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Cement and concrete - 213 entries found

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  • Cement and concrete

1981

CIS 82-657 Mešić J., Sever-Jurca D., Štangl B.
A rare form of biological response to inhalation of asbestos dust (multiple pulmonary asbestomas)
Redak oblik biološke reakcije na udisanje azbestne prašine (multipli azbestomi pluća) [in Serbocroatian]
Description of a case of unusual pulmonary tissue response to asbestos dust exposure in a 35-year old asbestos-cement worker: multiple, large, round, homogenous opacities on the chest X-ray; no evidence of rheumatoid arthritis. Histological examination showed hyalinised connective tissue with numerous tiny calcifications and lymphocyte infiltrates. Comparison with Caplan's syndrome.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1981, Vol.32, No.3, p.279-285. Illus. 11p.

CIS 82-365 Brobrovnikov N.A.
Airborne dust control in the construction materials industry
Ohrana vozdušnoj sredy ot pyli na predprijatijah stroitel'noj industrii [in Russian]
Contents: importance of atmospheric pollution control; dust sources in construction materials manufacture (woodworking machines, cement works, concrete mixing plants, loading and unloading of bulk materials, etc.); modern dust control methods (health engineering, methods to reduce dust formation, water spraying, foam application, enclosure and exhaust ventilation, calculation of air-flow rate required for exhaust ventilation, removal of deposited dust by exhaust ventilation, practical examples); dust collectors; economic aspects.
Strojizdat, Kaljaevskaja ul. 23a, 101442 Moskva, USSR, 1981. 99p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: Rbl.0.30.

CIS 81-1740 Lacore J.P., Paris H.
Automatic concrete block manufacturing lines
Ensembles automatiques de fabrication d'agglomérés en béton [in French]
Fact sheet: description of these units and how they work; analysis of the hazards involved in production methods; review of relevant French regulations; safety engineering for accident prevention (built-in safety; specific safety devices for each unit of the line); health engineering (noise control). Circumstances of typical accidents and corresponding safety measures are listed in a synoptic table.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1981, No.103, Note No.1312-103-81, p.161-184. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 81-1394 Varigos G.A., Dunt D.R.
Occupational dermatitis - An epidemiological study in the rubber and cement industries.
973 tyre workers and 117 cement workers were screened. Prevalence rates for occupational contact dermatitis were 37 and 68 per 1000 workers respectively. Maintenance workers and tyre builders had high prevalence rates among tyre workers.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1981, Vol.7, No.2, p.105-110. 8 ref.

1980

CIS 82-545 Schaller K.H., Manke G., Raithel H.J., Bühlmeyer G., Schmidt M., Valentin H.
Investigations of thallium-exposed workers in cement factories
For the production of particularly resistant types of cement, additives containing thallium are employed. Medical examinations were carried out in 128 workers from all areas of production in 3 cement works. Exposure to thallium was objectified by analyses of the roasted pyrites added and the dust from the electric filter. The study included an enquiry of the workers concerning their history of health, and also a physical examination for clinical symptoms of a possible effect of thallium. Thallium was determined in samples of spontaneous urine by flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy (carbon-rod atomizer). Thallium excretion slightly or moderately above the normal population were found (< 0,3-6,3µg Tl per g creatinine). In no case did the history data or the findings of the physical examination reveal any indication of the symptoms characteristic of thallium poisoning. The suitability of urine as analysis medium and the "normal" levels of thallium excretion are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dec. 1980, Vol.47, No.3, p.223-231. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 82-244 Reifenstein H., Pätzold M.
Elimination of chromate from cement
Zur Eliminierung von Chromat im Zement [in German]
Description of laboratory analyses to determine the soluble Cr(VI) content of cements from different sources and of different grades, and the possibility of elimination Cr(VI) - harmful to the skin - by Fe(II) salts. Cr(VI) content was between 0.4 and 20ppm. Addition of 0.1-0.5% ferrous(II) sulfate greatly reduced or sometimes eliminated soluble Cr(VI). Review of the results and of practical possibilities of this method.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Sep. 1980, Vol.26, No.9, p.625-628. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 82-202 Weiler K.J., Rüssel H.A.
Skin lesions due to cement, lime and plaster in the building industry
Branchenspezifische Einwirkungsprobleme von Zement, Kalk und Gips auf die Haut [in German]
Literature review of allergen concentrations (total chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt and nickel) in cement and lime and the results of the authors' own analyses on the concentrations in plaster. The results are tabulated. The possibility of transferring allergic workers to other jobs is discussed.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1980, Vol.28, No.6, p.182-185. 35 ref.

CIS 82-65
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Safety regulations for dust control when working asbestos cement products with hand-held tools and machines
Sicherheitsregeln für staubemittierende handgeführte Maschinen und Geräte zur Bearbeitung von Asbestzement-Erzeugnissen [in German]
These regulations lay down requirements for limiting the quantities of fine dust produced during the working of asbestos cement: maximum concentration of asbestos in air, exhaust ventilation, operating instructions for machines, test equipment for checking the effectiveness of dust control measures.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 1980. 8p. Illus. Price: DM.0.60.

CIS 81-1663 Loboda L., Reichrtová E.
Influence of cementworks fly-ash on sodium salicylate metabolism in mice
Vplyv úletového prachu z cementárenských závodov na metabolizmus salicylanu sodného u myší [in Slovak]
Mice, to which sodium salycylate had been administered, were exposed to cement fly-ash. In comparison with controls, they were found to have increased urinary pH,a reduction in urinary excretion and a gradual blockage of the elimination of non-metabolised salicyclic acid. Subsequently, an abrupt change in pH (from markedly alkaline to markedly acidic) completely blocked non-metabolised salicyclic acid elimination and led to the death of the animals. Increasing the cement fly-ash concentration accelerated this process.
Pracovní lékařství, Nov. 1980, Vol.32, No.9, p.297-301. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 81-939
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Safety rules for work on roofs and corrugated roofing
Sicherheitsregeln für Arbeiten an und auf Dächern aus Wellplatten [in German]
These rules apply to work (roofing, roof repair and cleaning) and walking on corrugated asbestos cement or polyester resin roofing, well-known for its fragility: special procedures for transport and storage of roofing sheets; safety measures for personnel working on or underneath these roofs (protective scaffolds, means of access, crawling boards, walkways), protection against falls of persons (protective scaffolding, safety nets); safety rules for cutting roofing sheets and for work near electric lines.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 1980. 14p. Illus. Price: DM.1.20.

CIS 81-941 Paggiaro P.L., Toma G., Filieri M., Loi A.M., Parlanti A., Baschieri L.
Chronic bronchitis in cement production workers
La bronchite cronica nei lavoratori addetti alla produzione del cemento [in Italian]
183 cement workers exposed to a low concentration of dust containing a small percentage of SiO2 were studied. Cough and sputum were present in 31%, concomittant spirometric impairment in 16.4%. Reductions in FEV1 and FEF25-75 were present only in workers with long-term exposure and a history of smoking. While exposure to low concentrations of cement dust may cause some respiratory impairment, cigarette smoking is more likely to produce chronic bronchitis or ventilatory changes.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1980, Vol.71, No.6, p.481-487. 18 ref.

CIS 80-2043 Hosein H.R.
Some experiences with epoxy resin grouting compounds.
20 workers were interviewed at 3 worksites. Most reacted to contact with the compound with skin irritation and sensitisation. Tests made to determine the causative agent are described.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1980, Vol.41, No.7, p.523-525. 6 ref.

CIS 80-1838 Burilkov T., Mihajlova L., Lukanova R., Dobreva M., Točeva V., Popova V., Černeva P.
Occupational hazard of asbestosis in workers employed in asbestos-cement products manufacture
Profesionalen risk ot azbestovi uvreždanija sred rabotnicite ot azbesto-cimentovo proizvodstvo [in Bulgarian]
Results of an occupational hygiene investigation which determined the presence of 2 types of dust in the workplace: dust containing 7-78% free asbestos particles (storage area and mixing shops), and dust containing 2-21% asbestos - in this case most of the fibres were amalgamated by the cement (moulding and machining shops). Of 11 asbestosis cases observed, 3 had worked in the mixing shops, and 4 in the machining shops). In 5 cases pleural calcifications were observed. Minimum duration of exposure before asbestosis became apparent was 13-14 years in the mixing shops, and 20-21 years in the machining shops.
Problemi na higienata, July 1980, Vol.5, p.125-132. 7 ref.

CIS 80-1764
Joint Technical Committee for Refractory Materials, French National Health Insurance Fund (Comité technique des industries des pierres et terres à feu, Caisse nationale française de l'assurance-maladie)
Interventions in factories manufacturing lime and cement
Interventions dans les usines de fabrication des chaux et ciments. [in French]
This recommendation, adopted on 28 Nov. 1979, defines the role of the person responsible for the intervention, and the competence and fitness of those performing the work, and lays down measures for shutdown of the installation. The case of interventions taking place at several workplaces is considered. Commentaries illustrate the text.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1980, No.99, Note No.1259-99-80 (Recommendation No.173), p.307-309.

CIS 80-956 Baeten J., Helsen J., Deruyttere A.
Nature, structure, and properties of asbestos cement dust.
This study investigates whether respirable asbestos-cement dust particles are physicochemically different from pure asbestos dust. Dust from autoclaved sheet, non-autoclaved sheet, and pipe were examined. The asbestos content decreased with fraction size. The physicochemical behaviour of dust as shown by dissolution kinetics and adsorption of carcinogens from tobacco smoke is comparable to the behaviour of cement rather than asbestos. Conclusions drawn from studies of pure asbestos cannot be directly applied to asbestos-cement dust.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1980, Vol.37, No.1, p.33-41. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 80-666 Bazas T.
Effects of occupational exposure to dust on the respiratory system of cement workers.
This literature survey describes Portland cement manufacture and reviews dust exposure and studies in animals and humans. The role of the free silica content of cement dust is considered. Effects noted are benign reticular fibrosis, irregular and rounded shadows in chest radiographs, micronodulation, a low incidence of silicosis, bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, obstructive ventilatory impairment.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1980, Vol. 30, No.1, p.31-36. 37 ref.

1979

CIS 80-1255 Bornemann P., Braunstorfinger M.
Asbestos-cement products in building and civil engineering
Asbestzementerzeugnisse im Hoch- und Tiefbau [in German]
In view of the large quantities of fine dust released when grinders are used to cut asbestos-cement products, and the concentration limits established by the West German safety regulations, tools giving rise to considerably less dust were developed: presentation (applications, price, dust concentration) of hand tools and portable electric tools (scribing, sawing, cutting, drilling, grinding) which through their design or their being equipped with an exhaust system do not give rise to harmful dust concentrations. These tools are designed for working plates and small-diameter pipes. Electric tools and equipment designed for work on large pipes in situ are described. These tools give rise to large dust particles without danger, or are fitted with an exhaust arrangement.
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, Nov.-Dec. 1979, Vol.89, No.6, p.206-215. Illus.

CIS 80-42 Use of asbestos in the building industry
Werken met asbest in het bouwbedrijf [in Dutch]
This data sheet gives a roundup of various processes for shaping materials containing asbestos (especially asbestos cement) by sawing, cutting, machining, moulding, etc. Contents: asbestos dust control measures (removal of dust from materials after unpacking, work with asbestos in separate premises designed so that concealed asbestos dust cannot collect, cleaning of machinery and premises after use; use of reduced-dust techniques, local exhaust ventilation for removal of machining dust); industrial health and hygiene methods (dust masks, dustproof clothing); precautions during demolition work; disposal of asbestos waste (in hermetically sealed bags); overview of Netherlands legislation (prohibition of certain operations involving the use of asbestos, mandatory procedures for limiting exposure to asbestos).
P no 116-2, General Directorate of Labour, Labour Inspectorate (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Arbeidsinspectie), Voorburg, Netherlands, 1979. 14p. Illus. Price: Glds.0.50.

CIS 79-1881 Kołodyńska U., Durski Z.
Determination of crystalline silica in the respirable fraction of cement dust by X-ray diffractometry
Oznaczanie krystalicznej krzemionki we frakcji respirabilnej pyłu cementowego rentgenostrukturalną metodą proszkową [in Polish]
Description of the method and results of a study using a URS 50 IM diffractometer to determine the different crystalline phases of free silica in samples of respirable dust obtained in a Polish cement works with 2 konimeters: "Barbara 3A" (Polish model) and "Dust Sampling" (U.S. model). The operational methods used, sampling procedures and analysis techniques are described. The α-quartz content of samples obtained at different workplaces varied considerably (from 2.5 to 11.5%); tridymite content was minimal and cristobalite content inexistent. Unlike conventional chemical analysis methods, the method described seems well suited for monitoring the various crystalline forms of silica in mixtures such as cements.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1979, Vol.29, No.101, p.135-143. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 79-1810 Behringer R.
Explosive aluminium powder
Explosives Aluminiumpulver [in German]
Following a number of aluminium powder explosions which occurred in gas concrete production plants, research was undertaken to ascertain the hazards involved and appropriate countermeasures. This article gives the results obtained using an aluminium paste with 20% reduced sensitivity, and a description of the static electricity hazards involved. Technical data on explosive properties of aluminium powders with sensitivities reduced by 10% and 20% are presented in tables. Conclusions: it is recommended to use aluminium paste desensitised by 20%, and to observe certain safety measures in the processing and storage areas (adequately qualified personnel, electrical installation, prevention of static electricity build-up, mechanical ventilation).
Bundesarbeitsblatt, Sep. 1979, p.39-41. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 79-1551 Hammad Y.Y., Diem J., Weill H.
Evaluation of dust exposure in asbestos cement manufacturing operations.
Operations at the plant, which employs some 200 workers, are described. An attempt was made to develop information that might lead to conversion of particulate to fibre concentrations, in order to relate the risk assessment to current membrane filter methods. The ratio of fibre concentrations to particle count ranged from 0.63 to 2.5. Correlation was poor with low fibre and particle counts, and good in dusty areas where asbestos and silica were handled dry. No single conversion factor can be used for all situations. Personal sampling showed levels below 2 fibres/cm3 for 80% of workers and below 0.5 fibre for 60%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1979, Vol.40, No.6, p.490-495. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 79-1283
National Joint Technical Committee for Refractory Materials, National Health Insurance Fund (Comité technique national des industries des pierres et terres à feu, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie), Paris, 20 Nov. 1978.
Dust hazard in Portland pozzuolana cement works
Risque d'empoussièrement dans les cimenteries fabriquant du CPAZ et CPALZ. [in French]
Pozzuolana-based additives used in manufacturing Portland pozzuolana and Portland pozzuolana blast-furnace cements contain free crystalline silica. This recommendation proposes that plants producing these cements should measure dust levels in the workplace and surrounding area at least 5 times a year, keep dust levels of <5µm particles below 1,000 particles/cm3 and insist on their personnel undergoing pre-employment and periodic chest X-ray examinations. Commentary on the recommendation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1979, No.95, Note No.1186-95-79 (Recommendation No.152), p.309-310.

CIS 79-745 Fregert S., Gruvberger B., Sandahl E.
Reduction of chromate in cement by iron sulfate.
In these studies, iron sulfate was added to cement to reduce the hexavalent chromium to the trivalent form, which then was precipitated. 0.35% (w/w) iron sulfate (FeSO4.7H20) is enough to reduce 20µ Cr6+/g cement. The concrete is not affected technically. Iron sulfate is best added to cement when there is a skin exposure hazard, e.g. for floor laying, repairs, and hand casting.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1979, Vol.5, No.1, p.39-42. 8 ref.

1978

CIS 79-611 Schulz W., Wohlfahrt D.
Technical safety rules for use of aluminium as propellant in gas concrete production
Sicherheitstechnische Hinweise über die Verwendung von Aluminium als Treibmittel bei der Herstellung von Gasbeton [in German]
A number of serious accidents gave rise to these rules, which contain many references to the Explosion Protection Directives (CIS 76-1820) and other West German standards. Contents: fire and explosions hazards; scope; construction of work premises (fire walls, explosion vents, smooth wall surfaces, etc.); construction of mechanical equipment (elimination of ignition sources, inerted dust collectors, remote controlled carboy trucks, measures against dust-air mixtures, etc.); safe operation (drawing up of instructions, prohibition of smoking, periodic reminder of safety rules, etc.); fire extinguishment (use of water inappropriate, etc.).
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, Nov.-Dec. 1978, Vol.88, No.6, p.190-196. Illus.

CIS 79-376
National Joint Technical Committee for Refractory Materials, National Health Insurance Fund (Comité technique national des pierres et terres à feu, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie), Paris, 14 June 1978.
Prevention of dust hazard in cement works
Prévention du risque des poussières dans les cimenteries. [in French]
This recommendation, which supersedes Recommendation No.45 (CIS 1489-1967, Fxv Gtz Skz Xmr (609)), applies to production (crushers; transfer points on belt conveyors; grinding mills; kilns; belt conveyors in general) and handling (storage sheds, transport of sacks on belt conveyors, packaging for dispatch. Recommended measures: enclosure of some points and processes, mechanisation, dust removal by exhaust ventilation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1978, No.93, Note No.1152-93-78 (Recommendation No.142), p.615-616.

CIS 79-404
National Joint Technical Committee for Refractory Materials, National Health Insurance Fund (Comité technique national des pierres et terres à feu, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie), Paris, 14 June 1978.
Noise control in cement works
Lutte contre le bruit dans les cimenteries. [in French]
This recommendation lists the principal noise sources (grinding mills, compressors, fans) and gives guidelines for noise control measures at the design and layout stage for workplaces, and for plant organisation (source of noise, sound propagation, personal protection). Aspects covered include: bearing in mind noise control in choice of materials; silencers and enclosure or housing of noise-absorbent materials; antivibration mountings, remote control and telemetering; soundproof cabins; personal protective equipment; hearing tests.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1978, No.93, Note No.1151-93-78 (Recommendation No.141), p.613-614.

CIS 79-389 Seiler H.
Reduction of concrete block machine noise with accessory soundproofing attachments
Lärmminderung an Betonsteinmaschinen durch schallschluckende Nachrüstsätze [in German]
The results of studies on vibrating cars of ground finishers for making concrete blocks, paving stones and kerbs are reported. An initial reduction in the sound level from 112 to 94dB(A) was attained, but the quality of the concrete suffered. Further research lead to the development of soundproofing linings and partial enclosures composed of newly developed materials, a rubber-metal sandwich which could be added to existing machinery. These measures and modifications in machine design produced a reduction in the sound pressure level from 115 to 88dB(A), without loss of product quality.
Forschungsbericht Nr.177, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach, 4600 Dortmund-Dorstfeld, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 33p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: DM.8.75.

CIS 78-1901 Touzet, Pallaro
Sound insulation of a concrete block press
Isolation phonique d'une presse à parpaings. [in French]
Measurements indicated a sound level of close to 100dB at various workplaces of a concrete block factory (press control desk, handling by hand tongs, industrial truck driver). The press was insulated by a general enclosure composed of metal sheet fixed in a metal frame by means of foam rubber connections, lined with isorel plates and having a special vibration-resistant coating. For transport of the blocks from machine to workshop a mobile trapdoor synchronised with the movement of the mould was installed. These measures reduced noise levels by 15dBA.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, May-June 1978, Vol.31, No.3, p.161-165. Illus.

CIS 78-1832 Wibbelhoff H.
Use of coal dust in the cement industry
Der Umgang mit Kohlenstaub in der Zementindustrie [in German]
Recommendations for the prevention of accidents which may occur during the transport and storage of coal and lignite dust, used as fuel in the cement industry. This dust tends to ignite spontaneously and forms explosive mixtures with air. The recommendations reproduced in this article concern steps to be taken to prevent the formation of explosive mixtures and the ignition of these mixtures, and to reduce the effects of an explosion if one occurs. General comments are followed by special provisions concerning bulk storage bins, bulk materials handling installations and tank trucks. Commentary on the recommendations.
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, Mar.-Apr. 1978, Vol.88, No.2, p.38-40.

CIS 78-2031 Adenot A.
Gas concrete construction
Construire en béton cellulaire. [in French]
Brief review of the manufacturing process for gas concrete elements, the various uses of this material (parpoint work on walls, floor and roof slabs) and the quality control required, followed by a description of various ways of assembling and positioning the slabs in floor and roof work, reviewing the hazards involved and appropriate safety measures (floor- or roof-laying plan worked out in detail, elimination of doubtful slabs, prohibition of use of bolt guns). Two interviews following the article, in which handling slabs in parpoint work, and handling accidents, are discussed.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Jan.-Feb. 1978, No.1, p.3-11. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 78-1254 Cortez Pimentel J., Peixoto Menezes A.
Pulmonary and hepatic granulomatous disorders due to the inhalation of cement and mica dusts.
Case reports are presented of 2 workers, one exposed to Portland cement (case 1) and the other to muscovite dust (case 2). Pulmonary lesions in case 1 were histiocytic granulomas and irregular fibrohyaline scars, and in case 2 diffuse thickening of all interalveolar septa due to new formation of reticulin and collagen fibres and proliferation of fibroblasts and histiocytes. Pathological findings in the liver were: focal or diffuse swelling of sinusoidal lining cells, sarcoid-type granulomas, and, in case 2, perisinusoidal and portal tract fibrosis. Abundant inclusions of the inhaled material were identified in the pulmonary and hepatic lesions by histochemical and X-ray diffraction techniques.
Thorax, Apr. 1978, Vol.33, No.2, p.219-227. Illus. 28 ref.

1977

CIS 78-1436 Effective accident suppression
Quand l'accident disparaît. [in French]
Journalistic news coverage of the accident prevention performance of a French cement works employing over 130 workers, where no occupational accident involving more than 24h time lost has been reported for 2 years. This achievement is mainly due to extensive automation and the implementation of a very strict shut-down or "tagging off" procedure for work on certain mechanical or electrical equipment. Special or additional rules were issued for work on or inside bulk storage bins, and for raking out cyclones in the preheating tower. Other safety measures (profusely illustrated by photographs): extensive use of well guarded belt conveyors, non-skid walking surfaces, use of loaders with crush-proof cabs, power steering and air-spring suspended driver's seat, truck loading by palletisers, etc. These measures, accompanied by a safety awareness campaign, resulted in a constant falling-off in the number of accidents from 1969 onwards (shown graphically).
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 1977, No.11, p.502-511. Illus.

CIS 78-1138 Adenot A.
Use of cellular concrete
L'utilisation du béton cellulaire. [in French]
Cellular concrete, which is being used more and more in the prefabricated construction sector, has the disadvantage of being very fragile. This article considers the minimum length and width of surfaces on which the concrete slabs should rest, marking of the prefabricated elements, and precautions against falls from height when laying down concrete slabs for floors and roofs: organisation of slab laying operation, prior inspection of condition of slabs, design of trolley for transporting and laying slabs, installation of safety nets in the laying area, transition zone to reduce the glare hazard from white surface of slabs, prohibition of use of bolt guns.
Sauvegarde des chantiers, 1977, No.3-4, p.23-27. Illus.

1976

CIS 77-1145 Health hazards due to chemical concrete additives
Betonikemikaalien aiheuttamat vaaratekijät [in Finnish]
Riskmoment som orsakes av betongkemikalier [in Swedish]
This circular, addressed to labour inspectors, construction workers' and employers' associations, and producers and importers of concrete additives, draws attention to the health hazards associated with irritating, caustic and allergenic substances included in chemical products used as additives to concrete or as stripping agents or to improve the quality of the hardened concrete surface. Review of safety rules in conformity with the Finnish Act on worker protection; ventilation and control of atmospheric pollutants at the workplace; substitution of toxic substances; supervision of the composition of products used; houskeeping; personal protection; limitation of length of exposure, etc. Appendix: list of additives imported into Finland (by trade name). CIS has only the Swedish version.
Kiertokirje 2/76, Directorate of Labour Protection (Työsuojeluhallitus), Tampere, Finland, 23 Jan. 1976. 12p.

CIS 77-489 Vickers H.R., Edwards D.H.
Cement burns.
Reports on 4 men who sustained severe burns on the legs after contact with premixed concrete. In 2 cases contact occurred when the concrete spilled over the top of their boots as they were using their feet and lower legs to spread it in a trench. As such "treading" is a common method of spreading cement in the construction industry, and such injuries are rare, the liquid in the wet cement must have had an unusually high alkalinity.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1976, Vol.2, No.2, p.73-78. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 76-1266 Šarić M., Kalačić I., Holetić A.
Follow-up of ventilatory lung function in a group of cement workers.
Measurements of FVC, FEV1 and (FEV1/FVC)% were made at an interval of 4 or 8 years in 160 active cement workers and 80 controls from the shipbuilding industry. The effects of smoking, presence of chronic bronchitis, age, duration of exposure, and the interval between examinations were all taken into account. Ventilatory indices declined significantly between the examinations (8-year interval) in both groups. The only significant difference between the groups was in the reduction of the (FEV1/FVC)% found in the cement workers but not in the controls.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1976, Vol.33, No.1, p.18-24. 9 ref.

1975

CIS 76-1569 Kolev K., Šumkov G.
Biological effects of intraperitoneally or intratracheally administered cement dust
Vărhu biologičnoto văzdejstvie na cimentovija prah pri intraperitonealnija i intratrahealnija test [in Bulgarian]
Description of morphological and histological changes in mice after intraperitoneal or intratracheal administration of cement containing 1.3% free silica. The internal changes of the peritoneal cavity were first necrotic and exudative, and then granulomas formed around dust particles that were not eliminated. Intratracheal administration produces an "experimental cement pneumopathy" characterised by pseudopolyp formation around the small bronchi and bronchioles and thus obstructing them. The final stage is peribronchial fibrosis and perifocal and subpleural emphysema around the affected bronchi.
Problemi na higienata, 1975, Vol.1, No.1, p.111-118. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 76-1759 Amphoux M., Robin J., Woerth P., Grimonnet J., Ha-Hau-Cam J.
Double-blind trial with a protective ointment (Ivosin) on the hands of cement workers
Doppelblindversuch mit einer Schutzsalbe (Ivosin) an den Händen von Zementarbeitern [in German]
Comparative trial of a protective ointment containing an anion exchanger which binds chromate ions, and a simple protective cream without active ingredient. The composition and type of cream were unknown to the 113 construction workers using them, the attending physicians and the statistician analysing the results. Description of preparatory measures and results. A larger proportion (86%) of satisfactory results was obtained with the ointment than with the inactive cream (66%).
Berufs-Dermatosen, Dec. 1975, Vol.23, No.6, p.214-226. 10 ref.

CIS 76-1320 Amphoux M., Bensoussan M., Robin J.
Skin sensitivity to cement in dermatitis sufferers
Sensibilité cutanée au ciment chez les porteurs de dermite. [in French]
In view of the prevailing doubts as to the aetiology of cement dermatitis, the authors undertook a study with cements of different types with known composition in the same group of subjects. The necessary precautions to eliminate factors known to produce variability in the results were taken. In spite of a very close link observed between sensitivity to chromium and sensitivity to cement, certain anomalies prevented the authors from concluding that cement workers' dermatitis is a chromium-induced excema. Multiple sensitisation or the existence of an unrecognised allergen remain possible. Comparison with the results obtained with various cements yielded similar conclusions, the frequency of reactions being correlated not with the chromium, but with the clinker content. The effect of ageing of the cement is also discussed.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1975, Vol.3, No.5, p.361-368. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 76-948 Cruz Caballero A.
Occupational diseases in the asbestos cement industry. Our experience. Prevention
Enfermedades profesionales en la industria de fibrocemento. Nuestra experiencia. Profilasis de las mismas [in Spanish]
A general introduction and description of the asbestos cement manufacturing process (types of asbestos used) are followed by a study of the lung diseases due to asbestos dust (diagnosis, onset, course, terminal stages), with reference to the author's case observations. Prevention: dust control, handling of sacks, enclosure of operations, personal protective equipment, pre-employment medical examination, workers over 45 should not be exposed. Other occupational health hazards in the industry: noise (prevention), dermatitis (clinical picture, incidence, prevention).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-June 1975, Vol.22, No.89-90, p.55-65. 9 ref.

CIS 76-666 Skidmore J.W., Jones J.S.P.
Monitoring an asbestos spray process.
Data on the asbestos hazard were collected during construction of a maternity unit. The spray process (amosite) and dust measurement procedure are described. Percentage fibre length and diameter distributions, and airborne fibre concentrations (1-100µm) at various positions on 3 days are tabulated. Cloud concentrations ranged from 1 to 8 fibres/cm3 during spraying, and there were no other hazards outside the spraying area. Subsequent clean-up operations were however inadequate, and a hazard remained for sweepers and workers moving timber, etc. on which dust had accumulated, during the next phase of building.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 1975, Vol.18, No.2, p.151-156. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 76-664 Balaam L.N., McCullagh S.F.
Vital capacity and one-second forced expiratory volume in Australian male asbestos cement workers.
The effect of asbestos exposure was studied in 955 asbestos-cement workers, and a considerable influence on the relationship between age, height, vital capacity (VC) and one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) found. The VC and FEV1 were not significantly lower than those of non-asbestos workers, in respect to the exposed group as a whole, but became so when the latter was divided up into 5 exposure categories, as is shown in a detailed statistical analysis. Smoking did not affect the VC and FEV1.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 1975, Vol.18, No.2, p.133-141. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 76-207 Scansetti G., Coscia G.C., Pisani W., Rubino G.F.
Cement, asbestos, and cement-asbestos pneumoconioses - A comparative clinical-roentgenographic study.
The incidence and characteristics of asbestos-cement pneumoconiosis were compared with those of asbestos and cement pneumoconiosis in 3 homogeneous samples of 100 cases. Clinical, functional and radiological features of asbestos-cement pneumoconiosis are similar to those of classical asbestosis, but the observed changes are less common and occur after a longer exposure.
Archives of Environmental Health, June 1975, Vol.30, No.6, p.272-275. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 75-1560 Wirth T.
The effect of asbestos cement, UICC asbestos samples and quartz on the peritoneum of the mouse
Die Wirkung von Asbestzement, UICC-Asbestproben und Quarz im Peritoneum der Maus [in German]
This MD thesis reports on studies in which 7 types of dust (some UICC-standardised) were injected into the peritoneal cavity of mice. Aqueous suspensions of asbestos cement powder, chrysotile asbestos and chrysotile-asbestos-containing soil samples had a fibrogenic effect, the nodules resembling silicosis granulomas morphologically. In addition, asbestos cement had a strong cytotoxic effect during the first 2 weeks. It is suggested that this is due to the chrysotile asbestos and/or the calcite component of the powder. Amosite and crocidolite induced diffuse peritoneal fibrosis with the appearance of numerous foreign-body giant cells and asbestos bodies. Dust particles were frequently found in the regional lymph nodes of animals treated with quartz, asbestos cement and asbestos-containing soil samples. Spindle-cell-type sarcoma developed in the visceral peritoneum of animals injected with crocidolite or asbestos cement. Dusts containing chrysotile asbestos further induced considerable amyloidosis of the liver and spleen.
Pathologia et Microbiologia, 1975, Vol.42, No.1, p.15-28. Illus. 48 ref.

1974

CIS 76-57 El-Sewefy A.Z., Shaheen H., Shams El-Deen A.
Bone marrow changes in asbestosis.
Results of clinical, radiological and haematological examinations in 17 workers in an Egyptian asbestos-cement pipe factory, exposed to asbestos dust (but seldom to silica and cement dust) for 10-26 years. Leukopenia and increased globular sedimentation rate were found. Bone marrow showed a marked degree of generalised hyperplasia, with a marked increase in the number of reticulum cells, some of thich were binucleated. There was an increase in the number of plasma cells, some of which were immature and binucleated.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1974, Vol.65, No.5-6, p.168-173. 12 ref.

CIS 75-2048 Cambie R.
Safety and health in cement works
L'hygiène et la sécurité dans les cimenteries. [in French]
After a review of cement manufacture by the wet process (extraction and preparation of the raw material, calcination, grinding, storage and dispatch), the hazards encountered are described: falls of earth or rock, overturning of quarrying equipment, accidents with conveyors, burns caused by clinker, falls from a height, eye injury, work on furnaces, materials handling. Preventive measures recommended: training of quarrying equipment operators; protection of nips of belt conveyors; authorisation for work on slurry mixers, mills, kilns, storage bins, etc., interlocking of operating controls of dangerous equipment; radioactive gauging of bulk material levels; personal protection. To protect workers against noise, mills should be installed in a special workshop or outside the factory. Dust-suppression measures are also described.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 Boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 1974. 11p. Gratis.

CIS 75-1399 Bokov A.N., Gus'kova S.I., Gus'kov E.P., Mas'ko V.I.
Use of anaphase studies for estimating bone-marrow chromosome aberrations in the hygienic assessment of the mutagenic effect of polymer building materials
Ispol'zovanie anafaznogo metoda učeta hromosomnyh perestroek v kostnom mozge pri gigieničeskoj ocenke mutagennogo ėffekta polimernyh stroitel'nyh materialov [in Russian]
Literature review and results of animal experiments concerning the chromosome aberrations induced by exposure to polymer-containing concretes and putties. It was found that polymer concretes which produced no chronic toxic action in animals had no cytogenic effect. Polymer putties containing unsaturated hydrocarbons, petrol, divinyl and xylene caused changes characteristic of certain toxic effects and an increase (by a factor of almost 2) in the number of chromosome aberrations as compared with a control group.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1974, No.8, p.17-20. 6 ref.

CIS 75-835 Perone V.B., Moffitt A.E., Possick P.A., Key M.M., Danzinger S.J., Gellin G.A.
The chromium, cobalt, and nickel contents of American cement and their relationship to cement dermatitis.
Chemical analyses - the methods are described - were performed on 50 samples of cement; their chromium, cobalt and nickel content is tabulated. All samples contained chromium (from 5 to 124µg/g), but only 0.03% of this was in the water-soluble hexavalent form. Human studies undertaken included patch tests in 95 construction workers. None had positive reactions to nickel, cobalt or cement filtrate free of hexavalent chromium, nickel and cobalt. 3 showed positive reactions to sodium arsenate. Only 1 was considered to have an allergic hypersensitivity to chromium. In the authors' opinion, cement dermatitis continues to be a problem associated with the irritant nature of cement on account of its alkalinity, abrasiveness and hygroscopicity.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1974, Vol.35, No.5, p.301-306. 15 ref.

CIS 75-583 Kalačić I.
Early detection of expiratory airflow obstruction in cement workers.
In 39 non-smoking cement workers and 23 non-smoking controls, expiratory flows were measured at higher and at lower lung volumes. All had a one-second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio of 75% or more. While there was no difference in mean values of maximal expiratory flow between the 2 groups, certain other values were lower in cement workers. The use of indices of maximal expiratory flow at lower lung volumes is therefore recommended for the early detection of expiratory airflow obstruction in cement workers.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep. 1974, Vol.29, No.3, p.147-149. 16 ref.

CIS 75-58 Mal'ceva L.M., Tatanov Ju.A.
Occupational respiratory diseases in modern cement production
Professional'nye zabolevanija organov dyhanija v uslovijah sovremennogo cementnogo proizvodstva [in Russian]
Results of a survey concerning the different types of occupational bronchopulmonary disease found in cement works producing Portland cement, which contains up to 5% of free silica. Radiographs of the thoracic region of 1,247 cement workers and the health status of 621 of them were studied; in 9.5% of the subjects observed, chronic bronchitis was diagnosed; in 0.62%, pneumoconiosis at an initial stage and in 0.3%, occupational bronchial asthma were found.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1974, No.3, p.14-17. 17 ref.

1973

CIS 75-364 El-Shobaki F.A., El Sewefy A.Z.
The effect of exposure to asbestos dust on iron metabolism in Egyptian workers.
Results of observations carried out on a random sample of 42 workers in an Egyptian asbestos cement pipe factory, constantly exposed to asbestos dust and periodically to quartz and cement dust for 10-38 years, and all showing clinical and radiological evidence of asbestosis and/or mixed pneumoconiosis. 10 non-exposed workers were used as controls. Haematological studies showed that haemoglobin level was not affected by exposure to asbestos; on the contrary, mean haemoglobin erythrocyte concentration and mean erythrocyte volume were higher than normal. Fasting serum iron and percentage of transferrin saturation were low. Rate of iron absorption from the gut and serum transferrin level were enhanced in the exposed workers. The authors suggest the existence of a state of polycythaemia due to anoxia. A haemolytic action of asbestos dust on the erythrocytes seems to be evidenced by the relatively high values of serum total bilirubin, mean haemoglobin erythrocyte concentration and mean erythrocyte volume.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1973, Vol.64, No.11-12, p.417-422. 20 ref.

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