Motor vehicle manufacturing industry - 289 entries found
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Car repair shops, gasoline stations etc. [Norway]
Bilverksteder, Bensinstasjoner m.v. [in Norwegian]
The notification describes special rules that applies to car repair workshops, gasoline stations and similar types of workplaces. The rules involve, on one hand, equipment, tools, and the workplace, and on the other hand, work procedures, routines, and what not to do. Main subjects covered: noise, flammable gases and liquids, heavy workload, draft and coolness, oil and water, dangerous machines and tools.
Direktoratet for Arbeidstilsynet, Fr. Nansens vei 14, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 1991. 37p. Illus.
Thiery L., Meyer-Bisch C., Steunou M.T., Luong S.B.
Epidemiological assessment of hearing risk indicators in a group of workers exposed to partially impulsive industrial noise at levels between 87 and 90dB(A)
Evaluation épidémiologique d'un indicateur de risque auditif dans une population exposée à des bruits partiellement impulsionnels et de niveaux compris entre 87 et 90dB(A) [in French]
The identification of a hearing risk indicator was researched among the workers of an automobile body-shop. The cross-sectional epidemiological survey involved 234 workers exposed to noise. The hearing risk level of the studied population was compared both with data from the literature and standardised estimates from ISO/DIS 1999.2 (or NF S 31-013). The "early warning indicator" (HTL 346), mentioned in the French legislation on medical control, showed a level of risk greater than that expected from the equal energy principle. This result is related in discussion to the partially impulsive nature of the noise.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1990, Vol.51, No.8, p.575-585. Illus. 31 ref.
Decree No. 90-53 of 12 January 1990...defining health and safety conditions and ventilation rates applicable to spraying and drying booths...using liquid paints, varnishes, powders or dry fibres [France]
Décret n°90-53 du 12 janv. 1990 ... définissant les conditions d'hygiène et de sécurité et la vitesse de ventilation dans les cabines de projection, cabines et enceintes de séchage ... destinées à l'emploi de peintures liquides, de vernis, de poudres ou de fibres sèches [France] [in French]
Text of Decree No. 90-53 of 12 January 1990 (published in the Journal Officiel of 14 Jan. 1990), amending the provisions of Book II, Title III, Chapter III of the French Labour Code (Part two: Decrees in the Council of State) and defining health and safety conditions and minimal ventilation rates applicable to spraying booths, drying booths and combined spraying and drying booths using liquid paints, varnishes, powders or dry fibres.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1990, No.140, Note No.1796-140-90, p.633-637.
Laflamme L., Doos M., Backstrom T.
Accidents encountered in the engine workshops of a Swedish automobile and truck factory: their most common circumstances and consequences
Statistics on accident characteristics were compiled on the basis of the 178 accident declaration forms filled during 1986 and 1987. Data on a total of 35 variables were collected. Seven typical accident patterns were portrayed. It was observed that accidents of any pattern might occur in either of the workshops studied, but that their distribution varies according to the occupational group, the production steps and the tasks performed by the injuried workers. The accident frequency varies considerably from one occupational group to another, and for some groups, from workshop to workshop.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 103p. 22 ref.
Delfosse M., Laureillard J.
Paint spray booths in automobile body shops: Determination of isocyanates and solvents. Conformity to booth specifications
Cabines de peinture dans la carrosserie automobile - Dosage des isocyanates et des solvants - Conformité des cabines [in French]
This study included measurements of atmospheric pollution and air flow in 45 paint spray booths of 38 automobile body shops in France. A comparative analysis of the results of these measurements showed that booths with below-standard ventilation characteristics were subject to high levels of contamination, particularly by isocyanates, whereas those which came up to specifications were relatively free of isocyanate contamination. In order to have a good idea of the contamination levels due to the release of isocyanates, the amount of prepolymers with free isocyanate functions must be determined.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1990, No.138, Note No.1766-138-90, p.65-72. Illus. 6 ref. Annex.
Surface treatment - The requirement of purity - Treatment of waste air from spray booths
Oberflächenbehandlungstechnik - Reinheitsgebot - Möglichkeiten der Abluftreinigung und Entsorgung bei Spritzkabinen [in German]
Two methods are outlined for cleaning waste air from spray booths. The 1st method takes off part of the waste air and passes it through an afterburner with heat recuperation. The 2nd method uses adsorption. Both methods are suitable for complying with emission standards effective in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1986.
Maschinenmarkt, 1990, Vol.96, No.30, p.54-56, 58. Illus.
Hilla W., Tiller R.E.
Automation in the body shop from the viewpoint of occupational medicine
Automatisierung im Karosserierohbau aus arbeitsmedizinischer Sicht [in German]
The switch to automated car-body production is used as an example to illustrate the procedure of stress evaluation by industrial physicians. Tasks performed by two types of assembly-line workers in a car-body shop were used in the selection of appropriate medical examinations. Digestive disorders dominated among workers controlling and monitoring assembly-line operations, while workers introducing material into and removing parts from the assembly line were found to suffer from nervousness. Heart rate, fatigue and spinal strain were within normal bounds.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1990, Vol.40, No.4, p.94-100. Illus. 7 ref.
Tilley B.C., Johnson C.C., Schultz L.R., Buffler P.A., Joseph C.L.M.
Risk of colorectal cancer among automotive pattern and model makers
This paper reports the investigation of a cohort of 7545 General Motors pattern and model makers originally defined for the purpose of cancer screening. All-cause mortality for this cohort was lower than that of the US population. There were 22 colon cancer deaths v 10.9 expected, consistent with previous studies.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1990, Vol.32, No.6, p.541-546. 12 ref.
Buisán Clemente A.
The safety of industrial robots
Seguridad en robots industriales [in Spanish]
This article describes the solutions adopted concerning safety systems for industrial robots in a Spanish car factory. Close cooperation existed between the engineering and safety departments for the design, implantation and reception of the robotised installations. Before implanting the robots in the production lines, a test area was prepared, where all the robots were tested. This allowed the maintenance staff to adapt themselves and become acquainted with the new technology, ang also to study repetitive failures, analyse them and make possible modifications.
Mapfre seguridad, 1st Quarter 1989, No.33, p.3-12. Illus.
Kononen D.W., Kintner H.J., Bivol K.R.
Air lead exposures and blood lead levels within a large automobile manufacturing workforce, 1980-1985
Recent (1980-1985) trends in air lead (PbA) exposures and blood lead (PbB) levels experienced by approximately 10,000 workers employed in various stages of the automobile manufacturing process (i.e. auto assembly, lead-acid battery manufacture, foundry work, and "other" manufacturing-related operations) are described. Between 1980-1985, the mean PbB levels of assembly, battery, foundry, and "other" workers decreased by 28, 24, 3, and 27%, respectively, to 16.6, 23.6, 15.9, and 11.8µg Pb/dL. Workers in the following job categories experienced the highest annual mean PbB levels: paste machine operators (battery plants), solder-grinders (assembly plants), and crane operators (foundries). During the same period median 8-h Time-Weighted Average PbA exposures (µg Pb/m3) in assembly plants, battery plants, and foundries decreased by 10, 12, and 20%, respectively, to 8.1, 13.6, and 10.9µg/m3.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1989, Vol.44, No.4, P.244-251. Illus. 17 ref.
Oleske D.M., Brewer R.D., Doan P., Hahn J.
An epidemiologic evaluation of the injury experience of a cohort of automotive parts workers: A model for surveillance in small industries
Description of a prototype project for the development of an injury/illness surveillance system within an established network of occupational health centres. The purpose of this system would be to provide an epidemiologic data base to participating companies so that they can quickly identify and correct potential problem areas. An epidemic of injuries occurring in a company served by the network provided the opportunity to test the usefulness of a select core set of variables which could be used for surveillance of occupational injury and illness trends, for the development of hypotheses regarding causative mechanisms for common workplace injuries, and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions in small industries.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Apr. 1989, Vol.10, No.4, p.239-253. 11 ref.
Safety training programme aimed at unsafe behaviour and its success in a production facility of the automobile industry
Schwerpunktorientierte psychologische Massnahmenprogramme und deren Bewährung in einem Betrieb der Automobilindustrie [in German]
In a truck axle manufacturing plant in Kassel, Germany (Fed. Rep.), the frequency of serious accidents at the various production steps was determined. For each serious accident the unsafe human actions and their effects were identified. Between safety officers and managers a programme was worked out aiming at improving safety awareness among the workers. The success of the programme is illustrated by the reduction of accidents (per million workig hours) from 107 in 1983 to 60 in 1987.
Die Nordwestliche, 1989, No.4, p.124-127. Illus.
Supplemental inflatable restraint (SIR): Procedures for driver side modules
Training material aimed at instructors and developed jointly by the United Auto Workers labour union and General Motors Co. Many practical exercises. It contains advice on the safe handling of supplemental inflatable restraints (SIRs), devices concealed in the steering wheel or dashboard of vehicles in order to provide crash protection. Contents: obligations of the security and material departments of automobile plants when handling shipments of SIRs; safe handling of SIRs in the steering column assembly area, the main assembly line and in repair areas. In appendices: chemical substances information system and material safety data sheet concerning substances used in SIRs.
UAW-GM Human Resource Health and Safety Training Center, 29815 John R., Madison Heights, MI 48071, USA, 1988. 63p. Illus.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise control by design XV. Control of sludge suction vehicle noise
Lärmarmkonstruieren XV - Lärmminderung an Saugfahrzeugen [in German]
This report is of a research project on noise reduction measures concerning sludge-suction vehicles used in street cleaning. The sound power of the vehicles was determined by different methods. Starting from comprehensive measurements, a ranking of the noise sources was performed, which is the foundation of the noise-reducing measures described. The measures presented in the report resulted in the reduction of the sound pressure level by 20-78dB(A). In addition, the A-weighted sound power could be reduced by 19dB(A).
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 101110, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 131p. Illus. 5 ref.
Kihlberg S., Friberg M., Hagberg M., Hansson J.E., Jorulf L., Östergen C.E.
Vibration exposure and work posture during truck assembly
Vibrationsexponering och arbetsställningar vid montering av lastbilar [in Swedish]
Report on a study of the working conditions at one of the assembly lines in a factory of trucks in Gothenburg, Sweden. Heavy loads on the back, necks and arms caused by the work posture were reported. Work rotation and improvements in workplaces are proposed. A new instrument for measuring body postures was tested and found to function properly. The vibration exposure had been reduced by a factor of two by changing from impact wrenches to nut runners when possible. The frequency-weighted 4-hour equivalent value was 1m/s2. The mean level for the eight most exposed workers was 1.3m/s2. The risk of vibration injury was therefore judged to be low. The noise level was relatively high, depending on the high level of background music, 80-93dB(A).
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 31p. Illus. 9 ref.
Hilla W., Tiller R.E.
Medical examinations of lead-exposed workers in an automobile production plant
Vorsorgeuntersuchungen bei Bleiarbeitern in einem Automobilwerk [in German]
In automobile factories lead is used in the manufacture of car bodies. In recent years lead exposure has been reduced through process modification and by installation of exhaust facilities. Measurements in the breathing zones of lead exposed workers taken in 1988 yielded a maximum concentration of 14µg/m3. In view of the facts that exposure is well below the maximum allowable concentrations while a risk of occasional excessive exposure still persists, more widely spaced check-up examinations are recommended.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1988, Vol.23, No.12, p.309-312. Illus. 7 ref.
Hertting-Thomasius R., Rötting M., Luczak H., Klutmann B., Krüger K.
Ergonomic design of a hand-held terminal for data recording
Ergonomische Gestaltung eines Handterminals zur Betriebsdatenerfassung [in German]
A hand-held data collecting computer terminal and its optimisation is described (small weight and size, liquid crystal display for 80 characters and snap-action buttons). The data can be entered either coded or in plain language. Abbreviations are completed by the system with the aid of an internal dictionary. The hand-held terminal is used for quality control in automobile manufacturing.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1988, Vol.42 (14 NF), No.2, p.83-88. Illus. 18 ref.
Keyserling W.M., Punnett L., Fine L.J.
Trunk posture and back pain: Identification and control of occupational risk factors
A computer-aided system was developed to evaluate trunk posture during work by measuring the time spent in neutral and non-neutral postures. This system was used to assess postural risk factors in a case-referent study of back disorders in an automobile assembly plant. The use of non-neutral trunk postures, such as forward flexion, lateral bending, and axial twisting, was associated with reports of back pain. The results of this study suggest that job redesign and/or other methods for controlling non-neutral posture be implemented to reduce the risk of back pain on industrial jobs. A general approach to work station design, based on a mechanical model of the human skeletal system, is described. This model is used to develop specific job-design guidelines to prevent awkward trunk posture.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Mar. 1988, Vol.3, No.3, p.87-92. Illus. 21 ref.
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, Sekretariat vsesojuznogo central'nogo soveta professional'nyh sojuzov
Approval of a standard list of strenuous and hazardous jobs for which supplementary payments to workers may be established on account of working conditions in enterprises and organisations at the automobile transport industry [USSR]
Ob utverždenii tipovogo perečnja rabot s tjaželymi i vrednymi uslovijami truda, na kotoryh mogut ustanavlivat'sja doplaty rabočim za uslovija truda na predprijatijah i v organizacijah automobil'nogo transporta [in Russian]
This decision of 2 Oct. 1986 establishes a list of 6 jobs that includes: repair of car bodies and other parts manually with the use of abrasive wheels and gas welding equipment; repair of vehicles used for the transport of human or animal waste, decomposing refuse or corpses; repair of equipment that uses loaded petrol; cleaning and washing of vehicles, sub-assemblies and parts to remove dirt, rust, scale and old paint manually, mechanically, chemically or with the use of kerosene, petrol, acetone or other solvents; filling the fuel tanks of vehicles with loaded petrol at pumps without remote controls.
Bjulleten' - Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, 1987, No.8, p.28-29.
Spray booth ventilation in autobody shops
This review covers health hazards, design considerations, airflow rate and safe working procedures.
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Occupational Health and Safety Division, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, 1987. 3p.
Health hazards of occupational exposure to welding fumes when working with sheet metal coated with anti-corrosion oil
Risques pour la santé de l'exposition professionnelle à des fumées de soudage de tôles enduites d'huile anti-corrosion [in French]
Medical thesis. Hazard evaluation: observation of the work-station and of fume formation; sampling of the workplace air, particularly for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are thermal degradation products of anti-corrosion oils. The toxicity of the fumes, and the resulting respiratory health problems and carcinogenicity, are extrapolated from a survey of the literature. Short-term health effects are studied in a group of welders in an automobile manufacturing plant. These effects include obstructive and restrictive respiratory disorders in non-smokers. Preventive measures include the degreasing of parts, the use of oils that have been properly refined and exhaust ventilation. Personal hygiene and medical prevention are discussed.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 1987. 89p. 56 ref.
Ethnic differences in accident rates at work
The accidents of 4,482 employees in a car engine machining and assembly plant in South-east England were studied retrospectively over a 12-month period. The study population was composed of "Asian" (22%), "white" (66%) and "West Indian" employees (12%). The crude accident rates differed among the groups, the means being Asians (1.58, white 1.23 and West Indians 1.28. There was no consistent ethnic difference after adjustment for other factors such as age, type of job and duration of service. Accident rates were higher for those employees who were younger, newly employed and in production jobs. Accident prevention programmes should be directed to those factors known to relate to accidents and not to any specific ethnic group.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1987, Vol.44, No.3, p.206-211. 27 ref.
Diffey B.L., Larkö O., Meding B., Edeland H.G., Wester U.
Personal monitoring of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the car manufacturing industry
Polysulfone film badges were used to monitor the ultraviolet radiation exposure of automobile paint inspectors. The doses measured were very much lower than the permissible exposures; it is unlikely that the radiation was the cause of the facial rashes which were noted before the study.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1986, Vol.30, No.2, p.163-170. Illus. 10 ref.
A computer-aided system to evaluate postural stress in the workplace
Stress caused by awkward working posture of the trunk and shoulders can result in fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders and nerve entrapment syndromes. To aid in evaluating the relationship between work activities and postural stress, a computer-aided system was developed. This system produces a detailed description of work tasks and a continuous record of trunk and shoulder activity on the same time scale. The system was used to evaluate postural stresses on a case study job in an automobile assembly plant. The results of the postural analysis were used to identify specific causes of postural stress and to develop recommendations for changes in work station equipment and methods to reduce stress.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1986, Vol.47, No.10, p.641-649. Illus. 27 ref.
Chromate dermatitis in an engine assembly department
In an automotive engine assembly department, about 150 assemblers handle zinc-plated components that have been coated with hexavalent chromium (chromates). Protective gloves cannot be used, as fingertip feel is needed, and each assembler has almost continous contact with chromate-coated parts. This has caused 9 cases of chromate dermatitis since the coating was introduced in 1976. All the victims have suffered from the effects of steroid ointments as well as from relapses of eczema. Although so-called yellow chromation is clearly unsuitable for components that are manually handled, no alternative has been developed and its use is spreading.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1986, Vol.14, No.1, p.66-67. 2 ref.
FITIM - Conselho de Segurança Laboral
Our working environment: The automobile industry
Nosso meio ambiente - Indústria automobilística [in Portuguese]
Instruction manual on safety and health in the automobile industry, based on material developed by a Swedish labour union organisation, and to be used in safety courses for workers in Brazil. After a survey of safety and health problems common to all industries, the manual discusses the specific problems occurring in various processes of the automobile industry: machine presses, assembly and painting; work overload; protective equipment; lighting; hygiene and cleanliness; information and education of workers; working positions; ventilation.
Departamento Profissional dos Metalúrgicos, Rua Curitiba, 1.269, CEP 30170, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; International Metalworkers Federation, 54bis route des Acacias, 1227 Carouge, Switzerland, 1985. 62p. Illus.
Identification and determination of chemical hazards in a research establishment - Based on a project conducted at an automobile research and development centre
Identification et contrôle du risque chimique dans une entreprise de recherches. A propos d'une étude à la Direction des Recherches et Développements automobiles [in French]
Summary of this thesis for a degree in a French medical school: description of the research facility; general features of toxicological preventive measures used in the establishment; responsibilities of individuals; importance of complying with French legislation concerning chemical substances; guarding confidential information on the production of such substances; the importance of information on labels; methods used during the introduction of a new product into the establishment; monitoring the use of chemical substances at each work station; follow-up of these products (safe disposal, proper labelling, distribution within the enterprise, proper use).
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Paris-Ouest, Paris, France, 1985. 74p. Illus. 33 ref.
Jepsen J.R., Jørgensen A.S., Kyst A.
Hand protection for car-painters
In a single blind cross-over study, the skin compatibility and comfort of cotton inner gloves were compared with a special astringent cream in 64 car painters: 38 painters preferred cream under disposable polyethylene gloves, while 20 preferred cotton gloves under polyethylene gloves. The difference was not statistically significant. Persons with a tendency to excessive perspiration tended to prefer cotton inner gloves. Creams offered as an alternative to inner gloves should not contain sensitising components.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1985, Vol.13, No.5, p.317-320. 4 ref.
Pham Q.T., Mur J.M., Teculescu D., Merou-Poncelet B., Gaertner M., Meyer-Bisch C., Moulin J.M., Massin N.
Respiratory symptoms and lung function in painters in an industrial vehicle manufacturing plant. Results of a transverse epidemiologic study
Symptômes respiratoires et fonction pulmonaire des peintres d'une usine de fabrication de véhicules industriels. Résultats d'une enquête épidémiologique transversale [in French]
Clinical examinations and respiratory function tests were performed on 54 spray painters, 22 painters using a brush and 214 controls. There was no difference in the prevalence of bronchitis and asthma among the groups. However, chronic runny nose was more frequent in painters using a brush and wheezing was more frequent in spray painters, who also had more FEV1/VC anomalies, positive acetylcholine tests and increased closing volume/VC ratios. Respiratory impairment was on the whole slight in painters, except for spray painters who smoked a lot.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1985, Vol.46, No.1, p.31-36. 33 ref.
Hansson J.E., Eklund L., Kihlberg S., Kjellberg A., Sternerup I., Utter A., Weman K., Östergren C.E.
Exposure to vibration in car repair work - Comparison of tools and methods
Vibrationsexponering vid bilreparationsarbete - Jämförelse av verktyg och arbetsmetoder [in Swedish]
Measurements of vibration and, in certain instances, noise plus subjective evaluation of vibration were carried out under standardised working conditions. The time during which car body repairmen in 7 companies were exposed to vibration was determined. Chip hammers, impact wrenches, grinders and saws were the types of tools which generated the highest vibration levels. The average daily exposure was 22-70min at the different garages. The risk of vibration damage is currently rated as high. The difference between the highest and lowest levels of vibration was considerable in most tool categories, so the choice of tool has a major impact on exposure to vibration. The selection of welding methods (shielded-arc, pulsed, spot or resistance) influences noise and vibration exposure; in addition to the welding process itself, the preparation and finishing of workpieces with power tools must be taken into account.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 48p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: Swe.cr.40.00.
Anderson C.K., Fine L.J., Herrin G.D., Sugano D.S.
Excess days lost as an index for identifying jobs with ergonomic stress
A new health impact index, excess cost, is advocated for identifying jobs in need of further study regarding ergonomic problems. This index is compared with incidence rate, excess count and severity rate indices in terms of concept and appropriateness to the purpose. The 4 indices are illustrated with data regarding medical leave from an automobile assembly plant and evaluated in terms of ability to identify jobs most strongly contributing to excessive days lost.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1985, Vol.27, No.10, p.740-744. 8 ref.
McCammon C., Robinson C., Waxweiler R.J., Roscoe R.
Industrial hygiene characterization of automotive wood model shops
A proportionate mortality study and an industrial hygiene survey were conducted by NIOSH in the shops of several car manufacturers in the USA. A significant excess of deaths due to colon cancer and leukaemia was observed. Total dust concentrations measured in the worker's breathing zone ranged from 0.03 to 25mg/m3. The percentage of respirable dust ranged from 19 to 38%. Solvent exposure levels ranged from non-detectable to about 10% of the OSHA permissible exposure levels. Relevant recommendations for the improvement of contamination control are made (ventilation, materials, work practices, etc.).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1985, Vol.46, No.7, p.343-349. 15 ref.
Vena J.E., Sultz H.A., Fiedler R.C., Barnes R.E.
Mortality of workers in an automobile engine and parts manufacturing complex
Report on a proportionate mortality ratio study conducted on workers in an integrated automobile factory composed of forge, foundry and engine (machine and assembly) plants. Observed deaths (769) over a 10-year period (1970-1979) were compared with expected numbers based on a national (USA) and local standard for men. For the whole group there were no significant differences between observed and expected numbers of deaths. For various subgroups of workers (subdivided by race, plant, length or period of employment) significant increases were found for certain causes of death (such as cancers of the pancreas, bladder and rectum). The use of cutting oils is suggested as a possible cause of these excess deaths.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1985, Vol.42, No.2, p85-93. 33 ref.
Laborda Grima R., Ruiz de la Fuente Tirado S., Cativiela J.L.A.
Prevention of health hazards in automobile paint shops, from the design stage on
Prevención del riesgo higiénico en las cabinas de pintura de automóviles, desde el proyecto inicial [in Spanish]
Health hazards in automobile paint shops were evaluated by measuring the TWA concentration of lead, chromium salts, total dust, n-butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, ethylbenzene and xylene in the air of 4 paint shops (priming; using non-metallic paint; using metallic paint; body repair). Relatively high exposure rates were found in the shop using metallic paint for lead and total dust. To resolve this problem, an exhaust hood was designed, and its dimensions and other parameters are given.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 1984, No.90, p.8-14. Illus. 3 ref.
Grigorjan Ė.A., Družinin V.N.
X-ray assessment of changes in the hand bones of automobile body grinders on exposure to low-frequency local vibration
Rentgenologičeskaja ocenka kostnyh izmenenij kistej ot vozdejstvija lokal'noj nizkočastotnoj vibracii u šlifovščikov avtomobil'nyh kuzovov [in Russian]
X-rays were taken of the hands of 38 car-body grinders whose exposure to vibration did not exceed maximum allowable levels. Minor adaptive and degenerative-dystrophic changes in the finger bones were noted, especially in the end and middle joints. Although the changes were not those characteristic of vibration disease, the given levels of low-frequency vibration are apparently not biologically neutral.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1984, No.4, p.40-42. 9 ref.
Collinson J.G., Rajhans G.S.
Automotive body repair shop hazards
Five auto body shops in Ontario were surveyed to determine the degree of hazard associated with the use of isocyanate-containing paints and hardeners. Free isocyanate levels ranged from <0.001ppm to 0.003ppm. However, the combined exposure to monomeric and polymeric forms of isocyanates in paints could reach levels >0.005ppm. Suggestions are made regarding other hazards (noise, solvents, pigments, body fillers), exhaust ventilation and personal respiratory protection.
Occupational Health in Ontario, Oct. 1984, Vol.5, No.4, p.156-171. Illus. 10 ref.
Jayjock M.A., Levin L.
Health hazards in a small automotive body repair shop
This survey is based on a 1-year study of a typical body repair shop in the USA. Airborne hazards include: organic solvents used during spray painting (of 10 substances tested, only xylene (100-230ppm) and methyl cellosolve acetate (30-45ppm) exceeded TLV-STEL values, and only during the winter, when spraybooth fans had to be turned off); isocyanates (4-9% by weight of the enamel paint used - air concentration determination unsuccessful); metals in paint pigments (highest levels measured: chromium - 0.49mg/m3, cadmium - 0.48mg/m3, lead - 0.64mg/m3); dust (highest level: 39.8mg/m3). Other hazards: noise (highest level: 110-115dB(A) for 30min); vibration due to pneumatic hand tools (Raynaud's phenomenon symptoms reported by workers). Recommendations based on the results are listed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1984, Vol.28, No.1, p.19-29. Illus. 12 ref.
Matsunaga J., Une H., Nakayoshi N., Momose Y., Maeda M., Watanabe D., Magori Y., Esaki H., Kamo H., Kuroki K.
Occupational exposure to organic solvents of painters in car repair workshops
Organic solvent concentrations in the air, individual exposure levels and concentrations of urinary hippuric acid during 24h were measured to estimate levels of exposure to organic solvents of 8 painters in car repair workshops. All the organic solvent concentrations in the air were below TLVs. In individual exposures, high toluene concentrations were observed during painting in booths with ventilators on the side wall (410-660ppm), but not in booths with ventilators for longitudinal ventilation from ceiling to the floor (28-87ppm). The average urinary hippuric acid concentration in painters was 0.33mg/ml.
Medical Bulletin of Fukuoka University, Sep. 1983, Vol.10, No.3, p.173-178. Illus. 11 ref.
Suta B.E., Thompson C.R.
Smoking patterns of motor vehicle industry workers and their impact on lung cancer mortality rates
Follow-up of a recent mortality study in which automotive workers were found to have an excess of approx. 30% in lung cancer over the general population. When differences in smoking habits are considered, the proportionate mortality ratios for lung cancer in white male automotive workers fall from 1.3 to approx. 1.1. Smoking habits can affect mortality rates for lung cancer when the smoking habits of the population studied differ from that of the general population. At least part of the excess in lung cancer mortality in automotive workers may be explained by smoking.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1983, Vol.25, No.9, p.661-667. 19 ref.
Mur J.M., Cavelier C., Meyer-Bisch C., Pham Q.T., Masset J.C.
Pulmonary function of arc welders. Results of a survey conducted in truck manufacturing plant
Etude de la fonction pulmonaire de soudeurs à l'arc. Résultats d'une enquête dans une entreprise de construction de véhicules industriels [in French]
This study compares the clinical, functional and radiological characteristics of the respiratory systems of 76 welders from a truck trailer factory with those of 74 controls from the same factory who were not welders and who had been exposed to no known respiratory hazard; the welders had been exposed for an average of 11 years to welding fumes. No significant difference between the groups was found, but both groups showed a high incidence of pulmonary abnormalities.
Respiration, 1983, Vol.44, No.1, p.50-57. 26 ref.
Health and well-being of the work force. Case study: the automobile and petrochemical industries
Salud y bienestar de la fuerza de trabajo. Estudio de caso: automotriz y petroquímica [in Spanish]
Historical review and analysis of occupational safety and health problems in 2 large Mexican industries. Contents: characteristics of the development of problems, capitalist society, historical evolution and the struggle for the right to good health; governmental action, regulations, model of theoretical analysis of health problems; comparative analysis of occupational hazards in Mexico and in other countries, statistics on accidents and their causes, analysis by industrial sector (automobile, petrochemical); work organisation and health, risk factors, proposed remedies.
Instituto Nacional de Estudios del Trabajo, Dr. Vértiz 96, México 7, DF, Mexico, 1982. 83p. Bibl.
Takeuchi Y., Ono Y., Hisanaga N., Iwata M., Okutani H., Matsumoto T., Gotoh M., Fukaya Y., Ueno K., Seki T., Mizuno S.
Environmental and health surveys on car repair workers exposed to organic solvents
25 painters and 22 non-exposed controls were studied in 7 car repair workshops. 23 solvents were analysed by gas chromatography. Toluene was the commonest constituent, followed by xylene and ethyl benzene. Short-term concentrations in the workers' breathing zone during painting were above the TLV in 10 of 14 workers. TWAs measured by personal monitoring were below the TLV in 12 of 13 of them (average approx. 38% of the Japanese TLV). Painters had more complaints of drunkenness, light-headedness and sore throat, diarrhoea, epigastric discomfort, dullness of extremities and dizziness than the control group.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1982, Vol.24, p.305-313. Illus. 12 ref.
Pham Q.T., Meyer Bisch C., Gaertner M., Mur J.M., Pierre F., Huez D.
Respiratory investigations on workers in a polyester-fibreglass car-body assembly plant
Enquête respiratoire chez les ouvriers d'une usine de montage de carrosseries en fibres de verre-polyesters [in French]
Lung function testing of 203 workers trimming and painting polyester-fibreglass car bodies. Cases of bronchitis did not seem to be linked to occupational exposure. Findings included asthmatic signs and symptoms in workers exposed to polyurethane adhesives and paints and two-component polyester or epoxy resins, and functional disorders in smokers exposed to polyester-fibreglass dust and in persons doing painting and glueing work.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1982, Vol.43, No.2, p.97-103. Illus. 20 ref.
Fruchard P., Vigneron J.
De Quervain's radial styloid tenosynovitis in an occupational environment
Les ténosynovites stylo-radiales de J.F. de Quervain en milieu de travail [in French]
Review of the clinical features of the disease and description of 11 cases seen in a plant manufacturing spare parts for the automobile industry. Clinical findings, additional examinations (heamatological, radiological, histological), differential diagnosis, treatment, aetiopathology, legislation: recognition as a compensable occupational disease in certain countries of the Common Market. In France, any case of de Quervain's disease linked to occupational should be declared as a disease of occupational origin so that it can, in future, be classified as an occupational disease.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1981, Vol.9, No.3, p.179-187. 13 réf.
Systematic noise reduction programme at Volvo BM, Eskilstuna
The financial and technical aspects of a programme designed to reduce worker exposure to sound levels of ≤ 80dB(A) are described. After measurement of initial sound levels, modified ventilation, ceiling absorbent, sound screening, and modification of vibrating machinery were all used as measures to reduce noise. The desired reduction was achieved for workers at milling machines, lathes, drilling machines, gear cutting machines, grinders, cleaning devices and hydraulic units.
Noise and Vibration Control, Apr. 1981, Vol.12, No.3, p.97-100.
Scansetti G., Botta G.C., Capellaro F., Piolatto G.
Exposure to chrysotile asbestos in friction materials industry.
Results of 2 studies in 1977 and 1979 in a factory employing 470 workers. In 1977, 13.5% of the air samples collected contained >2 fibres/m3 as against 1.35% in 1979. This improvement is due to machine enclosure, automation of bag opening, boosting of the ventilation system and the use of mixtures of asbestos of known composition.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1981, Vol.72, No.1, p.46-51. Illus. 10 ref.
Rogowsky M., Vander Putten M., Malchaire J.
Trial improvement of working conditions on an automobile assembly line
Essai d'amélioration des conditions de travail sur une chaîne de montage automobile. [in French]
An ergonomic analysis of physiological and environmental (noise) stress involved in disc-grinding sheet-metal brazings, in view of the high absenteeism and labour turnover for this work. Measurement of energy expenditure (VO2 ml/min) and heart rate (B/min) in 11 disc-grinders under real and sequential working conditions showed that the work tasks involving the greatest working stress are those in which the worker has his arms raised or in which he is leaning forward (increase in B/min and VO2 ml/min). Bicycle ergometer tests with the subject wearing shorts or work clothes showed that the type of clothing had little influence. Workers were found to be exposed to equivalent noise levels of 98.5dB(A). Engineering measures have reduced the physical workload and the noise levels.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, Dec. 1980, Vol.17, No.4, p.291-308. Illus. 11 ref.
Elofsson S.A., Gamberale F., Hindmarsh T., Iregren A., Isaksson A., Johnsson I., Knave B., Lydahl E., Mindus P., Persson H.E., Philipson B., Steby M., Struwe G., Söderman E., Wennberg A., Widén L.
Exposure to organic solvents - A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation on occupationally exposed car and industrial spray painters with special reference to the nervous system.
80 spray painters with long-term low-level exposure were compared with 2 reference groups of 80 controls. Studies included psychiatric interviews, psychometric tests, neurological, neurophysiological and ophthalmological examination, and computed tomography of the brain. There were statistically significant differences between exposed workers and controls for psychiatric items relating to neurathenic syndrome and psychometric tests (reaction time, manual dexterity, perceptual speed, short-term memory). Most neurophysiological parameters measuring peripheral functions showed significant differences. Some differences were found in the results of ophthalmological examination and computed tomography. Exposure levels were well below Swedish exposure limits.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1980, Vol.6, No.4, p.239-273. Illus. 86 ref.
Chiazze L., Ference L.D., Wolf P.H.
Mortality among automobile assembly workers - I. Spray painters.
Records of 4,215 decedents at 10 assembly plants were analysed. Among workers with spray-painting experience there was no statistically significant excess in mortality for lung cancer. A case-control study also showed no excess risk.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1980, Vol.22, No.8, p.520-526. 16 ref.
Spotlight on the repair and maintenance of motor vehicles
Søkelys på bilbransjen [in Norwegian]
Questionnaire check list distributed to all repair and maintenance shops as part of a national safety campaign launched by the Norwegian Labour Inspectorate to improve the working environment in these workplaces. Questions are put concerning: data concerning the premises; standards of housekeeping; microclimate and ventilation; noise and vibration; lighting; machinery and equipment; coachwork; spray painting; vehicle inspection pits; battery-charging rooms. In each case a reference is given to the appropriate regulations or directives.
Bestillingsnr. 385, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway, Feb. 1980. 8p. Gratis.
Husman K., Karli P.
Clinical neurological findings among car painters exposed to a mixture of organic solvents.
Full neurological examinations were administered in 102 car painters and 102 control subjects. Psycho-organic syndrome, decrease in tactile and pain sensitivity, and increased vibration threshold were significantly more frequent in the exposed group. Vibration sense of the lower extremities was affected in 65 car painters and 25 controls.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1980, Vol.6, No.1, p.33-39. 33 ref.
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