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Motor vehicle manufacturing industry - 289 entries found

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CIS 95-1408 White R.F., Robins T.G., Proctor S., Echeverria D., Rocskay A.S.
Neuropsychological effects of exposure to naphtha among automotive workers
The association between exposure to naphtha and neurobehavioural measures was examined prospectively over one year among workers employed at an automotive plant that used naphtha to calibrate fuel injectors. In June 1988, 248 workers were tested and 185 of these were tested again in 1989. Concentrations of naphtha at the plant ranged from 6 to 709mg/m3, although exposure was greater in 1988 than in 1989. Duration of exposure for individual subjects ranged from 0.8-7.3yrs. Threshold model analyses of the 1989 data showed an association between score on visual reproductions immediate recall and daily exposure to naphtha at or above 1,050h x mg/m3. Models of chronic exposure showed no associations between chronic exposure and negative neurobehavioural outcome. Results suggest that naphtha produces mild acute reversible effects on function of the central nervous system at or above daily exposure of 540h x mg/m3 (approximately 90ppm/h).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1994, Vol.51, No.2, p.102-112. 70 ref.

CIS 95-969 Heitbrink W.A., Cooper T.C., Edmonds M.A.
Evaluation of ventilated sanders in the autobody repair industry
Orbital and reciprocating sanders were evaluated in an autobody shop to obtain information on the ability of the sanders to control worker dust exposures. When unventilated sanders were used, short-term total dust exposures ranged between 2 and 170mg/m3. When ventilated sanders were used, short term total exposures ranged between 0.22 and 1.2mg/m3. Aerosol photometer measurements showed that ventilation decreased dust exposure by a factor of 10 when body-filling compound was sanded. These results indicate that the use of sanders equipped with high-velocity, low-volume ventilation should be encouraged in the autobody repair industry.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1994, Vol.55, No.8, p.756-759. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 95-581 Ameille J., Villoingt L.
Prognostic value of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in car painters exposed to isocyanates
Valeur pronostique de l'hyperréactivité bronchique chez des peintres automobiles exposés aux isocyanates [in French]
Thirty five painters exposed to HDI and HDI prepolymers underwent two respiratory examinations consisting of a standardized questionnaire and measurement of pulmonary function including a methacholine challenge over a 2-year period. Non specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (NSBH) was present initially in 11 workers and was associated with a higher tobacco consumption, a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lower baseline values of lung function tests. Compared with car painters without NSBH, those with NSBH had a greater, though not significant, reduction in FEV (76mL/year versus 37mL/year). No case of asthma was diagnosed neither in car painters with NSBH, nor in those without. So, despite the weak number of patients in our study, it appears that the presence of NSBH in car painters exposed to isocyanates is not a good predictor of asthma. On the other hand, performing a test of bronchial hyperreactivity might be used as means of identifying subjects at risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.5, p.317-321. 34 ref.

CIS 95-189 Döös M., Laflamme L., Backström T.
Immigrants and occupational accidents: A comparative study of the frequency and types of accidents encountered by foreign and Swedish citizens at an engineering plant in Sweden
A study was made of 537 accidents at a Swedish automobile and truck factory. The study offers no support for the view that immigrants are at greater risk than nationals for occupational accidents; most comparisons showed a higher (although not statistically significant) accident frequency among workers of Swedish nationality. There was, however, a higher accident frequency for young and less experienced foreign citizens than for young Swedish nationals. The study also revealed no significant differences between the types of accidents encountered by the two groups of workers.
Safety Science, Aug. 1994, Vol.18, No.1, p.15-32. 39 ref.

CIS 95-358 Moore J.S.
Flywheel truing - A case study of an ergonomic intervention
Using a structured participatory approach, an automotive manufacturing facility identified and analyzed a specific problem related to ergonomics, the manual truing of flywheels by striking them with hammers. They also identified and implemented a solution (mechanization). The problem identification, problem analysis, intervention development and intervention implementation processes were characterized by employee participation, supervisor participation and strong engineering support. Intervention produced a 29% decrease in the incidence of total musculoskeletal disorder, a 78% decrease in the incidence of upper extremity disorders, an 82% decrease in restricted or lost days, and a shift in the spectrum and type of morbidity. These changes in morbidity corresponded to the effects of the intervention. Subjective worker assessments of the process and effects of the intervention also were favourable.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1994, Vol.55, No.3, p.236-244. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 95-113 Zocchetti C., Ferrario M.
Minor injuries - A poorly known aspect of occupational accidents
Medicazioni e franchigie - Aspetti poco noti del fenomeno infortunistico [in Italian]
Statistical analysis of compensated and non-compensated (without absence and with < 3 days absence) occupational accidents in an Italian automobile plant, and discussion (based on a survey of the literature) of the difference between the two types of accidents. The main conclusion is that up to 90% of accidents in workplaces result in non-compensable injuries and that the epidemiology of such injuries is significantly different from that of compensable accidents. In particular, non-compensable injuries tend to involve cuts, injuries caused by foreign objects and injuries of the eyes and the hands, while compensable injuries tend to involve contusions (bruises), musculo-skeletal problems and injuries of the trunk and the joints.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1994, Vol.85, No.3, p.205-218. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 94-1978 Woskie S.R., Smith T.J., Hallock M.F., Hammond S.K., Rosenthal F., Eisen E.A., Kriebel D., Greaves I.A.
Size-selective pulmonary dose indices for metal-working fluid aerosols in machining and grinding operations in the automobile manufacturing industry
The current metal-working fluid exposures at three locations that manufacture automotive parts were assessed in conjunction with epidemiological studies of the mortality and respiratory morbidity of workers at these plants. Comparison of the results obtained from personal impactor samples with predictions from an aerosol-deposition model for the human respiratory tract showed high correlation. However, the amount collected on the impactor stage underestimates extrathoracic deposition and overestimates tracheobronchial and alveolar deposition, as calculated by the deposition model. The rank order of cumulative thoracic concentration over subjects' working lives was the same when based on the deposition model as on the basis of the impactor concentrations. However, the cumulative impactor concentration values were significantly higher than the cumulative deposition-model concentration values for the subjects.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.20-29. Illus. 32 ref.


CIS 99-1914 U.S.-Mexico trade: The work environment at eight U.S.-owned maquiladora auto parts plants
Review of labour practices under the Mexican maquiladora programme. This report evaluates the safety and health work environment at eight USA-owned maquiladora auto parts plants; describes the Mexican system for safety and health oversight; and discusses U.S.-Mexican cooperative efforts to enhance working conditions. Topics: lead; chemical hazards; conditions of work; ergonomics; fire protection; hearing conservation; information of personnel; legislation; machinery; materials handling; mechanical hazards; Mexico; motor vehicle industry; noise level; notification of accidents and diseases; personal protective equipment; plant safety and health organization; repetitive work; report; respirators; USA; work in confined spaces.
United States General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. 20548, USA, Nov. 1993. 45p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-849 Döös M., Laflamme L., Backström T.
Immigrants and occupational accidents. A comparative study of the frequency and types of accidents encountered by foreign and Swedish citizens
Invandrare och arbetsolycksfall. En jämförande studie av olycksfall bland utländska och svenska medborgare [in Swedish]
The study concerns the relationship between citizenship and accidents, broken down by workshop, occupational group, age and experience, at a Swedish automobile and truck factory (for an abstract in English, see CIS 95-189). It covers 537 accidents among personnel employed under collective agreement over the years 1986-87. Comparisons between average annual frequency rates for Swedish and foreign citizens are made. The study offers no support for the view that immigrants are at greater risk than nationals for occupational accidents. No significant difference between foreign and Swedish citizens emerged with respect to type of accident situation. This study does not indicate that there is a need for immigrants as a group to be specifically targeted in the workplace for accident prevention programmes.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 24p. 45 ref.

CIS 96-1901 Müller P., Schmid R.
Bundesministerium für Forschung und Technologie
Trial of novel stress-reducing methods and procedures in a new aluminium foundry with innovative technology and organization
Pilothafter Einsatz neuartiger belastungsmindernder Techniken und Verfahren im Rahmen der vollständigen technisch-organisatorischen Neugestaltung einer Aluminiumgiesserei [in German]
The German automotive company BMW moved its aluminum foundry to a new plant with the most modern equipment. The staff of 135 employees was organized in novel teams. Various team sizes and compositions were tested to operate the die-casting, rough dressing and coremaking departments. The experiences gained with the different types of teams are described. It was found important that workers have a say in the team composition and that the teams be not too large in size. An increase in productivity was not feasible without pecuniary incentive. Schemes for continued education in social and professional skills and for improvement of the flow of information are presented.
Giesserei-Verlag GmbH, Breite Strasse 27, 40213 Düsseldorf, Germany, 1993. 77p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 95-958 Altmann N., Bieber D., Deiss M., Döhl V., Sauer D., Schraysshuen T.
Changes in the conditions of work by innovative ways of inter-company work distribution (Parts supply industry)
Veränderung der Arbeitsbedingungen durch neuartige Formen der zwischenbetrieblichen Arbeitsteilung (Zulieferindustrie) [in German]
The effects of new cost-saving measures by car manufacturers on work organization, conditions of work and personnel qualifications in the parts supply industry are described. Logistics, quality assurance, development and production of new products were studied. The role of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing was taken into consideration. Conditions in Germany were compared with those in Japan. Information was obtained from the literature and from case studies of 2 car manufacturers and 87 suppliers in Germany. It was found that suppliers are increasingly under pressure concerning their inability to come to terms with new technologies, their use of outdated machinery, their inability to deliver in time, the high rate of faulty products delivered and the low qualification of their personnel.
Institut für Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung e.V., Jakob-Klar-Strasse 9, 80796 München, Germany, 1993. 277p. 142 ref.

CIS 94-1648 Rocskay A.Z., Robins T.G., Echeverria D., Schork M.A., Seixas N.S., White R.F., Proctor S.P.
Estimation of cumulative exposures to naphtha at an automobile fuel-injector manufacturing plant
Estimates of cumulative exposure to naphtha were derived for workers at an automobile fuel-injector manufacturing plant. The approach to exposure estimation involved three aspects: a marked association between indoor naphtha air concentration and outdoor temperature was modelled and applied to detailed historical temperature data to calculate cumulative exposure estimates; the large number of investigator-generated air samples allowed the use of analysis of variance to compare alternative job-grouping schemes; the young age of the plant and few process changes allowed for historical exposure estimates with a high degree of confidence. The derived estimates of cumulative exposure appear to offer a firm basis for epidemiologic analysis of the relation of exposure to health.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1993, Vol.54, No.9, p.480-487. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 94-1304 Pan T.C., Huang C.W.
Measurement of arsenic and mercury concentrations by hydride and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry
Workplace activities in a motorcycle part manufacturing plant were observed. The processes involved were bending and pressing of metal sheets, electric welding, electroplating, machining, and motorcycle muffler assembly. Arsenic and mercury concentrations in urine specimens of student controls and workers were determined. Both methods were sufficiently precise and accurate. Total arsenic levels in the exposed workers were significantly higher than those in non-exposed controls; there is a risk of arsenic poisoning to the workers engaged in motorcycle muffler assembly. The total mercury levels in the exposed workers were no different than in the controls.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.454-457. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 94-971 Potthast J., Marek W., Marczynski B., Baur X.
Isocyanates on the workplace - Diseases of the respiratory tract and the lung
Isocyanate am Arbeitsplatz - Erkrankungen der Atemwege und der Lunge [in German]
The results of experimental studies of the effects of isocyanates such as diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) over a two-year period are summarized. In vivo short-term exposure to 10ppb TDI led to bronchial hypersensitivity. In vivo and in vitro exposure to the isocyanates produced breaks in DNA. A reduction of the present maximum workplace concentration for TDI is recommended.
Kompass, July 1993, Vol.103, No.7, p.338-345. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 94-907 Rotimi C., Austin H., Delzell E., Day C., Macaluso M., Honda Y.
Retrospective follow-up study of foundry and engine plant workers
A retrospective follow-up study of 21,013 workers employed at a foundry and two engine manufacturing plants was conducted to determine if these workers had an unusual mortality experience. A total of 2,235 deaths occurred during the follow-up period of 1970-1987. Mortality from all causes was lower than expected. Men experienced a 6-13% excess of lung cancer deaths, depending on the choice of the comparison group. The data displayed evidence of a positive trend between lung cancer mortality and increasing duration of employment (p=0.008). White men experienced a statistically significant excess of deaths from stomach cancer (SMR=158; 95% CI=101-234). Black men had increased mortality from pancreatic cancer, especially among engine plant workers (SMR=303; CI=121-624), and an excess of prostate cancer, concentrated among foundry workers (SMR=234; CI=112-430).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.24, No.4, p.485-498. Illus. 38 ref

CIS 94-906 Delzell E., Macaluso M., Honda Y., Austin H.
Mortality patterns among men in the motor vehicle manufacturing industry
This retrospective follow-up study evaluates the mortality experience of 123,232 male hourly workers employed at a motor vehicle manufacturing company in 1973. Follow-up through December 31, 1985 was conducted using company, state, and national data sources. The overall mortality rate of cohort members is lower than the U.S. rate by 11% among whites and by 24% among blacks. These low mortality rates reflect deficits of diseases other than cancer. Cancer SMRs are 99 for whites and 90 for blacks. There are slight excesses of stomach cancer (SMR=113) and of lung cancer (SMR=108) among whites and of cancer of the large intestine and rectum (SMR=114) and of the lymphopoietic tissue (SMR=111) among blacks. This pattern may reflect illness-related employment termination and generalized confounding by socioeconomic status, although the study does not rule out a relationship between workplace exposures and specific diseases.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.24, No.4, p.471-484. Illus. 25 ref

CIS 94-951 Macaluso M., Delzell E., Rose V., Perkins J., Oestenstad K.
Inter-rater agreement in the assessment of solvent exposure at a car assembly plant
This study investigated the feasibility and the reproducibility of a retrospective assessment of solvent exposure in the painting operations of a car assembly plant. Five industrial hygienists (the raters) reviewed summary documents on plant operations and solvent exposure levels, developed from plant records and interviews. Inter-rater agreement was evaluated by computing the percent concordance index and the intra-class correlation coefficient (r1). There was discordance among raters, a large proportion of which pertained to low exposure levels (1-5ppm). Inter-rater agreement was good for cumulative exposure scores computed for frequent exposures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1993, Vol.54, No.7, p.351-359. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 94-579 Rocskay A.Z., Robins T.G., Schork M.A., Echeverria D., Proctor S.P., White R.F.
Renal effects of naphtha exposure among automotive workers
A part of a study on health effects of naphtha exposure, the association between naphtha exposure and urinary excretion of total protein, albumin, β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (β-NAG), and β2-microglobulin was assessed prospectively over one year among 248 workers (of whom 181 were retested one year later) at an automotive plant that used naphtha to calibrate fuel injectors. Naphtha air concentration at the plant ranged 6-790mg/m3, while length of exposure by the worker ranged 0.8-7.3 years. Overall, there was no significant effect of naphtha exposure on renal function, with the exception of a change in β-NAG which was positively associated with changes in recent naphtha exposures (p=0.009).
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1993, Vol.35, No.6, p.617-622. 21 ref.

CIS 94-552 Abdel Moneim I., Malchaire J., Goret A.
Musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs in upholstery workers
Problčmes musculo-tendineux associés ŕ la fabrication de sičges de voiture [in French]
An epidemiological study with a clinical examination of the upper limbs was conducted on all workers (96 persons) working at the four most stressful workplaces of an upholstery department in a car assembly plant. The results were compared with those of 56 controls. An ergonomic study was also conducted. It included the analysis of wrist postures, the simultaneous recording of the type of hand grip and the subjective evaluation by the worker of the force exerted. Based on these data, a profile of the risk factors was determined for each work station. The odds ratio for wrist and arm disorders were respectively 7.3 and 13.1 for the upholstery workers by comparison with the controls. Working successively on each of the four work stations appeared to lead to a reduction of the risk of wrist disorders (O.R.=0.17).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.471-476. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 94-360 Lee-Feldstein A.
Five-year follow-up study of hearing loss at several locations within a large automobile company
This longitudinal epidemiologic study was designed to investigate hearing loss over a five-year period among noise-exposed employees of a large automobile company and to assess effectiveness of hearing conservation programmes at locations representing a large spectrum of operations. Methodology based on computerized audiometric test data was developed for measuring occupational hearing loss and evaluating programmes at these locations, which had maximal 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 104-110dB(A). The methods take account of age and hearing level of study subjects at baseline audiogramme and clearly demonstrate the extent of hearing loss during the study period. Among five study locations, the average hearing loss at 2,000-4,000Hz in the worst-loss ear ranged from 3.4 to 6.2dB over the follow-up period after adjustment for presbycusis, the loss was less than 2dB at all but one location, which showed a loss of nearly 4dB. Hearing conservation programmes at four of the five locations were judged to be effective.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1993, Vol.24, No.1, p.41-54. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 93-1960 Daniell W., Stebbins A., O'Donnell J., Horstman S.W., Rosenstock L.
Neuropsychological performance and solvent exposure among car body repair shop workers
A cross sectional study to evaluate symptom reporting and neuropsychological test performance among a cohort of car body repair workers (n=124) was performed using a computer-administered test system. Subjects with high and medium current exposures to solvent and paint (n=39 and 32), and low exposure subjects who formerly painted (n=29) reported significantly more acute and chronic neurological symptoms than did low exposure subjects with no history of painting (n=24). Subjects with higher current exposure performed significantly less well on selected tests of visual perception and memory, but there were no significant exposure related differences in mood state, motor speed, or visuomotor performance. The exposure related effects were most noticeable among subjects 35 years or older. The findings are consistent with age interactive central neurotoxic effects of current exposure to solvents or of cumulative past exposure, although the study is unable to distinguish between these possibilities. The computer administered test system was effective in this field based investigation involving multiple geographically dispersed worksites.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.50, No.4, p.368-377. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 93-1940 Macaluso M., Delzell E., Rose V., Perkins J.
Use of organic solvents and potential worker exposure in the motor vehicle manufacturing industry
This survey was designed to assist with planning epidemiological studies of the effects of solvent exposure among motor vehicle manufacturing workers. The objectives were to identify subgroups of workers with solvent exposure and to evaluate the availability of data for a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Thirty-one plants, employing a total of 97,655 hourly workers, participated in the survey. About 14% of these workers use organic solvents (direct exposure) and 19% work in the proximity of solvent-using operations (indirect exposure). However, only 3% have direct exposure, and 6% indirect exposure to large-volume (≥100 gallons/month)/high-frequency (hourly) use solvents. The highest solvent exposure prevalence occurred in plants manufacturing engines and power train components and in metal degreasing/cleaning and painting tasks, and entailed exposure to petroleum fractions, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and ketones. A JEM can be developed using plant records on job titles, work histories, production scheduling, and plant engineering, and using the corporate computerised personnel and industrial hygiene databases. However, information on solvent use and on exposure is adequate only for recent time periods.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1993, Vol.23, No.3, p.449-460. 18 ref.

CIS 93-1543 Tarvainen K., Jolanski R., Estlander T.
Occupational contact allergy to unsaturated polyester resin cements
Six men contracted occupational allergic contact dermatitis from unsaturated polyester (UP) cements. 4 of the men were employed in car repair painting and the remaining 2 in mold manufacturing. The exposure time to UP cements ranged from 6 to 32 years before onset of skin symptoms. All patients had eczema on their hands; in addition, 4 had skin symptoms on airborne areas, i.e., wrists, neck and face. All 6 patients developed allergic reactions when patch tested with UP resin at 0.5-10% in petrolatum (pet.). None of the tested patients reacted to auxiliary or cross-linking chemicals of the cements. Diethylene glycol maleate (DGM) was purified and identified from the UP resin of a cement. 1 patient reacting to UP resin was also patch test positive to DGM and he produced an allergic reaction to DGM down to a concentration of 0.0032% pet. DGM wa found in both uncured and cured UP resin. None of the patients could continue their work with UP cements after their sensitisation.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1993, Vol.28, No.4, p.220-224. Illus. 25 ref.


CIS 95-2103 Hauss F.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Health promotion in the skilled trades
Gesundheitsförderung im Handwerk [in German]
This document is devoted to OSH in small enterprises in the skilled trades. Part I is a report on an investigation of sickness absenteeism among employees of automobile repair establishments in Germany. With an average incidence of 4.45%, sickness absenteeism was lower than in other industries. Employees below the age of 25 were more often absent due to sickness but for fewer days than older employees over 50 years of age. Cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases were most prominent among older employees while injuries and respiratory diseases prevailed among younger ones. Part II consists of practical recommendations for OSH promotion in small enterprises in the skilled trades sector. In annex: sample questionnaire used in the study for Part I.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1992. 117p. Illus. Price: DEM 24.50.

CIS 95-1705
Médecins du Comité d'Hygične Industrielle de Lyon
The workplace of garage mechanics. A toxicological and epidemiological approach
Le poste de mécanicien automobile. Toxicologie et approche épidémiologique [in French]
Clinical investigation was carried out by occupational physicians on 267 garage mechanics working in 86 automotive repair shops as well as on 536 controls. A detailed analysis of the workplace was carried out at the same time concerning the following major factors: manual handling, solvents and fuels, brake dust, carbon and nitrogen monoxide, mutagenicity of air contaminants, health impairment in garage mechanics, ophthalmological hazards, role of the occupational physician.
Centre d'information des services médicaux d'entreprises et Interentreprises, 31 rue Médéric, 75832 Paris Cedex 17, France, 1992. [122]p. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 95-950 Tolbert P.E., Eisen E.A., Pothier L.J., Monson R.R., Hallock M.F., Smith T.J.
Mortality studies of machining-fluid exposure in the automobile industry - II. Risks associated with specific fluid types
Second part of study analyzed under CIS 93-511. Modest positive associations between exposure to straight oils and rectal, laryngeal and prostatic cancer and a negative association between soluble and synthetic fluid exposure and lung cancer have been noted.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1992, Vol.18, No.6, p.351-360. 26 ref.

CIS 95-93 Guillemin C.
Vehicle repair and servicing
Réparation et entretien des véhicules automobiles [in French]
In France, the frequency rate of occupational accidents occurring in vehicle repair shops if far above the national average. This type of work is generally carried out by small enterprises where hazards are of many different kinds. This guide, intended for employers, reviews preventive measures to be applied. Aspects dealt with: general housekeeping rules (floors, fires, explosions, electrical equipment, noise, dangerous products); lifting and carrying; tools and equipment; special tasks; French legislation.
Institut national de Recherche et de Sécurité, INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1992. 71p. Illus.

CIS 94-1615 Wokutch R.E.
Worker protection, Japanese style: Occupational safety and health in the auto industry
This book is a report on a research study that investigated the difference between Japanese and other types of management, especially in the USA, as they applied to OSH. Major topics: the environmental context for OSH activities in Japan; the safety and health system in Japan; OSH in a Japanese automobile factory and its US subsidiary; the work injury and illness experiences of Japan and the USA; conclusions and recommendations.
ILR Press, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-3901, USA, 1992. xiv, 263p. Illus. 171 ref. Index. Price: USD 39.00 (cloth), USD 18.95 (paper).

CIS 94-894 Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of the Provence-Côte d'Azur and Corsica regions - Meetings of 29 May, 26 June and 23 Oct. 1991
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de la région Provence-Côte d'Azur et de la région Corse - Séances du 29 mai, du 26 juin et du 23 octobre 1991 [in French]
Papers presented at the meetings of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of the Provence-Côte d'Azur and Corsica Regions (France, 29 May, 26 June and 23 Oct. 1991): caretakers in the Alpes-Maritimes; infectious hepatitis in specialized occupational environments; role of the industrial physician in the prophylaxis of tuberculosis; prospective survey of the employment status of construction workers declared as permanently disabled (France); vaccination against hepatitis B of non-medical personnel in a large French hospital; rehabilitation of workers with transplants and of cardiac patients after their operation; osteolysis of ungual phalanges in an automobile body-repair worker; hands of automobile body-repair workers in small and medium-size enterprises (48 cases); medical surveillance in the group-catering sector: complementary check-ups on an "as needed" basis; activity plan undertaken by several physicians (example: hygiene and ergonomics in the group-catering sector).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.4, p.296-310.

CIS 94-610 Brunk M.F., Dittes W., Pfeiffer W.
Design of industrial ventilation systems
RLT - Anlagenauslegung für Produktionshallen [in German]
A method for the design of industrial ventilation systems is presented which departs from the use of empirical air exchange rates as is recommended in many directives. Instead, it takes into account the amount of harmful substances which will be used and the heat generated by all sources including the people, illumination, and solar radiation. The process of cleaning plastic bumpers for motor cars with isopropyl alcohol is used as an example to explain the method.
HLH - Heizung Lüftung/Klima Haustechnik, Mar. 1992, Vol.43, No.3, p.118-126. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 93-1909 Laflamme L.
Accidents encountered in high risk occupational groups of a Swedish automobile and truck factory: Their most common circumstances and consequences
An analysis was made of data collected on 205 accidents involving foundry workers, retool and maintenance workers, mechanical testers, metal machine workers, welders and surface treaters during a two-year period (1986-87). The variables used to characterise the accidents are described along with the methodology used to analyse the accident characteristics and the results: eight accident scenarios were identified. The data could serve as a basis for the identification of preventive measures aimed at correcting hazardous situations or at reducing the probability of some types of accidents.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 83p. 25 ref.

CIS 93-857 García Gómez M., Urbán Fernández L.M., Maqueda Blasco J., Sánchez Gracia J.I.
Health changes observed in workers of automobile repair workshops
Alteraciones de la salud observadas en los trabajadores de talleres de reparación de vehículos [in Spanish]
Health disorders in relation to risk factors in 935 Spanish automobile repair workers were studied. Workers were classified according to five occupational groups: administrative workers, painters, electricians, mechanics and sheet-metal workers. Exposure to noise and solvents was evaluated and bronchopulmonary and dermatological tests were conducted for each worker, as well as a general medical examination. The only significant associations between occupation and specific health condition were for hypoacusia, endocrine disorders and renal disorders among sheet-metal workers, and for endocrine disorders among painters.
Salud y trabajo, 1992, No.93, p.13-18. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 93-865 Roscoe R.J., Steenland K., McCammon C.S., Schober S.E., Robinson C.F., Halperin W.E., Fingerhut M.A.
Colon and stomach cancer mortality among automotive wood model makers
To explore the excess risks for colon and other cancers among automotive wood model makers, a retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted, with follow-up from 1940 through 1984. White male wood model makers (n=2,294) employed at any time until 1980 by US automobile manufacturers were studied. Using US mortality rates for comparison, elevated standardised mortality ratios of 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-1.9) for colon cancer and 1.6 (95% CI, 0.9-2.6) for stomach cancer were found. Nested case-control studies were also conducted for 20 colon and 17 stomach cancer cases and 543 age-matched controls. No trend was found of increased risk for colon or stomach cancer mortality with increased exposure to wood dust or to duration employed in wood model making. A two-page editorial on the same subject follows the article.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1992, Vol.34, No.8, p.759-768 (editorial: p.769-770). 38 + 4 ref.

CIS 93-511 Eisen E.A., Tolbert P.E., Monson R.R., Smith T.J.
Mortality studies of machining fluid exposure in the automobile industry - I. A standardized mortality ratio analysis
This cohort study was initiated to assess whether long-term exposure to machining fluids in the course of machining, grinding, and other cutting operations is associated with excess cancer mortality. The cohort includes more than 45,000 automobile production workers from three plants, almost one million years of follow-up, over 10,000 deaths, and an extensive exposure assessment component. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated for each of the three plants, using both US and local populations as reference. Relative risks of 1.2-3.1 were observed for several specific respiratory and digestive cancers, including cancer of the stomach, large intestine, pancreas, lung, and larynx. Elevated risks for leukaemia and asthma were also noted. Future exposure-response analyses will provide the opportunity to identify relatively modest excesses in cause-specific mortality risk associated with exposure to specific types (straight, soluble, or synthetic), additives, or components of machining fluids.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1992, Vol.22, No.6, p.809-824. 29 ref.

CIS 93-509 Castillón Uribe J.M., García Anadón J.A., Muňoz Pueyo R., Tovares Uceda J.L.
Occupational risks in automobile-repair workshops
Riesgos profesionales en talleres de reparación de vehículos [in Spanish]
A study to investigate the occupational risks in the automobile repair sector was carried out in Spain in 1989-90 by the Spanish National Institute of Safety and Health. A summary of the progress report is presented. The study involved 6,103 workers in 456 enterprises. Particular areas studied were: fire prevention; electrical equipment; generation and distribution of compressed air. Preventive measures are provided in all three of these areas. Most significant risks include: flying particles, explosions, fires and falls. Posture at work in relation to the task performed is also discussed. Most significant health risks include: noise exposure, inhalation of hazardous fumes and particles, and contact with hazardous substances such as solvents.
Salud y trabajo, 1992, No.92, p.4-14. Illus.

CIS 93-170 Becker N., Kuhn G., Marschall B., Angerer R., Frentzel-Beyme R., Wahrendorf J.
Follow-up study among model and pattern makers in an automobile company in the Federal Republic of Germany
The follow-up of a cohort of 528 model-makers and a control group of 2,273 tool-makers shows an unusual pattern of mortality in the model-makers' cohort. In contrast to the usual ranking, malignant neoplasms are the most frequent causes of death followed by diseases of the cardiovascular system. The rate ratio (RR) for malignant tumours is significantly higher among model-makers than in tool-makers: RR=1.8. The sites affected by excess cancer were the stomach, the genito-urinary organs, and the brain. In contrast to other studies, no tumours of the large intestine were observed. Furthermore, there was a remarkable underrepresentation of tumours of the respiratory organs. Because these results are based on a rather small number of cases, further follow-up of the cohort is warranted to draw more significant conclusions.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1992, Vol.34, No.5, p.552-558. 13 ref.

CIS 92-1920
Centro de Experimentación y Seguridad Vial (MAPFRE, Avila, Spain)
Personal protection for sheet-metal workers and autobody repairmen
La protección personal del chapista o reparador de carrocerías [in Spanish]
This article examines the most common operations carried out in car-body repairwork, the inherent risks involved in each operation and the protective measures, in particular personal protection, to be adopted for each case. The different operations covered are: cutting and disassembly of parts; sanding; welding; metal stretching; glass repair and replacement. It is essential to provide sheet-metal workers with the necessary information and training on equipment, methods and protection measures.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.46, p.11-17. Illus.

CIS 92-1538 Kristensen O.
A prospective study of the development of hand eczema in an automobile manufacturing industry
To try do define individual predictive risk factors for the development of hand eczema and to determine the prevalence of hand eczema within 1 year in an automobile manufacturing industry, 1564 new employees were investigated during one year of employment. The employees were personally interviewed and examined before their employment. Written questionnaires were used at 3 and 12 months to obtain information on type of work, exposure, protection and hand dermatitis. All patients developing hand eczema were examined, patch tested and followed to determine the course and consequence of their eczema. The risk turned out to be only 4% on average, but significantly higher in females (6%). Certain sections within the factory such as wet work and work in the paint shop with high exposure to organic solvents carried significantly higher risks. Individual risk factors for the development of hand eczema were previous hand eczema, atopic dermatitis, but also wool intolerance and hay fever as isolated phenomena. Most cases of hand eczema were mild, of the irritant contact type and only one employee developed an allergic contact dermatitis due to the working environment. This study is the first large-scale prospective investigation of occupational hand eczema in employees in the automobile manufacturing industry.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1992, Vol.26, No.5, p.341-345. 16 ref.

CIS 92-1295 Practical ventilation guide - 15. Automobile radiator repairs
Guide pratique de ventilation - 15. Réparation des radiateurs automobiles [in French]
This guide is intended mainly for small- and medium-size enterprises where welded radiators are repaired. Contents include: automobile radiator repair (description and risks); exposure limit values under the French legislation; atmospheric lead concentrations and biological parameters; general ventilation techniques; technical solutions; hygiene; two practical examples.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.147, Note No.1876-147-92, p.127-138. Illus. 11 ref.


CIS 94-134 Safe repair
Sicher reparieren [in German]
Lavori di riparazione [in Italian]
Réparer en toute sécurité [in French]
This booklet describes safe working methods applicable to automobile repair and maintenance shops, service stations for light and heavy vehicles, repair and maintenance shops or agricultural equipment and enterprises handling any of these vehicles. It expands on the information given in booklet CFST 6203 (see CIS 94-133). It may be used for training. Points covered: premises and equipment, handling of products and materials (cleaning agents, paints, etc.), working methods and behaviour, Swiss regulations.
Eidgenössische Koordinationskommission für Arbeitssicherheit, Richtlinien-Büro, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1991. 47p. Illus.

CIS 94-133 Accidents are no accident!
Unfall - kein Zufall! [in German]
Non c'č infortunio senza causa! [in Italian]
L'accident n'arrive pas par hasard! [in French]
This booklet describes safe working methods applicable to automobile repair and maintenance shops, service stations for light and heavy vehicles, repair and maintenance shops for agricultural equipment and enterprises that handle any of these vehicles. It may be used for training.
Eidgenössische Koordinationskommission für Arbeitssicherheit, Richtlinien-Büro, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1991. 38p. Illus.

CIS 93-679 Wada Y., Kamiyama S., Koizumi A.
Negligible risk of horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus among mechanics and salespersons in the automobile industry
Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among hospital patients and medical staff has been well documented. The high prevalence of hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) carriers in the Japanese population makes horizontal transmission in other occupational settings a real concern, but the actual risk of HBV infection has been unknown. The permanent work force of 44 automobile dealerships in Akita Prefecture (220 locations) was screened for HBsAg as part of routine medical examinations. Blood samples positive for HBsAg were tested for HBV core antigen to confirm the presence of persistent infection. The prevalence of HBV infection was much higher among subjects aged 35-44 than in other age groups. This reflects the hepatitis epidemics that followed the introduction of pertussis and polio vaccination programmes in 1948. The fact that infection did not spread into other age cohorts in these workplaces indicates that the risk of horizontal transmission is negligible when contact with biological fluids is unlikely.
Industrial Health, 1991, Vol.29, p.161-165. 12 ref.

CIS 93-185 Laflamme L., Backström T., Döös M.
Accidents encountered by assembly workers in a Swedish automobile and truck factory. Their most common circumstances and consequences
This report is part of a multivariate analysis of accident data compiled in a variety of workshops of a large automobile and truck factory in Sweden; it applies particularly to assembly workers. Six typical accident patterns are described. It was found that accidents of any pattern might occur in any workshop, but that their distribution might vary according to the type of sub-tasks performed. Accident frequency also varied considerably from workshop to workshop. The contribution of this type of analysis to safety planning is discussed.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 89p. 22 ref. Illus.

CIS 93-184 Laflamme L.
The multivariate analysis of accident data as a basis for safety planning. Its application to accidents encountered by blue-collar workers in a Swedish automobile and truck factory
This report describes the multivariate analysis of data collected from occupational accident registers on 537 accidents occurring during a two-year period at a large automobile and truck factory in Sweden. Nine accident classes are described along with the distribution of accidents by workshop, occupation and main task performed. The contribution of this type of analysis to safety planning is discussed.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 130p. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 93-146 Robins T.G., Weinstein R.J., Demers R.Y.
Lymphocytopenia, T-lymphocyte subsets, and colorectal polyps in automotive pattern and model makers
The association of total lymphocyte, CD4 (T-helper cell), CD8 (T-suppressor cell), CD2 (total T-cell), and CD16 (natural killer cell) counts with biopsy-proved colorectal polyp status was investigated in 70 pattern makers. In logistic regression analyses after adjusting for age or trade years, pack-years smoked, and material worked with most frequently, a history of any type of polyp was significantly associated with total lymphocyte count (odds ratio of 2.01 for a 500 cell/cc decrease, p=0.03), and somewhat associated with decreased CD4 and CD2 counts (p values of 0.06 and 0.07, respectively). In linear regression models adjusted for age, pattern and model makers had (regardless of polyp status) significantly lower CD4, CD8, CD2, and CD16 counts than did laboratory reference controls (p value less than 0.01 for each comparison). The findings appear consistent with a sequence of carcinogenesis initiated by workplace exposure of pattern and model makers that depresses immune surveillance and therefore promotes the development of colorectal polyps as a precursor of carcinoma.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.510-515. 26 ref.

CIS 92-1924
Centro de Experimentación y Seguridad Vial (MAPFRE, Avila, Spain)
Safety and health in automobile repainting workshops
Seguridad e higiene en talleres de repintado de automóviles [in Spanish]
The importance of prevention, including personal protection measures, for workers who perform painting in automobile repair shops is discussed. Explosions and fires, and contamination by substances hazardous to health are identified as major hazards in painting areas. To this effect, preventive measures are recommended. In particular, the following prevention methods against fires and explosions are recommended: reduction of the inflammation sources and availability of fire-fighting equipment. Safety signs as a constant reminder of the hazards and the use of personal protective equipment are discussed.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 1991, No.44, p.15-21. Illus.

CIS 92-1383 Punnett L., Fine L.J., Keyserling W.M., Herrin G.D., Chaffin D.B.
Back disorders and nonneutral trunk postures of automobile assembly workers
A case-referent study was conducted in an automobile assembly plant to evaluate the health effect of trunk postures, such as bending and twisting, that deviate from anatomically neutral. Cases of back disorders were all those of workers who reported back pain to the medical department in a ten-month period and met the severity criteria of an interview. The referents were randomly selected workers free of back pain according to medical department records, an interview, and an examination. For each of the final 95 cases and 124 referents, the job was analysed for postural and lifting requirements with a video recording and software analysis system by analysts blinded to the case/referent status. Back disorders were associated with mild trunk flexion (odds ratio (OR) 4.9, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4-17.4), severe trunk flexion (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-20.4), and trunk twist or lateral bend (OR 5.9, 95% CI 1.6-21.4). The risk increased with exposure to multiple postures and increasing duration of exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1991, Vol.17, No.5, p.337-346. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 91-1932 Kononen D.W.
First-year changes in blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels within two groups of occupational lead workers
Quarterly changes in the blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels of 30 male lead-acid storage battery workers and 24 auto assembly workers during their first year of lead exposure are described. The greatest absolute and percentage increases above baseline PbB levels occurred during the first 3 months of continuous exposure when battery and assembly workers' average PbB levels increased by 99% and 134% respectively. Mean ZPP levels increased steadily through the first 3 quarters of exposure for both groups of workers before declining slightly in the last quarter. The PbB-ZPP dose-effect relationship is characterised through the simple linear regression of log-transformed ZPP versus PbB levels. Dose-response modeling of each quarter's PbB-ZPP data was performed using probit analysis. These observed PbB and ZPP changes illustrate the time lag in the appearance of ZPP following introduction to lead-related work.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr.1991, Vol.52, No.4, p.177-182. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 91-1684 Kihlberg S., Friberg M., Hagberg M., Hansson J.E., Jorulf L., Östergren C.E.
Vibration levels and health problems from work with nut runners
Machines portatives d'assemblage - Intensité des vibrations induites - Problčmes de santé liés ŕ leur utilisation [in French]
The most frequently used tools in a Swedish truck assembling factory are impact wrenches. In 1982, 23% of the workers were suffering from vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and 33% from numbness after 7-9yrs of exposure. New tools were introduced in the factory between 1984 and 1986. In 1987 almost all of the impact wrenches were changed to nut runners. Some screwdrivers, impulse wrenches and wrenches were also used. There was now no increase in the risk for VWF compared with the reference group, but a 16% prevalence of nocturnal tingling was still found, corresponding to a relative risk of 10 (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.142, Note No.1818-142-91, p.87-92. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 91-1705 Laflamme L., Döös M., Backström T.
Identifying accident patterns using the FAC and HAC: their application to accidents at the engine workshops of an automobile and truck factory
Description of a non-traditional way of analysing accident data, providing a comprehensive overview of the most common accident problems encountered by a target group. Accidents occurring over a 2-year period at 2 engine workshops in Sweden were analysed to reveal the main patterns in the characteristics of the accidents and to establish the risk of accidents for each blue-collar occupational group. Seven typical accident classes (patterns) were extensively portrayed. It was observed that accidents of any class might occur in either workshop, but that their distribution varies according to the occupational group, and the tasks performed by the injured workers. Accident frequency was also shown to vary considerably.
Safety Science, May 1991, Vol.14, No.1, p.13-33. 15 ref.


CIS 94-8 Car repair shops, gasoline stations etc. [Norway]
Bilverksteder, Bensinstasjoner m.v. [in Norwegian]
The notification describes special rules that applies to car repair workshops, gasoline stations and similar types of workplaces. The rules involve, on one hand, equipment, tools, and the workplace, and on the other hand, work procedures, routines, and what not to do. Main subjects covered: noise, flammable gases and liquids, heavy workload, draft and coolness, oil and water, dangerous machines and tools.
Direktoratet for Arbeidstilsynet, Fr. Nansens vei 14, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 1991. 37p. Illus.

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