Cement and concrete - 213 entries found
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Dumortier P., De Vuyst P., Strauss P., Yernault J.C.
Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers
Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples of 15 brake lining workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. Examination of repeated bronchoalveolar lavage samples showed that the mechanisms of clearance of chrysotile fibres do not affect AB concentration for at least 10 months after cessation of exposure. It thus appears that routine counting of ABs in BAL allows the assessment of current or recent occupational exposures to asbestos. Exposures to chrysotile lead to AB concentrations comparable with those encountered in exposures to amphiboles.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1990, Vol.47, No.2, p.91-98. Illus. 26 ref.
Working with asbestos in the construction industry
Werken met asbest in de bouw [in Dutch]
In this safety guide and information note guidance is given for working with asbestos in the construction industry. It describes measures for preventing the spreading of asbestos dust, for handling asbestos cement tubes, for the demolition of asbestos-containing constructions, and for handling asbestos waste.
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1989. 21p. 7 ref.
Zejda J., Marek K., Szymczykiewicz K., Kujawska A., Romaniec B.
Validation of clinical criteria for diagnosing asbestosis in asbestos-cement workers
The recently developed diagnostic criteria for asbestosis, including chest x-ray abnormalities and respiratory impairment consistent with interstitial lung fibrosis, were tested in 550 current asbestos-cement workers. The findings showed a correlation of x-ray ILO/UC scores for small irregular opacities with duration of exposure. An increasing x-ray score was accompanied by more functional abnormality, demonstrated by a restrictive defeat in ventilation. Amongst subjects working for at least 10yrs 30 met the roentgenographic and functional criteria for asbestosis. On the basis of these criteria, asbestosis could be diagnosed only in subject employed for not longer than 5yrs and two others working for not longer than 9yrs, which can be explained by a false-positive effect.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1989, Vol.2, No.1, p.62-75. Illus. 24 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Work with asbestos cement
This guidance note provides information on risks of exposure to asbestos dust when working with asbestos cement and precautions to be taken. Topics covered include: outline of relevant UK legislation; composition, properties and uses of asbestos cement; identification of asbestos cement products and risk of exposure through fibre or dust release; precations to be taken for all work with asbestos cement and for tasks which put workers at greater risk of contamination, including use of appropriate work methods and personal protective equipment; procedures for demolition work and removal or cleaning of asbestos cement sheets.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Dec. 1989. 6p. 20 ref.
Follow-up of workers from the prefabricated concrete industry after the addition of ferrous sulphate to Danish cement
Ferrous sulfate has been added to cement manufactured in Denmark, reducing the water soluble chromate content to not more than 2ppm, since September 1981. A comparison is made between the medical and employment status of a cohort of workers engaged in the manufacture of prefabricated concrete bulding components in 1981 and in 1987. Workers who had allergic cement eczema in 1981 appeared to show no improvement 6yrs after the reduction of chromate in the cement. Improvement was seen, however, in the eczema of those workers with irritant cement eczema. The 1987 study showed that topical steroid treatment was required by more chromate-sensitised workers than by workers not sensitised to chromate. This difference was statistically significant. The worse medical prognosis of the chromate-sensitised workers could in part be due to the fact that some of these had secondary contact sensitivity to cobalt and rubber chemicals.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1989, Vol.20, No.5, p.365-371. Illus. 28 ref.
Paureau J., Jacqmin M.
Determination of the effects of aging on used sheets of asbestos cement
Détermination de l'endommagement des plaques en amiante-ciment usagées [in French]
Used sheets of asbestos cement recovered from six building sites were submitted to impact tests (in accordance with French standard NF P 33-303), static bending tests (in accordance with standards NF P 33-301 and NF P 33-302) and bending tests on small samples (in accordane with draft standard P 08-103). The tests show that aging can have a beneficial effect on asbestos cement roofing sheets with regard to static loads or a negative effect in the case of impact loads.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1989, No.135, Note No.1729-135-89, p.259-263. Illus. 5 ref.
Soleo L., Cassano F., Mazzilli G., Martemucci A., Castrignanò G., Catamo E., Lasorsa G., Candilio G., Ambrosi L.
Evaluation of noise-induced hearing loss in a group of cement workers
La valutazione del danno da rumore: Considerazioni su una casistica di esposti addetti alla produzione del cemento [in Italian]
The study covered 1,334 workers employed in 12 cement factories located in southern Italy. They were submitted to audiometric screening consisting of a questionnaire containing questions on past otologic complaints, dysmetabolic diseases, use of ototoxic drugs and past occupational or non-occupational exposure to noise, plus otoscopic examination and full audiometric examination. The results revealed a statistically significant relationship between duration of exposure to noise and elevation in the hearing threshold. On the question of assessment of the audiometric tracings for preventive and insurance purposes, attention is drawn to the fact that there is a need for a method that will enable an evaluation for prevention to be transformed into an evaluation for insurance. This method should in any case allow for deduction of the portion of hearing loss regarding presbycusis and socioacusis and take due account of the 3KHz frequency. The attention of industry and public administration is drawn to the urgent need for prevention programmes to protect against noise-induced hearing loss in both occupational and non-occupational settings.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1989, Vol.80, No.3, p.229-243. Illus. 39 ref.
Capture efficiency of a concrete grinder exhaust device
Efficacité de captage d'une ponceuse à béton équipée de son système d'aspiration [in French]
A concrete grinder fitted with an exhaust device was tested on a test bench. The capture efficiency of the integrated suction device was determined for two working configurations: horizontal and on a 10° incline. Particle size distribution and suction rate were also measured. The results obtained in these set and controlled testing conditions cannot be used to predict the efficiency of the machine in real working conditions. However, data such as dust aerosol flow rate and capture efficiency obtained on the test bench can be a useful guide to choosing a machine and/or determining what extra general ventilation measures should be provided.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1989, No.134, Note No.1717-134-89, p.39-44. Illus. 2 ref.
Kambič V., Radšel Z., Gale N.
Alterations in the laryngeal mucosa after exposure to asbestos
The laryngeal mucosa of 195 workers in an asbestos cement factory (Salonit Anhovo, Yugoslavia) and in a control group was examined. The factory manufactures asbestos cement products containing about 13% asbestos (8% amosite, 12% crocidolite, and 80% chrysotile) of different provenance. Alterations in the laryngeal mucosa were more frequent in the factory workers than in the control group. The changes, mostly consistent with chronic laryngitis, were closely related to the degree of workplace pollution and less so to the duration of employment. Ten workers exhibiting the most severe clinical changes underwent biopsy, the results of which showed histomorphological changes characteristic of hyperplastic chronic laryngitis. Four tissue specimens were examined also by scanning electron microscopy and in 3 of them asbestos fibres were found on the epithelial surface. No case of laryngeal carcinoma was identified. On the basis of our results it is thought that asbestos related changes of the larynx should receive more attention and that the use of the term "laryngeal asbestosis" is justified. The clinical picture is non-specific but in view of their frequency such changes should be considered a consequence of exposure to asbestos.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1989, Vol.46, No.10, p.717-723. Illus. 19 ref.
Jones R.N., Diem J.E., Hughes J.M., Hammad Y.Y., Glindmeyer H.W., Weill H.
Progressison of asbestos effects: a prospective longitudinal study of chest radiographs and lung function
From an original prospective cohort of 244 current and ex-workers in two asbestos cement plants (mainly chrysotile), longitudinal radiographic data covering ten years were available for 165 and lung function data covering about six years for 150. Estimates of average and cumulative dust exposure were available for each participant, all men. Radiographic progression was assessed by comparing earliest and latest films side by side. Annual changes in lung function were computed by fitting regression lines to all the data points. Small opacities (ILO category 1/0 or higher) were found in 16% of initial films, and progression of small opacities occurred in 13% of film pairs. Average and cumulative dust exposure were each significant determinants of the initial presence of small opacities, and were determinants of the progression of both parenchymal and pleural abnormalities. Initial levels of lung function were related to smoking, exposure to dust, and initial radiographic status. Mean annual declines in lung function were modest and were related to smoking but not exposure to dust, initial radiographic status, or radiographic progression.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1989, Vol.46, No.2, p.97-105. 30 ref.
Raffn E., Lynge E., Juel K., Korsgaard B.
Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark
In a cohort study of the incidence of cancer and mortality among 7, 996 men and 584 women employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984, over 99% were traced. Chrysotile constituted 89%, amosite 10%, and crocidolite 1% of the asbestos used. Measurements from 1948 indicate that the fibre levels may have ranged from 100 to 1600 times over the present Danish threshold limit value of 0.5 fibre/mL. A total of 1346 deaths and 612 cases of cancer were observed in the cohort between 1943 and 1984. Among employed men the overall mortality, cancer mortality and overall incidence of cancer were significantly increased compared with all Danish men. This was not so among employed women. For men, significant excess risks were found for cancer of the lung pleura, mediastinum, stomach, and other male genital organs. The mortality was significantly increased for men for non-malignant pulmonary diseases. Among the group of asbestos cement workers with first employment 1928-40 an excess risk of laryngeal cancer was found. A total of 12 cases of pleural and one of peritoneal mesotheliomas was observed when the original notification forms were reviewed for all patients with cancer in the cohort.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1989, Vol. 46, No.2, p.90-96. Illus. 34 ref.
Siracusa A., Forcina A., Volpi R., Mollichella E., Cicioni C., Fiordi T.
An 11-year longitudinal study of the occupational dust exposure and lung function of polyvinyl chloride, cement and asbestos cement factory workers
Standardised questionnaires and lung function tests were administered in 1973, 1980, and 1984 to 126 workers occupationally exposed to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dust, to cement dust, or to asbestos cement dust until 1974-1978 and to PVC thereafter. The workers in the last group were assigned to 2 asbestos exposure categories (heavy and slight). The decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1.0) was analysed with regard to the length of time since the date of first employment. The decline in FVC and FEV1.0 among the non-smokers and light smokers was slightly accelerated with length of employment in the PVC and slight asbestos exposure groups and markedly accelerated with time since first employment in the heavy asbestos exposure group. The heavy smokers in all the exposure groups had FVC and FEV1.0 predicted values that were lower than those of the non-smokers and light smokers; these differences remained constant with length of employment.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1988, Vol.14, No.3, p.181-188. Illus. 26 ref.
Cavalleri A., Gobba F., Bacchella L., Luberto F., Ziccardi A.
Serum type III procollagen peptide in asbestos workers: An early indicator of pulmonary fibrosis
Serum type III procollagen peptide (PIIIP) concentrations were determined in 36 male workers exposed to asbestos fibres in the production of asbestos cement items in 13 healthy male controls. Mean (SD) PIIIP serum concentrations were 9.3 (1.5) ng/mL (range 7-12) in the controls and 13.7 (3.5) ng/mL (range 7.5-20) in the asbestos workers; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). The exposed workers were subdivided according to presence or absence of radiological signs of asbestosis and intensity and duration of exposure. PIIIP serum values of workers with asbestos related interstitial fibrosis were the highest of the groups at 14.6 (2.3) ng/mL. In workers with heavy exposure the PIIIP values were significantly related to duration of exposure (r = 0.95; p<0.01). PIIIP serum values may be a useful index for the early diagnosis of asbestos induced pulmonary fibrosis and biological monitoring of exposed workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1988, Vol.45, No.12, p.818-823. Illus. 34 ref.
Beck E.G., Bödeker R.H., Schmidt P.
Epidemiological investigation of the fibre cement industry
Epidemiologische Untersuchung in der Faserzement-Industrie [in German]
This investigation was conducted in the Federal Republic of Germany over 2 periods (1976-1980, and 1981-1986), involving workers with at least 10 and 5 years of exposure, respectively. Mortality causes were studied in 307 workers out of the 376 who died during the 1st period, and in 280 workers out of the 325 who died during the 2nd. Relative to the general population, there was a much higher incidence of respiratory disease (PMRs of 2.55 and 2.0, respectively) in the population studied. The number of deaths due to asbestosis was 32 and 21, respectively, during the 2 periods, while the number of deaths due to cancers of the respiratory system was 28 in both periods.
Sichere Arbeit, 1988, No.4, p.12-17. 11 ref.
Patroni M., Trimarchi R., Andreoletti F., Foà V.
Occupational risk posed by asbestos in the Italian asbestos-cement industry
Il rischio occupazionale nell'industria italiana del cemento-amianto [in Italian]
Results are presented of an environmental study carried out in 12 workplaces where asbestos-cement is used. It is found that the type of asbestos used in Italy is mostly chrysotile, with crocidolite being replaced in the water pipe manufacturing industry. Only a few workplaces have asbestos fibre concentrations in air exceeding the EEC standard of 1f/mL, and one can predict full compliance soon, due to the total abolition of crocidolite and the introduction of suitable anti-dust devices.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1987, Vol.78, No.5, p.351-359. Illus. 15 ref.
Magnani C., Terracini B., Bertolone G.P., Castagneto B., Cocito V., De Giovanni D., Paglieri P., Botta M.
Mortality from cancer and other diseases of the respiratory apparatus among asbestos-cement workers in Casale Monferrato (Italy): Historical cohort study
Mortalità per tumori e altre malattie del sistema respiratorio tra i lavoratori del cemento-amianto a Casale Monferrato: Uno studio di coorte storico [in Italian]
Statistically significant increases were found for both sexes in this historical cohort study of 3367 asbestos-cement workers (2608 men, 759 women) for mortality from all causes, cancers in general, respiratory cancers and asbestosis. Deaths from digestive cancers were significantly increased for women only while deaths from laryngeal cancer and cardiovascular did not significantly increase for either sex.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1987, Vol.78, No.6, p.441-453. 22 ref.
L'amiante-ciment [in French]
Asbestcement [in Dutch]
This brochure gives an overview of various aspects of asbestos cement. Contents: the history of asbestos cement; composition and properties; applications; handling; progress in science, technology and industrial hygiene; what is asbestos? control of all types of dust; the history of asbestos; asbestos-containing products; the safety of asbestos cement; occupational diseases; characteristics of asbestos fibres; keeping in mind the distinction between asbestos and asbestos cement; the producers of asbestos cement in the urban environment.
Centrum voor Informatie Asbest Benelux, CIAB, E. Jacqmainlaan 162, Bus 32, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1987. 18p.
Jofre P.G., Herrera H.C., Tapia T.W.
Hazards and preventive measures during roof work using asbestos cement sheets
Riesgos y medidas preventivas en trabajos de cubierta con planchas de fibro cemento [in Spanish]
Safety guide to the prevention of mechanical hazards (falling, slipping, being hit by falling objects) and health hazards (inhalation of fibres) during construction work involving asbestos cement covering materials.
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad, Bandera 84, Santiago, Chile, 1987. 12p. Illus. 8 ref.
Raffn E., Korsgaard B.
Asbestos exposure and carcinoma of penis
In a study of 7967 male workers employed in a Danish asbestos cement factory during the period 1928 and 1984, 6 cases of penile cancer were observed versus 1.55 expected, which gives a relative risk of 3.88. The possible relationship between this rare kind of cancer and exposure to asbestos is discussed.
Lancet, 12 Dec. 1987, Vol.II, No.8572, p.1394. 6 ref.
Asbestos exposure during renovation and demolition of asbestos-cement clad buildings
Asbestos dust concentrations during water jet cleaning or painting of weathered asbestos-cement (AC) roofing were approximately 0.1 to 0.2 fibers per milliliter (f/mL). Limited results suggest that concentrations may be reduced substantially by avoiding abrasion of surfaces. Concentrations during AC roof replacement averaged approximately 0.1 f/mL and were reduced markedly by employing more careful work procedures (e.g. by careful handling of sheets or by wet stacking of sheets). Asbestos dust concentration during demolition by removal of whole sheets averaged 0.3 to 0.6 f/mL for roofs and less than 0.1 f/mL for walls, reflecting the significant differences in extent of weathering between these elements. Suppression of asbestos emissions from roof sheets by wetting or sealing of weathered surfaces was not predictable because of the occurrence of asbestos fibers in dust trapped under sheet laps. Respiratory protection and cloting decontamination are considered to be essential for this type of work.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1987, Vol.48, No.5, p.478-486. 29 ref.
Mixers and pneumatic conveyors for mortar, concrete, etc.
Misch- und Druckluftfördergeräte für Mörtel, Beton usw. [in German]
Installazioni per miscelazione e trasporto pneumatico di malta, calcestruzzo, ecc. [in Italian]
Malaxeurs et transporteurs pneumatiques pour chapes, bétons, etc. [in French]
Illustrated information note on protection against the dangers presented by these machines. Construction and operation requirements.
Feuillet 22032, Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, 6002 Lucerne, Switzerland, 1987. 3p. Illus.
Hughes J.M., Weill H., Hammad Y.Y.
Mortality of workers employed in two asbestos cement manufacturing plants
Over 95% of 6931 employees of 2 asbestos cement products manufacturing plants were traced. Chrysotile was the primary fibre used in both plants; plant 2 used crocidolite in pipe production. Mortality was similar for these plants and comparable with local rates for all causes combined, non-malignant causes, and primary cancers of specified sites other than lung. Short term workers from both plants showed raised and similar risk of lung cancer, but risk among longer term workers differed. Among all workers, 10 mesotheliomas occurred up to 1984, two from plant 1, 8 from plant 2. In plant 2 a case-control analysis found a relation between risk of mesothelioma and duration of employment and proportion of time spent in the pipe area, thus adding to the evidence of a greater risk of mesothelioma from crocidolite than chrysotile asbestos. The mortality findings of 8 cohorts are reviewed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1987, Vol.44, No.3, p.161-174. Illus. 39 ref.
Changing patterns in chromate allergy
Comparison of the incidence of contact sensitivity to chromate in 1975, 1980 and 1985 as seen in the Department of Occupational Dermatology at the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. The incidence of chrome allergy decreased even before the introduction of iron sulfate into Swedish cement. The relative incidence in women is increasing.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1986, Vol.15, No.5, p.298-299. 6 ref.
Goh C.L., Kwok S.F., Gan S.L.
Cobalt and nickel content of Asian cements
The cobalt and nickel concentration of 11 brands of Asian cement ranged from 8.1 to 14.2µg/g and from 14.9 to 28.5µg/g, respectively. These metals exist mainly as insoluble salts; the water-soluble concentrations of cobalt and nickel were 0.39 - 0.65µg/g and 0-1.2µg/g, respectively. Four of 272 construction workers in a prefabrication construction factory had cobalt sensitivity. All had allergic contact dermatitis from chromate in cement. No worker had isolated cobalt sensitivity and cement dermatitis. Apparently, sensitisation to cobalt in cement occurs only secondarily to an existing cement dermatitis. Five workers had nickel sensitivity: 2 had allergic contact dermatitis to nickel and their watches, 2 were asymptomatic and 1 had allergic contact dermatitis to chromate and cobalt in cement. The low prevalence of cobalt and nickel sensitivity from cement was probably related to the low concentration of soluble cobalt and nickel salts in the cement. However, the insoluble salts can form soluble complexes with constituents of body fluids on eczematous skin and sensitise the skin.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1986, Vol.15, No.3, p.169-172. 6 ref.
Onuba O., Essiet A.
Cement burns of the heels
An accidental spill of hot cement powder at a factory in Nigeria resulted in severe burns on the feet and legs of 2 workers. The need for improved safety mesures in industry in developing countries is emphasised.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1986, Vol.14, No.5, p.325-326. Illus. 7 ref.
Rafnsson V., Jóhannesdóttir S.G.
Mortality among masons in Iceland
This mortality study of 450 masons, with latency periods of 10, 20 and 30 years, demonstrated a significant excess of deaths due to lung cancer at all latency intervals. A possible involvement of exposure to hexavalent chromium, a trace element in cement, is discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.43, No.8, p.522-525. 22 ref.
Aggregate industry - Safety and health guide
This safety guide can be used as instructional material in safety and health training, and as an aid in plant inspections and in the identification and control of workplace hazards. Contents: process flow chart in the industry (process steps are associated with hazards, recommended control measures and personal protection equipment); dust; noise; vibration; maintenance; communications within quarries.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street East, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C2, Canada, 1985. 111p. 47 ref.
Concrete pipe industry safety and health guide
The material in this guide illustrates to everyone involved the types of safety and health hazards commonly encountered in this industry. Charts indicate what the hazards are, how they are likely to occur and the means to reduce or eliminate them through engineering controls, work practices, personal protective equipment, administrative controls, and education and training.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. East, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C2, Canada, 1985. 68p. Bibl.
Ohlson C.G., Bodin L., Rydman T., Hogstedt C.
Ventilatory decrements in former asbestos cement workers: a four year follow up
This follow-up study involved 75 former asbestos cement workers (43 were smokers and 32 had never smoked) and 56 controls. None of the workers had asbestosis but 32% had pleural plaques at the renewed examination. The forced vital capacity and the FEV1 for all exposed subjects were on average 6-7% less than for the controls. The 4-year declines in these functions were also larger in the exposed workers than in the controls. There were no significant correlations between pleural plaque and ventilatory function after adjustment for exposure. In conclusion, the age-adjusted reduction in ventilatory function had progressed during the follow-up period despite the cessation of exposure and the lack of radiological signs of asbestosis.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1985, Vol.42, No.9, p.612-616. 9 ref.
Ohlson C.G., Hogstedt C.
Lung cancer among asbestos cement workers. A Swedish cohort study and a review
This article reports on a study of 1176 Swedish asbestos cement workers, a subgroup of which had an estimated exposure rate of 18 fibre-years. A review of the literature on lung cancer among workers with low exposure to asbestos is also included. For exposures in the 10-20 fibre-years range, particularly when chrysotile is used, there seems to be no excess risk of lung cancer.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1985, Vol.42, No.6, p.397-402. 22 ref.
Alies-Patin A.M., Valleron A.J.
Mortality of workers in a French asbestos cement factory 1940-82
Mortality study of 1506 French asbestos cement workers with at least 5 years employment in the industry during the period 1940-1982. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated relative to the French male population as a whole. Mortality for all causes was significantly higher than expected for workers with >20 years of employment and with >35 years since first exposure (SMR 2.33). Mortality from all cancers (SMR 2.67) and from pulmonary cancers (SMR 4.23) was significantly higher in workers with first exposure at the age of 25 years or below. The total number of cases of lung cancer was 12, and that of mesothelioma was 4.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1985, Vol.42, No.4, p.219-225. 21 ref.
(Organisme professionel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics)
Glues and synthetic-resin adhesives used in construction and civil engineering
Colles et produits adhésifs à base de résines synthétiques utilisées dans le bâtiment et les travaux publics [in French]
This information note deals with the main hazards and associated precautions when using products such as glues, protective surface coating, mortars and injection products containing synthetic resins. General regulations applying in France; listing of risks (respiratory and skin toxicity, allergic reactions, fire and explosion dangers); safety rules. Examples of labelling.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, May-June 1985, No.3, 4p. (inset) Illus. 6 ref.
Health hazards of cement manufacturing: risks, pathology and surveillance of exposed workers
Les nuisances en cimenterie: risques, pathologie et surveillance des personnes exposées [in French]
This medical thesis covers: cement technology; the manufacturing process of metallurgical cement as practised in a factory in Eastern France; health risks due to cement dusts and to the raw materials from which cement is made; the problem of thallium (a toxic impurity in cement), whose chronic effects are not well understood; legislation relating to work in cement plants and to the medical surveillance of exposed persons.
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Broussais Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1985. 71p. Illus. 33 ref.
Ohlson C.G., Hogstedt C.
Mortality and cancer incidence among asbestos cement workers in Mid-Sweden - a cohort study
Dödsorsaker och cancerincidens bland asbestcementarbetare i mellansverige - Kohortstudie [in Swedish]
Mortality and cancer incidence was studied in a cohort of 1176 asbestos cement workers. Their average exposure to asbestos was estimated at 1 fibre/mL in the 1970's and 2-3 fibres/mL in previous decades. A total of 220 deaths were observed versus 214 expeced. Using a 20year latency time, 9 deaths from lung cancer, mostly among short term employees, were observed; 5.7 expected. Only 1 death from lung cancer was observed among men employed more than 5 years versus 2.6 expected. In conclusion, this cohort study did not demonstrate any significant increase in asbestos-associated mortality. This may be due to the relatively low levels of exposure and the use of chrysotile as the predominant type of asbestos.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 20p. 18 ref.
Classification of occupational bronchial asthma of chemical aetiology
O klassifikacii professional'noj bronhial'noj astmy himičeskoj ėtiologii [in Russian]
3 groups of chemical substances play the main role in the development of occupational bronchial asthma: chemical allergens (compounds of chromium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, formaldehyde and its polymers, colophony, etc.); combination of these substances with industrial dusts (abrasives, quartz, cement); combinations of the allergens with irritating agents. There are three main types of occupational bronchial asthma: simple asthma similar to the atopic form; asthma in combination with chemical and bacterial allergy; chronic asthmatic bronchitis. When workers are exposed to all these factors (allergens, dust and irritants) establishment of the presence of chemical allergy plays the main role in diagnosis of the disease. This can be done by determination of the length of contact with occupational allergens, clinical examinations, inhalation tests with chemical haptens and immunologically specific reactions in vitro.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1984, No.11, p.39-43. Illus. 7 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Work with asbestos cement
Contents of this guidance note: composition, properties and uses of asbestos cement; identification; risk of exposure; air monitoring and control limits; general precautions; special precautions (planning and preparation, work methods, personal protective equipment, cleaning up, demolition work and removal of asbestos cement sheeting); legislation and regulations in the United Kingdom.
HM Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, Oct. 1984. 4p.
Promoting a safety programme: a major aim of the Société des ciments français
Promouvoir une dynamique de la prévention: objectif majeur à la Société des ciments français [in French]
Example showing the reorganisation of a cement company, with the main purpose of raising existing installations to safety standards and achieving greater safety at the technical level. Organisational structure of the Department of Working Conditions; diagram illustrating the safety programme of the firm; role and aims of the safety coordinator; the importance of informaiton, training and motivation; description of the role of everyone in OSH.
Revue de la sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 1984, Vol.20, No.214, p.24-32. Illus.
A mortality study of cement workers
A mortality study of 607 men who were cement workers in 1939 and were still alive in 1948. 419 of them died by 31 Dec. 1981, showing a death rate slightly below the expected. Significant excess deaths were found for stomach cancer (22 cases). This excess mortality is significant even if social class is taken into consideration. Mortality from respiratory diseases was not increased, while mortality from ischaemic heart disease was significantly lower than expected.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1984, Vol.41, No.2, p.179-182. 10 ref.
(Comité technique national des industries des pierres et terres à feu, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie)
Maintenance in lime, cement, and concrete elements manufacturing plants, and with the mechanised extraction of sand and gravel
Interventions dans les entreprises de fabrication de chaux, de ciment, de produits en béton, et d'extraction mécanisée de sables et graviers [in French]
Recommendations adopted 24 Nov. 1983, replacing those of 1979 (CIS 80-1764). Equipment set-up and dismantling, maintenance and repair are discussed. The appointment and role of a responsible person, the establishment and extension of restricted areas, the problem of maintenance and repair lasting through several shifts are examined. Comments.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1984, No.115, Note No.1482-115-84 (Recommendation No.237), p.229-231.
Coscia G.C., Discalzi G.L., Ganio L.
Incidence of chronic bronchitis in cement workers - Epidemiologic study
Incidenza della bronchite cronica nei lavoratori del cemento - Indagine epidemiologica [in Italian]
150 workers exposed to low levels of silica dust were studied. Bronchitis was found in 22.7% of them. Relations with smoking, age and length of employment are reported. The type and duration of exposure did not have any appreciable effect, and the incidence of chronic bronchitis appeared to be strictly related to age and tobacco use.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, July-Sep. 1983, Vol.7, p.207-216. 8 ref.
Asbestosis in long-term employees of an Ontario asbestos-cement factory
The development of compensable asbestosis was studied in 201 workers in an asbestos-cement factory who were first exposed to dust prior to 1960 and who had been employed ≥15 years. By July 1980, 39% of production workers and 20% of maintenance workers had developed a compensable chest disability, and the latent interval was generally >20 years. Workers with asbestosis had elevated mortality rates with deaths caused by malignancies and respiratory disease. Limited air sampling data and individual fibre exposures. The cumulative probability of certification was related to the cumulative exposures, and the exposure-response relationship was sigmoidal in form.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, May 1982, Vol.125, No.5, p.496-501. Illus. 7 ref.
Silo cannons. A less arduous clinker raking process
Des canons pour les silos. Un procédé de ringardage moins pénible [in French]
Description of an air cannon used in a cement works to remove the clinker deposits that build up inside tubular cement kilns. Diagram showing the operation of the air blast gun which was originally designed to clear blockages in hoppers, and description of the operating process.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 1982, No.9, p.446-447. Illus.
Romaguera C., Lecha M., Grimalt F., Muniesa A.M., Mascaro J.M.
Photocontact dermatitis to cobalt salts
Report of 4 cases of chronic photocontact dermatitis due to cobalt salts (from cement in 2 bricklayers and pig fodder in 2 agricultural workers). Only 2 of the workers had standard patch test positive reactions to chromate and cobalt, but all showed positive photo-patch tests to cobalt. Photo-oxidation tests proved that cobalt salts are photosensiting.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1982, Vol.8. No.6, p.383-388. 13 ref.
Sarto F., Rossi A., Toffanin R., Maffessanti M., Camposanpiero A.
Clinical and radiological survey of 119 asbestos workers: Importance of detecting fibrous pleural plaques
Indagine clinico-radiografica in 119 soggetti esposti all'asbesto: significato della ricerca delle placche pleuriche fibrose [in Italian]
Fibrous pleural plaques (FPP) were detected in 18.5% of a sample of 103 workers from an asbestos cement factory and 16 workers from a factory producing silicate-amosite pipes. Small irregular opacities (SIO) were found in 13.4% of the sample and both FPP and SIO in 3.4%. SIO were closely correlated to both length of exposure and dust concentration, while FPP were more closely correlated to length of exposure. FPP were, however, found in 4 subjects with <10 years exposure. No FPP were found in a sample of 100 non-exposed control subjects. Observations over a 2.5 year follow-up period revealed no tendency toward evolution of FPP. A comparison of basal râles, presence of asbestos bodies and radiological changes showed that basal râles were of great value in predicting parenchymal changes, and asbestos bodies were associated with both parenchymal and pleural changes but were less indicative than basal râles. 47% of the subjects with radiological alterations had either basal râles or asbestos bodies, or both.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1982, Vol.73, No.1, p.45-57. Illus. 26 ref.
Environment-cum-medical survey in asbestos cement factory
Although dust and fibre concentrations in an asbestos cement factory in southern India were near or below the ACGIH TLV and the corresponding British exposure limit, the workers had more subjective and objective respiratory abnormalities than a matched group of workers from a machinery factory. Respiratory function deteriorated with length of service in the asbestos cement workers regardless of smoking habits. Chest x-rays of workers exposed to asbestos cement dust for more than 20 years showed small regular and irregular opacities which may be attributable to exposure to both asbestos and silica.
Annual Report 1981, National Institute of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad-380016, India, p.48-74.
Sensitisation on exposure to combinations of chromium with polymers
Sostojanie sensibilizacii pri kombinirovannom vozdejstvii hroma i nekotoryh polimernyh materialov [in Russian]
Skin tests, immunochemical microprecipitation tests and leucocyte lysis tests were applied to guinea pigs exposed to chromium and to allergenic polymers used in polymer-cement compositions and concretes. 3 metal-polymer combinations behaved synergistically. In the case of urea-formaldehyde and epoxy resins, sensitivity to chromium was enhanced more than sensitivity to the polymer, whereas sensitivity to polymer was more strongly enhanced in the case of melamine-formaldehyde resin. Mixtures of chromium with naphthalene-formaldehyde resin or divinylstyrene latex were less allergenic than the individual components. Subsequent examination of 296 reinforced concrete workers showed that 21% of those exposed to both cement and latex cement suffered allergic dermatitis, as did 16% of those exposed to latex cement alone; only 10% of those exposed to cement alone suffered allergic dermatitis. The newer compositions present a more serious dermatological hazard than do those previously in use.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1981, No.10, p.26-28. 12 ref.
Reichrtová E., Šuličová L., Loboda L.
Histological changes in mice organs following administration of sodium salicylate and simultaneous exposure to cement dust
Histologické zmeny v orgánoch myší po aplikácii salicylanu sodného a súčasnej expozícii cementárenskému prachu [in Slovak]
In correlation with previous research (CIS 81-1663) showing that cement dust inhalation in mice produced disorders in the metabolism of sodium salicylate administered per os, histological and biochemical studies revealed changes in the liver and kidneys (and, to a lesser degree, the lungs) of mice with similar combined exposure. In the group exposed only to sodium salicylate, changes were similar but less marked. A possible interaction between sodium salicylate and cement dust may exist.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1981, Vol.33, No.8, p.271-274. 20 ref.
USSR Ministry of the Building Materials Industry (Ministerstvo promy¿lennosti stroitel'nyh materialov SSSR)
Safety engineering and occupational hygiene regulations for the cement industry
Pravila tehniki bezopasnosti i proizvodstvennoj sanitarii v cementnoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Compendium of safety and health rules and regulations jointly approved in Dec. 1979 by the above Ministry and the Central Committee of the Construction and Building Materials Workers' Union: general rules; plant premises and equipment; storage areas and buildings (silos, bins, storage of fuel, refractories, grinding elements, etc.); production processes (extraction and preparation of raw materials, dust control and explosion prevention during calcination, clinker grinding, cement bagging and loading); production equipment and its operation (crushers, slurry mixers, slurry pumps, rotary and fluidised-bed dryers, grinding mills, weighers and plate feeders, pneumatic conveying systems, rotary kilns, dust collectors, cooling screens, heat exchangers, plate conveyors, slurry concentrators, granulators, vertical kilns, coal drying and pulverising equipment, bagging machines); in-plant transport; loading and unloading operations.
Strojizdat, Kaljaevskaja 23a, 101442 Moskva, USSR, 1981. 38p. Price: Rbl.0.15.
Knobloch S., Kühnen G., Scholl E.W., Wibbelhoff H., Flöter H.J., Ansén J., Schneider.
Coal dust symposium
Symposium Kohlenstaub [in German]
Papers at this symposium dealt with aspects and safety problems of coal-dust firing for cement and lime kilns. Themes: trends in coal use; flammability and explosivity of dusts in general, and of coal dust in particular; accidents in milling and drying plants; technical aspects of milling and drying plant operation with inert-gas injection (gaseous furnace effluent); milling and drying coal in an inert atmosphere and with a hot-gas producer; technical problems in the operation of explosionproof milling and drying plant with pressure-relief systems; fire protection measures; determination of oxygen content of waste gases using a zirconium sensor.
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, 1981, Vol.91, No.2, p.38-83. Illus.
Clemmesen J., Hjalgrim-Jensen S.
Cancer incidence among 5686 asbestos cement workers followed from 1943 through 1976
Medical data were obtained for 6732 men who began working at a Danish asbestos-cement factory in 1944-1976, including 5686 men exposed to asbestos (primarily chrysotile, some amosite but no crocidolite). The introduction of automation in 1970-1976 considerably reduced exposure levels. The observed/expected (O/E) ratios of cancer cases were calculated on a cohort basis for 5-year employment periods from age-adjusted rates for men in a Danish provincial town. The 0/E ratio for all cancers was not significantly increased. However, the asbestos-exposed men had significantly increased 0/E ratios for: lung (47/27.3), larynx and trachea (6/2.9), stomach (14/9.2) and prostate (14/7.7).
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 1981, Vol.5, p.15-23. 9 ref.
Mešić J., Sever-Jurca D., Štangl B.
A rare form of biological response to inhalation of asbestos dust (multiple pulmonary asbestomas)
Redak oblik biološke reakcije na udisanje azbestne prašine (multipli azbestomi pluća) [in Serbocroatian]
Description of a case of unusual pulmonary tissue response to asbestos dust exposure in a 35-year old asbestos-cement worker: multiple, large, round, homogenous opacities on the chest X-ray; no evidence of rheumatoid arthritis. Histological examination showed hyalinised connective tissue with numerous tiny calcifications and lymphocyte infiltrates. Comparison with Caplan's syndrome.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1981, Vol.32, No.3, p.279-285. Illus. 11p.
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