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Trenching and excavating - 123 entries found

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CIS 88-211 Tunnelling handbook 1988
Taschenbuch für den Tunnelbau 1988 [in German]
The 12th edition contains the latest information on construction techniques for tunnels and on other underground construction work (including safety equipment and safety measures). Among the subjects treated: excavation and trenches; construction of various kinds of tunnels; machinery and equipment; materials and construction elements; review of regulations in effect in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Verlag Glückauf GmbH, Sales Department, Franz-Fischer-Weg 61, Postfach 1794, 4300 Essen 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1987. 365p. Illus. Bibl.


CIS 87-161 Safety in earthmoving from the planning to the carrying-out stage
Prévention et sécurité depuis la conception jusqu'à la réalisation des terrassements [in French]
Training manual aimed at everyone concerned with earthmoving (planners, contractors, decision makers, foremen, machine operators), encouraging them to adopt an integrated approach to safety at all times. Summary: preparatory work, siting; equipment; traffic layout on the site; materials; earthmoving; drainage; highway deviations; protective wire meshing. Regulations in effect in France. Bibliography by construction, stage and by hazard type. Each chapter is given in a tabular format indicating the task involved, the risks foreseen and their prevention, the documents in which the relevant recommendations or legal texts are found, and the work phase(s) during which the task is performed.
Société centrale d'études et de réalisations routières, 2 rue Stéphenson, 78181 St. Quentin-Yvelines Cedex, France, 1986. 125p. Illus.

CIS 86-2037
(Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet)
Trench digging and shoring
Gravning og avstivning av grøfter [in Norwegian]
These regulations, dated 19 November 1985 (effective 1 Mar. 1986), apply to trenching and building-site excavation. Contents: planning of excavations exceeding a depth of 2m; conditions enabling excavations to be dug without shoring (sloping, frozen ground); shoring (by qualified personnel when the depth exceeds 3m); choice of the site for the excavated ground; trenches with special profiles; excavations for buildings; escape routes. In an appendix: detailed rules for excavating and shoring operations; types of ground, their properties and their hazards in the event of rain; ground-water and its behaviour; ice layers between layers of ground; ground pressure; ground exploration by drilling.
Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, Jan. 1986. 28p. Illus.


CIS 00-1754 Shore it up properly!
Blindez! [in French]
Videotape on trenching operations and shoring methods. Topics: collapse; safety films; trench shoring; trenching and excavating; videotape.
OPPBTP, Comité national, Service Formation, Tour Amboise, 204, rond-point du Pont-de-Sèvres, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt Cedex, France, 1985. VHS videotape (length: 20min). Price: FRF 1250.00 (FRF 1000.00 subscribers).

CIS 88-620
Health and Safety Executive
Avoiding danger from buried electricity cables
This guidance note is intended to help to minimise the possibility of inadvertently striking buried electricity cables during excavation work. It sets out a system of work based on obtaining as much information as possible about the cable network in the area of proposed excavation before excavation starts (plans about all electricity cables in the area, the use of suitable cable location devices), and then using this information to plan and ensure safe digging methods. Relevant legislation and first aid practices are appended.
HM Stationary Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Apr. 1985. 12p. Illus.

CIS 86-241 Sprince N.L., Oliver C., McLoud T.C.
Asbestos-related disease in plumbers and pipefitters employed in building construction
Asbestos-related disease in a group of 153 plumbers and pipefitters employed in building construction in the USA was assessed by means of a cross-sectional prevalence study. The major finding was bilateral pleural thickening (BPT) in 18.3% of the participants. BPT was associated with both age and time since first asbestos exposure. Decreases in forced vital capacity were associated with duration of exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1985, Vol.27, No.10, p.771-775. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 86-238 Gastal M.
Drilling and post setting as one operation, or the art of setting poles
Forer et poser en une seule opération ou l'art de dresser les poteaux [in French]
Description of equipment that allows the drilling of holes up to 1m in diameter in all kinds of ground up to depth of 5m and the setting of concrete poles under the safest working conditions.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, July-Aug. 1985, No.4, p.4-6. Illus.

CIS 85-2028 Request for assistance in preventing deaths and injuries from excavation cave-ins
This type of accident is a major cause of death during excavation work and accounts for nearly 1% of all work related fatalities in the USA. It is recommended that shoring systems or sloping of the walls be used in all excavations 5 to 20ft deep in any type of soil, except solid, stable rock. Appropriate shoring, shielding or sloping requirements for all excavations deeper than 24ft should be determined by a qualified engineer. Synopses of 4 fatal accidents are given.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, July 1985, 6p. 3 ref.

CIS 85-1723
(Comité technique national des industries du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie)
Protection of workers in narrow trenches
Protection du personnel travaillant dans les tranchées étroites [in French]
Recommendations adopted 1 March 1985. They deal with the shoring of trenches (dug by hand or by mechanical means), and they summarise the safety rules to be followed by workers. Commentary on the installation of shoring.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1985, No.120, Note No.1545-120-85 (Recommendation No.255), p.377-378.


CIS 86-1136 Earthmoving work
Travaux de terrassements [in French]
This booklet presents the various accident risks of earthmoving as well as appropriate preventive measures. Aspects covered: the actual work procedures followed during earthmoving; definitions of different kinds of excavation, safe slopes for the walls of excavations, earthmoving procedures, machinery, the execution of excavation, spoil transport; specific risks of supporting work for deep foundations; safety plan for earthmoving in general, for supporting structures, for foundations and for underpinning.
Organisme professionnel algérien de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, 10, rue Mohamed Belouizdad, Alger, Algeria, 1984. 40p. Illus.

CIS 85-202
(Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Quarries, open-cast mines and spoil-heap recovery works
Steinbrüche, Gräbereien und Haldenabtragungen [in German]
These regulations specify the measures necessary to prevent the hazards connected with soil pressure and accidental ground movements in quarries, open-cast mines, claypits and similar works, as well as in spoil-heap recovery works. General measures include proper planning of operations, benching, layout of haulage ways, overburden removal. Special measures relate to wall height and to slopes in various types of operations. Measures concerning operations include the prohibition of work in isolation, cave-ins, the removal of loose rock from walls, work at the foot of or inside walls, the risk of falling rocks, the monitoring of cracks and protection against flying debris. Enforcement rules and comments are given in the supplement.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Oct. 1984, 10+12p. Illus. Price: DM.1.60.


CIS 85-217 Trench excavation
This data sheet describes the precautions required to prevent trench wall cave-in and soil movement in the course of sewer, pipeline and similar sub-surface work using the cut and cover method. Contents: hazards; definitions; shoring of trenches; personal protection; sliding trench shields; fabrication and movable shields; regulations and legislation.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1983. 6p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 84-2028 Manual digging in trenches and workers' safety
Escavações manuais em trincheira e segurança do trabalhador [in Portuguese]
This article on safety in trench digging is based on Portuguese Law No. 41.821 (1958). Contents: nature of the soil; instability as a source of accidents; precautions; trenchwork dimensions.
Prevenção no trabalho, Aug.-Sep. 1983, Vol.5, No.70, p.7-10. Illus.

CIS 84-1183 Klimmer F., Rutenfranz J., Rohmert W., Mainzer J.
Measurement of stress and workload connected with excavation work for power and water distribution
Belastungs- und Beanspruchungsmessungen bei Tätigkeiten im Tiefbau für die Energie- und Wasserversorgung [in German]
This evaluation involved 20 workers digging trenches for cables and pipelines: work description, types of trenches, working methods, analysis of stress (profile of work elements) and strain (recording of heart rate). Shovelling in narrow trenches was a special form of stress, and high energy expenditures and heart rates requiring relatively long periods of rest were observed. The highest heart rate (170-180min-1) was noted during cable laying.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1983, Vol.18, No.4, p.82-86. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 84-863 General excavation
This data sheet covers problems involved in general excavating operations where the walls are nearly vertical (excluding shore-line excavating, shaft work, trench excavation). Hazards include: suffocation or crushing when exposed soil falls; falling materials, tools and equipment; exposure to electricity, water, steam, gas and oxygen-deficient atmospheres; muddy conditions and slipping; lack of guards, barricades and warning signs; inadequate shoring and maintenance; falls; health hazards from dust and toxic substances. Procedures to eliminate these risks are described.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL. 60611, USA, 1983. 5p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 83-1722 Duverger J.
A turning point in the shoring of trenches
Un tournant dans le blindage des tranchées [in French]
In a new shoring system, prefabricated panels are held in the channels of steel uprights welded up from C-section channels. The uprights on opposite sides of a trench are joined by jacks. The shape of the uprights can be chosen so that the panels meet at any angle. The shoring system can thus be easily used in trenches which change direction.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Jan.-Feb. 1983, No.1, p.25-29. Illus.


CIS 83-2042 Pulling underground distribution cables
Tirage des câbles de branchement souterrain [in French]
Study of 2 situations typical of those which may be encountered on construction sites where underground or overhead-underground low-voltage electric supply lines must be pulled through previously installed conduits. The effort required to pull different lengths of cable was determined, and correct practices were defined in order to prevent the back complaints and muscle strains which are often produced by such pulling operations.
Vigilance, Oct. 1982, No.66, p.5-8. Illus.

CIS 83-904 Wilke H.
Load-lifting equipment for pipelaying in trenches
Lastaufnahmeeinrichtungen für das Rohrverlegen in Gräben [in German]
Lifting devices for laying large-diameter concrete pipe can be classified by gripping principle or application. Devices may hold pipe positively by virtue of their shape (C-hooks, wire rope slings, anchors in the pipe itself); or by force (tongs, vacuum grippers, magnets). The applicability of a given device depends on whether the pipe will be guided by workers in the excavation or from the edge of the trench, and on the amount of space available around the excavation. The most reliable devices are those that positively secure the pipe on all three axes.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Feb. 1982, Vol.94, No.2, p.80-90. Illus.

CIS 82-1431
National Joint Technical Committee for the Building Trades and Civil Engineering, French Social Security Fund (Comité technique national du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie)
Foundation work for pylons for very high-voltage lines
Travaux de fouilles des pylônes de lignes à très haute tension [in French]
Recommendations adopted 25 Nov. 1981, with commentaries, concerning choice of type of protection and excavation work; advice on selection and use of equipment and planning of rescue in case of emergency.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1982, No.107, Note No.1383-107-82 (Recommendation No.205), p.297-299.

CIS 82-840 Baudu M., Moreau J.C.
Shoring nets
Des filets en blindage [in French]
Review of the accident statistics on cave-ins during narrow trenching work, and their causes. Description of a method of shoring trenches dug for electrical pylons. The trench walls are lined with a strong net held in place at the top and bottom by a steel frame, and designed to retain the soil in the event of a cave-in. Testing of these devices is described.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Jan.-Feb. 1982, No.1, p.2-5. Illus.


CIS 84-1126
(Deutsches Institut für Normung)
Excavations and trenches - Slopes, width of the working area, shoring
Baugruben und Gräben - Böschungen, Arbeitsraumbreiten, Verbau [in German]
Standard giving safety specifications based on Safety Regulation VBG 37, issued in 1977. This standard applies to excavations and trenches (with and without shoring, dug manually or mechanically), and specifies: construction data and documentation necessary for the determination of stability; regulations for excavation work; width of the working area; trench shoring using horizontal or vertical boards; piling, sections and plants used for bracing; concrete shoring (concrete cast into a narrow trench in the soil); stability tests on shoring. Appropriate standards are listed.
Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstrasse 4-7, D-1000 Berlin 30, Aug. 1981. 17p. Illus. Price: DM.54.20.

CIS 82-506
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen)
Gravel, sand and clay pits
Grus-, sand- och lertag [in Swedish]
This directive (effective 1 July 1981) deals with safe work in gravel, sand and clay pits, and ore storage dumps. Sections cover: general rules (planning the extraction with an eye to cave-ins, landslips and exposure to atmospheric contaminants, etc.); cave-in and landslip control measures (precautions when moving overburden, correct shaping of banks, etc.); prevention of traffic and handling accidents (protecting the dragline winch operator against a wire rope breakage, safe layout of dump truck discharge points, etc.); control measures for pollution, noise and vibration exposure. Detailed commentary.
Publicationsservice, Fack, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 29 Jan. 1981. 11p. Illus. Gratis.

CIS 81-1448 Trenching.
This audiovisual programme describes: causes of cave-ins; safe and unsafe shoring installations; safety practices in excavation; trenching hazards; accident prevention.
Title No.007516/LF. Instructor Guide, sound slide set, 88 colour slides, 14min. audiocassette. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington D.C. 20210, USA. Price: US-$38.00.


CIS 82-254 Direct buried utility cables
Guidelines and directives for buried cables; earthed shielding for cables carrying a voltage above 600V; clearance between buried cables and sewers and water and fuel lines; trenching; trench bottom; burial depth of cable as determined by voltage range; precautions before excavation; sloping and shoring of trench sides; minimum separation of power cables or conductors carrying different voltages, telephone lines, etc.; inspection for underground obstacles before excavation; handling of cables and wires.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1980. 6p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 82-238 Steller G.
Occupational safety in pipeline construction
Arbeitssicherheit im Pipelinebau [in German]
This article deals solely with laying pipelines larger than 600mm diameter on dry ground. Advice on work planning, first aid and personal protective equipment is followed by: selecting the location for the site management office and depot, general preparations and marking out the route, pipe storage, pipe bending, loading and transport, assembly (work with liquefied petroleum gas, welding, electric tools, testing, hazards in pipe-laying, using groups of cranes on flat or sloping ground). Each item is considered from both the technical and accident-prevention point of view.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Dec, 1980, Vol.92, No.12, p.1000-1013. Illus.

CIS 81-1807 Kaphun K.
Safe transport of piping in sewage system construction
Sicherer Rohrtransport für den Abwasserleitungsbau [in German]
Review of occupational safety principles and regulations in force in the Federal Republic of Germany for the laying of large-diameter concrete sewage pipes (trench shoring, workers' qualifications, safety devices for excavations, lifting appliances with positive locking systems). Specifications for lifting hooks used with excavators, wire ropes and slings, and gripping devices. The gripping devices described have been specially designed for the conditions met in drain laying and in the lifting of large-diameter concrete pipes (spreaders, clamps, tube hooks). Retaining studs built into the pipes during manufacture eliminate the danger of falling loads. Description of a rail-mounted installation for the horizontal transport of pipes at the bottom of the trench.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Oct. 1980, Vol.10, p.834-841. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 81-1445 Hundhausen.
Chemical soil consolidation - Techniques and hazards
Chemische Bodenverfestigung - Verfahren und Gefahren [in German]
Compared to other retention techniques, chemical ground consolidation has definite advantages: absence of soil disaggregation and compaction, absence of vibration and limited noise levels. A description of the technique and its variants is followed by a study of accident hazards and safety measures: primary hazards during consolidation work (drilling and ramming, mixing of dangerous substances, pressure injection); secondary hazards during excavation and construction work (failure of consolidation and cave-ins, formation of dangerous gases). Safety measures: worker education, safety goggles and gloves, protective clothing, ventilation, personal hygiene, limiting the quantity of substances used, preventing accumulations of static electricity, prohibition of smoking and welding.
Mitteilungsblatt der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft Wuppertal, June 1980, No.2, p.64-72. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 80-2045 Deroeux D.
New technique for laying sewage drains in trenches
Technique nouvelle de pose de collecteurs en tranchées. [in French]
Communication to the Joint Regional Technical Committee for the Building Construction and Civil Engineering Industry (Comité technique régional du bâtiment et des travaux publics), Lille, France, describing a new method for laying sewage drainpipes without shoring, but filling the trench with a thixotropic mass: preparation and laying of pipes, cheking their position; finishing work; advantages of the system.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, Boîte postale 3008, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 4 June 1980. 4p. Illus. Gratis.

CIS 80-2041 Forysiak
Earthmoving by suction - A look at some new techniques
Le terrassement par aspiration - Ouverture à de nouvelles techniques de travail. [in French]
Communication to the Joint Regional Technical Committee for Building Construction and Civil Engineering (Comité technique régional du bâtiment et des travaux publics), Lille, France, describing a new pneumatic method for removal of excavated material and the equipment used. Uses: construction of isolated secondary gas piping in urbanised areas; exploratory boring; drilling of holes for overhead-line poles; detecting leaks in piping; cleaning observation ports for pipeline cocks.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, B.P. 3008, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 4 June 1980. 6p. Gratis.

CIS 80-1743 Safe work in and around excavations and trenches
Veilig werken in en om putten en sleuven [in Dutch]
Contents of this data sheet: preparation of operations, avoidance of underground electric cables or overhead lines; solil stability (prospection of terrain, boreholes; lowering of ground water level by pumping); excavation (with hand shovels near underground cables; accumulation of removed soil; positioning of power shovels; sloping of trench sides; shoring methods); passing under waterways, railways and roads (siphon methods, pipe jacking, hazards of insufficient oxygen or presence of toxic gases); traffic signalling of trenching sites.
VIB 12, Veiligheids Informatiegroep "Bouw", Veiligheidsinstituut, Hobbemastraat 22, 1007 AR Amsterdam, Netherlands, Feb. 1980. 39p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: Glds.3.00.

CIS 80-1423 Shield D.
The dangers of "blind" excavation.
Hazards of underground electricity supply cables (415V) in residential and industrial areas, from local substations, and between substations, carrying 11kV, also frequently passing under streets; underground pipes. Planning of excavation operations. Hazards to personnel (electrocution, flash burns), usually when operating hand tools. Preventive measures: trial holes, use of cable locators.
Industrial Safety, Dec. 1978, Vol.24, No.12, p.10-12. Illus.


CIS 82-1438 Trench work
Travaux de fouilles en tranchées [in French]
Illustrated brochure designed to enable educators and trainers to build safety concepts into their courses. Sections deal with: soil cohesion; soil types (rocky, running and loose); factors affecting soil cohesion; cave-ins and other hazards. Part 2 deals with the timbering of machine-dug trenches (timbering with prefabricated wooden panels, trench cages, sheet piles; special timbering devices and machines; protection without timbering); trenches dug by hand (horizontal shoring, vertical shoring). List of relevant French regulations.
Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Tour Amboise, 204 Rond-Point du Pont de Sèvres, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt, France, édition n°185 B 79, 1979. 16p. Illus.

CIS 80-1504 Wilke H.
Slinging of concrete pipes with steel ropes (choker or basket hitch)
Anschlagen von Betonrohren mit Stahlseilen (Schnürgang, Hängegang) [in German]
The safety requirements for slinging large-diameter concrete pipes using a single or double choker hitch, or a basket hitch, with or without a spreader beam, are analysed: holding strength of the sling, lowest position of the pipe in the sling and angle formed by the sling legs, use of connecting hardware (rings, shackles, hooks), sloping position of the pipe during lifting. Lifting of pipes by choker hitch without a spreader should be avoided on account of the accident hazard. Appended are calculations permitting determination of the holding and elongation forces of ropes, and of the lowest position of the load in the sling.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Dec. 1979, Vol.91, No.12, p.856-865. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 80-837 Underground cables.
Safety notes for building and civil engineering contractors undertaking hand or power digging work, where there is a possibility of encountering buried electricity cables: pre-planning and investigation; accurate records of old supply lines; cost of interruptions to public supplies by damage to cables; electrical accidents; legal aspects in the United Kingdom; use of radiodetection cable-avoiding tools. Description of buried cable detection equipment (some operate on the principle of detecting the magnetic field produced by current flowing in a cable; other radio-frequency inductive/conductive detectors known as CATS (cable-avoiding toools) emit an acoustic signal in the vicinity of cables).
Health and Safety at Work, May 1979, Vol.1, No.9, p.40-41. Illus.

CIS 79-1740
Comités techniques nationaux des industries des pierres et terres à feu, et du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie, Paris, 20 Nov. 1978 and 17 Jan. 1979.
Earthmoving, excavation and working opencast quarries
Travaux de terrassement et d'exploitation de carrières à ciel ouvert. [in French]
The measures prescribed by this recommendation concern: stability of slopes; soil drainage; dumping excavated material and reclaiming from dumps; safety helmets; dust control measures on excavation sites. The mean values of the angle of internal friction of soil are given for certain types of soils.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1979, No.96, Note No.1204-96-79 (Recommendation No.159), p.463-464.


CIS 79-1201 Kaphun K.
Safe transport of pipes for sewer construction
Sicherer Rohrtransport für den Abwasserleitungsbau [in German]
The equipment to be used (especially lifting apparatus) to improve occupational safety during pipelaying is described. Back hoes, which are most often used in this work, are equipped with a bucket fitted with hooks or rings for securing the lifting devices. When large-diameter concrete pipes are lifted by wire rope, the risk of the pipe sliding from the sling renders the use of lifting straps and special devices such as spreaders, clamps, and pipe hooks adjustable for balance preferable. Work is facilitated by providing anchorage devices when the pipes are manufactured. Equipment for horizontal transport of pipe sections into the trench is described.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Oct. 1978, Vol.90, No.10, p.660-665. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 79-1146 Baudu M.
A new technique for pipe laying
Nouvelle technique de pose des canalisations. [in French]
The method, involving filling the trench with a special slurry composed of water, bentonite and cement, is described with diagrams. Designed to offset ground pressure without shoring, this relatively expensive technique is recommended for certain difficult worksites, above all in waterlogged areas which are difficult to drain.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Nov.-Dec. 1978, No.6, p.303-307. Illus.

CIS 79-1144 Baudu M.
Trenching and excavation - A bad accident record
Exécution des fouilles en tranchées - Un lourd bilan. [in French]
Following an increase in the accident rate in this sector in 1978 (according to provisional statistics), attention is once again drawn to the hazards of faulty trench shoring techniques and bad choice of slope angle, and to modern, safe trench shoring methods: lightweight sheet piling and use of prefabricated trench cages (principle, materials, and methods of use).
Sauvegarde des chantiers, 1978, No.6, p.4-7. Illus.

CIS 79-89 Naumenko I.M.
Low temperature as an unfavourable occupational factor in electric welding
Nizkie temperatury kak professional'nyj neblagoprijatnyj faktor pri rabote ėlektrosvarščikov [in Russian]
Welders working on gas pipelines under construction in the USSR showed a high rate of respiratory, neuro-muscular and locomotor apparatus disorders due to the cold. These workers were often in contact with cold metal surfaces or the earth, causing local cooling of the body: skin temperature fell by 0.7°C during several hours' work at -5°C, compared with the temperature after a workbreak in a warm room, and by 2.6°C after work at -25°C. Heat loss via the hands, arms, knees and feet was very great. Tests were performed with a new electrically heated garment (12V) worn under cold protective clothing. Results were positive.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1978, No.6, p.15-18. 9 ref.

CIS 78-2037 Scholtz K.C.
Safety techniques when trench shoring with large-size panels
Sicherheitstechnik bei Verbauverfahren mit grossformatigen Grabenverbauplatten [in German]
The method of trench shoring with large steel panels is being increasingly used on account of its economic advantages and the optimum safety it ensures for workers compared with classic methods. This article deals with assembly of the panels, pipe laying, removal of panels, and the safety rules to be observed. A review of the different types of panels and their characteristics (design, size, depth and width of trench) is followed by details of safety measures in their use: instructions for use, assembly according to the nature of the soil (final placing in the finished trench, driving by cutting), pipe laying, removal of panels and backfilling, friction forces and soil adherence, calculation of force required for removal of panels.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Feb. 1978, Vol.90, No.2, p.54-70. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 78-2034 Waninger K., Seitz M.
Independent anchorage elements for shoring open excavations
Aufgelöste Elementwand als Baugrubensicherung [in German]
This new method consists in shotcreting the reinforced wall immediately after excavation, and fitting pretensioned anchor ropes, and anchor plates. Much depends on the mechanical properties of the soil, so that evaluation of the terrain is of major importance. The distances and sizes of anchor plates, the angle of inclination, length and bearing strength of the anchor ropes, and the thickness and reinforcement of the concrete lining vary according to the soil characteristics. Description of a project and the geology, planning, execution and mesurement programme involved, with technical data.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Jan. 1978, Vol.90, No.1, p.4-8. Illus.

CIS 78-2030
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Erd- und Grundbau.
Tunnelling handbook 1979
Taschenbuch für den Tunnelbau 1979 [in German]
This yearbook, the third of the series, aims like its predecessors to give information on the state of the art of tunnelling. In a handy pocket-sized format, it constitutes a practical reference work covering a wide field. The chapter on trenching and excavating gives information on working methods, testing and calculation of stability of walls, and examples of calculations. Two chapters are devoted to tunnelling by open excavation, and underground and underwater tunnel construction (materials, prevention of water infiltration, calculations). Overview of all types of tunnelling equipment used in Europe, with information on the scope and nature of their use, and listed technical data. Other subjects covered: geological prospection, fibres used in the production of fibre-reinforced concrete, explosives. The pertinent safety regulations and standards are either referred to or reproduced in full.
Verlag Glückauf GmbH, Postfach 1794, 4300 Essen 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 460p. Illus. Price: DM 24.80.


CIS 79-2037 Trench excavation.
This data sheet gives information on hazards of trench excavation and pipe-laying operations (trench wall cave-in, soil movement, falls of objects, being struck by moving equipment, etc.); and precautions (shoring; proximity of other structures or sources of vibration; use of braces, cross bracing, dismantling of shoring; sliding trench shields). Diagrams show some common causes of trench failure which can be prevented by proper shoring (instability of trench bottom, formation of tension cracks, stresses in unsupported soil mass).
Data Sheet 1-254-77, Revised 1977, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 6p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 78-838
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Aug. 1977.
Safety rules for pipelaying
Sicherheitsregeln für Rohrleitungsbauarbeiten [in German]
These rules apply to pipelaying in trenches: personal protective equipment; protection against collapse of trench sides; machines and equipment; protection against hazards from existing installations; unloading, transporting, storage and stacking of pipes; lowering of pipes into trenches; miscellaneous work; tests. Appendix: pertinent regulations and standards.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1977. 24p. Price: DM.1.80.

CIS 78-532
Fiche de sécurité n°D.104, Organisation for Safety in Building Construction and Civil Engineering (Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics), Issy-les-Moulineaux, Jan. 1969 (revised Apr. 1977).
Digging narrow trenches by mechanical means
Exécution de tranchées étroites par procédés mécaniques. [in French]
This data sheet refers to the relevant French regulation; sets out general preventive measures (preparation of the project, precautions during the work, supervision and maintenance of shoring elements); describes the latest shoring procedures that can be employed without risk of landfalls (prefabricated elements, use of a shoring jig, excavation by machine, use of sheet piling). Reference to the use of sliding or suspended shields, which provide protection without shoring.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, May-June 1977, No.3. 8p. Detachable insert. Illus.

CIS 77-2041 Möbius C.H.
Bentonite suspensions - Properties, manufacture and testing
Bentonit-Suspensionen - Eigenschaften, Herstellung und Prüfung [in German]
The choice of optimal qualities in bentonite suspensions is of utmost importance for the stability of the ground supported by cast bentonite shells in excavation work. The chief properties of bentonite are followed by a detailed description of the manufacturing processes of bentonite suspensions. Methods for testing and control of bentonite suspensions ae examined. The importance of dispersion and gelling time for the quality of the bentonite suspensions is stressed. Recommendations for practice.
ÖIZ - Österreichische Ingenieur Zeitschrift, Mar. 1977, Vol.20, No.3, p.73-82. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 77-1443 Trenching
Exécution des fouilles en tranchée. [in French]
This booklet is essentially practical and deals above all with narrow trenching. An outline of the regulations and considerations on the influence of the nature of the soil and of running and ground water are followed by reference to the hazard of overloading the edges of the trench and of vibration, bends and intersections, ladders, lifting equipment, presence or proximity of electric lines, and possible emission of harmful gases. The main chapter is devoted to working techniques (trench slopes, trench shoring elements, shoring procedures, protection without shoring). Appendix: calculations for trench shoring according to soil pressure; size of wooden shores.
Edition INRS n°410, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Oct. 1976. 64p. Illus.

CIS 77-1442 Stability of unretained slopes and embankments
Stabilité des pentes et talus non soutenus. [in French]
This booklet is intended for engineers and technical personnel of building construction and civil engineering firms. Contents: introduction (statistical data, hazards, regulations); various types of landslides and earthfalls; characteristics of soil shearing (physical actions, measurements); hypotheses and parameters used in calculating slope stability; methods of slope stability calculation - critical height; influence of water on slope stability; risk analysis in project design and execution - safety aspects. A roundup of theory and commented diagrams of measuring apparatus are appended.
Edition INRS No.514, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, July 1976, 98p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 77-1432 Baumgärtner W., Hornung J.
Self-advancing trench shoring machine from England contributes to quieter construction
Wanderndes Grabenverbaugerät aus England als Beitrag zum lärmarmen Bauen [in German]
Presentation of a new trench shoring method developed in England under the name "Ramshor". The principle of the technique is to concentrate all phases of the operation (excavation, shoring, pipelaying, filling and dismantling of the system), over a limited space and to advance by one unit length after each work cycle. It is based essentially on the use of a rectangular steel frame 10m in length, the long sides of which have a line of sheet piles set into them. After excavation at the interior of the frame with an excavating shovel and noiseless hydraulic driving of the piles, a length of pipe is laid under the protection of the piles. Description of the design of the equipment, work phases and use. Table with the dimensions of the machine and trenches, and technical data. Originally designed for use in British clay, these machines can also be successfully used in less stable ground.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Oct. 1976, Vol.88, No.10, p.590-596. Illus.

CIS 77-1431 Safe digging of pipe trenches
Kein Risiko beim Leitungsgrabenbau [in German]
Basic rules for excavation and shoring work: slope of trench sides adapted to type of terrain; horizontal or vertical wood or steel shoring of trenches with vertical sides; shoring of mechanically dug trenches with prefabricated elements; safety measures for pipe storage and pipelaying.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Oct. 1976, Vol.88, No.10, p.564-574. Illus.

CIS 77-539 Special machinery and mechanisms for pipelaying - Safety provisions
Mašiny i mehanizmy special'nye dlja truboprovodnogo stroitel'stva - Trebovanija bezopasnosti [in Russian]
This standard concerns the safety and ergonomic design of mechanical equipment used for pipelaying (lorries for transport of pipes and asphalt, cleaning and asphalting machines, welding equipment, asphalt melting kettles, pipe bending machines, etc.). Contents: general safety provisions (lightening the work, safety colours, etc.); stipulations concerning the safety of mechanical elements, design and layout of controls, layout of the workplace, brakes, protective devices, means of access, lighting; stipulations concerning the various types of vehicles and machinery; supervision of compliance.
GOST 12.2.004-75, State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet standartov), Moskva, 24 Apr. 1975. Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, Moskva D-22, USSR, 1976. 10p. Price: Rbl.0.04.

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