Shipbuliding and ship repair - 191 entries found
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Mao Z., Zhang H., Huang C., Zou C.
Observation on development of pneumoconiosis among manual arc welders in Dalian shipyard (1960-1982)
Results of a long-term study of 204 manual arc welders in a Chinese shipyard. Research methods involved epidemiological study, x-ray examinations and autopsies. The prevalence rate of pneumoconiosis was 28.5%, and the average length of working exposure to welding fumes before diagnosis of the disease was 15.9 years. 3 workers who died during the period of the study were found to have pneumoconiosis.
Institute of Health, China National Center for Preventive Medicine, Beijing, China, no date. 8p. Illus. 8 ref.
McMillan G.H.G., Pethybridge R.J.
A clinical, radiological and pulmonary function case-control study of 135 dockyard welders aged 45 years and over
Clinical interviews and examinations, chest radiography and a range of pulmonary function tests were carried out on 135 randomly chosen welders working in shipyards of the Royal Navy, and on 135 controls, matched for age, smoking and potential exposure to asbestos dust. No significant differences were found between respiratory functions and between lung health states of the 2 groups. There is a slight suspicion that exposure to welding fumes and gases might cause obstructive airway changes, without causing symptoms of ill health. The questionnaire used in the health survey is given.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1984, Vol.34, No.1, p.3-23. Illus. 33 ref.
Shipyard industry: OSHA Safety and Health Standards Digest [USA]
This digest covers safety and health standards applying to the shipyard industry. Contents: general provisions; explosive and other dangerous atmospheres; surface preparation and preservation; welding, cutting and heating; scaffolds, ladders and other working surfaces; general working conditions; rigging and materials handling equipment; tools; personal protective equipment; ship's machinery and piping systems; portable, unfired pressure vessels, drums and containers; electrical machinery.
US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC 20210, USA, Rev. ed., Sep. 1983. 143p.
Health and Safety Executive
General fire precautions aboard ships being fitted out or under repair
Coverage of this guidance note: means of escape in case of fire; fire warnings; fire-fighting equipment; emergency lighting; routine in case of fire; fire prevention; fire-fighting and emergency services.
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WCIV 6HB, United Kingdom, Mar. 1983. 2p. Price: £0.50.
Protection of dockyard welders
Results of a safety survey concerning 328 welders at shipyards of the British Royal Navy. Few of the welders wore extra layers of clothing at work. Only 35.5% wore safety glasses at any time. 21% had had at least one incident of arc eye in the year preceding the survey, half of them requiring medical attention. Protective headgear was worn by 69.5% of the welders, and 39.9% wore some kind of leather clothing for protection. The incidence of ray burns was 21.6% for the shins and ankles, 18% for the V front of the neck while less elsewhere. Burns from sparks or slag were common: the feet (42.4%) and the forearms (37.2%) being most commonly affected. Results are analysed by dockyard, age and height of welder. A literature review discusses relevant research regarding personal and protective clothing, eye injuries and protection, skin lesions, respirators, and hearing protection of welders. Some conclusions are given relating to improved working conditions.
Safety Practitioner, May 1983, Vol.1, No.5, p.8-16. Illus. 50 ref.
The health of welders in naval dockyards
This review of welders at British dockyards discusses sources of exposure to asbestos at work, health effects of asbestos exposure (parenchymal fibrosis, mesothelioma, non-malignant pleural fibrosis), radiological and clinical evidence of parenchymal fibrosis in men with non-malignant asbestos-related pleural lesions. Conclusions: 0.5-1.1% of welders have developed parenchymal fibrosis and approx. 13% have developed non-malignant pleural lesions. Some 9% of the latter are likely to develop radiological evidence of parenchymal fibrosis within 10 years of diagnosis of the pleural lesions.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1983, Vol.25, No.10, p.727-730. 22 ref.
Suggestions for improvements of the workplace in shipyards
Mogelijkheden voor arbeidsplaatsverbetering in het scheepsonderhoud [in Dutch]
A survey was conducted in shipyards in the Netherlands, dealing with 14 OSH factors (noise, extreme temperatures, humidity, dust, toxic substances, dangerous tools, ergonomic shortcomings, bad posture, excessive physical workload, work monotony, repetitive work, excessive work speed, long-term vigilance, subjective complaints). Tasks evaluated include: work preparation (installation of scaffolding and of other equipment); high-pressure water-jet cleaning; cleaning with degreasing agents; shotblasting; derusting and scaling; paint removal; vacuum cleaning of waste matter; paint spraying. For each task, improvements are suggested (such as replacement of dangerous work procedures by others less dangerous, use of fork-lift trucks and of movable scaffolding, wearing of protective equipment, installation of dead man's buttons on water-jet hoses).
Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Stafafdeling Externe Betrekkingen, Zeestraat 73, Den Haag, Netherlands, Aug. 1983. 80p. 15 ref.
Ikeda M., Koizumi A., Miyasaka M., Watanabe T.
Styrene exposure and biologic monitoring in FRP boat production plants
A survey on styrene exposure was conducted in 5 FRP (fibre-reinforced plastic) boat plants by means of carbon-felt dosimeters as personal and stationary samplers for the 4h TWA exposure. The heaviest exposure (256ppm by personal and 174ppm by stationary sampling) was measured during the application of the boat-shell layers on a mould and work inside narrow holds. The TWA exposure during manufacture of an entire boat was estimated to be 40-50ppm. Installation of several exhaust hoses was effective in decreasing the vapour concentration; gas masks were also useful. Urine samples were collected from 96 workers at the end of an 8h shift and analysed for mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PhGA), and hippuric acid (HA). The comparison of urine analyses with personal 4h TWA of styrene gave the best correlation for MA+PhGA/creatinine.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 1982. vol.49, No.3-4, p.325-339. Illus. 29 ref.
Smoking and duration of asbestos exposure in the production of functional and roentgenographic abnormalities in shipyard workers
Report of a study in which 131 asbestos-exposed shipyard workers were classified by duration of asbestos exposure and smoking history, and an assessment was made of their functional and radiographic abnormalities to determine the relative contribution of these two factors. Both asbestos exposure and smoking contributed to the frequency of FEV1 and FEV abnormalities. In contrast, airway destruction (FEV1/FEV<70%) was unrelated to asbestos exposure but correlated closely with smoking. Abnormalities in DLCO were minimally associated with asbestos exposure but were strongly related to smoking history, suggesting that diffusion impairment in these workers is more likely to be related to smoking and emphysema than to interstitial disease. Significant radiographic pleural abnormalities were associated with both duration of exposure to asbestos and smoking. Interstitial disease did not correlate with asbestos exposure and was only mildly associated with smoking. Smoking contributes to many of the functional and radiographic abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1982, Vol.24, No.1, p.37-40. 11 ref.
Accident risk analysis in a shipyard
Analisi del rischio infortunistico in un cantiere navale [in Italian]
Statistical analysis of 715 accidents which occurred over 1440 workdays between 1973 and 1978 in a shipyard. The distribution of accidents by daily frequency corresponds very closely with a Poisson distribution of expected daily frequency 0.4965. There is further analysis by day of the week (Monday had the most accidents), by months of occurrence (September was worst), by place of accident within the establishment, by year of accident, by age of workers, by place of injury, by occupation. A cross analysis is made of the data. Attention is drawn to possible hazards.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, July-Sep. 1981, Vol.5, p.265-278. 6 ref.
Final report - Noise control in shipbuilding
Slutrapport - Bullerbekämpning vid fartygsbygge [in Swedish]
Contents: generalities about noise in naval repair; objectives and organisation of the study; noise control by choice of appropriate methods, equipment and tools (sheet-metal work, boilermaking, welding, piping repair, filing, cleaning, shotblasting, painting, woodworking); noise control measures on equipment (pilot test methodology; results of pilot tests with regard to unit heaters, ventilation and exhaust fans, industrial ejector-type vacuum cleaners, spray-painting installations, shotblasting installations, bilge pumps, transport and handling machinery, compressors, welding rectifiers, chain hoists, capstans, pneumatic tools); noise control in certain operations (grinding, chipping).
Götaverken Cityvarvet AB, Göteborg, Sweden, Oct. 1981. 139p. Illus. 111 ref.
Jacenko K.S., Trubnikov G.A., Afanas'ev Ju.A., Molokanov V.M.
Sensitivity to vibration of workers in the basic shipbuilding trades
Vibracionnaja čuvstvitel'nost' u rabočih osnovnyh professij v sudostroenii [in Russian]
In the course of routine medical examinations, 606 shipyard workers were tested for vibration sensitivity to determine if a correlation existed between trade and vibration sensitivity. When tested at 63, 125, and 250 Hz with a VT-2 pallesthesiometer, none of the 80 engineering personnel serving as a control group showed abnormalities in sensitivity to vibration, but 18% of the fitters, 10.8% of the electrical welders, 4.3% of the gas welders, and 21.7% of the painters showed reduced vibration sensitivity. Many of the workers affected are not exposed to vibration, but all are exposed to fumes containing heavy metals and/or solvents. Neurological examination of the workers suggested that abnormal vibration sensitivity is an early indicator of autonomic-sensory polyneuritis.
Sovetskaja medicina, 1981, No.5, p.78-80. 2 ref.
Almström C., Arvidsson A., Droszcz J., Kadefors R., Petersen I., de Walden-Gatuszko K., Örtengren R., Banaszkiewicz T.
Evaluation of working positions in idustry by means of electromyography. Part II: Studies on hull fitters during grinding
Results of a study to evaluate static load in hull fitters during grinding work. Measurements were made of the time spent in various phases of the work and energy expenditure, workers underwent electromyographic examination, and various body postures and work levels were compared. The hull fitter's work is classified as medium-to-hard work, although certain postures involve relatively high muscle loads.
Bulletin of the Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia, 1981, Vol.32, No.1/2, p.25-32. Illus. 3 ref.
Tymański S., Zaborski L., Matuszewski J., Maryn J.
Dust pollution of air in working stations of a Gdańsk shipyard
Dust analyses and measurements were made in the galvanising shop, foundry, metal polishing shop and grinding shop of a shipyard. In the galvanising shop, the dust was considered a serious health hazard, and the gantry crane operators was exposed to levels 2.2 times higher than the maximum allowable concentration. In the foundry, dust levels were 1.5-1.8 times higher than the maximum allowable concentration. Metal polishers were exposed to over 2 times the maximum allowable concentration for dusts with a low free crystalline silica content. In the grinding shop the dust levels were over 4 times higher thann the maximum allowable concentration, and the geometrical means of particle size distribution were in the range 1.32-1.6µm.
Bulletin of the Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia, 1981, Vol.32, No.3/4, p.225-234. Illus. 17 ref.
Vinogradov E.S., Grimitlin M.I., Pozin G.M.
Creation of localised microclimatic zones on floating docks
Sozdanie lokal'nyh zon mikroklimata na plavučih dokah [in Russian]
To improve the conditions of work on board floating docks during bad weather and the cold season, the scaffolds used in the open space between the dock wall and ship hull can be provided with (a) a roof consisting of a fixed and a sliding part which is made to adhere to the hull thanks to an elastic sealing lip on its edge, and (b) a heating system directing hot air along the various scaffold levels. Air turbulence is avoided by using radiator like panels with honeycomb openings to direct the air flow. Diagrams and formulae are given to assist in the design of a hot-air heating systems.
Sudostroenie, Mar. 1981, No.3, p.48-50. Illus. 3 ref.
Hoiberg A., Ernst J.
Cancer among navy personnel: Occupational comparisons
Report of a study to determine cancer incidence and mortality among occupational groups in the US navy and to identify those groups with a high risk of specific types of cancer. Hospitalisation records of enlisted men admitted for malignant or unspecified neoplasms from July 1965 to Dec. 1976 were analysed. Among the 12 enlisted occupational groups, construction workers had the highest malignancy rate (72 per 100,000 per annum), almost double that of men in technical specialities such as electronics, communications and electrical engineering (rate of around 38 per 100,000). Navy tradesmen with higher rates of malignancy than other groups of comparable ages include: hospital and medical service workers; machinists; boiler technicians; hull technicians; enginemen. The sites most commonly affected were the lymphatic and haemopoietic system and bone, connective tissue and skin. It is recommended that further studies be carried out to identify causal environmental and occupational factors.
Military Medicine, Aug. 1981, Vol.146, No.8, p.556-561. 15 ref.
Rinsky R.A., Zumwalde R.D., Waxweiler R.J., Murray W.E., Bierbaum P.J., Landrigan P.J., Terpilak M., Cox C.
Cancer mortality at a naval nuclear shipyard.
A retrospective mortality study of all civilian workers employed at the shipyard in 1952-1977 is reported. Three cohorts were identified: 7,615 workers with radiation exposure of 0.001-91.414rem, 15,585 non-radiation workers; and 1,345 radiation workers without measureable exposure. There was no excess mortality due to leukaemia or any other cause. There was no dose-response relation with radiation or any indreased mortality in radiation over non-radiation workers. A limitation of the study was the short latency period since first radiation.
Lancet, 31 Jan. 1981, Vol.I, No.8214, p.231-235. 14 ref.
Ivanov L.V., Finkel' G.N., Fedorov I.P.
Occupational safety and health aspects of work on ships in floating docks under severe weather conditions
Ohrana truda pri dokovanii sudov v surovyh klimatičeskih uslovijah [in Russian]
Protection of floating docks against bad weather. Contents: imnprovement of working conditions on floating docks (protection against harmful agents, and from the effects of bad weather); windbreaks placed in various sections of the docks; choice and design of windbreak panels for reconstructed docks; covered shipyards and docks; efficacy of measures to improve working conditions.
Izdatel'stvo "Transport", Basmannyj tup.6a, 107174 Moskva, USSR, 1980. 152p. Illus. 70 ref. Price: Rbl.0.40.
Sheers G., Coles R.M.
Mesothelioma risks in a naval dockyard
Of the 108 deaths from mesothelioma of the pleura or peritoneum in Plymouth and the surrounding area, recorded as of 1978, 96 were associated with work at the Devonport dockyard and 53 of those were men employed in the dockyard in 1966. The occupational mesothelioma rates were similar to those recorded in London asbestos textile workers. Above-average rates were observed in laggers, boilermakers, painters, welders and burners, and shipwrights. Some mesothelioma cases occurred in men whose only exposure had been to the environment within the dockyard walls, outside of ships and workshops where asbestos was handled. No cases were seen in indoor office workers.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1980, Vol.35, No.5, p.276-282. Illus. 11 ref.
Gobbato F., Melato M., Bucconi S.
Welder's lung in shipyard workers - Histopathology and possible neoplastic complications
Il polmone del saldatore dei cantieri navali: Aspetti istopatologici e possibili complicazioni neoplastiche [in Italian]
The lungs of 17 arc welders who had died of extrapulmonary diseases (6), respiratory failure (2), and pulmonary or pleural neoplasms, were studied. Anthracosiderosis, periarteriolar and peribronchiolar lymphocytic or plasma cellular infiltration, interstitial fibrosis, irritative alveolitis on epithelisation, bronchitis, and peribronchitis were found. Lung cancer occurred in 8 cases and pleural mesothelioma in one.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1980, Vol.71, No.2, p.132-140. Illus. 47 ref.
Kolonel L.N., Hirohata T., Chappell B.V., Viola F.V., Harris D.E.
Cancer mortality in a cohort of naval shipyard workers in Hawaii: Early findings.
4779 male shipyard workers exposed to asbestos and 2757 non-exposed controls were followed for up to 24 years. The exposed group had a risk ratio for lung cancer (against the general population) of 1.7 after 20 years or more years of follow-up. The non-exposed group had no increased risk. Smoking was not responsible.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Apr. 1980, Vol.64, No.4, p.739-743. 17 ref.
Epidemiological survey of shipyard workers exposed to hand-arm vibration.
169 caulkers were examined to determine the prevalence of vibration syndrome due to work with pneumatic chipping hammers and grinders. Chipping hammers produced the highest acceleration levels and exceeded the maximum ISO limits even for a short exposure (30min per shift). Results of medical investigations were: 78.7% paraesthesia of the hand; 31.3% Raynaud's phenomenon; 20.1% radiological signs of osteoarthritis of wrist and shoulder; 10% olecranon exostoses; 31.3% cysts of carpal bones. The basal skin thermometric map (recorded in 16 positions for each hand) showed an average difference of 2-2.5°C between the caulkers and controls. The thermometric curve, monitored every 3min over a 40-min period following a provocative cold test, proved to be a reliable method for differentiating between exposed workers and controls. Skin temperature measurements (before and after the cold test) are recommended for epidemiological purposes. Preventive measures include: replacement of old tools, periodical balancing of tool elements, damping by rubber tool handles, maximum daily exposure 4h.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1980, Vol.46, No.3, p.251-266. 11 ref.
Bobjer O., Andersson I.M., Widholm B.
Ship painting - Exposure to solvents and paint mist
Fartygsmålning - Exposition för lösningsmedel och färgdamm [in Swedish]
Research report on health hazards of painting in the ship-building industry in Sweden. Solvent concentrations of 15-50% are found, and 30% is a normal value; higher concentrations are present in enclosed spaces. Additive effects exceeding the TLV by a factor of 15 have been recorded. Median exposure during 17 man-days of spray painting in a shipyard exceeded the TLV by a factor of 4.5. Considerations on use of respiratory protection. Paper masks sometimes used only collect and store solvent aerosols. 500-2500mg of xylene can be absorbed in one day of spray painting, resulting in reduction of short-time memory and increase in reaction time. Samples of alveolar air were taken, showing concentrations of 150-175mg/m3 xylene in some cases. Physical workloads demand respiration rates of 25-35l/air/min. During a 30h period of spray painting an average exposure rate of 27mg/m3 paint dust was found.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Arbetsmedicinska Avdelingen AMMF, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1979. 135p. Illus. 28 ref. Gratis (one free copy only).
Results of occupational medical studies in welders
Ergebnisse arbeitsmedizinischer Untersuchungen an Schweissern [in German]
Clinical, radiographic, cardiographic, spirometric, and audiometric studies in 244 shipyard welders with over 10 years' exposure, and 234 controls, are reported. Special attention is paid to respiratory impairment. Prolonged exposure to welding fumes caused disturbances assimilable to atypical chronic pneumopathy. In 15% there was an increase in radiographic opacities in the lung of the categories p, q, and r.
ZIS-Mitteilungen, June 1979, Vol.21, No.6, p.636-642. Illus. 23 ref.
Results of occupational hygiene studies in welders
Ergebnisse arbeitshygienischer Untersuchungen an Schweissern [in German]
Tests in 460 electric welders, and 450 non-exposed controls, all working in shipyards, showed a correlation between hair manganese levels and the duration and technique of welding. There was no relation between serum manganese level and length of service.
ZIS-Mitteilungen, June 1979, Vol.21, No.6, p.630-636. Illus. 5 ref.
Rodríguez Gonzáles E., Gómez Gonzáles J.A.
Welding in shipbuilding
La soldadura en la construcción naval [in Spanish]
Contents: welding techniques used in Galicea (Spain) shipyards; hazards of metal fume emissions (prefabrication, plate cutting and welding, assembly of hulls in the building-berths); factors influencing the quantity of fumes inhaled (layout of welding post, length of exposure, number of electrodes consumed); protection measures (work organisation, training, ventilation).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Oct.-Dec. 1979, Vol.27, No.108, p.23-28.
Gobbato F., Cova F., Munafò G., Zanin T.
Frequency and nature of pleural changes in shipyard workers
Frequenza e natura delle alterazioni della pleura nei lavoratori dei cantieri navali [in Italian]
Pleural changes were found in 11.3% (plaques in 4.4%) of 556 shipyard workers, 10-20 times the incidence in other occupational bronchopneumopathies, indicating the important role of asbestos in their causation. Results of lung function tests are also given. The severity of the lesions had no significant relation to functional impairment. There were no clear relations between specific occupations and distribution of lesions.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Jan.-Mar. 1979, Vol.3, p.49-59. 26 ref.
Statistical survey of pneumoniosis in the La Spezia shipyard
Indagine statistica sulle pneumoconiosi nella cantieristica navale di La Spezia [in Italian]
Statistics based on 985 cases of silicosis, asbestosis, and silico-asbestosis, are given: breakdown of claims, 1966-1975; breakdown by type of pneumoniosis; active and retired workers; age of affected workers; first manifestation of the disease; type of risk (direct, environmental, mixed); duration of exposure; combined invalidity; mortality; occupation; type of pneumoconiosis; variations in permanent disablement; other insurance statistics.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, July-Aug. 1979, Vol.66, No.4, p.297-353. Illus. 9 ref.
McMillan G.H.G., Heath J.
The health of welders in naval dockyards: acute changes in respiratory function during standardized welding.
Medical, X-ray and lung function findings are reported for 25 welders each working for one day (see CIS 80-212 for environmental study), matched with 25 electrical fitters. The study showed that it was possible to assess acute lung function changes and pollutant exposure in welders over a shift without affecting normal production. There was no siderosis. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of lung function abnormalities between the 2 groups, or in lung function changes over the day. A significant positive relation existed between the increase in residual volume and fume concentrations in the welders' breathing zone.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1979, Vol.22, No.1, p.19-32. 28 ref.
Evans M.J., Ingle J., Molyneux M.K., Sharp G.T.H., Swain J.
An occupational hygiene study of a controlled welding task using a general purpose rutile electrode.
25 welders worked each for one day at a standardised welding task, assembling mild steel dock blocks in an enclosed area with 5-11 air changes/h with no local extraction. Total fume concentrations in the breathing zone exceeded the TLV on 19 days. Average concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mg and Cu were below their TLVs. Exposure was complex, with more than 20-fold variations associated with differences in work pattern and posture. No day was representative of all days or all exposures. Medical effects are reported in another paper (see CIS 80-213).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1979, Vol.22, No.1, p.1-17. Illus. 7 ref.
A comprehensive program in asbestos hazard surveillance and education.
The surveillance programme of asbestos workers at the U.S. Navy Long Beach shipyard is described: clinical examinations (preplacement, periodic, termination; asbestos worker register; special consultations; special X-ray survey of 500 workers; X-ray survey of all shipyard personnel); worker education (individual, special groups, executive management, first-line supervision, new employees); intra- and interdepartmental and extramural communication; workplace air monitoring.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1979, Vol.40, No.1, p.11-19.
Health and Safety Executive
Confined space hazards in shipbuilding
Videotape on the hazards, particularly of fire, of work in confined spaces in the shipbuilding industry. A real incident, which killed three workers, is reconstructed.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1978. Videotape. Length: 15min. Price: GBP 28.68 (hire), GBP 85.10 (sale). ###
Studies of the health of welders in naval dockyards.
Earlier studies are summarised and the design errors in them highlighted to explain the conflicting conclusions reached. The present 5-year retrospective study compared sickness absence in a strictly defined group of 274 welders with others in the same (naval) dockyard not exposed to welding. Control groups were boilermakers and shipwrights (some exposure to welding), electrical fitters, painters, and joiners (no exposure). Variables affecting sickness absence patterns were taken into account. There was no evidence of any marked excess of sickness absence among welders attributable to respiratory disease.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1978, Vol.21, No.4, p.377-392. Illus. 11 ref.
Dust in dockyards.
This film is set in a naval dockyard, but most of the dusts and their hazards are encountered in other branches of industry. The effects of the dusts are studied, showing how their concentrations can be measured and the precautions that can be taken (substitution by safer materials, extraction equipment, wetting, isolation of the dust, respirators, air-fed hoods).
16mm colour film, 22min. Millbank Films Ltd., Thames House North, Millbank, London SW1P 4QG, United Kingdom, 1978. Price: £175.00 + VAT.
Occupational disease in boatbuilding and repair yards for pleasure craft
Pathologie professionnelle dans les chantiers navals de plaisance. [in French]
MD thesis. The author reviews the substances used in a works manufacturing pleasure craft, studies the occupational health damage due to the use of synthetic resins (polyester, epoxy, polyurethane, phenol-formaldehyde and amino resins) and the products used to work with them (solvents, pigments, fillers, additives) and, lastly, considers the special problem of their use in boatbuilding and repair yards for pleasure craft. The second part of this thesis is devoted to occupational diseases due to handling tropical woods and the products used for preserving and treating them, and to the species and varieties of wood more particularly used in this industry.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Necker - Enfants Malades, Paris, France, 1978. 73p. 67 ref.
Grimitlin M.I., Zabavskij A.N., Grimitlin A.M.
Adjustable air outlet for workplace ventilation in shipyards
Reguliruemyj vozduhoraspredelitel' dlja podači vozduha v sudostroitel'nye cehi [in Russian]
Description of an adjustable air outlet designed for ventilating disseminated workposts which have to be constantly moved in shipyards. The outlet expander and the guide vanes are designed so as to reduce pressure drop (and loss of temperature in the case of air heating systems) to a minimum. The adjustable guide vanes enable the air stream to be directed at any angle between +45° and -45° in relation to the axis of the outlet; the velocity of the air stream remains constant on account of the low aerodynamic resistance of the guide vanes.
Sudostroenie, Sep. 1978, No.9, p.49-51. Illus.
Barthelemy I., Michaud A., Bellet M., Philippon P.
Lung function testing in shipyard workers exposed to sandblasting hazards
Surveillance par l'exploration fonctionnelle respiratoire d'ouvriers de port exposés au risque de sablage. [in French]
Results are reported of lung function tests to detect subclinical changes related to silicosis in 8 sandblasters and 34 hull maintenance workers and to determine the examinations best suited for early detection of pathological changes before they become clinically or radiologically manifest. Alveolar-capillary gas transfer changes were found in 17 workers, 9 of whom showed no clinical nor radiological abnormalities. The need for early detection is stressed, and value is placed on determination of flow-volume curves and especially alveolar-capillary gas transfer, which both appear to be disturbed at an early stage. Subjects exposed to dust should be given regular lung function tests. The role of smoking as an additional factor in lung diseases is considered.
Archives médicales de l'Ouest, Angers, France, 1978, Vol.18, No.3, p.191-204. Illus. 9 ref.
Use of asbestos in the building sector - Use of asbestos in the shipbuilding industry
Bruk av asbest i byggebransjen - Bruk av asbest i skipsbygningsindustrien [in Norwegian]
These directives, issued under the 1977 Act concerning occupational safety and health and working environment (CIS 78-296), supplement Safety Rules No.5 issued by the Norwegian Directorate of Labour Inspection (CIS 77-1265). They prohibit the use of asbestos in paints and coatings, require other products to be substituted for it in insulating and sealing materials, and appoint prescribed dates for the substitution of other substances for asbestos in certain building materials. Rules concerning: use of asbestos cement pipes (maximum asbestos content: 12.5%; max. chrysotile content: 1.25%), demolition and renovation work (wetting before commencing operations, use of dust masks, changing and cleaning of work clothes, personal hygiene) and work on asbestos-cement slabs with electric tools with built-in exhaust device.
Bestillingsnr. 235b and 235c, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway, Apr. 1978. 4 + 3p. Gratis.
Directives for work involving exposure to antifouling paint (for ships' hulls)
Anvisningar om arbete med antifoulingfärg (beväxningshindrande skeppsbottenfärg) [in Swedish]
These directives (effective 1 Jan. 1979) apply to the painting of ships hulls with antifouling paints, and to the removal of these paints. They do not apply to paints which contain only copper, copper oxide or zinc oxide as an antifouling substance. Contents: choice of product (chemical composition, maximum organotin compound content); supervision of work, personnel training and information; painting (demarcation of a hazard area, use of painting methods involving the least exposure, personal protective equipment, personal hygiene etc.); removal of antifouling paint; welding, cutting or heating painted metal; first aid in case of poisoning.
Anvisningar nr.19:8, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, May 1978. 17p.
Blot W.J., Harrington J.M., Toledo A., Hoover R., Heath C.W., Fraumeni J.F.
Lung cancer after employment in shipyards during World War II.
Since the rate for lung cancer was exceptionally high along the southeast Atlantic coat for 1950-1959, a case-control study was undertaken in coastal Georgia. 535 primary lung cancer cases were identified and matched with 659 controls. A significantly increased risk was associated with employment in area shipyards during World War II. There was a synergistic relation between shipyard employment and cigarette smoking. Shipyard exposures to asbestos dust during wartime employment may account for part of the excess mortality from lung cancer in certain coastal areas of the USA. An editorial on the subject by E.L. Wynder is published on p.651-652 of the same issue.
New England Journal of Medicine, 21 Sep. 1978, Vol.299, No.12, p.620-624. 24 ref.
Zabavskij A.N., Ivanov I.D., Najdenov V.I.
Air pollution in plasma-torch metalcutting
Zagrjaznenie vozdušnoj sredy pri plazmennoj rezke metallov [in Russian]
Results of a dust sampling at this workplace to estimate the overall concentration, the particle size distribution and the chemical composition of dust released during cutting of metal plates of various thicknesses and alloying constituents. The chief components of the dust were metal oxides, the most toxic being chromium and manganese oxides. Since 94-98% of the particles were <5µm, local exhaust systems must be fitted with appropriate dust collection equipment. (An article by Kozlov V.A. in the same issue (p.51-52) on the choice of dust collectors for these machines evaluates 12 collectors of Soviet manufacture.)
Sudostroenie, Apr. 1978, No.4, p.49-50. Illus. 3 ref.
Department of Trade, London.
Code of pratice for noise levels in ships.
This code of practice takes the form of recommendations for those concerned with designing, building and owning or managing ships, to protect seafarers from the harmful effects of noise and to establish acceptable conditions in respect of noise on board ship at sea and in port. Sections are devoted to: scope, purpose and application of the code, measuring equipment (sound level meter, choice of equipment, impulse noise measurement, calibrating); method of measurement; survey (operating conditions at sea and in port); limits (acceptable maximum noise levels at different parts of the ship); exposure of personnel to potentially harmful noise; methods of controlling noise exposure; ear protection (warning symbol for mandatory use of earmuffs); training of personnel; responsibility; definitions. Appendices: format for presentation of ship noise survey results; methods of calculating equivalent continuous sound level; types of ear protectors; methods of converting octave band sound pressure levels to A-weighted sound level; extract from pertinent regulations.
H.M. Stationery Office, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1978. 64p. Illus. Price: £2.00.
Sheers G., Rossiter C.E., Gilson J.C., Mackenzie F.A.F.
UK naval dockyards asbestosis study: Radiological methods in the surveillance of workers exposed to asbestos.
Small- and large-film chest radiographs of 674 men were examined using a simple screening classification and using the full ILO U/C classification. The screening classification produced a deficiency of at lest 30% in detection of asbestos-related abnormalities, and use of the ILO U/C classification appears essential for accurate diagnosis. Small films gave less satisfactory results than large films. Other aspects dealt with are cost, radiation dose, inter-observer variability, and use of an oblique view.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1978, Vol.35, No.3, p.195-203. 11 ref.
"Graving dock 10"
"Forme 10" (réparation navale). [in French]
Graving dock 10 was recently put into service at the port of Marseilles, designed for large ships of 500,000t. The article describes the safety aspect of the dock. A self-cleaning system for the apron is a clear safety bonus for those working in the dock, for it reduces the hazard of slips, falls, etc. A single operator at a central remote desk controls towing, alignment and grounding of the vessel. The use of winches minimises work at capstans and manoeuvring of moorings, always a source of hazard. Grounding now requires the intervention of only one diver. A very comprehensive intercom system and loudspeaker network is installed. Communication with crane drivers is by radio. Since work must continue throughout the night, great attention has been paid to lighting (projectors, fluorescent globes, etc.). Fire protection forms an integral part of the dock design.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 1978, No.2, p.94-137. Illus. 1 ref.
Najarian T., Colton T.
Mortality from leukaemia and cancer in shipyard nuclear workers
A review of death certificates of workers at a shipyard where nuclear submarines are repaired and refuelled is reported. Information on exposure to radiation was obtained for 592 workers (146 exposed, 446 non-exposed). Leukaemia deaths were 5.62 times higher, and overall cancer deaths 1.78 times higher, in the exposed than the non-exposed workers. These results exceed predictions based on previous data of radiation effects in man.
Lancet, 13 May 1978, Vol.1, No.8072, p.1018-1020. 4 ref.
Selikoff I.J., Hammond E.C.
Asbestos-associated disease in United States shipyards.
This roundup of the question and literature survey first considers the clinical latency periods of asbestos-associated cancer (tables: X-ray changes in asbestos insulation workers over periods of 9 to 40+ years; deaths among 17,800 asbestos insulation workers in the USA and Canada, Jan. 1967-Jan. 1977: analysis by duration from onset of employment). The authors review early studies of mesothelioma in asbestos-exposed workers in Devonport and Barrow (United Kingdom) and other shipyards; and then examine the question of asbestos disease in U.S. shipyards, concluding with comments on a 1974-1975 survey of 1,000 shipyard workers at Groton, Connecticut, illustrated by films categorised according to the ILO U/C International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses. The Groton survey covered 15 different trades, showing a high incidence of pleural changes, and also showing that no trade was immune to changes (table: X-ray abnormalities among workers in shipbuilding and ship repair, breakdown by trades: painters, machinists, pipefitters, insulators, electricians, boilermakers, welders, etc.). The article concludes with a review of the current situation and a series of recommendations (dissemination of information, medical surveillance, education programmes, discouraging smoking, etc.).
CA - A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Mar.-Apr. 1978, Vol.28, No.2, p.87-99. Illus. 19 ref.
Hasan F.M., Nash G., Kazemi H.
The significance of asbestos exposure in the diagnosis of mesothelioma: A 28-year experience from a major urban hospital.
Epidemiological survey (1945-1972) carried out from the records of patients with histopathologic diagnosis of diffuse malignant mesothelioma in a major urban hospital situated not far from a shipyard. Of the 36 cases on file 14 were occupationally exposed to asbestos, but many of the non-exposed remainder lived near the shipyard. The occupationally exposed patients included shipyard workers (pipecover and filter fitters, welders, 1 boilermaker, etc.), an asbestos factory worker, a floor tiler, a textile mill operator, etc. Results of the survey (many in tabular form), roentgenographic findings, observed symptoms, smoking history, etc.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, May 1977, Vol.115, No.5, p.761-768. 27 ref.
Gobbato F., Petronio L., Fiorito A.
Exhaust of welding gases and fumes in shipyards
Osservazioni ed esperienze in tema di aspirazione dei gas e fumi di saldatura nei cantieri navali [in Italian]
The concentrations and composition of the welding gases and fumes produced using various types of electrode are analysed. The occupational lung disease hazard is estimated on the basis of the cumulative effect of their constituents (which together are at 300% of exposure limits). The kinetics of welding fumes are examined and a section is devoted to prevention measures: general ventilation, exhaust ventilation at the source (mobile hood), personal protective equipment.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1977, Vol.68, No.1, p.22-37. Illus. 36 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, 1 Oct. 1977.
Schiffbau [in German]
These safety regulations, which apply to shipbuilding (including redesign and structural alterations), ship overhaul and repair, and shipbreaking, and construction, overhaul, redesign and repair of floating plant, contain provisions for: training and qualification of safety officers, observance of safe working loads, personal protective equipment, stability and load bearing capacity of hulls of vessels in dry dock, and of scaffolding, description and features of workposts and communication ways, protection against falls, transport of heavy loads, use of hot materials, safety measures for special operations (launching, dry or wet docking, winches). Additional provisions concerning ships or installations with tanks or holds for hazardous substances, shipbreaking and demolition work, trial runs. Supplementary booklet containing administrative and other rules for the enforcement of VBG 34, and commentary.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.). 11+12p. Price: DM.1.50.
Bergman K., Lindberg E.
Exposure to styrene in plastic boat industries - I. Technical-hygienic study; II. Medical study
Styrenexposition i plastbåtsindustri - I. Teknisk-hygienisk studie; II. Medicinsk undersökning [in Swedish]
Styrene concentrations in 4 plants produced significant exposures as time-weighted averages (TWA) and for short periods. Use of respirators did not affect the amount of exposure. In the medical study, 81 styrene-exposed workers and 32 control subjects were examined. At TWA of 20ppm or more, 70% of exposed workers had some kind of complaint at least twice a week; at lower levels, complaints were about half as many. Impaired memory was one complaint and this correlated with total time of exposure. Haemoglobin concentration in blood was normal in all cases, but there was a higher frequency of lower than median concentrations in the exposed group. Mandelic acid excretion in urine correlated with styrene exposure level. English summaries.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1977:3, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, S-100 Stockholm, Sweden. 40p. Illus. 3 ref.
Patel K.C., Sheth S.M., Kamat S.R.
Arc welder's lung - A case report.
Report on a man employed for 18 years as a naval dockyard arc welder in whom lung fibrosis suggestive of arc welder's lung was diagnosed. Results of laboratory studies, lung function tests, radiography and lung biopsy are given. Development of the disease and the question of the fibrogenicity of iron oxide are discussed in the light of the relevant literature.
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 1977, Vol.23, No.1, p.35-38. Illus. 13 ref.
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