Cement and concrete - 213 entries found
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Dodic-Fikfak M., Kristancic Z., Rahotina L., Vidic R.
Case study: Slovenia - Asbestos valley
Events at the Salonit Anhovo asbestos cement factory in Slovenia that led to the banning of asbestos in Slovenia in 1996 are described. Two different perspectives are presented: the story of the company management which realized the risks of using asbestos and proposed its ban in Slovenia; and the story of the local non-governmental organization that first discovered the dangers of asbestos and began a long struggle to protect workers, community and the environment. Topics: asbestos cement industry; asbestos; breast cancer; cancer; case study; gastrointestinal cancer; industrial organization; lung cancer; mesothelioma; prohibition of use; rectal cancer; role of government; role of private bodies; role of workers organizations; Slovenia.
New Solutions, 1998, Vol.8, No.4, p.469-478. Illus.
Asselineau M., Lovat G., Danière P.
Noise in cement plants. Inventory of noise levels and of available control measures
Bruit dans les cimenteries. Recensement des niveaux sonores et des moyens de réduction disponibles [in French]
Topics: bagging; bulk materials handling; cement industry; cement kilns; crushers; deafness; dust collectors; earthmoving equipment; exposure evaluation; grinding mills; hearing protection; literature survey; noise control; noise dosimetry; noise level measurement; noise measurement; noise; presses; quarrying industry; sound shielding.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 1998. 71p. Illus. 74 ref.
Ali B.A., Ballal S.G., Albar A.A., Ahmed H.O.
Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75%, were calculated. A significantly higher post-shift reduction in FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by acute exposure to cement dust. Topics: cement; cement industry; cross-sectional study; dose-response relationship; irritation; pulmonary function; respiratory function tests; respiratory impairment; Saudi Arabia; shift work; smoking.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.48, No.8, p.519-522. 12 ref.
Zona A., Bruno C., Agabiti N., Pizzutelli G., Forastiere F.
Lung CO diffusion and radiological findings in subjects exposed in the past to asbestos cement
Diffusione polmonare per il CO e quadro radiologico in ex-esposti a cemento-amianto [in Italian]
Topics: asbestos cement industry; asbestos; asbestosis; chest radiography; CO diffusion; latency; length of service; long-term study; pulmonary diffusion disorders; respiratory function tests; smoking.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1998, Vol.89, No.1, p.47-57. 35 ref.
Lühr H.P., Grunder H.T., Stein D., Körkemeyer K., Borchardt B.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Products and processes for the repair of sewers, with a special emphasis on waterproof mortars based on acrylamide
Produkte und Verfahren zur Sanierung von Abwasserkanälen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung acrylamidhaltiger Andichtungsmörtel [in German]
This study consists of two parts. The first describes nine processes for repairing sewers using different techniques (repair, resin injection, coating, applying a liner). The second part covers six processes in more detail. The exposure hazards linked to each step of the processes and to the various products used are listed, and the preventive measures are discussed. Many processes involve the use of reactive or volatile substances which require protective measures for the workers. A single process used mortars based on acrylamide which is a carcinogen, but its content level is relatively low.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1997. ix, 98p. Illus. 10 ref.
Internal audit - Prefabricated concrete products
Autodiagnostic - Fabrication de produits en béton [in French]
The internal auditing of hazards allows the preparation of a safety and health plan adapted to the company. A check-list for conducting such an audit within prefabricated concrete industry firms is proposed, consisting of the following parts: general information on the company; personal protective equipment; hazards specific to the company; hazards common to the sector; vehicles and conveyors; action plan.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie (CRAM) des Pays de la Loire, 7 rue du Président Herriot, BP 3405, 44034 Nantes Cedex 1, France, Feb. 1997. 17p.
Fayomi E.B., Lachapelle J.M., Zohoun T.
Contact allergy among masons in Cotonou, Republic of Benin
L'allergie de contact chez les maçons à Cotonou, République du Bénin [in French]
Topics: Africa; allergens; Benin; chromium; cement; construction industry; eczema; skin allergies; skin diseases; skin tests.
Revue de médecine du travail, May-June 1997, Vol.XXIV, No.3, p.155-158. 12 ref.
Radiographic asbestosis is not a prerequisite for asbestos-associated lung cancer in Ontario asbestos-cement workers
Topics: asbestos cement industry; asbestosis; Canada; asbestos; chest radiography; epidemiologic study; latency; length of exposure; lung cancer; mortality; Ontario; pleural thickening; radiographic interpretation; smoking.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1997, Vol.32, No.4, p.341-348. Illus. 15 ref.
Abrons H.L., Petersen M.R., Sanderson W.T., Engelberg A.L., Harber P.
Chest radiography in Portland cement workers
Topics: airborne dust; cement industry; cement; chest radiography; cross-sectional study; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; opacities; pneumoconiosis; smoking.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1997, Vol.39, No.11, p.1047-1054. 26 ref.
AbuDhaise B.A., Rabi A.Z., Zwairy M.A.A., Hader A.F.E., Qaderi S.E.
Pulmonary manifestations in cement workers in Jordan
Topics: airborne dust; asthma; cement industry; cement; chronic bronchitis; dyspnoea; exposure evaluation; Jordan; pulmonary function; questionnaire survey; respiratory diseases; smoking; spirometry.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1997, Vol.10, No.4, p.417-428. 22 ref.
Katsarou A., Baxevanis C., Armenaka M., Volonakis M., Balamotis A., Papamihail M.
Study of persistence and loss of patch test reactions to dichromate and cobalt
Topics: allergens; allergy tests; cobalt (II) chloride; potassium dichromate; cell culture; cement industry; chromates; cobalt and compounds; dermatitis; eczema; immunology; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1997, Vol.36, No.2, p.87-90. 20 ref.
Albin M., Horstmann V., Jakobsson K., Welinder H.
Survival in cohorts of asbestos cement workers and controls
To measure the impact on survival of being exposed to asbestos cement dust, survival data on 866 asbestos cement workers and 755 controls in Sweden were subjected to regression analysis with age as the basic time variable. The effect of cumulative exposure up to the age of 40 was investigated for 635 asbestos cement workers who had dose estimates. The death risk was higher for the asbestos cement workers than for the controls with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.15. The estimates of the cohort effect were almost unaffected by adjustment for smoking habits. The estimates of the exposure effect rose with increasing dose, and were higher when restricted only to deaths from malignant or nonmalignant respiratory disease. The results indicate that even a moderate asbestos exposure may shorten the median duration of life in an exposed population. However, the estimated death risk from being a former or current smoker was higher than the estimated effect of being an asbestos cement worker.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.53, No.2, p.87-93. Illus. 18 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Working with asbestos cement and asbestos insulating board
This guidance note provides advice on precautions to be taken during work with asbestos cement (AC) products and asbestos insulating board (AIB). Contents: health hazards of asbestos; uses and identification of AC and AIB; preparing for work with AC and AIB (assessment of likely exposure); control limits for personal exposures; notification of work with asbestos; prevention and reduction of exposure; respirators and protective clothing; cleaning and hygiene facilities; control methods and likely dust levels for specific jobs involving AC and AIB.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Nov. 1996. 7p. 12 ref. Price: GBP 5.50.
Skin burns, necrosis and caustic ulcerations due to wet cement, concrete and lime
Brûlures, nécroses et ulcérations cutanées dues au ciment, au béton prémixé et à la chaux [in French]
A report of seven cases of skin burn necrosis and ulcerations, following use of wet cement and ready-mixed concrete. Calcium hydroxide induced the caustic ulcers in one case. For the prevention of these injuries warning notices on the risk in handling these materials are strongly recommended.
Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie, 1996, Vol.123, No.12, p.832-836. Illus. 21 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
This data sheet provides advice on the safe use of cement. Contents: health effects (skin burns, dermatitis, eye irritation, dust inhalation, musculoskeletal risk); legal requirements (control of hazardous substances, manual handling activities); preventing and controlling dust exposure; personal protection; manual handling; personal hygiene; first aid. Revision of CIS 93-275.
HSE Books P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1996. 2p. 4 ref.
Zachariae C.O.C., Agner T., Menné T.
Chromium allergy in consecutive patients in a country where ferrous sulfate has been added to cement since 1981
Cement eczema used to be a common occupational disease in Denmark. Since 1981, ferrous sulfate has been added to all cement produced in Denmark to reduce the amount of soluble hexavalent chromate to below 2mg/kg (2ppm). The aim of this study was to analyze a sample of consecutive chromate-sensitive patients in an urban tertiary referral centre with respect to primary cause of sensitization, in a geographical area where the risk of chromate exposure from cement had been reduced. In the 6-year period January 1989 to December 1994, a total of 4,511 patients were patch tested with the European standard series, including chromate. Seventy nine patients were diagnosed as chromate sensitive. Relevant chromate exposure was established in 34 of these patients. Leather was the most frequent source of chromate sensitization (47%). Chromate sensitization from cement was considered likely in 10 out of 34 subjects. Of these, seven had been sensitized before 1981, two had been sensitized by non-occupational exposure to cements, and only one had been sensitized from occupational cement exposure in the 6-year period.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1996, Vol.35, No.2, p.83-85. 10 ref.
Magnani C., Terracini B., Ivaldi C., Mancini A., Botta M.
Mortality for cancer and other causes in asbestos cement workers in Casale Monferrato (Italy)
Mortalità per tumori e altre cause tra i lavoratori del cemento-amianto a Casale Monferrato [in Italian]
This report updates a previous cohort study on the mortality of workers in the largest Italian asbestos cement plant (see CIS 89-1856). The plant had been active in Casale Monferrato (Piedmont) from 1907 to 1986. Raw material included both chrysotile and crocidolite, but not amosite. Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured for the first time in 1971 (over 20 fibres/cm3 in most areas). Regular monitoring started in 1978, when the concentrations in most samples were below 1 fibre/cm3. The cohort included 3367 blue-collar workers, employed between 1950 and 1980. At the end of the follow-up in 1993, 57% were alive, 41% were dead and 2% were lost or had moved abroad. Mortality rates were compared with local rates in the region. Both sexes showed a statistically significant increase in mortality for lung cancer, malignant neoplasm of the pleura and the peritoneum, and asbestosis. No excesses were observed for laryngeal or digestive tract cancers. Women showed a statistically significant increase in malignant neoplasms of the ovary and the uterus. Mortality from lung cancer increased with latency and, in men, showed the highest standard mortality rate after 10 years of employment. A review of epidemiological studies on mortality among asbestos cement workers is also included.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1966, Vol.87, No.2, p.133-146. 28 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Safety of New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) Tunnels - A review of sprayed concrete lined tunnels with particular reference to London clay
This review considers health and safety issues of sprayed concrete tunnel linings in soft ground in urban areas; the focus is on safe design and construction. Contents: description of the NATM process; worldwide review of NATM safety and incidents involving tunnel collapse; requirements of relevant United Kingdom health and safety legislation; NATM safety principles (hazard evaluation and risk reduction, human factors, competence and training, quality assurance); designing for safety; management arrangements (risk-based control strategy). Glossary.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 86p. Illus. 149 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Post construction audit of sprayed concrete tunnel linings
This research report describes the use of sprayed concrete in tunnels and examines the existing literature, specifications, testing requirements and testing methods for the quality control of sprayed concrete tunnel linings. Weaknesses in existing guidelines are identified and a comparative procedure for the post-construction examination of these linings is proposed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. ix, 86p. 383 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
Goh C.L., Gan S.L.
Change in cement manufacturing process, a cause for decline in chromate allergy?
The concentrations of hexavalent chromate (CrVI) in the constituents of four brands of cement and in manufactured cement samples were determined. Results indicated that increasing the concentration of slag (free from CrVI) over clinker (high in CrVI) proportionally reduced the CrVI concentration of the cement; this reduction is due to the dilutional effect of slag over clinker. It is suggested that the general decline in the prevalence of chromate allergy in recent years in Singapore is due to a change in the constituents of cement, resulting in lower concentrations of hexavalent chromate.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1996, Vol.34, No.1, p.51-54. 19 ref.
Roto P., Sainio H., Reunala T., Laippala P.
Addition of ferrous sulfate to cement and risk of chromium dermatitis among construction workers
In a study of construction workers and concrete element prefabrication workers in Finland in 1986-1987, a 4% prevalence of chromium allergy was found among the 105 workers with hand dermatitis. From 1987, ferrous sulfate was added to cement in Finland to reduce the water-soluble chromium content. Data from the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases from 1978 to 1992 showed that the occurrence of occupational dermatitis associated with chromium allergy among these workers had clearly diminished since 1987; the occurrence of irritant contact dermatitis remained stable from 1978 to 1992. The addition of ferrous sulfate to cement may reduce the risk of chromium-induced dermatitis among construction workers.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1996, Vol.34, No.1, p.43-50. 16 ref.
Other common industries
Anden almen industri [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in the Danish stone, ceramics and glass industry. Some other sectors (such as the instrumentation industry), which do not naturally belong to other groups of industries, are also included in this sector. There are about 42,000 employees in this group, of whom half work in the stone, ceramics and glass industry. The main working environment problems are noise, strain injuries, respiratory diseases and accidents. Other problems are exposure to chemicals and vibration. The incidence of reported occupational diseases and accidents is high. Since this group of industries is heterogeneous, working environments and their problems vary greatly. However, concrete and cement factories, glassworks and the paper industry seem to have the highest exposures to harmful factors.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 72p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.
Jakobsson K., Strömberg U., Albin M., Welinder H., Hagmar L.
Radiological changes in asbestos cement workers
This study explored associations between exposure to asbestos cement dust and radiographic findings in lung parenchyma and pleura. Radiographs from 174 blue collar workers and 29 white collar workers from an asbestos cement plant formed one part of the study. Progression of small opacities was further studied in those 124 blue collar workers for whom two radiographs taken after the end of employment were available. The median readings from five readers who used full ILO 1980 classification were used. As exposure indices, time since start of employment, duration of employment, cumulative exposure, and average intensity of asbestos exposure were used. The influence of age and smoking was also considered in multiple logistic regression analyses. In these workers, exposed mainly to chrysotile but also to small amounts of amphibole, the risk of radiographically visible parenchymal abnormality was substantially increased and strongly dependent on time-related exposure variables. Progression was found long after the end of exposure. The findings of costophrenic angle obliterations, supposed to be sequelae of benign pleural effusions, were consistent with an immediate reaction triggered by intense asbestos exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.52, No.1, p.20-27. 43 ref.
Hazards of stopping cracks in concrete structures by injection
Gefahren bei der Injektion von Rissen in Betonbauwerken [in German]
Cracks in concrete buildings are stopped by injection of sealants containing epoxy resins or polyurethanes as the main component. The hazards posed by this type of work are caused by the high-pressure pumps needed for application of the sealant and by the toxic substances contained in the sealant. The epoxy resins and hardeners are flammable and can cause skin and respiratory diseases. The polyurethanes contain toxic isocyanates and amines. Both groups of substances can cause skin diseases. Outlined protective measures include: the supply of overalls, safety gloves, safety spectacles and respirators, the avoidance of smoking and other ignition sources, periodic inspections of the equipment and efficient ventilation.
BAU, June 1995, No.2, p.72-75. Illus.
Paureau J., Parisot E.
Shock resistance of light roofing plates
Résistance au choc des plaques de couverture légère [in French]
The method used to test shock resistance of reinforced asbestos-cement plates was adapted to the testing of 44 types of light roofing plates. Tensile tests on notched and unnotched specimens demonstrated the possible effects of ageing, notches and above all temperature on plate resistance. The influence of the conditions of mounting and the statistical significance of the results are also discussed. The resistance values announced for the plates tested should be considered as indications rather than specifications.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1995, No.159, Note No.1990-159-95, p.231-242. Illus. 13 ref.
Albin M., Pooley F.D., Strömberg U., Attewell R., Mitha R., Johansson L., Welinder H.
Retention patterns of asbestos fibres in lung tissue among asbestos cement workers
Retention patterns in lung tissue (determined by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry) of chrysotile, tremolite, and crocidolite fibres were analyzed in 69 dead asbestos cement workers and 96 referents. Collected data indicate that chrysotile has a relatively rapid turnover in human lungs, whereas the amphiboles, tremolite and crocidolite, have a slower turnover. Further, chrysotile retention may be dependent on dose rate. Chrysotile and crocidolite deposition and retention may be increased by tobacco smoking; chrysotile and tremolite by fibrosis.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1994, Vol.51, No.3, p.205-211. Illus. 33 ref.
Pettinari A., Mengucci R., Belli S., Comba P.
Mortality study in an asbestos-cement plant in Senigallia
Studio di mortalità degli addetti alla produzione di manufatti in cemento-amianto nello stabilimento di Senigallia [in Italian]
Mortality during the period 1948-1990 was investigated in 561 workers employed in an asbestos-cement plant in Senigallia, Central Italy. A significant increase in lung cancer was observed in male subjects (SMR: 276; 95% CI: 175.2-414.8, 23 observed). The excess mortality was a function of the induction-latency time. Five deaths were observed among women, one of which was due to malignant pleural neoplasm.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1994, Vol.85, No.3, p.223-230. 21 ref.
Health and Safety Executive, Offshore Technology Information
Effect of bacterial activity on North Sea concrete
This report describes the results of a series of tests designed to investigate the effects on typical North Sea concrete of acid/seawater solutions at elevated temperatures. Tests were performed on cement paste and concrete specimens. One of the main findings was the formation on the exposed surfaces of the cement paste specimens of a layer of reaction products which helped slow down the rate of attack. Results of the experiments may be used in the development of methods for the prediction of depths of attack for the lifetime of a structure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. vi, 120p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
Fairhurst S., Phillips A., Gillies C., Brown R.H.
Health and Safety Executive
Portland cement dust. Criteria document for an occupational exposure limit
Portland cement, especially when wet, is irritant and/or corrosive to the skin and is a predicted eye irritant. Many cases have been reported of cement dermatitis appearing to arise as a result of skin sensitization to hexavalent chromium in cement. Imprecise studies have recorded that repeated inhalation produces respiratory effects. Mortality studies on cement workers have found no increased incidence of death from non-malignant respiratory disease; the position regarding the carcinogenicity remains unclear. Occupational exposure standards: 10mg/m3 total inhalable dust (8h TWA); 5mg/m3 respirable dust (8h TWA). List of abbreviations.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. v, 22p. 33 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Magnani C., et al.
A cohort study on mortality among wives of workers in the asbestos cement industry in Casale Monferrato, Italy
This study investigates mortality from cancer and other diseases in a cohort of wives of asbestos cement workers in northwest Italy. After the exclusion of women with an occupational record in the asbestos cement industry, the cohort comprised 1964 women. Their domestic exposure was estimated according to their husbands' periods of employment in the plant. There were four deaths from pleural tumours (one diagnosed as mesothelioma at necropsy) and six from lung cancer. Two further cases of mesothelioma were diagnosed by histological examination after the end of follow up. None of the three wives with histologically diagnosed mesothelioma had been engaged in industrial activities. The study found a clear excess of mesotheliomas among wives of workers in the asbestos cement production industry.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.50, No.9, p.779-784. 14 ref.
Dupuis B., Koch J.
Determination of noise emission by stationary concrete block shaping machines and the state of noise reduction
Bestimmung der Geräuschemission von stationären Steinformmaschinen und Stand der Lärmminderung [in German]
Four types of shaping machines were identified as being used most frequently in the manufacture of concrete blocks. The sound pressure levels and impulse noises associated with the use of >100 representative shaping machines produced between 1980 and 1989 were measured. The sound pressure levels ranged from 99 to 126dB(A). Acoustic enclosures were found to be the best available method of noise control for these machines. Summaries in English, French and German.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. 142p. Illus. 73 ref. Price: DEM 27.00.
Fullerton A., Gammelgaard B., Avnstorp C., Menné T.
Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement
The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulfate were used. The cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48h or applied repeatedly every 24h for 96h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulfate and unexposed skin was observed, despite a more permeable skin barrier at the alkaline pH of the cement suspensions, i.e. pH 12.5. Increased chromium levels in epidermis and dermis were seen when ordinary Portland cement was applied as a suspension with added sodium sulfate (20%) on the skin surface for 96h. The content of water-soluble chromium in ordinary Portland cement may vary due to the alkali sulfate content of the cement.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1993, Vol.29, No.3, p.133-137. 11 ref.
This booklet describes the major factors associated with cement dermatitis. Contents: the nature of dermatitis; risk from handling products containing cement and water (wet mortar, wet plaster, wet grout, wet concrete, uncured concrete masonry, wet cement); assessing the hazard and measurement of water-soluble chromate in cement; controlling the hazard (employer responsibilities, preventive measures, use of ferrous sulfate to lower the content of water-soluble chromate in cement, personal protective equipment, skin care).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1993. 16p. Illus. 14 ref.
Addis Ababa University
Lung function status of some Ethiopians exposed to occupational dusts
This thesis investigates acute and chronic changes of ventilatory capacities and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in 233 non-smoking Ethiopian factory workers exposed to cotton, tobacco and cement dusts. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms (chronic cough, chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma) was higher in all dust-exposed groups than in non-exposed subjects. Significant reductions in lung function parameters (FVC, FEV1, MMFR, PEFR) over the workshift were recorded among cotton and tobacco workers. For cement workers, acute reductions were recorded only in FVC and PEFR. A substantial number of workers were found to have lower values of ventilatory capacities than their predicted values.
Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, P.O. Box 2056, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, June 1992. xi, 83p. 91 ref.
Tandon R., Aarts B.
Chromium, nickel and cobalt contents of some Australian cements
The total chromium, nickel and cobalt concentrations of 8 Australian Portland cements ranged from 49 to 99µg/g, 5 to 54µg/g and ≤1 to 13µg/g, respectively. The water-soluble chromate concentrations of the cements ranged from 0.2 to 8.1µg/g, and the sodium sulfate-extractable chromates form 1.4 to 9.7µg/g. Results for water-soluble nickel (≤0.2µg/g) and cobalt (≤0.05µg/g) indicate that the metals are present only as water-insoluble compounds. The significance of the various data is considered from a dermatological point of view. Cement extracts for the analysis of water-soluble hexavalent chromium (chromates) are stable for at least 12 days. The optimum extraction time for hexavalent chromium in cement appears to be 1h. Almost 100% reduction of hexavalent chromium is possible after 1h using 100 x the stoichiometric value of iron (II) sulfate. The chromates can become gradually insolubilised when the solution from the water added is in direct contact with the cement, i.e., over a period of >60min to 7 days, even without the addition of iron (II) sulfate.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1993, Vol.28, No.4, p.201-205. 17 ref.
Health (Asbestos) Regulations 1992 [Australia - Western Australia]
These regulations, issued under the Health Act 1911, apply to all places in the state with the exception of mines, petroleum wells and petroleum pipelines. Asbestos is declared to be a hazardous substance. The sale, supply or use of asbestos cement sheets is subject to stringent safety precautions, with particular attention to be paid to the prevention of atmospheric release of asbestos fibres. Asbestos-containing materials can only be disposed of at places specified in the schedules of the Regulations.
Government Gazette of Western Australia, 22 May 1992, No.70, p.2129-2135.
Construction Industry Advisory Committee
This information sheet describes the health hazards associated with the use of cement in the construction industry and provides guidance on the avoidance of adverse health effects. Contents: health effects; preventing and controlling exposure; personal protection; hygiene; first aid.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 2p. Illus. 5 ref.
The control of noise in the concrete products industry
This report deals with dominant noise sources in branches of the concrete products industry and indicates appropriate noise control measures. The use of hearing protection is also discussed.
Health and Safety Executive, Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. i-iv, 17p. Illus. 5 ref.
Fatma N., Jain A.K., Rahman Q.
Frequency of sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberrations in asbestos cement workers
Exposure to asbestos minerals has been associated with a wide variety of adverse health effects including lung cancer, pleural mesothelioma, and cancer of other organs. Twenty-two workers from an asbestos cement factory and 12 controls were investigated. Controls were matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 48h for studies of chromosomal aberrations and at 72h for SCE frequency determinations. Asbestos workers had a higher mean SCE rate and increased numbers of chromosomal aberrations. Most of the chromosomal aberrations were chromatid gap and break types.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1991, Vol.48, No.2, p.103-105. 11 ref.
Burdorf A., Govaert G., Elders L.
Postural load and back pain of workers in the manufacturing of prefabricated concrete elements
An analysis was made of working postures among workers at a Dutch factory producing prefabricated concrete elements. A questionnaire was used to collect personal data and employment history. Results showed that the average percentage of time spent in harmful postures was 37% for the concrete workers compared with 27% for a control group of engineering workers. A specific factor in the postural load of concrete workers was exposure to whole-body vibration. The concrete workers had a higher prevalence of back pain (44%) than engineering workers (31%). Results suggest that the combination of bending and/or twisting of the back during work is an important risk factor for back pain.
Ergonomics, July 1991, Vol.34, No.7, p.909-918. 20 ref.
Otte K.E., Sigsgaard T.I., Kjærulff J.
Malignant mesothelioma: Clustering in a family producing asbestos cement in their home
This case study describes the occurrence of three cases of malignant mesothelioma in a family where a compound consisting of amosite, gypsum and sand was produced in the basement of their home from 1944 to 1961. The work involved dry hand mixing of the components and no ventilation or protective equipment was used. The data show a high risk of malignant mesothelioma after massive exposure to amosite. The risk and the latency period are independent of age during exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1990, Vol.47, No.1, p.10-13. Illus. 11 ref.
Cecchetti G., Marconi A., Benvenuti F., Ciccarelli C.
Products made of asbestos cement and environmental risks: A review of the available data
Prodotti in cemento-amianto e rischi ambientali: una rassegna dei dati disponibili [in Italian]
A review of recent information on the polluting potential of asbestos fibres during the production and use of articles made of asbestos cement. High fibre concentrations can be found in the air of places where installation, maintenance or demolition of articles containing asbestos cement is taking place. On the other hand, once asbestos cement is installed, there is no danger of asbestos fibre release. There is also a slight risk of asbestos release from roofs due to weathering.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep. 1990, Vol.2, No.3, p.33-54. 63 ref.
Albin M., Johansson L., Pooley F.D., Jakobsson K., Attewell R., Mitha R.
Mineral fibres, fibrosis, and asbestos bodies in lung tissue from deceased asbestos cement workers
Lung tissue from 76 deceased asbestos cement workers (7 with mesothelioma) exposed to chrysotile asbestos and small amounts of amphiboles, was studied by transmission electron microscopy, together with lung tissue from 96 controls. The exposed workers with mesothelioma had a significantly higher total content of asbestos fibre in the lungs than those without mesothelioma, who in turn, had higher concentrations than the controls (medians 189, 50, and 29 x 106fibres/g (f/g). Chrysotile was the major type of fibre. The differences were most pronounced for the amphibole fibres (62, 4.7, and 0.15f/g), especially crocidolite (54, 1.8 and <0.001f/g), but were evident also for tremolite (2.9, <0.001, and <0.001f/g) and anthophyllite (1.7, <0.001, and <0.001f/g). For amosite, there was no statistically significant difference between lungs from workers with and without mesothelioma; the lungs of workers had, however, higher concentrations than the controls. Strong correlations were found between duration of exposure and content of amphibole fibres in the lungs. Asbestos bodies, counted by light microscopy, were significantly correlated with the amphibole but not with the chrysotile contents. Fibrosis was correlated with the tremolite but not the chrysotile content in lungs from both exposed workers and controls. Overall, similar results were obtained using fibre counts and estimates of mass.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1990, Vol.47, No.11, p.767-774. Illus. 27 ref.
Di Lorenzo L., Molinini R., Bruno F., De Niccolò M., Assennato G., Lerro A., Ambrosi L.
Measurement of total and partial O2 and CO2 ductances in workers exposed to inhalation of asbestos-cement dust
Misura delle duttanze globali e parziali ad O2 e CO2 in lavoratori esposti ad inalazione di cemento-amianto [in Italian]
Study to assess the ability of the respiratory system in ensuring the correct dynamics of respiratory gases in subjects chronically exposed to asbestos-cement dust but not yet suffering from asbestosis. Total and partial O2 and CO2 ductance coefficients (Du) were measured in 2 groups of male workers, the first consisting of 22 workers employed in the manufacture of asbestos-cement products, the second consisting of 26 controls. The 2 groups were comparable for age, smoking, and normal spirometric parameters for FVC, FEV1 and PEF, and were free of any type on interstitial lung disease according to ILO standards. In the exposed group, all O2 and CO2 ductance coefficients were significantly lower than in the non-exposed except DuBCO2 (alveolar-capillary ductance for CO2). Measurement of O2 and CO2 lung ductances at rest thus revealed an impairment of the diffusion and of the pulmonary exchange of blood and air in subjects chronically exposed to the inhalation of asbestos-cement dust. In the exposed group of workers this impairment preceded lung damage detectable by spirometric and radiological tests and was an obstacle not only to oxygen intake but also to the elimination of carbon dioxide.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1990, Vol.81, No.1, p.32-38. 24 ref.
Neuberger M., Kundi M.
Individual asbestos exposure: smoking and mortality - A cohort study in the asbestos cement industry
A historical prospective cohort study comprised all persons employed from 1950 to 1981 for at least 3 years in the oldest asbestos cement factory in the world. From 2816 persons eligible for the study, record based estimates and measurements of dust and fibres and histories of smoking based on interviews were used to calculate individual exposures over time. After observation of 51,218 person-years and registration of 540 deaths, underlying causes of death for this cohort were compared with those for the regional population on the basis of death certificates. Deaths from lung cancer in asbestos cement workers were higher (standard mortality ratio (SMR) 1.7), but after adjustment for age and sex specific smoking habits this was not significant (SMR 1.04). The study had a probability of greater than 92% of detecting a smoking adjusted SMR of 1.5 or more. Using the best available evidence (including necropsy records) 52 deaths were assigned to lung cancer and 5 to mesothelioma. Life table analyses confirmed the predominant influence of smoking on lung cancer. Mesothelioma was associated with the use of crocidolite in pipe production. From present working conditions with much lower concentrations of chrysotile and no crocidolite no more occupational cancers are expected in the asbestos cement industry.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1990, Vol.47, No.9, p.615-620. Illus. 26 ref.
Albin M., Jakobsson K., Attewell R., Johansson L., Welinder H.
Mortality and cancer morbidity in cohorts of asbestos cement workers and referents
Total and cause specific mortality and cancer morbidity were studied among 1929 asbestos cement workers with an estimated median cumulative exposure of 2.3 fibre (f)-years/mL (median intensity 1.2f/mL, predominantly chrysotile). A local reference cohort of 1233 industrial workers and non-case referents from the exposed cohort were used for comparisons. There was a significantly increased risk of pleural mesothelioma. No case of peritoneal mesothelioma was found. A significant dose response relation was found for cumulative exposure 40 years or more before the diagnosis. No relation was found with duration of exposure when latency was accounted for. There was a significant overrisk in non-malignant respiratory disease (RR=2.6). The overall risks for respiratory cancer, excluding mesothelioma, and for gastrointestinal cancer were not significantly increased. Surprisingly, colorectal cancer displayed a clear relation with cumulative dose, with an estimated increase of 1.6% in the incidence density ratio for each f-year/mL (but not with duration of exposure).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1990, Vol.47, No.9, p.602-610. Illus. 30 ref.
Lundholm M., Lavrell G., Mathiasson L.
Self-levelling mortar as a possible cause of symptoms associated with "Sick Building Syndrome"
In newly constructed houses and buildings in which self-levelling mortar containing casein has been used, residents and office employees often complain of bad odours as well as of headaches, eye and throat irritation, and tiredness. These problems have been suspected to result from the degradation products of mortar. Samples obtained from dry mortar powder and from mortar in buildings where casein has been used and from other buildings used as controls were found to contain microorganisms (mean of 100 culture-forming units/g). Environmental species were predominantly found, e.g. Bacillus, Clostridium, Micrococcus, and Propionibacterium. Fungi were found occasionally; no evidence of bacterial degradation was found. Headspace and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of air from the newly constructed houses and from hydroxide-degraded casein revealed the presence of amines in the 0.003-0.013ppm range and the presence of ammonia and sulfhydryl compounds, all of which in low concentrations can cause the symptoms observed. These substances were not detected in the control buildings.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June, Vol.45, No.3, p.135-140. 27 ref.
Asbestos-cement pneumoconiosis: first surgically confirmed case in Kuwait
During the periodic medical examination of workers of the only asbestos-cement pipe factory in Kuwait, an early case of asbestosis was diagnosed. It was the first case of asbestosis to be reported and compensated in Kuwait. According to available information, it is also the first reported case to be confirmed by surgery in the Arabian Gulf countries. Recommendations are given in regard to diagnosis, the institution of very strict preventive and protective measures, and the system of compensation in Kuwaiti law.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.17, No.2, p.241-245. Illus. 10 ref.
Lewis N.J., Curtis M.F.
Occupational health and hygiene following a fire in a warehouse with an asbestos cement roof
Work on site was carefully monitored and it is believed that no health hazards occurred subsequent to the fire, in particular only very low levels of asbestos were detected during the clean-up. The need to disseminate information as widely and as rapidly as possible to the workforce and others following such a disaster is emphasised.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Summer 1990, Vol.40, No.2, p.53-54. 4 ref.
Water-soluble chromates in cement [Norway]
Vannløselige kromater i sement [in Norwegian]
This directive (effective 1 July 1988), stipulating a reduction of water-soluble chrome salts in cement, was issued because of the risks for chrome allergic eczema associated with the handling of unhardened cement. It applies to the production, importation and use of cement and unhardened cement products containing water-soluble chromates. In the directive the maximum chromate content of water-soluble chromates is set to 2mg per kg dry cement. Producers and importers of cement containing more than this amount must reduce chromate content to below 2mg/kg before they can use the cement.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 2nd ed., Feb. 1990. 3p.
Dumortier P., De Vuyst P., Strauss P., Yernault J.C.
Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers
Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples of 15 brake lining workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. Examination of repeated bronchoalveolar lavage samples showed that the mechanisms of clearance of chrysotile fibres do not affect AB concentration for at least 10 months after cessation of exposure. It thus appears that routine counting of ABs in BAL allows the assessment of current or recent occupational exposures to asbestos. Exposures to chrysotile lead to AB concentrations comparable with those encountered in exposures to amphiboles.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1990, Vol.47, No.2, p.91-98. Illus. 26 ref.
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