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Cranes - 295 entries found

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CIS 82-304
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Cranes - Rules for identification colours for dangerous parts
Krany gruzopod"emnye - Trebovanija k cvetovomu oboznačeniju častej krana, opasnyh pri ėkspluatacii [in Russian]
This standard (effective: 1 Jan. 1982) deals with safety colours for crane parts which may be dangerous either during use (for persons on the crane or in the work zone), or when the crane is travelling: red and white warning stripes (alternate-coloured diagonal strips, 30-150mm wide) on the hook support, rigid grabs, jibhead (except for tower cranes), the mobile section of the counterweight up to a height of 2m above the ground, part of the slewing table overhanging the gantry, parts extending over the sides of mobile crane chassis, jacklegs, cabins and external parts of overhead travelling cranes.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 20 July 1981. 2p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 82-302 Dickie D.E., Short D.
Crane handbook
Contents of this edition intended for operators, owners, contractors and users of cranes: Part 1: mobile cranes (machine selection and equipment requirements, inspection and examination, testing and maintenance, storage, machine assembly and set-up, operating procedures and precautions, safe distances, responsibilities of management and operators, general operating requirements and signalling). Part 2: tower cranes (the same aspects as for mobile cranes are discussed; also, erection, climbing, dismantling, road transport, check-list for erection). Appended: list of pertinent regulations and standards.
The Butterworth Group, Borough Green, Sevenoaks, Kent TN15 8PH, United Kingdom, 1981. 312p. Price: £20.00.

CIS 82-13
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen)
Gangways on tower cranes
Gångbanor på tornkranar [in Swedish]
These directives (effective 1 Oct. 1982) contain sections on the following aspects: general requirements (compulsory equipment of tower cranes having a fixed horizontal jib with a gangway to facilitate the maintenance and inspection of the pulleys and limit switches, safe access to gangway, wire rope or rail at tip of jib for attaching a lifeline when there is no room for a gangway); gangway and guard-rail construction; installation of gangways on cranes not so equipped at the outset; work entailing the wearing of a safety harness and lifeline. Detailed commentary and diagrams with dimensions.
Liber Förlag, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 18 Sep. 1981. 14p. Illus. Gratis.

CIS 82-12
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen)
Drivers' cabs on stationary cranes
Förarhytter till stationära kranar [in Swedish]
These directives (effective 1 Jan. 1983) apply to stationary cranes, such as dock cranes and overhead travelling cranes but not to construction-site cranes, tower cranes or vehicle-mounted cranes. Sections are devoted to: construction sturdiness, low-flammability materials for internal surfaces, minimum dimensions, ergonomic layout, space for an instructor); visibility (at least one opening window, anti-glare protection, etc.); ventilation, heating, sound insulation; driver's seat; controls; access and emergency exit. Detailed comments and diagrams (with measurements) showing the optimal layout of driver's controls.
Liber Förlag, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 18 Sep. 1981. 19p. Illus.

CIS 82-3 Auxiliary hydraulic cranes - General safety rules
Grues hydrauliques auxiliaires - Règles générales de sécurité [in French]
This standard applies to all truck-mounted (fixed or removable) hydraulic arms with a load moment not exceeding 147kN/m and a radius of ≥3m. Definitions; general provisions; base column; rotation; mounting on vehicles; safety devices (overpressure safety device on hydraulic circuit, speed-limiting device for lowering load, automatic stoppage and suspension of load in case of breakdown of hydraulic circuit, locking devices for outrigger cylinders); documentation; rating plates; testing.
Association française de normalisation, Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, May 1981. 9p. Illus.

CIS 82-2 Council of State Decree on mobile cranes and their inspection
Valtioneuvoston päätös ajoneuvonostureista ja niiden tarkastuksesta [in Finnish]
Statsrådets beslut om mobilkranar och besiktning av dem [in Swedish]
This Decree (effective: 1 Sep. 1982) applies to self-propelled or towed, wheeled or crawler-mounted cranes. Individual sections are devoted to: general rules for manufacturers, importers and retailers of mobile cranes; definitions; solidity and stability; driver's cabin (layout, visibility, ease of access, controls, sound insulation); brakes and interlock devices; safety devices (travel limiting devices, load moment indicators); winch and pulley safety; compliance with national standards; type testing; inspection; checks after repair and maintenance; operating instructions; operating safety; driver (qualifications, minimum age: 18 years). CIS has only the Swedish-language version.
Finlands författningssamling - Suomen säädöskokoelma, 10 Sep. 1981, No.616, p.1104-1107.

CIS 81-1205 Auxiliary hydraulic cranes: load limiting devices
Grues hydrauliques auxiliaires: les limiteurs de capacité. [in French]
System based on the input of two types of information: picture of hydraulic pressures inside the cylinder under greatest load and manoeuvres leading to a maximum permissible load situation. The crane is halted and restarted as the result of this information being handled in microprocessors. The circuits have a positive safety interlock. List of the checks to be carried out when the device is being tested.
Revue de la sécurité, Jan. 1981, Vol.17, No.175, p.20-23. Illus.

CIS 81-1204 Peltier F.L.
Positioning and stabilising of mobile cranes
Mise en position et calage des grues mobiles. [in French]
Advice to users on how to achieve better stability of mobile cranes: definitions, precautions to be taken according to type and state of ground and soil, general rules for use of this equipment, special precautions for cranes with inflatable tyres and those equipped with jacking pads. Appended: behaviour of soil under pads, variations in working radius according to angle of inclination of chassis, calculation of reactions (soil/jacking pad).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1981, No.102, Note No.1300-102-81, p.33-50. Illus.


CIS 82-1443 Tower cranes
Grues à tour [in French]
Illustrated brochure designed to enable teachers and trainers to build safety concepts into their courses. Summary of the installation and operating requirements that must be met to ensure tower crane stability. Description of fixed-mast and slewing-mast cranes; criteria for the choice of a tower crane. Review of the main hazards: falls of loads; tipping of crane; collision of the crane or its load with a worker or an obstacle; electrical hazards. Analysis of safety measures: crane installation and crane environment (determination of stresses, track foundation, travelling mechanism, auxiliary equipment, installation in the vicinity of overhead electricity lines); assembly and dismantling, inspection and testing, crane operation (base ballast, handling, movements, cranes with overlapping areas of operation, atmospheric conditions, maintenance). List of the relevant French regulations.
Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Tour Amboise, 204 Rond-Point du Pont de Sèvres, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt, France, edition n°230 A 80, 1980. 23p. Illus.

CIS 81-1887 Brand H., Schnauber H.
Reduction of vibration-induced physiological load in the iron and steel industry
Abbau von Schwingungsbelastungen in der Eisen- und Stahlindustrie [in German]
Report on an investigation to determine the physiological load due to mechanical vibration of travelling cranes, fork-lift trucks, tractors, forging manipulators, and locomotives; considerations on primary (at the design stage) and secondary (equipment modification) counter-measures to limit the physiological load. Review of the physics of mechanical vibration and its physiological effects on man; recommendations and directives for their evaluation; methodology and results of other studies; investigations undertaken and measures envisaged (especially drivers' seats and equipment suspensions) to reduce whole-body vibration. Considerations as to whether K values alone are adequate to evaluate all possible effects.
Campus Verlag GmbH, Schumannstrasse 65, 6000 Frankfurt 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. 248p. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 81-922
National Board for Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen)
Electrical equipment for cranes
Elutrustning till kranar [in Swedish]
This directive (effective 1 July 1981) applies to all lifting equipment except those installed on board vessels or in nuclear power stations and those used in premises where there is a potential explosion hazard. Contents: definitions; reference to pertinent standards; commentaries.
Liber Förlag, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 1980. 5p.

CIS 81-904
National Board for Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen)
Load limiting devices on cranes
Överlastdon på kranar [in Swedish]
This directive (effective 1 Jan. 1983 for cranes put into operation after that date; other appointed dates for cranes already in operation before that date) applies to cranes with load limiting devices designed to prevent accidental overturning or breakage of load-bearing parts. Contents: definitions; general rules; design of load-limiting devices and switchgear; setting, installation, operation and maintenance; marking. Appended: commentaries, terminology and examples of installation.
Liber Förlag, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 1980. Illus. 35p.

CIS 81-901 Behrens L.
Periodic inspection of cranes by experts
Wiederkehrende Prüfung von Krananlagen durch Sachkundige [in German]
In the Federal Republic of Germany the Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften) have issued basic principles and safety regulations on the inspection of cranes, including overhead travelling cranes, and on the different stages of inspections. This article reviews: experts' qualifications; frequency of inspections (technical data, state of the crane, working order, checking of repairs, mechanical parts, electrical equipment, lifting equipment), important points for checking (structure, rails and access, handrails, brakes). A serious defect often encountered is incorrect fixing of the cable end.
Sicherheitsingenieur, May 1980, Vol.11, No.5, p.22-33. Illus.

CIS 81-604 Load limiting device with strain gauge
Tenzometričeskij ograničitel' gruzopod"emnosti [in Russian]
Succinct description of a load limiting device for overhead travelling cranes, 3-50t capacity. An electrical-resistance strain gauge converts deformations of the sensor into an electric signal which is transmitted to an electronic unit in the crane driver's cab. In the case of overload the current supply to the electric winch motor is cut off and a warning lamp lights on the control panel. The mass of the suspended load is also indicated on a dial.
Mestnyj proizvodstvennyj opyt v promyšlennosti, Apr. 1980, No.4, p.29-30.

CIS 81-304 Regulations and standards on the use and maintenance of overhead travelling, portal and semi-portal cranes
Recueil des textes réglementaires et des normes relatifs à l'utilisation et à l'entretien des ponts-roulants, portiques et semi-portiques. [in French]
The texts reproduced are: extracts of the Labour Code (book II, title III: health and safety); amended decree of 23 Aug. 1947 (scope; installation of equipment and tracks; electrical installations; cabs and means of access; motors; chains and ropes, travel-limiting devices; operations; inspection and maintenance); decree of 8 Jan. 1965 (stability of equipment; falls of objects and persons; rules for various machine elements; supervision of operations; transport and lifting of personnel; testing and inspections; qualification of crane operators); order of 2 Mar. 1965 (maximum loads on cables, chains, and hooks). Appendix: technical data, recommendations, references to appplication standards.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st edition, 1980. 139p.

CIS 81-3 Ostler J., Paschmann D.
What every crane driver should know
Was der Kranführer von seiner Arbeit wissen muss [in German]
This booklet, intended as an instruction manual for training new crane drivers and as a refresher course for experienced crane operators faced with certain practical problems, aims not only at rationalising working methods but also at improving safety in this sector. Contents: review of developing trends in lifting equipment and cranes used in the basic metal industries; structure, elements and electrical equipment of cranes; operation and maintenance (controls, travel limiting and load limiting devices, maximum lifting capacity, inspection and maintenance of crane elements and parts such as the cab, access and safety devices); advice on slinging and safe working rules for the driver and for his protection; driver's qualifications; installation and operational costs; extracts from safety regulations for cranes in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Postfach 8229, 4000 Düsseldorf 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. 6th edition, rearranged and enlarged. 151p. Illus. price: DM.27.00.

CIS 80-1899 Ljah G.D.
Improved work conditions for overhead travelling crane operators
Iz opyta ozdorovlenija uslovij truda mašinistov mostovyh kranov [in Russian]
Exposure to heat in these workers often gives rise to respiratory, cardiovascular, and other disturbances. An air-cleaning and air-conditioning installation is described: clean air is led into the airtight cab and kept at an overpressure of 1-2mm H2O. A volume of 1400m3 can be conditioned and 100m3 cleaned per h.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1980, No.1, p.35-36.

CIS 80-1805 Bürkli M.
Overhead travelling cranes
Brückerkrane [in German]
Carriponte [in Italian]
Ponts roulants. [in French]
This note considers safety aspects, giving examples from in-plant situations, with sections on: statics and dimensions of buildings, safety areas, means of access to crane service platforms, maintenance (from the platforms) of building installations, and passage above partitions and through doors. This note supplements the rules for lifting equipment (form. CNA 1845).
Feuillet n°22018, Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, Case postale, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1980. 16p. Illus.

CIS 80-1204 Rambeau D.
Large construction sites - Tower cranes and their interference
Grands chantiers: les grues à tour et leurs interférences. [in French]
The close proximity of cranes in a limited area imposes new constraints including overlapping of the zones of action of the jibs, with a resulting collision hazard. A new anticollision device is presented which records data from the cranes aned provides the operator with audiovisual instructions. The equipment consists of a set of position detectors, a data processing unit, and a display desk with alerting signals. Reference is made to the French legislation and standards on the use of cranes.
Revue de la sécurité, Mar. 1980, Vol.16, No.166, p.15-21. Illus.

CIS 80-909 Peltier F.L.
Stability of mobile cranes - A little-known aspect of tilt prevention - Advice to users
Stabilité des grues mobiles - Un aspect méconnu de la sécurité au basculement - Quelques conseils aux utilisateurs. [in French]
This note aims to clarify existing terminology, to distinguish between "load lifting safety factor" and "tilting moment safety factor", and to show how the risk of mobile cranes overturning is increased when they are used with the maximum permissible jib radius and with maximum permissible working loads. Calculations (static equilibrium equation) and practical advice on how to avoid overturning in lifting operations with long jibs.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1980, No.98, Note No.1225-98-80, p.23-29. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 80-904 MacCollum D.V.
Critical hazard analysis of crane design.
Application of system safety analysis to cranes, especially mobile cranes, at the design stage, to identify principal areas of defective design which compromise safety. Design modifications are discussed, with a summary of available technology for eliminating or minimising each critical hazard. Analysis of failure modes with reference to general safety standards for 13 categories of hazard (overloading; side pull; outrigger failure; hoist limitations; boom-against-hoistline blocking; lines slipping from hooks; boom buckling; upset; unintentional turntable turning; oversteer/crabbing; confusion in operating controls; access; unintentional power-line contact), evaluating their applicability and effectiveness. In investigations and litigation following accidents human error is often invoked, whereas defective design tends to be overlooked.
Professional Safety, Jan. 1980, p.30-36. Illus. 10 ref.


CIS 80-1501
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Principles for testing cranes by experts, pursuant to the safety regulations for cranes
Grundsätze für die Prüfung von Kranen durch den Sachverständigen nach der Unfallverhütungsvorschrift "Krane" [in German]
Technical competence of experts, preparation of tests, tests before use and after modifications, test reports. Appended: lists of crane components, electrical equipment and lifting gear to be tested, for various types of crane.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 1832, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1979. 31p.

CIS 80-908 Side boom tractors.
This standard applies to the construction, installation, inspection, maintenance and operation of side boom tractors, excluding those having a maximum rated capacity of 1 ton or less. Definitions; construction and characteristics (load ratings, load rating chart, boom hoist, load hoist mechanisms, travel controls, brakes, ropes and reeving accessories, sheaves, cabs); inspection, testing and maintenance; operator qualifications and operating practices; load handling; standard hand signals (illustrated); operation near overhead electric lines.
ANSI B30.14 - 1979, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA, 15 Oct. 1979. 21p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: US$5.50.

CIS 80-304 Šiškov N.A.
Technical inspection for maintenance and safety of cranes
Tehničeskij nadzor za soderžaniem i bezopasnoj ėkspluataciej gruzopod"emnyh kranov [in Russian]
Contents: structural characteristics of cranes (overhead travelling, portal, tower, and mobile jib cranes); conditions for mechanical equipment (brakes, stabilising jacks, wire ropes, hooks); safety and signalling equipment (limit switches, load limiters, load capacity and tip indicators, warning signals); lifting tackle (slings, lifting beams, clamps); technical inspection (State and departmental inspection services, technical documentation and records, plant visits); crane operation (training and certification of drivers; special case of overhead travelling cranes, mobile jib cranes and tower cranes); safety (at design stage, at installation, and during lifting of loads); loss prevention (inspection of welds, approval of cranes before being put into service); causes of damage and accidents.
Izdatel'stvo "Nedra", Tretjakovskij pr. 1/19, 103633 Moskva K-12, USSR, 1979. 142p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: Rbl.0.45.

CIS 80-318 Grounding electric shovels, cranes and other mobile equipment.
Aspects considered include precautions against contacting overhead power lines; earthing circuit resistance; soil conductivity; neutral earthing resistors for limiting dangerous currents; earth conductors in trailing cables; fault currents; earthed neutral systems (circuit diagram); testing and maintenance of earthed systems. Reference to U.S. National Electrical Code (CIS 78-31).
National Safety News, Data Sheet 1-287-79, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, revised 1979. Sep. 1979, Vol.120, No.3, p.79-82. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 80-5 Ušakov P.N.
Teaching manual: rules for safe design and safe use of cranes (with questions and answers)
Rukovodstvo po izučeniju pravil ustrojstva i bezopasnoj ėkspluatacii kranov (v voprosah i otvetah) [in Russian]
The main provisions of Soviet regulations concerning crane design and safe use of cranes are reproduced and these provisions are explained in the context of the regulations and with reference to Soviet safety standards. Contents: organisation of technical inspection; general provisions; types of cranes; construction; hooks; wire ropes, pulleys and drums, brakes, wheels and cabs; safety devices (limit switches, travel and load limiting devices, balance indicator); electrical equipment; erection and assembly; lifting tackle; compliance tests and inspection; operational rules for crane drivers; checks and maintenance; safe lifting of loads.
Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgija", 2-j Obydenskij per. 14, 119034 Moskva G-34, USSR, 1979. 232p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.95.

CIS 80-221 Leigh T.M.
The construction machine: power line hazard.
The hazards of working with cranes near overhead electric lines are illustrated. Distance is the best safety measure: 10ft for up to 50,000V and then 1ft for each 30,000V above 50,000V. Accident prevention measures are detailed. The advantages and disadvantages of insulating, proximity sensing and crane motion limiting devices, and earthing are discussed.
Professional Safety, Sep. 1979, Vol.24, No.9, p.15-20. 8 ref.

CIS 79-1739
Comité technique national du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie, Paris.
Maintenance and repair work on tower cranes - Safety rules
Les interventions sur les grues à tour - Mesures de sécurité. [in French]
Recommendations adopted on 17 Jan. 1979 by the French Joint National Technical Committee for Building Construction and Civil Engineering (Comité technique national du bâtiment et des travaux publiques): definition of maintenance and repair work, scope of the recommendations; authorised personnel; responsibilities of person in charge of the work; tagging off of installations and equipment; special case of a hanging load; 2 or more different jobs being carried out simultaneously; compliance with manufacturer's instructions; protection against falls; log book of maintenance and repair jobs.
Travail et sécurité, May 1979, No.5, p.308-309.

CIS 79-1773 Pasmooij C.K.
Ergonomic directives for tower crane cabs
Ergonomische richtlijnen voor torenkraancabines [in Dutch]
An ergonomic approach to design and fitting out of the cab, covering 14 aspects, is given: visibility (visual field in the normal sitting posture, leaning forward, and standing); seat (design, adjustment, position); control elements (design, layout); information display; minimum dimensions of cab; access (stairway, ladder, platforms); communications (intercom, telephone, hand signals); microclimate and ventilation (ventilator with electric radiator): lighting; noise isolation; vibration absorption; emergency exit; sanitary facilities and place for personal effects.
De veiligheid, May 1979, Vol.55, No.5, p.255-261. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 79-1456
National Joint Technical Committee for the Building Trades, National Health Insurance Fund (Comité technique national des industries du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie), Paris, 17 Jan. 1979.
Work on tower cranes
Interventions sur les grues à tour. [in French]
This recommendation concerns work on cranes (with lifting capacity multiplied by radius exceeding 20,000daN.m) in case of mechanical breakdown or failure, repairs, assembly and dismantling. It outlines the limits of competency and authority of the members of the repair or assembly team according to their individual task and skills, the role of the team leader, and the shut-down or tagging-off procedures to be followed. The case of 2 operations being carried out simultaneously on a crane is considered. It is recommended that these workers should be issued with personal protective equipment against falls from height, and that work log books should be kept.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1979, No.95, Note 1192-95-79 (Recommendation No.158), p.327-329.

CIS 79-1210 Vautrin J.P.
Anticollision for overhead travelling cranes - Description of a variable alarm-threshold device
Anticollision pour ponts roulants - Description d'un dispositif à seuil d'alarme variable. [in French]
Existing fixed alarm-threshold anticollision devices, which set off the alarm when 2 overhead travelling cranes approach a predetermined critical distance, have the drawback of not making allowance for the relative speeds of the cranes and their loads. Considerations on the mathematical aspects of the problem and a brief critical analysis of fixed threshold systems are followed by a description of a variable alarm-threshold system developed by the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) which provides improved safety. This device is composed of an ultrasound transmitter-receiver mounted on one of the travelling cranes, an electronic data logging device which translates into signals the ultrasonic waves reflected off the other crane, giving data on the distance between the 2 cranes and their relative speed. This data is fed into an electronic data processing/alarm unit. Tests carried out over a number of years on the prototype were satisfactory and industrial production is now under way.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1979, No.95, Note No.1177-95-79, p.209-221. Illus.


CIS 80-613
Health and Safety Executive.
Erection and dismantling of tower cranes.
This note gives information on: compliance with manufacturers' instructions; competent supervision; general precautions, training; maintenance of erection gear; foundations; rail tracks and hard standings (for truck and crawler mounted cranes); installation of crane base or chassis; erection of mast; assembly and erection of counter-jib, counterweight and main jib; extending or retracting the mast; electrical installation; testing and examination; checks and completion of erection; dismantling. Reference to laws and regulations.
Guidance Note PM 3, H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Jan. 1978. 4p. Price: £0.30.

CIS 80-608
Standards Institute of the Federal Republic of Germany (Deutsches Institut für Normung).
Operating direction and layout of controls in cabs
Betätigungssinn und Anordnung von Stellteilen in Krankabinen [in German]
Standard aiming to improve safe operation of this equipment by standardising the direction of knobs, levers and other controls, and their layout, thus eliminating human error. General remarks on concordance of the direction of crane movements with that of the controls, clear marking on controls of the operations they command, and the importance of the direction towards which the driver is looking. The layout of the controls and their operating direction with the resulting crane movement are shown in diagrams and tables for each type of crane.
DIN 15 025, Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstrasse 4-10, D-1000 Berlin 30, Jan. 1978, 6p. Illus. Price: DM.17.90.

CIS 80-268 Overhead travelling and portal cranes with cab - Driver's post - Controls
Ponts et portiques roulants à cabine - Poste de conduite - Organes de commande. [in French]
This experimental standard defines the layout and direction of movement of the controls. It does not apply to equipment controlled from the ground by push-buttons. Contents: general (driver's post, controls, stop control, direction of hand movements according to the desired action); marking of push-buttons and control elements; layout schemes.
Norme expérimentale E 52-127, Association française de normalisation, Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, Feb. 1978. 5p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 79-1807 Mobile cranes - Safety devices to prevent overloading
Grues mobiles - Dispositifs de sécurité s'opposant à la surcharge. [in French]
This standard specifies requirements to be met by overload preventers on mobile cranes. Definitions are followed by sections devoted to: cutoff function; advance warning of imminent overloading; automatic conversion of sensor information into change of jib position; bypassing of load monitor in case of failure; fail-safety; corrective action to maintain stable position; reliability; periodic checks.
Norme française homologuée NF E 52-086, French Standards Association (Association française de normalisation), Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, July 1978. 4p. 1 ref.

CIS 79-1805 Overhead travelling cranes and portal cranes - Glazing of cabs
Ponts-roulants et portiques roulants - Vitrages des cabines. [in French]
This experimental standard applies to the safety glass used for cabs of overhead travelling cranes and portal cranes, and specifies the type of glazing to be used depending on the hazards and problems involved: impacts, clear visibility (avoidance of image deformation), glare, heat, ultraviolet or infrared radiation.
Norme expérimentale E 52-130, French Standards Association (Association française de normalisation), Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, June 1978. 3p. 5 ref.

CIS 79-1204 Cranes - A guide to good work practices for operators.
This booklet contains advice on health requirements and training for crane operators; safety features for cranes; inspection techniques (brakes, lubrication, wire rope, drums, sheaves, hooks, slings); and planning the lifts and lifting.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-192, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1978. 23p. Illus.

CIS 79-913 Tharan J.P.
Safety, comfort and hygiene of overhead travelling crane cabs and control posts in factories
La sécurité, l'hygiène et le confort des cabines de ponts roulants et des postes de surveillance en usine. [in French]
Paper presented to the Joint Regional Technical Committee for the Metal Trades (Lille, France). The safety of overhead travelling cranes is examined in respect of access, fixture, and radiation protection, and, for the interior, electrical safety, fire safety, and fall prevention; other aspects studied are visibility, dual control cabs, wind. Recommendations are made with regard to housekeeping and ventilation of cabs, while those with a bearing on comfort relate to the operator's seat, illumination level, noise levels, thermal comfort, and air conditioning.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 18 Oct. 1978. 28p. Illus. 6 ref. Gratis.

CIS 79-902 Butler A.J.
Crane accidents: Their causes and repair costs.
A Building Research Establishment study of 472 accidents to tower and mobile cranes is reported. There were 35 injuries and 4 deaths. Human error accounted for more than half the accidents. Accidents causing injury and those associated with erection and dismantling of tower cranes, backward jib collapses, wind action and overturning are examined in detail, and preventive measures are discussd. Current and proposed crane safety research at BRE is briefly outlined.
Building Research Establishment Current Paper CP 75/78, Garston, Watford, WD2 7JR, United Kingdom, 1978. 15p.

CIS 79-901 Behrens L.
In crane driving always lift loads vertically
Im Kranbetrieb keine Lasten schrägziehen [in German]
In general, cranes are designed to lift loads vertically. Lifting loads which are not located vertically under the jib head (side loading), can give rise to uncontrollable forces which nearly always exceed the maximum working load (increased load radius due to swinging). This article shows, with diagrams, the angles and effects of the various forces at work, compared to the dynamics involved in normal vertical lifting. The rope, hook and even the framework of the crane may be damaged as a result. Apart from the faulty practice of side or non-vertical loading, cranes should not be used for dragging loads or vehicles (railway trucks, lorries, industrial trucks, etc.) on the ground, except in cases of extreme urgency where such operations can prevent even more hazardous situations, or in cases where the crane used is equipped with a load-limiting device or a diverting sheave.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Aug. 1978, No.8, p.32-35. Illus.

CIS 79-698 Sundin S.
Exposure of crane drivers to whole-body vibration - A pilot survey
Traversförares exponering för helkroppsvibrationer - En pilotstudie [in Swedish]
In 9 crane cabins, the highest acceleration levels were at 4-8Hz and 40-63Hz in all 3 directions with intensities of 0.1-1.0m/s2 rms in the front-to-back direction and 0.10-0.60m/s2 rms in the other directions. The maximum peak acceleration for the cabins was 2.6-21m/s2 in the 3 directions. The largest shocks in the vertical direction reached 20m/s2. Such shocks should occur about 50 times per day. The permissible exposure time varied between 2.5-24h before the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) limit criterion for "fatigue-decreased proficiency" (ISO 2631) was exceeded. Two cabins had a much higher vibrational load than the others. The vertical vibration at 0.4-1.OHz in one of the cabins was large enough to exceed the proposed ISO limit for "severe discomfort" after 6h exposure. Shocks in the vertical direction did not exceed the "reduced discomfort" limit.
Undersökningsrapport 1978:29, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1978. 21p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: Swe-cr.10.00.

CIS 79-824 International Symposium on Hazard Prevention in the Construction Industry - Record of the proceedings
Internationales Kolloquium über die Verhütung von Arbeitsunfällen und Berufskrankheiten im Hoch- und Tiefbau - Zusammenfassender Bericht [in German]
Colloque international de prévention des risques professionnels du bâtiment et des travaux publics - Compte rendu des travaux [in French]
Coloquio Internacional de Prevención de los Risegos Profesionales en la Construcción y Obras Públicas - Actas de los trabajos [in Spanish]
Record of proceedings of the symposium which was organised by ISSA and national institutions during the EXPOMAT (International Exhibition of Construction Equipment, Paris 25-26 May 1978). Written and orally delivered papers presented to the symposium (mainly in French, but also in English, German and Spanish) were chiefly concerned with self-propelled earthmoving equipment and construction site cranes, covering the following aspects: statistical analysis of accidents; construction and safety; layout and design of driver's cab; safety of nearby workers and others when using this equipment; qualifications, skills and training; equipment of earthmovers and other vehicles, load supervision; signalling to, and communication with the driver; consultation between manufacturers and users.
Comité international de prévention des risques professionnels du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Association internationale de la sécurité sociale, 2bis rue Michelet, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, undated. 448p. Illus. Price: FF.56.00.

CIS 79-601 Pendant-operated and radio-controlled cranes.
These cranes can be controlled from the floor, either by push buttons or cords on a control station, or by a portable radio-control console carried by an operator. They are more easily and safely operated than cab-operated cranes. Recommendations for safety with this equipment include proper training and supervision and prevention of use by unauthorised personnel; correct use of and clear marking of controls; design of parts for safe use (proper setting of hoist limit switch, warning alarms, etc.); safe repair techniques; and general operating rules.
National Safety News, Data Sheet 1-558-78, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 1978. Chicago, USA, Oct. 1978, Vol.118, No.4, p.73-77. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 79-820 Better working conditions - Tower crane cabs
Het betere werk - Cabines van torenkranen [in Dutch]
These recommendations were established jointly by the Dutch Hygiene Federation for the Construction Industry and the Institute for Preventive Medicine. Contents: visibility (the 3 visual fields of the crane operator); seat (design, sitting posture, backrest); layout of controls; rules concerning nameplates and signs; anthropometric dimensions of the cab; accessibility (general rules, staircases, ladders, platforms, etc.); communications (intercom, hand signals); heating and ventilation; lighting (worksite and cab interior); noise and vibration control); emergency trapdoor; welfare conditions (chemical toilets for heights above 20m, etc.).
Stichting Bedrijfsgezondheitsdienst voor de Bouwnijverheid, Postboks 8, 3800AA Amersfoort, Netherlands, no date. 31p. Illus.

CIS 79-308 Müller A.
Case of a chain breaking
Ein Kettenbruch [in German]
Series of articles giving a detailed description of an accident due to a heavy load falling when a lifting chain broke as the load was being lifted by a mobile crane. The articles describe how the accident occurred and summarise an interview between crane drivers and a specialist. The following aspects of the case are covered: condition of the chain and stresses to which it was subjected; Swiss and German regulations on safety factors for lifting chains; definition of safety factor and bases on which it is established; bad sling position on the load; causes of chain breaking; successful lifting by changing the sling position on the load; legal aspects; lessons to be learned as regards personnel training; marking of chains and cables; use of loading tables, indication of weight on loads; deciding the lifting points when the load is being slung.
Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Arbeitsschutz, 1978, Vol.25, No.3, p.5-7; No.4, p.6-8; No.5, p.7-10, and No.6, p.6-7. Illus.

CIS 79-306 Directives on construction, periodic checks and inspection of building crane lifts
Anvisningar om utförande, fortlöpande tillsyn och besiktning av kranhissar vid byggkranar [in Swedish]
These directives (effective 1 Jan. 1980) apply to cranes with a cab more than 20m above ground level which must therefore be equipped with a lift for the crane driver (Anvisningar nr 103, see CIS 76-305). Contents: general rules (built-in safety at the design stage, instructions in Swedish); safe working load, raising and lowering speed (<0.25m/s), reversible winch with brake, load limiting device; lifting elements (ropes and pulleys or rack and pinion); gap between cage and mast (<20cm); landing and railings; safety-catch device; speed limiting and slack rope device; limit switches; guides; operation and emergency stop controls; safety ladder; warning plate; periodical checks and inspection.
Anvisningar nr 131, National Board for Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, May 1978. 9p.

CIS 79-6 Danger from above!
Gefahr von oben! - Sicherer Umgang mit Kranlasten [in German]
Le danger vient d'en haut [in French]
This audio-visual training aid on lifting and handling goods by crane conveys its message in the form of a number of basic safety rules, illustrated by examples: ascertain the weight of the load; determine attachment points; watch the angle of the slings; select the right lifting tackle; secure the load properly; observe the rules applying to transport.
Film strip (18x24) or series of colour slides (24x36), 79 frames, running commentary on magnetic tape (9.5cm/s) or cassette (4.75cm/s), 17min, 1978. Becker Audio-Visuals, Albisstrasse 107, 8038 Zürich, Switzerland. Price: SF.585.00.

CIS 78-1815 Boster T.A.
Floor crane safety.
There are many types of portable floor cranes that transport loads up to 3 tons. The main common features are described and safe design considerations are pointed out for: wheels, hydraulic jack and pump, mast, boom, platform, hook, brake, possible warning devices, and legs. Safe operation and maintenance are discussed: testing, low speed during movement, load kept close to the ground and use of a tether rope to avoid oscillation of the load.
Professional Safety, July 1978, Vol.23, No.7, p.18-24. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 78-1806 Bauriedl S.
Mobile jib cranes on building sites
Fahrbare Auslegerkrane im Baubetrieb [in German]
This article deals with the accident hazards and their prevention associated with the use of mobile cranes (with girder or telescopic jib) and auxiliary truck-mounted cranes for transport and assembly of prefabricated elements on building sites. The crane must be erected in conformity with the manufacturer's instructions and under the supervision of a responsible competent person. Stability depends on jacking, soil resistance (special case of vicinity of slope edge), and the position of the crane, which must be perfectly horizontal. Permitted pressures on different soils according to West Germany standards are given. Setting and checking of safety devices, determination of maximum load, moving the crane with raised load, and traction by the lifting cable at an angle are other important factors. Also dealt with: lifting of personnel with special equipment, work close to electric power lines, personal protective equipment, expert testing of cranes.
Hochbau, Jan.-Feb. 1978, Vol.66, No.1, p.5-13. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 78-1803 Häkkinen K.
Crane accidents and their prevention.
A survey of crane accidents in Finland and studies in other countries show priority areas requiring remedial action to be lifting gear and fastening of loads, dismantling of cranes, and overturning. The causes of these accidents are analysed, and the literature reviewed for technical solutions.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Apr. 1978, Vol.1, No.4, p.353-361. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 78-1209
National Joint Technical Committee for the Building Trades (Comité technique national du bâtiment et des travaux publics), Paris, 10 Jan. 1978.
Tower cranes
Grues à tour. [in French]
This recommendation consists mainly of a table indicating the periodicity and nature of tests to be performed on the slewing ring fastening bolts for new equipment and equipment already in service, and the steps to be taken in the event of defective parts.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1978, No.91, Note No.1124-91-78 (Recommendation No.136), p.335-337.

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