachers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between occupational burden and the psychological strain of teachers who are still in work. A sample of 408 teachers at ten German high schools was evaluated. Modes of coping with occupational burden were determined using the coping capacity questionnaire (MECCA). Psychopathological and psychosomatic symptoms were determined using the SCL90R questionnaire. Findings are discussed. Burnout was significantly correlated with psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Burnout was significantly higher among women, divorced teachers and teachers working part-time. Besides high numbers of pupils per class, teachers regarded the destructive and aggressive behaviour of pupils as the primary stress factor.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2006, Vol.79, No.3, p.199-204. Illus. 28 ref.
Occupational safety and health in high schools (Part 1)
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w szkołach wyższych (cz.1) [in Polish]
European and Polish regulations regarding occupational safety and health in high schools are discussed, with reference to Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 (see CIS 89-1401) and the general provisions and regulations regarding special-purpose room equipment under the Regulation of the Polish Ministry of Education of 11 March 1998.
Przyjaciel przy Pracy, Apr. 2005, No.4, p.16-17. 2 ref.
The living and working conditions of teachers in Tanzania
Topics addressed in this survey on the living and working conditions of teachers in Tanzania: purpose of the research; survey sample and design; choice of teaching as a career and status of teachers in the community; working and living conditions of teachers; findings of the survey and their implications for policy, management and administration and trade unions; recommendations; suggestions for future research.
Education International, 5 boulevard du Roi Albert II, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, 2005. vi, 50p. 15 ref.
http://www.ei-ie.org/healthandsafety/file/(2005)%20Living%20and%20Working%20Conditions%20of%20Teachers%20in%20Tanzania%20en.pdf [in English]
Hansez I., Bertrand F., De Keyser V., Pérée F.
Career end for teachers: Towards a better understanding of stress and early retirement
Fin de carričre des enseignants: vers une explication du stress et des retraites prématurées [in French]
An increasing number of teachers resign before their normal retirement age. A survey was conducted among teachers working in the city of Ličge, Belgium, to investigate what led them to leave their jobs and the degree to which stress was a contributory factor in their decision. Data on the reasons why teachers resign, their motivations for staying in the job and their expectations in terms of career-end adjustments were collected by means of a questionnaire. Findings show that personal factors together with the perceived depreciation of the job and lack of recognition are the most cited reason for taking early retirement. While better working conditions are often presented as a possible solution, they are insufficient. Since recognition appears to be the main motivating factor among teachers, restoring the image of the teaching profession is essential.
Travail humain, July 2005, Vol. 68, No.3, p.193-223. 50 ref.
Weber A., Weltle D., Lederer P.
Ill health and early retirement among school principals in Bavaria
All 408 school principals in the state of Bavaria who had applied for early retirement on health grounds between 1997 and 1999 were given questionnaires and subjected to medical examinations. 84% of the principals were assessed to be unfit for work. The main reasons for early retirement were psychiatric/psychosomatic disorders which made up 45% of the cases. The relative frequency was higher in women than in men. Depressive disorders and exhaustion syndrome (burnout) dominated among the psychiatric diagnoses (57%). The most frequent somatic illnesses were cardiovascular diseases in 19% of cases, followed by musculoskeletal diseases in 10% and malignant tumours in 9% of cases. The health of 66% of those judged unfit for work was assessed to be so severely impaired that no other employment could be expected of them.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2005, Vol.78, No.4, p.325-331. Illus. 24 ref.
Lignell U., Meklin T., Putus T., Vepsäläinen A., Roponen M., Torvinen E., Reeslev M., Pennanen S., Hirvonen M.R., Kalliokoski P., Nevalainen A.
Microbial exposure, symptoms and inflammatory mediators in nasal lavage fluid of kitchen and clerical personnel in schools
Microbial investigations were conducted in six moisture-damaged schools and two reference schools. The symptoms of kitchen personnel were investigated by questionnaire and by measurement of inflammatory responses in nasal lavage (NAL) fluid. Total concentrations of airborne microbes were lower in kitchens than in other facilities of the schools. However, the occurrence of moisture damage increased the airborne microbial concentrations both in kitchens and in other facilities. Bacterial concentrations were high on surfaces in the damaged kitchens. Symptoms were prevalent both among kitchen workers and clerical personnel in the moisture-damaged work environments. Median concentrations of inflammatory mediators were slightly higher in NAL samples of kitchen workers than among clerical personnel. It is concluded that kitchen facilities differ from other facilities of the school building and represent a specific type of environment that may affect the health status of the personnel.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2005, Vol.18, No.2, p.139-150. Illus. 51 ref.
Geffner R., Braverman M., Galasso J., Marsh J.
Aggression in organizations: Violence, abuse, and harassment at work and in schools
Compilation of 13 articles on aggression in organizations, grouped under the following headings: overview of school and workplace violence and prevention programmes; studies on aggression, abuse and harassment in the workplace and in schools.
The Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580, USA, 2004. xxii , 246p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Behar A.., MacDonald E., Lee J., Cui J., Kunov H., Wong W.
Noise exposure of music teachers
A noise exposure study was performed to assess the risk of hearing loss to music teachers as a result of their activities. Noise exposure of 18 teachers from 15 schools was measured using noise dosimeters. The equivalent continuous noise level (Leq) of each teacher was recorded during single activities (classes) as well as for the entire day. A normalized 8-hour exposure, termed the noise exposure level (Lex), was also computed. The measured Leq exceeded the 85-dBA limit for 78% of the teachers. Lex exceeded 85 dBA for 39% of the teachers. Limited recommendations on how to reduce the noise exposures are provided. The need for a hearing conservation program is also emphasized.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2004, Vol.1, No.4, p.243-247. 10 ref.
Schönwalder H.G., Berndt J., Ströver F., Tiesler G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Noise in educational institutions - Causes and reduction
Lärm in Bildungsstätten - Ursachen und Minderung [in German]
This report presents the results of a study of noise levels carried out at four primary schools and one secondary school. Measurements included acoustical characteristics and noise levels during 565 hours of classes. Two observers also noted events that gave rise to noise. Findings show that only a few classes met noise level standards. The noise level in classrooms was 50-60dB(A) and sometimes exceeded 80dB(A). Voice was the dominant form of noise. Three classrooms were renovated in order to meet current standards. Architectural measures make it possible to significantly reduce noise levels; however, they should also be accompanied by efforts to train pupils to adopt less noisy behaviour.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 149p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: EUR 14.50.
Winder C., Abdullah D.
A survey of OSH programs and courses offered by Australian universities
The purpose of this investigation was to look into the current status of OHS education in Australian tertiary institutions by analysing the scope and depth of the OHS programmes and courses being offered, as assessed from the institutions' websites. This analysis found that many universities have instituted OHS programmes that include training certificates and diplomas, bachelor degrees and research degrees at the master and doctorate level. While many OHS programmes are of a generalist type, some are designed for specific areas of OHS practice, such as occupational hygiene or occupational medicine. Furthermore, the number of universities offering OHS courses is steadily increasing because of the high demand for professional OHS practitioners.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct.2004, Vol.20, No.5, p.445-457. Illus. 21 ref.
Voice disorders among teachers
Troubles de la voix chez les enseignants [in French]
In advanced societies, one third of the workers are employed in occupations where the voice is the primary means of communication. Dysphonia among teachers is a real pathology clearly documented in otolaryngology and phoniatrics, but in the context of individual care and prevention strategies. These disorders have not received much attention in occupational health in France. They do however represent a source of concern, as evidenced by the request by the social partners for this evaluation to be carried out. The study summarizes key features of occupational voice disorders, analyses results of epidemiological studies, identifies risk factors and occupations at risk and outlines an approach to prevention.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2004, No.98, p.221-238. Illus. 47 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20132/$File/TF132.pdf [in French]
Mainstreaming occupational safety and health into education: Good practice in school and vocational education
Integrace bezpečnosti a ochrany zdraví při práci do vzdělávání - Správná praxe ve školách a při odborném vzdělávání [in Czech]
Integrering av arbetsmiljöfrĺgor i utbildningen - Goda exempel inom utbildning och yrkesutbildning [in Swedish]
Integration des Themas Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit in die Bildung - Gute praktische Lösungen in Schule und Berufsausbildung [in German]
Ensōmátōsē tōn themátōn pou aforoún tēn epaggelmatikḗ asfáleia kai ugeía stēn ekpaídeusē - Kalḗ praktikḗ stē genikḗ kai epaggelmatikḗ ekpaídesusē [in Greek]
La integración de la seguridad y la salud laboral en la educación - Buenas prácticas en la educación y la formación profesional [in Spanish]
Tööohutuse ja töötervishoiu süvalaiendamine hariduses - Hea tava koolis ja kutsehariduses [in Estonian]
Työterveyden ja työturvallisuuden integrointi kouluopetukseen - Hyvät käytännöt koulu- ja ammattiopetuksessa [in Finnish]
Intégration de la sécurité et de la santé au travail dans l'éducation - Bonnes pratiques ŕ l'école et dans l'enseignement professionnel [in French]
A munkahelyi biztonság és egészségvédelem beépítése az oktatásba - A helyes gyakorlat az iskolai és a szakmai oktatásban [in Hungarian]
Integrazione della sicurezza e salute sul lavoro nell'istruzione - Buone pratiche di formazione scolastica e professionale [in Italian]
Darbuotojų saugos ir sveikatos klausimų integravimas į švietimą - Gera praktika mokyklose ir profesiniame mokyme [in Lithuanian]
Darba drošības un veselības aizsardzības iekļaušana izglītībā - Labā prakse vispārīgajā un arodizglītībā [in Latvian]
L-Integrazzjoni tas-saħħa u tas-sigurtŕ fuq il-post tax-xogħol fl-edukazzjoni - Prattika tajba fl-iskola u fl-edukazzjoni vokazzjonali [in Maltese]
Integratie ("mainstreaming") van veiligheid en gezondheid op het werk in het onderwijs - Goede praktijken op school en in de beroepsopleiding [in Dutch]
Włączanie problematyki bezpieczeństwa i ochrony zdrowia w pracy do programów nauczania - Dobra praktyka w szkołach i szkolnictwie zawodowym [in Polish]
Integraçăo sistemática da segurança e da saúde no trabalho na educaçăo - Boas práticas na escola e na formaçăo profissional [in Portuguese]
Široké zavádzanie bezpečnosti a ochrany zdravia do vzdelávania - Dobrá prax v škole a v odbornom vzdelávaní [in Slovak]
Vključevanje varnosti in zdravja pri delu v izobraževanje - Dobra praksa v šolah in pri poklicnem izobraževanju [in Slovenian]
Integrering af arbejdsmiljř pĺ uddannelsesomrĺdet - God praksis inden for skole- og erhvervsuddannelse [in Danish]
The European Union's strategy on health and safety at work has identified education and the safety culture as key factors for maintaining and improving the quality of work. Supporting this strategy, the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has published a report entitled "Mainstreaming occupational safety and health into education: Good practice in school and vocational education", which provides a comprehensive overview of good practice examples throughout Europe and outlines steps toward a systematic strategy to integrate occupational safety and health (OSH) into education and training. This fact sheet summarizes the report.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, http://osha.eu.int, 2004. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/en/FACT52-EN.PDF [in English]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/fr/FACT52_FR.PDF [in French]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/cs/FACT52_CS.PDF [in Czech]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/da/FACT52_DA.PDF [in Danish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/de/FACT52_DE.PDF [in German]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/et/FACT52_ET.PDF [in Estonian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/el/FACT52_EL.PDF [in Greek]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/it/FACT52_IT.PDF [in Italian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/lv/FACT52_LV.PDF [in Latvian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/hu/FACT52_HU.PDF [in Hungarian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/lt/FACT52_LT.PDF [in Lithuanian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/mt/FACT52_MT.PDF [in Maltese]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/nl/FACT52_NL.PDF [in Dutch]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/pl/FACT52_PL.PDF [in Polish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/pt/FACT52_PT.PDF [in Portuguese]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/sk/FACT52_SK.PDF [in Slovak]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/sl/FACT52_SL.PDF [in Slovenian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/fi/FACT52_FI.PDF [in Finnish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/sv/FACT52_SV.PDF [in Swedish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/52/es/FACT52_ES.PDF [in Spanish]
Carpenter J., Williams P., Smith N.C.
Health and Safety Executive
Identification and management of risk in undergraduate construction courses
This report describes the final stage of research into the current provision of health and safety teaching in construction related undergraduate courses (covering architecture, building, engineering and surveying). It supplements Contract Research Report CRR 392/2001 (CIS 01-1660). The aim of this final stage was to ascertain whether the recommendations aimed at the academic institutions made in 392/2001 had indeed been implemented. It was found that the requirements of the accreditation bodies have been significantly enhanced since the previous report and that this is beginning to have an effect on the attention paid by academia to this subject area. However, further efforts are necessary, with continuing support from industry.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. x, 45p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr275.pdf [in English]
Whelan E.A., Lawson C.C., Grajewski B., Petersen M.R., Pinkerton L.E., Ward E.M., Schnorr T.M.
Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among female flight attendants and teachers
The purpose of this study was to analyse the prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms and illnesses among two populations largely confined to indoor environments, flight attendants (FAs) and schoolteachers. The prevalence of work related eye, nose, and throat symptoms, wheezing, physician diagnosed asthma, chest illness, and cold or flu were calculated and stratified by smoking status in 1824 FAs and 331 schoolteachers (all women). FAs and teachers were significantly more likely to report work related eye, nose and throat symptoms than were other working women. FAs were also significantly more likely than teachers and other working women to report chest illness during the prior three years. Both study groups were more likely to report five or more episodes of cold or flu in the past year than were other working women and both groups were more likely to report wheezing than other working women. FAs were less likely than teachers and other working women to report having been diagnosed with asthma.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.929-934. Illus. 25 ref.
Hristov Z., Tomev L., Kircheva D., Daskalova N., Mihailova T., Ivanova V., Naidenova Z.
Work stress in the context of transition - A case study of three public sectors in Bulgaria
This publication examines work-related stress in three public sectors in Bulgaria (education, health care and public administration) in the context of political and economic transition. Explores work-related stress factors, symptoms and effects of stress and the strategy of trade unions in work stress prevention. It is a pilot effort of trade unions in Central and Eastern Europe to raise public awareness and to develop a trade union response to stress at the workplace. Stress at work has long been a neglected area of policy intervention in most transition countries. This study helps to broaden understanding on this important issue, and to stimulate governments and the social partners to look at the complex web of interaction between work-related stress and contributing factors stemming from the economic and political environment, and to find a coordinated policy response to it. The results presented are specific to Bulgaria and to the three sectors studied, but the methodology is applicable to other countries.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2003. x, 106p. Illus. 20 ref.
http://www.ilo-ceet.hu/public/english/region/eurpro/budapest/download/work_stress.pdf [in English]
Prevention of violence to staff in the education sector
Arbejdsmiljřledelse inden for uddannelsessektoren [in Danish]
Verhütung von Gewalt gegen Beschäftigte im Bildungssektor [in German]
Prólēpsē tēs bías enantíou tou prosōpikoú pou ergázetai ston kládo tēs ekpaídeusēs [in Greek]
Prevención de la violencia contra el personal del sector de la enseńanza [in Spanish]
Personalivastase vägivalla ärahoidmine haridussektoris [in Estonian]
Preprečevanje nasilja do zaposlenih v šolstvu [in Slovenian]
Prévention de la violence exercée contre le personnel du secteur de l'enseignement [in French]
Prevenzione della violenza sul personale nel settore dell'istruzione [in Italian]
Preventie van agressie tegen school- en onderwijspersoneel [in Dutch]
Zapobieganie przemocy wobec personelu w sektorze edukacji [in Polish]
Förebyggande av vĺld mot personal inom utbildningssektorn [in Swedish]
Prevençăo da violęncia contra o pessoal no sector da educaçăo [in Portuguese]
Henkilökuntaan kohdistuvan väkivallan ehkäiseminen opetusalalla [in Finnish]
Violence in schools and other educational establishments is causing increasing concern. Results from an European Union survey in 2000 show that 4% of employees have been subjected to violence at work (from inside or outside the workplace), and, in addition, 12% of workers in educational institutions reported having been subjected to intimidation. This fact sheet provides practical guidance to employers and workers in the education sector on dealing with this issue. Bullying and harassment from work colleagues are not addressed in this fact sheet.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, http://osha.eu.int, 2003. 2p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/sv/FACT-47_SV.PDF [in Swedish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/en/FACT-47_EN.PDF [in English]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/es/FACT-47_ES.PDF [in Spanish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/fr/FACT-47_FR.PDF [in French]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/da/FACT-47_DA.PDF [in Danish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/de/FACT-47_DE.PDF [in German]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/et/facts47_et.pdf [in Estonian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/el/FACT-47_EL.PDF [in Greek]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/it/FACT-47_IT.PDF [in Italian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/nl/FACT-47_NL.PDF [in Dutch]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/pl/Fakty_47_PL.pdf [in Polish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/pt/FACT-47_PT.PDF [in Portuguese]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/sl/FACTS47_SL.pdf [in Slovenian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/47/fi/FACT-47_FI.PDF [in Finnish]
Occupational safety and health in the education sector
Arbejdsmiljř inden for uddannelsessektoren [in Danish]
Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit im Bildungssektor [in German]
Ē epaggelmatikḗ asfáleia kai ugeía ston kládo tēs ekpaídeusēs [in Greek]
La seguridad y la salud laborales en el sector de la enseńanza [in Spanish]
Tööohutus ja töötervishoid haridussektoris [in Estonian]
Arbetsmiljön i utbildningssektorn [in Swedish]
Sécurité et santé au travail dans le secteur de l'enseignement [in French]
Sicurezza e salute nel settore dell'istruzione [in Italian]
Veiligheid en gezondheid in het onderwijs [in Dutch]
Bezpieczeństwo i zdrowie w pracy w sektorze edukacji [in Polish]
A saúde e a segurança no trabalho no sector da educaçăo [in Portuguese]
Varnost in zdravje pri delu v šolstvu [in Slovenian]
Opetusalan työturvallisuus ja työterveys [in Finnish]
Educational institutions can have the same hazards as any other workplace. However, the educational workplace is shared with students or pupils. These persons are also vulnerable, being young, inexperienced, and often ignorant of safety and health hazards. They can also be a hazard in themselves. Contents of this fact sheet on occupational safety and health in educational institutions: safety and health management; safe working environments; slips and trips; maintenance; fire and emergency planning; health and safety in laboratories and workshops; musculoskeletal disorders; stress; violence; bullying.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, http://osha.eu.int, 2003. 2p. 16 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/factsheets/46/view [in Multilingual]
Management of occupational safety and health in the education sector
Arbejdsmiljřledelse inden for uddannelsessektoren [in Danish]
Management von Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit im Bildungssektor [in German]
Diaheírisē tēs epaggelmatikḗs asfáleias kai ugeías ston kládo tēs ekpaídeusēs [in Greek]
La gestión de la seguridad y la salud laborales en el sector de la enseńanza [in Spanish]
Tööohutuse ja töötervishoiu juhtimine haridussektoris [in Estonian]
Arbetsmiljöledning i utbildningssektorn [in Swedish]
Gestion de la sécurité et de la santé au travail dans le secteur de l'enseignement [in French]
Gestione di sicurezza e salute nel settore dell'istruzione [in Italian]
Organisatie van veiligheid en gezondheid in het onderwijs [in Dutch]
Zarządzanie bezpieczeństwem i zdrowiem w pracy w sektorze edukacji [in Polish]
Gestăo da segurança e da saúde no trabalho no sector da educaçăo [in Portuguese]
Upravljanje varnosti in zdravja pri delu v šolstvu [in Slovenian]
Työturvallisuuden ja työterveyden hallinta opetusalalla [in Finnish]
Risks to health and safety in education may affect not only employees, but also pupils, students, and visitors. This fact sheet is aimed at all persons involved in the process of managing occupational safety and health, including head teachers, teaching and other school staff, health and safety representatives, and relevant external safety and health services. It is intended for workplaces where teaching is performed, from kindergartens to university.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, http://osha.eu.int, 2003. 2p. Illus. 14 ref.
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/el/FACT-45_EL.pdf [in Greek]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/et/facts45_et.pdf [in Estonian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/it/FACT-45_IT.PDF [in Italian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/nl/FACT-45_NL.PDF [in Dutch]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/pl/Fakty_45_PL.pdf [in Polish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/pt/FACT-45_PT.PDF [in Portuguese]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/sl/FACTS45_SL.pdf [in Slovenian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/fi/FACT-45_FI.PDF [in Finnish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/sv/FACT-45_SV.PDF [in Swedish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/en/FACT-45_EN.PDF [in English]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/es/FACT-45_ES.PDF [in Spanish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/fr/FACT-45_FR.PDF [in French]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/da/FACT-45_DA.pdf [in Danish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/45/de/FACT-45_DE.PDF [in German]
McCarthy P., Mayhew C., Barker M., Sheehan M.
Bullying and occupational violence in tertiary education: Perpetrators and risk factors
This article provides an overview of findings from a comprehensive study of bullying and occupational violence in an Australian tertiary education institution. The study was commissioned by university human resource managers as a basis for the implementation of antibullying and violence policies and procedures, to meet quality enhancement objectives and in response to government guidelines. The data collected indicated that bullying and occupational violence may occur through student-initiated and staff-on-staff interactions, and can be fuelled by unreasonable work expectations. Recommendations are made based on identified risk factors, including the reform of management practices, enhanced prevention efforts, improved staff development and appraisal systems, and the introduction of codes of conduct for students.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2003, Vol.19, No.4, p.319-326. 31 ref.
Schönwälder H.G., Berndt J., Ströver F., Tiesler G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Occupational stress and strain among teachers
Belastung und Beanspruchung von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern [in German]
This study on the occupational stress of teachers was carried out on 108 female and 70 male teachers of primary and secondary schools in the city of Bremen, Germany. Methods employed included a questionnaire on the subjective perception of stress and stress factors, medical and psychological tests to evaluate the physical and mental state of health of teachers and long-term ECGs to obtain the heart rate as an indicator of psychophysical load. School lessons were observed and recorded for one week per class. In some cases sound levels were recorded during lessons in classrooms, study rooms, gyms and during music classes. Results show significant deficits in physical and mental health among a high percentage of teachers, together with a poor recovery effect of work breaks. Noise levels frequently exceed recommended values for mental and information work.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 190p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: EUR 17.00.
Verdugo R., Vere A.
Workplace violence in sectors with implications for the education sector: Issues, solutions and resources
Schools are traditionally viewed as places for teaching and learning, not as places where violence occurs. And while the vast majority of schools are safe, the recent spate of school violence has created concern about safety in schools throughout the world. Teachers are concerned about their safety worldwide as well as about what can be done to remedy the problem. This working paper focuses comparatively on trends and experiences from other sectors, drawing lessons and suggesting ways in which the growing challenges of violence and stress may be addressed in schools and other educational sites. Contents: definition of key concepts; causes of workplace violence and stress; sector-specific environment as originator of violence and stress at work; scope of violence and stress in the sector and its impact; examination of strategies to remedy the problem.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2003. vi, 42p. 176 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/papers/education/wp208.pdf [in English]
NIOSH safety checklist program for schools and other safety databases
This checklist programme on CD-ROM is based on 82 safety checklists covering all OSHA and EPA regulations. It is aimed at educators, professors, supervisors and superintendents of community colleges, high schools, career and technical schools and universities to assist them in maintaining safe classrooms, shops, and labs for teachers and students. The CD-ROM also contains safety and health information and databases on other topics (agriculture, asbestos, construction, ergonomics, etc.) as well as numerous of Internet links to useful agencies and organizations.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, Oct. 2003. CD-ROM for PC (Windows) or MAC (OS9 or higher).
Salanova M., Llorens S., García-Renedo M.
What causes burnout among teachers?
żPor qué se están "quemando" los profesores? [in Spanish]
The results of a survey carried out among secondary school teachers in two Spanish provinces, aimed at analysing burnout symptoms in this occupation, are summarized. Various factors were taken into consideration, including: negative aspects (technical and social obstacles, mental and emotional overload); positive aspects (autonomy, social support and work atmosphere); effects on psychological well-being; personal resources of teachers. The study shows in particular that women present more symptoms of depression and burnout than men and that the 43-47 age groups have increased depression symptoms and lower job satisfaction. It highlights the importance of preventive actions and proposes the contents of prevention and intervention programmes.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.28, p.16-20. Illus. 16 ref.
Gracia Camón D.Á.
Objective criteria for the evaluation of the workload resulting from psychosocial and organizational factors
Criterios objetivos para la evaluación de la carga de trabajo derivada de factores psicosociales y organizacionales [in Spanish]
The purpose of this research was to develop a computer-based tool for the objective evaluation of the mental workload resulting from psychosocial and organizational factors. The study focussed on two occupations, professors and telephone operators. This article describes the approach used for the detailed analysis of the jobs so as to highlight risk factors (psychological, organizational, social and relating to the layout of the premises). Two mental workload evaluation tools were developed as a result of this analysis, one for the university professors and the other for the telephone operators. They enable the evaluation of the hazards inherent to the job and to propose prevention measures.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2003, Vol.23, No.90, p.29-37. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Preventing slip and trip incidents in the education sector
HSE statistics suggest that slips and trips are a major cause of accidents affecting school employees and students. This information note aimed at employees of the educational sector gives advice on how to effectively control the risks of slipping and tripping. Topics covered: legal requirements; what should be done to effectively control slipping and tripping (identifying hazards, evaluation of risk factors, supervising catering and cleaning contractors, "sensible shoe" policies, adequate lighting). A table presents practical measures to control the risks of slipping and tripping on various premises.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2003. 6p. 11 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/edis2.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Avoiding ill health at open farms - Advice to teachers
This information sheet provides advice to teachers on how to reduce health risks to children during visits to open farms. The main hazard is a transmission of animal microorganisms to humans; E. coli O157 in particular can cause severe illness in young children. Contents: precautions to be taken before the visit (reading and understanding the advice in the main information sheet aimed at farmers (CIS 01-580), making provisions for the proper supervision of children during the visit); precautions to be taken during and after the visit (preventing children from touching animals, washing of hands, eating arrangements, supervision of children). Reprinted with updated references (replaces the supplement sheet analysed as part of CIS 01-580).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2002. 1p.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ais23.pdf [in English]
Hannerz H., Albertsen K., Tüchsen F.
Hospitalizations among teachers in Denmark, 1981-1997
To investigate morbidity among Danish teachers, cohorts of primary, secondary and vocational school teachers, aged 20-59 years in 1981,1986,1991 and 1994 were formed. Age-standardized hospitalization ratios (SHRs) and time trends (1981-1997) were calculated for a large variety of diagnostic classes. Significantly low SHRs for neoplasms and diseases of the nervous, circulatory, respiratory, digestive and musculoskeletal systems were found both for men and women. Significantly low SHRs for the aggregated diagnostic group "injury and poisoning" were also found in men and for diseases of the nervous system and sense organs in women. Hospitalization rates for practically all diseases were significantly lower among teachers compared with other economically active people of Denmark.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.3, p.257-266. Illus. 61 ref.
Cloutier E., Lefebvre S., Ledoux E., Chatigny C., St-Jacques Y.
Occupational safety and health issues associated with knowledge transfer: Case of machinists and cooks
Enjeux de santé et de sécurité au travail dans la transmission des savoirs professionnels: le cas des usineurs et des cuisiniers [in French]
The aim of this study was to develop a better understanding of the occupational safety and health issues related to knowledge transfer in occupational settings. A first phase of the study consisted in taking stock of the current situation of apprenticeship within enterprises with the Quebec employment agency (Emploi-Québec). The study then focused on two high-risk occupations, cooks and machinists. It was conducted within two enterprises and involved discussions with managers, trade union representatives, skilled workers and apprentices. As highlighted by the two case studies, the issue of transmission of knowledge is mutli-faceted and complex. It is important that the assignment of tasks takes into account the age and experience of the workers. Furthermore, numerous organizational and environmental factors influence the way in which knowledge transmission occurs. Proposals for further studies are made, together with recommendations addressed to Emploi-Québec for facilitating apprenticeships in enterprises.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 2002. x, 205p. Illus. 76 ref.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-316.pdf [in French]
Gutiérrez Beneito M., Miranda Villalba I., Llacuna Morera J., Cańada Clé J., Díaz Olivares I., Medina Chamorro F.J., Puebla Hernanz M.A., Mata J.S., Soriano Serrano M., Medina Gómez A.
Occupational safety and health as a subject for teaching - Guide for secondary school teachers
La seguridad y la salud en el trabajo como materia de enseńanza transversal - Guía para el profesorado de enseńanza secundaria [in Spanish]
The purpose of this guide is to provide secondary school teachers with the necessary tools for continuing the teaching of occupational safety and health, a subject whose teaching is initiated in primary school (see CIS 99-1802). It advocates a "cross-sectional" mode of teaching, namely by integrating this topic in the teaching of all other subjects and in the life of the school in general. Contents: values in secondary education, with an emphasis on safety; safety at work and at school; industrial hygiene at work and at school; health at work and at school; ergonomics and psychology applied to work and to school; occupational safety and health management. Appendices include: practical proposals of activities related to occupational safety and health involving various teaching subjects, grouped by theme.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 163p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: EUR 19.54.
Study on stress: The cause of stress for teachers, its effects, and suggested approaches to reduce it
This study on stress among teachers was carried out jointly with the WHO and ETUCE (European Trade Union Committee for Education). It took the form of a survey among teachers' unions in sixteen European countries. Contents: objectives of the survey; work-related stress in Europe; nature and sources of stress experienced by teachers and education staff; case studies of current methods of combating stress; recommendations for future action.
Education International, 5 boulevard du Roi Albert II, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, 2001. 23p. 33 ref.
http://www.ei-ie.org/healthandsafety/file/(2001)%20EI%20Europe-ETUCE-WHO%20Study%20on%20Stress%20en.pdf [in English]
Van Horn J.E., Schaufeli W.B., Taris T.W.
Lack of reciprocity among Dutch teachers: Validation of reciprocity indices and their relation to stress and well-being
The validity of three indices of reciprocity in exchange relationships at work were studied. A total of 71 Dutch teachers were interviewed on their specific investments and outcomes in exchange relationships with students, colleagues and the school administration. Variance analysis revealed that they reported significantly more investments than outcomes, and that the number of reported investments and outcomes mentioned varied as a function of the type of exchange relationship. Multi-item scales were created to assess reciprocity for each of the exchange relationships, which were then validated by relating them to two global assessments of reciprocity as well as to measures of job stress and well- being. Analysis of data obtained from a further sample of 224 teachers revealed that for each type of exchange relationship, there were significant and consistent relationships among the three reciprocity indices.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2001, Vol.15, No.3, p.191-213. Illus. 50 ref.
Taris T.W., Schreurs P.J.G., Van Iersel-Van Silfhout I.J.
Job stress, job strain and psychological withdrawal among Dutch university staff: Towards a dual-process model for the effects of occupational stress
This study examined the antecedents of job strain (emotional exhaustion, health complaints) and withdrawal behaviour (for example lowered organizational commitment) among a cross-sectional sample of 131 academic staff members of the law department of a large Dutch university. Psychological strain and withdrawal behaviour patterns were expected to be most prominent among those who reported having few resources and/or high job demands. Structural modelling revealed that this was indeed the case. As predicted, differential patterns of effects emerged for job demands and job resources. Analysis of the effects of four job-specific stressors revealed that especially the structural aspects of a staff member's teaching task (such as the number of students in their classes) contributed strongly to perceived job demands. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.15, No.4, p.283-296. Illus. 38 ref.
Hazardous Substances (Exempt Laboratories) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]
These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). They prescribe the requirements to be met by a laboratory used for research and/or teaching in order to be exempted from certain rules related to the small-scale use of hazardous substances.
Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.769-778.
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R115.PDF [in English]
Job study of local authority employees specialized in nursery schools (ATSEM)
Etude du poste d'agent territorial spécialisé des écoles maternelles (ATSEM) [in French]
The role of local authority employees specialized in nursery schools is to assist teachers, provide care to the children (particularly during dressing, washing, serving snacks and rest periods) and carry out housework tasks within the school premises. This article presents the findings of a study on the working conditions of these employees aimed at understanding the reasons behind their high rates of absenteeism. The study involved timed observations, heart rhythm measurements, podometry and noise dosimetry. Results enabled the definition of the job profile. The study showed that one third of the absenteeism was related to infectious diseases favoured by contact with children, one third was linked to physical and psychological working conditions and one third was due to various causes. Several leads were identified for improving the least satisfactory aspects of this occupation.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.4, p.455-461. 9 ref.
Nakaseko M., Hirabayashi M.
Risk factors for occupational health impairments among Japanese elementary school teachers
Shōgakkō-kyōin no kenkō-shōgai no risuku yōin ni tsuite [in Japanese]
Risk factors associated with adverse health effects were investigated by means of a questionnaire survey of 283 elementary school teachers in Kyoto, Japan. 64% of the teachers complained of ill-health or unsatisfactory well-being, 89% had complaints of severe or moderate mental fatigue and 84% reported severe or moderate physical fatigue resulting from work. The most frequently identified risk factors due to work included overtime work done after returning home (79.9%), special tasks for classes (73.5%) and management of pupils' problems (68.9%). As risk factors leading to voice disturbances and throat pain, the need to talk loudly and/or continuously was mentioned by 73.0%, the lack of time for resting the throat by 56.2% and long hours of talking by 43.9%. These complaints were more frequent in classes with larger numbers of pupils and in lower-grade classes. Many of the frequently reported complaints were found to relate to long hours of work as well as to short rest breaks, on the average only 24min per day. Abstract in English.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Mar. 2001, Vol.77, No.3, p.97-109. Illus. 8 ref.
School workers health and safety guide
This guide is a revised edition of an earlier document analysed under CIS 01-1009. It is aimed at workers, supervisors, teachers, principals, school board officials, and safety and health committee members in schools and other educational establishments. Its objectives are to enable persons working in schools and other educational establishments to recognize workplace hazards, prevent accident and injury by safe work practices and use of personal protective equipment, deal with accidents and emergencies and understand their duties and rights under occupational safety and health legislation. A list of addresses of government departments that can be contacted for additional information is also included. Document also available in French at CCOHS.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 3rd ed., 2001. vii, 161p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere).
Carpenter J., Williams P., Smith N.C.
Health and Safety Executive
Identification and management of risk in undergraduate construction courses
This report describes research into the current provision of safety and health teaching in construction related undergraduate courses. The study was made against a growing awareness of the importance of safety and health as part of project risk management and as a means of reducing ill health and accidents. The study shows that the current provision of health and safety teaching is generally poor. It also demonstrates however that academia cannot be expected to deliver alone on this issue. Inconsistency between elements of the industry and a lack of guidance and clarity hinder the efforts that are being made. The study sets out a clear set of recommendations relating to government, accreditation bodies, industry, and academia.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. x, 53p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
Nogareda Cuixart S.
Stress among teachers: Assessment methodology
Estrés en el colectivo docente: metodología para su evaluación [in Spanish]
Contents of this information note on the assessment of occupational stress among teachers: stress factors and stress factor scale specifically adapted to the teaching environment; coping strategies and their subjective assessment by means of the coping strategy questionnaire; physiological assessment of the effects of stress (liberation of adrenalin and noradrenalin, are early indicators of the effects of stress, following the stimulation of the vegetative nervous system); the Langner-Amiel "Total Health Test".
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. 6 ref.
Industrial health unit - Annual report 2000
This annual report describes the projects carried out in the year 2000 by the Industrial Health Unit of the University of Natal, South Africa. These projects include: raising awareness in safety and health in the construction industry of the KwaZulu-Natal province; estimating the prevalence of coal worker's pneumoconiosis and the risk of emphysema among South African coal miners; study of hazards in SMEs in the construction industry; education, training and information dissemination.
University of Natal, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Nelson Mandela School of Medicine, Private Bag 7, Congella 4013, South Africa, 2000. 21p.
Musculoskeletal dysfunction in physical education teachers
To investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among physical education (PE) teachers, a postal questionnaire was sent to 290 men and 281 women who graduated from the PE teaching college in Sweden between the years 1957 and 1965, and to randomly-selected age-matched controls. PE teachers had a higher prevalence ratio (PR) of symptomatic osteoarthrosis (OA) of the knee (men: 2.8; women: 3.2) and knee injury compared with the controls. PE teachers reported more absence from work, and the women had had to change jobs more often because of knee disorders. The prevalence ratio for symptomatic OA of the hip was 2.7 for the female PE teachers. At the age of 25 the body mass index (BMI) of male PE teachers was higher than the male controls, but at an older age both the female and male PE teachers had lower BMI than the controls. Participation in sports activities was considerably higher in the group of PE teachers. They also smoked less and reported fewer serious diseases and better health than the controls.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.57, No.10, p.673-677. 30 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Managing health and safety on work experience - A guide for organisers
This guidance is aimed at organisers of work experience to ensure the students' safety and health during the placement. It describes responsibilities of each party (educational institutions, organisers, enterprises, students, parents) as well as the responsibility of the organiser towards the enterprises (risk assessment of the proposed placement, defining the type of work, checks) and towards the students (information, visits, follow-up).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2000. iv, 40p. 21 ref. Price: GBP 6.50.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 5/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-551, CIS 00-552 and CIS 00-553). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by firemen, ambulance drivers, educational workers and childminders, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).
Kilgariff C., Best M.
An investigation of manual handling in Victorian health education programs
The incidence of manual handling injuries in nurses and other carers is high. Therefore, consideration needs to be given to the quality and quantity of manual handling training occurring at teaching institutions to ensure maximum protection of these employees as they enter the workforce. This study used a questionnaire to investigate the amount and type of manual handling and occupational safety and health (OSH) training which is being taught in health care courses in Victoria. The results indicated that there were inadequate practical and theoretical hours allocated to manual handling and patient handling skills, and inadequate OSH education. Recommendations from the study include: an increase in both the practical and theoretical hours of manual handling education in nursing courses; assessment of the manual handling and transfer skills components of the curriculum; and inclusion of OSH and risk assessment in all undergraduate health care courses.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 1999, Vol.15, No.5, p.475-481. Illus. 10 ref.
Zanella Penteado R., Teixeira Bicudo Pereira I.M.
The voice of the teacher: Relationship between work, health and quality of life
A voz do professor: Relaçőes entre trabalho, saúde e qualidade de vida [in Portuguese]
This study concerns the professional use of voice by teachers for establishing the relationship between vocal health and speech dysfunction (dysphonias), conditions of work and quality of life of the teacher. These relationships are presented based on the analysis of the most common types of dysfunction and the predisposing factors and aggravating circumstances present in the teacher's routine. This paper provides guidance to health professionals by pointing out the specific needs of teachers and that vocal problems and dysfunctions must be taken into consideration and treated as a disease.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 1999, Vol.25, No.95/96, p.109-130. 32 ref.
Sandmark H., Wiktorin C., Hogstedt C., Klenell-Hatschek E.K., Vingĺrd E.
Physical workload in physical education teachers
The main objective of this study was to measure and quantify exposure to physical workload in physical education teachers. A further aim was to establish the reproducibility of a three-week test-retest interval of self-reported physical load and to evaluate the agreement between registered and self-rated physical load. Thirty teachers, both female and male, volunteered to participate in the study. The physical load on the lower extremities, as well as the back and the cardio-vascular strain was recorded during one working day. The results indicate that the physical workload in this occupational group is considerable due to the load on the lower extremities. The demands on the cardio-vascular system are also relatively high in comparison to other occupational groups. The teachers could assess their activity quite well regarding heavy lifting and time spent sitting.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1999, Vol.30, No.5, p.435-442. Illus. 30 ref.
Edworthy J., Hards R.
Learning auditory warnings: The effects of sound type, verbal labelling and imagery on the identification of alarm sounds
The effect of sound type, training cue and cue source on the ability to learn and retain warning-type sounds was studied. One group was required to learn the sounds according to verbal labels given to them by the experimenter; a second generated their own verbal labels; a third was required to learn the sounds using graphic images given to them by the experimenter; and the fourth was allowed to generate their own graphic images. Three classes of sound were tested: real, environmental sounds, semi-abstract monitoring-type sounds and abstract sounds already used as hospital warnings. Results show that the verbal labels worked better than graphic images, but only when these were given by the experimenter. When participants generated their own cues, performance was equally good in both graphic and verbal conditions. It was found that real sounds were easier to learn than the other two groups, although this effect again disappeared when participants were allowed to generate their own cues. The implications for auditory warning design and training are discussed within a broader theoretical and practical context.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 1999, Vol.24, No.6, p.603-618. Illus. 25 ref.
Reynolds P., Elkin E.P., Layefsky M.E., Lee G.M.
Cancer in California school employees, 1988-1992
Periodic concerns about excesses of cancer among teachers in California schools prompted our examination of cancer incidence in California school employees. Records of school employees between 1987-1992 were linked to the California Cancer Registry of incident cases diagnosed 1988-1992. Sex-, race- and age-adjusted standardized incidence ratios were calculated for specific cancer sites. Analyses stratified by sex, race/ethnicity and job assignment were also performed. Melanoma of the skin, thyroid cancer, prostate cancer and female cancers of the breast, uterus and ovary all occurred more frequently than expected in these school employees. In contrast, cancers of the respiratory system, oral cavity, digestive system, urinary system and uterine cervix occurred less frequently. The incidence of cancers thought to be related to hormones and/or higher socioeconomic status appeared elevated while cancers often linked to smoking and/or alcohol intake occurred less frequently in this large cohort of professional school employees.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.36, No.2, p.271-278. 32 ref.
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