Shipbuliding and ship repair - 191 entries found
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A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of lung cancer in welders
This meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies carried out on the lung cancer risk among shipyard, mild steel and stainless steel welders consisted of calculating combined relative risks (RR). Similar values were observed in studies of the "any welding" or "study design" category. Furthermore, welders are likely to be exposed to asbestos and seem to smoke more than the general male population. A 30-40% increase in the RR of lung cancer cannot be explained by hexavalent chromium and nickel exposure among stainless steel welders. The combination of the carcinogenic effects of asbestos exposure and smoking may account for part of the observed lung cancer excess.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1997, Vol.23, No.2, p.104-113. 73 ref.
These 17 chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various manufacturing industries: achieving safer products; robot system safety design; small companies; welding (ergonomics and occupational hygiene); conventional lathes, cutters and upright drilling machines; surface treatment and metal finishing; industrial photographic film developing; woodworking; automotive industry; road vehicle repair; the electronics and electromechanical workplace; mining industry; metallurgical industry; glass industry; printing; shipbuilding and ship repairing.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.435-648. Illus. Bibl.ref.
van Wendel de Joode B., Burdorf A., Verspuy C.
Physical load in ship maintenance: Hazard evaluation by means of a workplace survey
In a survey of 32 ship maintenance workers, postural load was measured by the Ovako Working Posture Analyzing System (OWAS). Common problems included awkward postures of the back and stress on the neck/shoulder region. Forceful exertions during lifting, pushing and pulling activities sometimes exceeded published guidelines. Determinants of physical load were identified and a hazard evaluation procedure was designed to weight various patterns of physical load. While the overall physical load of ship maintenance workers compares well with other strenuous occupations, the work is characterized by frequent awkward postures and exertion of large forces.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1997, Vol.28, No.3, p.213-219. 14 ref.
Neri S., Boraschi P., Antonelli A., Falaschi F., Baschieri L.
Pulmonary function, smoking habits, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) early abnormalities of the lung and pleural fibrosis in shipyard workers exposed to asbestos
Asymptomatic asbestos-exposed workers with normal standard P-A chest radiographs were submitted to HRCT, CO-diffusing capacity and pulmonary function tests. HRCT scans were normal only in 31 examined workers; 31 subjects showed both pleural and parenchymal involvement, and 50 and 7 had exclusively pleural and parenchymal abnormalities, respectively. Based on CO-diffusing capacity and pulmonary function tests, lower values of FVC were observed in the nonsmoking workers with parenchymal abnormalities in comparison with nonsmoking subjects with normal parenchyme, and lower values of FEV1/FVC in the smokers with parenchymal lesions with respect to smokers with normal parenchyme. In conclusion, HRCT may detect early parenchymal abnormalities which correlate with exposure to asbestos and respiratory function impairment, including a reduction in obstructive indices in smokers occupationally exposed to asbestos without any clinically evident disease.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1996, Vol.30, No.5, p.588-595. 36 ref.
Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Personal Protective Equipment for Shipyard Employment: Final Rule [USA]
This final rule became effective (except for some minor provisions) on 22 Aug. 1996. It updates, reorganizes and simplifies the standards related to the wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) during shipyard employment. Shipbuilding, ship repair and shipbreaking are all included within its scope. Where appropriate, the final rule deletes existing specification-oriented provisions that limit employer innovation and incorporates performance-oriented language. Contents: Part I (commentary and analysis): background; estimates of shipyard injuries involving lost workdays or body injury in the US in 1992 and 1994 (by body part injured and nature of injury); summary and explanation of the final rule; final economic analysis and environmental impact assessment summary. Part II (legal text of the final rule): scope, application and definitions; general requirements; eye and face protection; head protection; foot protection; hand and body protection; lifesaving equipment; personal fall arrest systems; positioning device systems. (Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by 29 CFR 1910.134). In annex: guidelines to hazard assessment, PPE selection and PPE training programmes; testing guidelines for personal fall protection systems; list of relevant ANSI and ASME standards and TLV list from ACGIH.
Federal Register, 24 May 1996, Vol.61, No.102, Part III, p.26322-26360. 17 ref.
International Labour Office
Safety and health in shipbuilding and ship repairing
Korean version of the code of practice analysed under CIS 76-824, which is the result of the work of a meeting of 17 international experts, convened by the ILO at Gothenburg (Sweden), in December 1972. Contents: general provisions (duties of employers, workers, manufacturers and dealers; general safety and health measures; employment of women and young persons); workplaces, their approaches and equipment; (means of access and egress; heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation; fire and explosion protection; protection against falls of objects and of persons, etc.); scaffolding and staging; ladders, stairs, gangways and ramps; lifting appliances; ropes, chains and accessories; internal combustion engines; hand tools, portable power-driven tools; electricity; pressure plant; dangerous substances and radiations; work in confined spaces and dangerous atmospheres; etc.
Korean Industrial Safety Corporation, 34-4 Gusandong Bupyong-ku, Inchon 403-711, Republic of Korea, 1995. 303p.
Ruijten M.W.M.M., Hooisma J., Brons J.T., Habets C.E.P., Emmen H.H., Muijser H.
Neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to xylene and mixed organic solvents in shipyard spray painters
A cross-sectional study was performed in shipyard painters exposed to organic solvents and age-matched referents. The work duties of the painters mainly involved spray painting with solvent-based paints containing > 50% xylene. Results indicate that complaints regarding mood changes, equilibrium and fatigue were more severe in painters than in controls, but were not related to the estimated life-time exposure index. Decreased nerve function was observed in the lower extremities and to some extent in the upper extremities. The refractory period appeared to be a sensitive parameter in motor nerves. Most neurophysiological parameters investigated were significantly related to the exposure index. Behavioural testing revealed impairment of simple visuo-motor performance and complex perceptual coding. A relationship between effects on perceptual coding and the exposure index was also demonstrated.
Neurotoxicology, Fall 1994, Vol.15, No.3, p.613-620. 33 ref.
Department of Labor - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Equipment - Final rule [USA]
This final rule (effective 24 Oct. 1994) extends the protection afforded by previous rules (see CIS 89-1411) to workers entering any confined space or working in any other dangerous atmosphere in or out of a shipyard. It requires the authorization of a competent person before such work can take place. It also contains requirements for posting unsafe spaces, and for the safe performance of cleaning, cold work and hot work. Very extensive commentary and background information.
Federal Register, 25 July 1994, Vol.59, No.141, p.37816-37863. 15 ref.
The Factories (Shipbuilding and Ship-repairing) Regulations 1994 [Singapore]
These Regulations were issued under the authority of the Factories Act, and came into effect (with some exceptions) on 1 June 1994. Contents: preliminary; general safety and health provisions; establishment and role of Vessel Safety Co-ordination Committees; the permit-to-work system; welding and cutting operations; control of hazardous materials; safety information and audits; scaffolds; material handling equipment; employees' lifts; cranes and derricks.
Republic of Singapore - Government Gazette (Subsidiary Legislation Supplement), 27 May 1994, No.26, p.749-804.
Sandén A., Järvholm B., Larsson S.
The importance of lung function, non-malignant diseases associated with asbestos, and symptoms as predictors of ischaemic heart disease in shipyard workers exposed to asbestos
The mortality from ischaemic heart disease was studied in a prospective cohort of 1,725 male shipyard workers exposed to asbestos. Men with impaired lung function had a significantly higher risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease than men with normal lung function. Men with asbestosis or suspected asbestosis had a significantly higher risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease than men without asbestosis and this finding was independent of respiratory function. In the group with normal lung function, men with dyspnoea had a significantly higher risk of dying from ischaemic heart disease than men without dyspnoea. The findings for men with asbestosis or suspected asbestosis indicated a further risk factor besides impaired lung function. Perhaps this risk factor is due to lesions of the pericardium with consequences for heart function.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.50, No.9, p.785-790. 29 ref.
Danielsen T.E., Langård S., Andersen A., Knudsen Ø.
Incidence of cancer among welders of mild steel and other shipyard workers
The incidence of cancer among 4,571 shipyard workers with first employment between 1940 and 1979, including 623 welders of mild steel, was investigated in a historical cohort study. The loss to follow up was 1.1%. The total number of deaths was 1,078 (974.5 expected) and there were 408 cases of cancer v 361.3 expected. Sixty-five cases of lung cancer were found v 46.3 expected based on the national rates for males. Four pleural mesotheliomas had occurred (1.2 expected), none among the welders. An excess of lung cancers was found among the welders (nine cases v 3.6 expected). There were six cases of lung cancer v 1.6 expected in a high exposure group of 255 welders. A survey of the smoking habits as of 1984 indicated 10-20% more daily smokers among the shipyard production workers than among Norwegian males. Exposure to smoking and asbestos were confounding variables in this study.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.50, No.12, p.1097-1103. 24 ref.
Proceedings of a seminar on accident prevention in shipyards
Proceedings of a seminar held in Singapore, 6 Oct. 1993. Papers presented: overview of safety in the shipbuilding and ship repairing industry; findings of the inquiries into fires on board two tankers; report of a study mission on safety management in Japanese ship repair yards; functions of the Vessel Safety Coordination Committee and implementation of permit-to-work systems; safety audits; special problems of contract workers; safety training programme; safety personnel; recommendations.
Ministry of Labour, 18 Havelock Road, Singapore 0105, Oct. 1993. 124p. Illus.
Gennaro V., Baser M.E., Costantini M., Merlo F., Robutti P., Tockman M.S.
Effects of smoking and occupational exposures on pulmonary function impairment in Italian shipyard workers
Association of job title and duration of employment with smoking-adjusted prevalences of various respiratory conditions was examined in 657 shipyard workers. Length of employment (>20yrs) was independently associated with chronic bronchitis, restriction and mixed impairment. Four job categories were also associated with restriction: gas welders, arc welders, masons and insulators.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1993, Vol.84, No.2, p.121-132. Illus. 36 ref.
Churg A., Stevens B.
Absence of amosite asbestos in airway mucosa of non-smoking long-term workers with occupational exposure to asbestos
There is considerable experimental evidence that asbestos fibres are taken up by epithelial cells and that uptake of fibres is associated with various deleterious, particularly mutagenic, effects. It is not known, however, whether asbestos fibres are taken up by human bronchial epithelial cells in vivo. To investigate this question, the amosite asbestos content of the mucosa of seven different airways and four parenchymal sites supplied by these airways in six necropsy lungs from heavily exposed never-smoking long-term shipyard and insulation workers without asbestosis was examined. Amosite asbestos was readily found in moderately high concentration in all parenchymal samples, but 33 of 40 airway samples that could be evaluated showed no amosite fibres. The seven positive airways had fibre concentrations that were always much lower than the parenchymal concentrations, and these very few fibres may have been contaminants from the parenchyma. These data suggest that, at least in non-smokers, amosite asbestos either does not penetrate into or does not accumulate in human airway mucosa. These findings also call into question the idea that asbestos acts as a direct airway carcinogen in humans.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.50, No.4, p.355-359. 29 ref.
Midzenski M.A., McDiarmid M.A., Rothman N., Kolodner K.
Acute high dose exposure to benzene in shipyard workers
Fifteen degassers were acutely exposed over several days to high concentrations (>60ppm) of benzene during removal of residual fuel (degassing) from shipboard fuel tanks. Medical surveillance evaluation mandated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Benzene Standard initially revealed 11 workers (73%) reporting neurotoxic symptoms while degassing. Workers with more than two days (16 hours) of acute exposure were significantly more likely to report dizziness and nausea than those with two or fewer days of acute exposure. Repeated laboratory analyses performed over a four-month period after the acute exposure revealed at least one haematologic abnormality consistent with benzene exposure in nine (60%) of these degassers. One year later, six workers (40%) had persistent abnormalities. Confined space exposure to petroleum products may be exposing workers to benzene at levels above the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 1ppm (8h-TWA). This situation warrants further study.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1992, Vol.22, No.4, p.553-565. 44 ref.
Simonato L., Fletcher A.C., Andersen A., Anderson K., Becker N., Chang-Claude J., Ferro G., Gérin M., Gray C.N., Hansen K.S., Kalliomäki P.L., Kurppa K., Langard S., Merló F., Moulin J.J., Newhouse M.L., Peto J., Pukkala E., Sjögren B., Wild P., Winkelmann R., Saracci R.
A historical prospective study of European stainless steel, mild steel and shipyard welders
A multicentre cohort of 11,092 male welders from 135 companies in 9 European countries was assembled with the aim of investigating the relationship of potential cancer risk, lung cancer in particular, with occupational exposure. Follow up was successful for 96.9% of the cohort. Overall, a statistically significant excess was reported for mortality from lung cancer (116 observed versus 86.81 expected deaths, SMR = 134). When analysed by type of welding, lung-cancer mortality increased with time since first exposure, particularly among stainless-steel welders. No clear relation was apparent between mortality from lung cancer and duration of exposure to or estimated cumulative dose of Ni or Cr. There were five deaths from pleural mesothelioma unrelated to the type of welding, drawing attention to the risk of exposure to asbestos in welding activities.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1991, Vol.48, No.3, p.145-154. 36 ref.
Sandén Å., Järvholm B.
A study of possible predictors of mesothelioma in shipyard workers exposed to asbestos
In a prospective cohort study of 3893 shipyard workers, the value of medical monitoring, including chest radiography, spirometry, and questions about smoking habits, asbestos exposure, and respiratory symptoms, as predictors of the risk of developing mesothelioma was investigated. There was no strong association between different exposure parameters and risk of mesothelioma. Impaired lung function and smoking were not predictors of risk of mesothelioma. Pleural plaque was not found to be associated with an increased risk of mesothelioma. Respiratory symptoms were of low value as predictors of risk of mesothelioma. Thus, traditional methods in health monitoring seem to be of low value in identifying persons with a high risk of mesothelioma in populations exposed to asbestos.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1991, Vol.33, No.7, p.770-773. 12 ref.
Investigation of the relationship between vibration exposure and the latent period for vibration-induced white finger
Exposition aux vibrations et temps de latence du syndrome de Raynaud [in French]
A survey conducted among shipyard workers exposed to vibration from powered hand tools provided data on individual histories of vibration exposure and symptoms of vibration-induced white finger. Investigation of the latent period for the development of blanching symptoms among different occupational groups revealed differences between the groups. No clear relationship was found, however, between vibration magnitudes and latency. The latent periods for separate occupational groups were related to the durations for which the workers had been regularly exposed to vibration from one or more tools or processes. It is possible, therefore, that monitoring the regular duration of exposure would be a more useful means of assessment of the severity (i.e. risk of injury) of vibration exposure from tools of this kind than accurate measurements to vibration characteristics.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1991, No.144, Note No.1842-144-91, p.479-484. Illus. 8 ref.
Kilburn K.H., Warshaw R.H.
Abnormal pulmonary function associated with diaphragmatic pleural plaques due to exposure to asbestos
Pulmonary function was measured in 79 men with diaphragmatic pleural plaques (DPP) as the only abnormality characteristics of asbestos disease on chest radiographs. They were selected from 4572 construction and shipyard workers exposed to asbestos. Abnormalities of pulmonary function in 21 non-smokers and 43 current smokers were compared with referent values adjusted for height, age, and duration of cigarette smoking. In the non-smokers, flows (FEV1, FEF75-85 and FEV1/FVC) were reduced and TGV and RV/TGV were raised. Current smokers had similar significant reductions. Thus by contrast with some current opinion that plaques are "an index only of past asbestos exposure", workers with plaques, even limited to the diaphragm, have functional impairment typical of pulmonary asbestosis. This suggests that they have pulmonary asbestosis, but below the threshold of radiographic recognition.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1990, Vol.47, No.9, p.611-614. 30 ref.
Melkild A., Langård S., Andersen A., Stray Tønnessen J.N.
Incidence of cancer among welders and other workers in a Norwegian shipyard
The incidence of cancer among 4778 male shipyard workers, including 783 mild steel welders, was investigated in a historical cohort study. The workers had been employed for at least 3 months between 1 Jan. 1946 and 31 Mar. 1977. The incidence of cancer was observed from 1 Jan. 1953 through 1986. The loss during follow-up was only 0.9%. There were 53 observed cases of lung cancer in the whole cohort versus 31.3 expected on the basis of the national rates for men. There was an increased incidence of lung cancer among the welders, with 7 observed cases versus 3.2 expected. 22 cases of bladder cancer were observed versus 15.2 expected. Two malignant mesotheliomas had occurred (0.7 expected). Smoking was likely to be a confounder in the present study. Due to concomitant exposure to asbestos, the results are inconclusive concerning the possible relationship between exposure to welding fumes and lung cancer.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1989, Vol.15, No.6, p.387-394. 29 ref.
Hull C.J., Doyle E., Peters J.M., Garabrant D.H., Bernstein L., Preston-Martin S.
Case-control study of lung cancer in Los Angeles County welders
A case-control study of lung cancer in white male welders was undertaken to investigate possible environmental and occupational causes of a 50% excess of lung cancer observed in this occupational group. The subjects were identified from a population-based cancer registry in Los Angeles County. A standardised questionnaire was administered to either subjects or proxy informants of 90 lung cancer cases and 116 non-lung cancer controls. Significantly increased risks of lung cancer were associated with tobacco smoking and with shipyard welding with at least a 10-year latency since first exposure. It was concluded that the excess of lung cancer in this welding population is contributed to by a higher frequency of smoking and with probable exposure to asbestos in shipyards.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1989, Vol.16, No.1, p.103-112. Bibl.
Saarela K.L., Saari J., Aaltonen M.
The effects of an informational safety campaign in the shipbuilding industry
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an informational safety campaign arranged in a shipbuilding company. The study design consisted of two intervention ships and two comparison ships. The campaign material, including slogan signboards with specific safety instructions, was developed within the company itself. Feedback about housekeeping was also provided during the campaign. The results indicate that the campaign was received well and the message could be recalled by the personnel. Yet no notable changes occurred in the number or seriousness of accidents.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Apr. 1989, Vol.10, No.4, p.255-266. 14 ref.
Torell G., Sandén Å., Järvholm B.
Musculoskeletal disorders in shipyard workers
The primary hypothesis was that musculoskeletal disorders were much more common in older workers than in younger ones. A questionnaire was answered by 1,565 shipyard workers at a health check-up. Diagnoses from the health centre at the shipyards were also scrutinised. The workload of each occupation was independently estimated in 3 degrees: low, moderate and heavy. There was no obvious relation between musculoskeletal disorders and age. However, there was as expected a strong relationship between workload and symptoms or medical diagnoses. The data indicated no strong correlation between musculoskeletal disorders from different organs.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Winter 1988, Vol.38, No.4, p.109-112. Illus. 7 ref.
Oguro H., Naruhashi H., Ueda K., Suzuki M., Mitoku K., Miwa M., Wakamatsu C., Yasuda Y., Shirai K., Hatano S., Minowa M., Ashizawa M., Ito K., Watanabe M., Miura H.
A case-control study of lung cancer with special reference to asbestos exposure
Sekimen-bakuro to haigan ni kansuru kanja taishō kenkyū [in Japanese]
A case-control study of lung cancer was carried out in Yokosuka City, Kanagawa Prefecture, the pre-war location of a Japanese naval factory and the present location of a U.S. naval base. Cytologically or pathologically confirmed fatal cases of lung cancer in males during the period 1978-1982 in Yokosuka Kyosai Hospital were compared to a control group in the same hospital. Controls who died from causes other than cancer, pneumoconiosis, accident or suicide were matched by age to the cases. Information including occupational and smoking history was obtained by interviews with the families of the 96 cases and 86 controls. The relative risk (odds ratio) of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure or with suspected exposure was 2.41 and 1.56 respectively, after control for age and smoking. The age-controlled relative risk for smoking without exposure controlled for age, was 8.28, suggesting a synergistic relationship between smoking and asbestos exposure.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, Aug. 1988, Vol.35, No.8, p.461-468. 31 ref.
Yardley-Jones A., Anderson D., Jenkinson P.C., Lovell D.P., Blowers S.D., Davies M.J.
Genotoxic effects in peripheral blood and urine of workers exposed to low level benzene
Blood samples were obtained from a population of refinery workers of different age groups. 66 men with low average exposure to benzene and 33 male controls were investigated. An examination of cell cycle kinetics and sister chromatid exchange was carried out which showed no significant differences between groups of individuals varying in their drinking and smoking habits or their exposure to diagnostic x-rays. Individuals with the lowest and highest phenol values were examined for urine mutagenicity, with urinary phenol used here as an indicator of benzene exposure. There were no differences in any of the biochemical measures or haematological parameters investigated in any of the indidivuals except that higher values for mean corpuscular volume were found in exposed than in control individuals.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1988, Vol.45, No.10, p.694-700. Illus. 22 ref.
Blanc P.D., Golden J.A., Gamsu G., Aberle D.R., Gold W.M.
Asbestos exposure - Cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers
The roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers were studied with the view to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analysed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 15 Jan. 1988, Vol.259, No.3, p.370-373. 36 ref.
The shipbuilding industry: Its effects on the environment
Instruction manual based on material developed by a Swedish labour union organisation and aimed at workers. This version is adapted to circumstances in Malaysia, but it is easily adaptable to any English-speaking country. Contents: general cargo ships; hazardous work operations in shipyards; working environment hazards; action to improve the working environment; measures to protect the external environment; preventive maintenance; heat, thermal radiation and exposure to cold.
International Metalworkers' Federation, 54 bis, rte des Acacias, C. P. 563, 1227 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1988. 25p. Illus.
Wu T.N., Ko Y.C., Chang P.Y.
Study of noise exposure and high blood pressure in shipyard workers
A cross-sectional and case-reference study of occupational noise exposure and blood pressure was conducted in a shipyard company. There were 158 male workers from the higher noise environment (>85dBA) and 158 matched workers from a lower noise environment (<80dBA). The workers of the 1 group had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure with age in different environmental noise exposure. Based on 63 matched hypertensive-normotensive pairs from 2,730 shipyard workers, the relative risk of hypertension among workers exposed to an over-85dBA acoustic environment, compared to those under 80dBA, was 2.38. It is suggested that there may be a population of noise-exposed workers at increased risk of high blood pressure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.4, p.431-438. 30 ref.
Marconi A., Corradetti E., Mannozzi A.
Concentrations of man-made vitreous fibres during installation of insulation materials aboard ships at Ancona Naval Dockyards
Personal and area measurements of airborne fibre concentrations were made during the installation of rock wool insulation blankets on walls and ceilings of deckhouses in ships at a naval dockyard. Space was confined and the only ventilation was via open doors. Mean respirable fibre concentrations at sites in the rooms and adjacent corridors during work ranged from 0.02 to 0.19F/mL with a peak level of 0.65F/mL. The fraction of respirable fibres in the workrooms averaged 67% of all PCOM fibres (F), with about 45% in a sample prepared from the parent material and 90% outside the rooms, which indicates a preferential loss of the coarser fibres. The results are within the range reported in other man-made mineral fibre user studies.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1987, Vol.31, No.4B, Special issue, p.595-599. Illus. 4 ref.
Noise reduction in shipyards
A series of 6 booklets designed to teach in detail noise reduction techniques in shipyards. Techniques are usually presented in a contrastive fashion traditional approaches versus alternative methods. The booklets are: 1 - Fairing; 2 - Moving heavy loads, lifting and turning; 3 - Staging and access; 4 - General applications (grinding, insulation pins, general positioning, silencers, plant noise attenuation, forming curved panels, distortion removal); 5 - Noise reduction in the woodworking and machine tools environment; 6 - Noise and the employee in the shipbuilding industry (hearing loss, hearing protection, audiometry and other means of hearing measurement, compensation, the physics of noise, measurement of noise, exposure limits, commentary on legislation in the United Kingdom). Glossary of acoustic terms.
British Maritime Technology, Faggs Road, Feltham, Middlesex TW14 OLQ, United Kingdom, June 1987. 6 booklets. Illus.
Järvholm B., Sandén Å.
Estimating asbestos exposure: A comparison of methods
The association between pleural plaques and asbestos exposure was investigated in a cross-sectional study of 951 male shipyard workers. Asbestos exposure was estimated by the men themselves and also by an expert panel whose judgment was based only on occupational title. The analysis was restricted to men who had had at least 20yrs of exposure and who had not changed jobs during their period of employment in the shipyards. The results showed that there was a much closer correlation between the occurrence of pleural plaques and the men's own estimates of exposure than between the occurrence and the experts' estimates. Contrary to reports of other investigators, no association was found between smoking habits and the occurrence of pleural plaques.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1987, Vol.29, No.4, p.361-363. 11 ref.
Sandén Å., Järvholm B.
Pleural plaques, respiratory symptoms and respiratory function in shipyard workers exposed to man-made mineral fibres
In a cross-sectional study, the frequencies of respiratory symptoms, pleural plaques and ventilatory function in shipyard workers with (n = 938) and without (n = 774) man-made mineral fibre (MMMF) exposure were compared. In men with 10 years of exposure to MMMF, coughing with phlegm was found to be somewhat more common (rate ratio = 1.3; P<0.01). No difference in ventilatory function, as measured by FEV1 or FVC, was found. Men with MMMF exposure had pleural plaques slightly more often (rate ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.8). The influence of possible unadjusted confounding factors such as asbestos exposure is discussed.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1986, Vol.36, No.3, p.86-89. 14 ref.
Health care of workers in shipyards in Japan
Zōsengyō ni okeru kenkō kanri [in Japanese]
The worker health care programmes of 2 major Japanese shipbuilders are reviewed. Points of the programmes are: (1) establishment of safety and health administrative organizations; (2) planning of health care programmes; (3) improvement of environmental conditions; (4) investigation of absenteeism owing to illness, injury, etc.; (5) medical health checks of all workers, especially arc welders, painters, etc.; (6) activities for the enhancement of workers' physical strength and mental health, such as workshop gymnastics, recreation, health education, mental health care, etc.
Occupational Health Journal - Sangyō Igaku Jānaru, Sep. 1986, Vol.9, No.5, p.14-28. Illus.
Mohsenifar Z., Jasper A.J., Mahrer T., Koerner S.K.
Asbestos and airflow limitation
Forty-five non-smoking shipyard workers who had asbestos-related abnormalities on their chest x-ray diagrams were studied. Patients with interstitial lung disease, bronchial asthma prior to asbestos exposure, recurrent pneumonias, or significant cardiovascular disease were excluded. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator inhalation, and lung volumes, diffusing capacity, and arterial blood gases were determined. Forced vital capacity and forced expired volume in one second were normal in all patients. Maximum midexpiratory flow rates (MMFR) were abnormal (MMFR less than 75% of predicted) in 13 patients (29%). Therefore, 29% of lifetime non-smokers with asbestos exposure exhibited evidence of small airways dysfunction. An abnormal MMFR in these workers may be due, in part, to asbestos exposure and could conceivably indicate a population at risk for pulmonary fibrosis and/or obstructive airways disease.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1986, Vol.28, No.9, p.817-820. 26 ref.
Work on board ships
Arbete på fartyg [in Swedish]
These regulations (effective 1 Apr. 1987) applying to repair, maintenance, rebuilding and shipbreaking work cover: definitions; co-ordination of operations; checking for the presence of gas; reception of ships (certificate of reception; tank ships having transported liquids, gases or solids harmful to health); carbon-dioxide and halogenated-hydrocarbon extinguishing systems (installation of such systems; reception and testing of ships equipped with such systems; measures to protect workers against oxygen insufficiency); work performance (precautions regarding smoking, dangerous areas, solvents, electrical safety, fire safety, etc.; prohibition of access before the safety checks; permit to work; work involving heat sources; atmosphere changes in confined spaces; work in ship holds protected by inert gas). Detailed advice and commentaries as well as examples of certificates and of a check list are appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 10 Feb. 1987. 41p.
Medical screening for lung cancer: Perspective and strategy
Strategies to prevent or reverse cancer promotion are described. One strategy, involving the screening and prompt treatment of small lung cancers, is proposed as a study to be tested in occupational groups with very high risk, specifically asbestos-exposed shipyard workers who smoke cigarettes. The relative risk can be assigned on the basis of (1) age, (2) years since first asbestos exposure, and (3) cigarette smoking amount, recency of cessation and age at onset. Proposed surveillance would be chest x-ray films at 4-month intervals and sputum cytology in current smokers and those within 10 years of cessation. Means of detection, such as monoclonal antibody tests for adenocarcinoma and other marker molecules, would be explored. Prompt conventional treatment would be assured. Other inquiries would be directed at new treatment, such as using targeted molecules directed at surface antigens.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.28, No.8, p.714-718. 23 ref.
Safety and health in shipbuilding and ship repairing
Sicurezza e tutela sanitaria nei cantieri navali di construzione e di riparazione [in Italian]
Italian version of the code of practice resulting from of the work of a meeting of 17 international experts, convened by the ILO at Gothenburg (Sweden), in December 1972 (see CIS 76-824). Contents: general provisions (duties of employers, workers, manufacturers and dealers; general safety and health measures; employment of women and young persons); workplaces, their approaches and equipment (means of access and egress, heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation, fire and explosion protection, protection against falls of objects and of persons, etc.); scaffolding and staging; ladders, stairs, gangways and ramps; lifting appliances; ropes, chains and accessories; internal combustion engines; hand tools, portable power-driven tools; electricity; pressure plant; dangerous substances and radiations; work in confined spaces and dangerous atmospheres.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1985. vi, 265p. Index. Price: LIT 22,000.00.
Factories Ordinance (Cap.56) - Factories (Shipbuilding and shiprepairing) Regulations, 1985 [Gibraltar]
Regulation concerning safety in the shipbuilding and ship-repairing industries, including: means of access and staging; falls of persons, materials and articles; raising and lowering appliances; precautions against asphyxiation, injurious fumes or explosions; personal protection; miscellaneous. An annex provides details on the means of testing chains, wire ropes and other lifting equipment, as a function of the safe working load.
Gibraltar Gazette, 31 Oct. 1985, No.2258, p.232-276.
FITIM - Conselho de Segurança Laboral
Our working environment: The shipbuilding industry
Nosso meio ambiente - Indústria naval [in Portuguese]
Instruction manual on safety and health in the shipbuilding industry based on material developed by a Swedish labour union organisation, and to be used in safety courses for workers in Brazil. After a survey of safety and health problems common to all industries, the manual discusses the specific problems that occur in the construction and maintenance of sea-going ships and in the transportation by sea of petroleum and coal.
Departamento Profissional dos Metalúrgicos, Rua Curitiba, 1.269, CEP 30170, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; International Metalworkers Federation, 54bis route des Acacias, 1227 Carouge, Switzerland, 1985. 71p. Illus.
Goethe H., Herrmann R., Müller-Schwenn B., Brockmöller H.L., Christiansen U., Robinson N.
Compilation of ergonomic information for the shipbuilding industry
Ergonomische Informationssammlung für den Schiffbau [in German]
This data compilation may be used in shipbuilding yards as a manual. It contains introductory chapters on the layout of ships' rooms, mechanical vibration, ship movements, heating and air conditioning, lighting, drinking water, visual and acoustical information, noise, gases and dust, radiation, waste and waste water, workplace design, colour schemes and material characteristics. Each chapter gives illustrative examples and checklists. The checklists demonstrate the actual work procedures to be followed in comparison with the proposed optimal work procedures from the viewpoint of ergonomics and occupational health. The study also contains brief descriptions of aspects of ergonomic and anthropometric research with questionnaires.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 756p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: DM.69.00.
Labour protection in shipbuilding
Ohrana truda v sudostroenii [in Russian]
This manual intended for students covers the main aspects of labour protection in the shipbuilding industry: fundamentals of labour legislation, assessment of occupational safety, safety engineering and occupational hygiene (working conditions, harmful and hazardous factors, workplace air, ventilation, lighting, electrical safety), fire protection (flammability of substances, prevention of fires, fire-fighting work), social and economic aspects of labour protection (economic consequences of unfavourable working conditions, economic efficiency of labour protection).
Izdatel'stvo Sudostroenie, ul.Gogolja 8, 191065 Leningrad, USSR, 1985, 223p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: Rbl.0.80.
Meek M., Brown W.R., Fulford K.G.
A shipbuilder's view of safety
Aspects covered: the shipbuilder and the history of marine safety; the economic concerns of the shipbuilder; comparison with aircraft safety (losses, learning from accidents, design considerations, regulations); effectiveness of marine safety regulations. Recommendations: internationalisation of standards, rational legislation, cost-effective use of resources.
Maritime Policy and Management, Oct.-Dec. 1985, Vol.12, No.4, p.251-262. Illus. 3 ref.
Shortcomings of the mechanisation, automatisation and robotisation (M.A.R.) in the maritime industry
Insuficiencia de los procesos de mecanización, automatización y robotización (M.A.R.) en el sector maritimo [in Spanish]
The impact of the introduction of new technology in shipbuilding and navigation in Spain is evaluated. Human and structural problems are identified. The need to train and prepare workers to deal with this new way of working is emphasised.
Salud y trabajo, Mar.-Apr. 1985, No.48, p.48-54. Illus.
Newhouse M.L., Oakes D., Woolley A.J.
Mortality of welders and other craftsmen at a shipyard in NE England
This is a mortality study of 1027 welders, 235 caulkers, 557 platers and 1670 electricians who worked in an English shipyard at any time between 1940 and 1968. Short job details of these workers were taken into consideration, though detailed information on asbestos exposure or smoking habits was not available. Welders and caulkers had a significantly higher standardised mortality ratio for all causes, lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, pneumonia and accidental deaths than did platers and electricians.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1985, Vol.42, No.6, p.406-410. 14 ref.
Glinsmann P.W., Rosenthal F.S.
Evaluation of an aerosol photometer for monitoring welding fume levels in a shipyard
The direct reading instrument (Sibata P-5 Digital Dust Indicator) was calibrated by comparison of readings with results from simultaneous gravimetric sampling. A ratio of 6 was observed between calibration factors for area and personnel samples. Changes in fume particle size and refractive index seem to be the main reasons for this difference. This instrument can be useful for locating areas with high fume levels but not for accurate measurement or monitoring of concentrations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1985, Vol.46, No.7, p.391-395. Illus. 11 ref.
Alekseeva I.S., Norkin Ju. I.
Occupational safety and hygiene in electric welding and work with plasmas in shipbuilding
Gigiena i bezopasnost' truda pri ėlektrosvaročnyh i plazmennyh rabotah v sudostroenii [in Russian]
Contents: indusrial environment of fitting-welding shops in shipbuilding and its influence on workers (information about electric welding, microclimate lighting, electromagnetic radiation, mechanical oscillation, ergonomic characteristics of welders' work), working conditions and measures for their improvement in the main welding process (manual electric arc welding with fusible electrodes, automatic and semiautomatic arc welding, carbon-dioxide gas arc welding), working conditions in the main types of plasma technology and measures for their improvement (manual mechanised plasma metal cutting, plasma welding, metal surfacing and plasma spraying).
Izdatel'stvo Sudostroenie, Gogolja 8, 191065 Leningrad, USSR, 1984. 107p. Illus. 58 ref. Price: SUR 0.35.
Presidential Decree 190 - Occupational health and safety in shipyard work
Proedriko diatagma up'arith. 190 - Ugieinē kai asfaleia tōn ergazomenōn se naupēgikes ergasies [in Greek]
This law supplements the 1920 Royal Decree on workers' health and safety, as it relates to shipyard work. It covers: work in hazardous environments and in confined spaces; work with hazardous and irritating substances; work in fuel tanks of ships; scaffolding and platforms; structural work.
Efēmeris tēs Kubernēseos tēs Ellēnikēs Dēmokratias, 15 May 1984, Vol.64, No.1, p.755-765.
Morrison H.I., Band P.R., Gallagher R., Spinelli J., Wigle D.T.
Recent trends in incidence rates of pleural mesothelioma in British Columbia
A total of 64 cases (54 in males, 10 in females) of pleural mesothelioma were reported between 1973 and 1980. Almost all of the cases were clustered in an area near Vancouver when there was a high level of shipbuilding activity 30 to 40 years ago. The increased incidence of mesothelioma in men (p<0.05) may be related to exposure to asbestos used in shipbuilding at the time.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1 Nov. 1984, Vol.131, No.9, p.1069-1071. 22 ref.
Todd W.F., Shulman S.A.
Control of styrene vapour in a large fiberglass boat manufacturing operation
Ventilation of each of the 5 tiltable boat hull mould stations was modified to improve its efficiency. Levels of styrene in air were measured before and after the modifications. Analysis of variance performed on the results indicated that a significant lowering of the styrene levels had been obtained by the implementation of the described control measures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1984, Vol.45, No.12, p.817-825. Illus. 5 ref.
Behrens V., Taylor W., Wilcox T., Miday R., Spaeth S., Burg J., Wasserman D., Reynolds D., Doyle T., Carlson W., Smith R., Samueloff S., Howie G., Rappeport M.
Vibration syndrome in chipping and grinding workers
The effects of vibration on workers at 2 foundries and a shipyard (USA) were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Aspects covered: review of the problem; design of the study; epidemiology (use of questionnaires and medical data); measurement of the vibrations produced by chipping hammers and grinders; physiologic testing (aesthesiometry, photocell plethysmography, radiography). Foundry workers were more affected by vibration than shipyard workers. In all cases, excessive vibration levels were measured on chipping and grinding tools. Recommendations for improving work procedures to reduce vibration problems are given.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1984, Vol.26, No.10. p.765-788. 66 ref. Illus.
Mao Z., Zhang H., Huang C., Zou C.
Observation on development of pneumoconiosis among manual arc welders in Dalian shipyard (1960-1982)
Results of a long-term study of 204 manual arc welders in a Chinese shipyard. Research methods involved epidemiological study, x-ray examinations and autopsies. The prevalence rate of pneumoconiosis was 28.5%, and the average length of working exposure to welding fumes before diagnosis of the disease was 15.9 years. 3 workers who died during the period of the study were found to have pneumoconiosis.
Institute of Health, China National Center for Preventive Medicine, Beijing, China, no date. 8p. Illus. 8 ref.
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