Motor vehicle manufacturing industry - 289 entries found
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Vehicle repair and servicing
Réparation et entretien des véhicules automobiles [in French]
Replaces CIS 95-93. In France, the frequency rate of occupational accidents occurring in vehicle repair shops if far above the national average. This type of work is generally carried out by small enterprises where hazards are of many different kinds. This guide, intended for employers, reviews preventive measures to be applied. Topics: brake linings; check lists; dangerous substances; electrical safety; explosion hazards; fire hazards; France; garages; hand tools; high-pressure jet cleaning; housekeeping; legislation; materials handling; motor vehicle industry; noise; paint spraying; personal protective equipment; safety engineering; safety guides; small enterprises; storage batteries; toxic substances; training material; tyre mounting and inflation; vehicle inspection pits; vehicle repair and servicing; welding and cutting.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., Dec. 1998. 72p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Assessment of workplaces. The way it is done at "Avtovaz"
Attestacija rabočih mest. Kak ėto delaetsja na Avtovaze [in Russian]
The "Code of Practice on the Assessment of Workplaces regarding Conditions of Work" approved by the Ministry of Labour and Social Development of the Russian Federation on 14 Mar. 1997 does not take account of real-world conditions. The assessment process faces such basic difficulties as a lack of devices for workplace measurements and no provisions for their checking and repair. For example, the Avtovaz Co. would need 10 years to complete the process intended to be a short-term campaign. Topics: comment on directive; conditions of work; motor vehicle industry; occupational hygiene evaluation; Russian Federation.
Social'naja zaščita, 1998, No.2, Supplement "Trudovye otnošenija", p.22-26.
Automobile repair shops
Taller de reparación de vehículos [in Spanish]
Topics: check lists; hazard evaluation; legislation; motor vehicle industry; safety analysis; safety guides; small enterprises; Spain; training material; vehicle repair and servicing.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, C/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 37p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_005.pdf [in Spanish]
Norman R., Wells R., Neumann P., Frank J., Shannon H., Kerr M.
A comparison of peak vs. cumulative physical work exposure risk factors for the reporting of low back pain in the automotive industry
Physical exposures to peak and cumulative lumbar spine moment, compression and shear forces, trunk kinematics and forces on hands were analysed in 104 workers who had reported low back pain (cases) and in 130 randomly selected controls. Cases showed significantly higher loading on all biomechanical variables. Four independent risk factors were identified: integrated lumbar moment (over a shift), 'usual' hand force, peak shear force at the level of L4/L5 and peak trunk velocity. Cumulative biomechanical variables are important risk factors in the reporting of low back pain. Spinal tissue loading estimates from a biomechanical model provide information not included in the trunk kinematics and hand force inputs to the model alone. Workers in the top 25% of loading exposure on all risk factors are at about six times the risk of reporting low back pain when compared with those in the bottom 25%. Topics: assembly-line work; backache; body mechanics; case-control study; lumbar column; measurement of physical workload; motor vehicle industry; physical workload; spinal column; work posture.
Clinical Biomechanics, Dec. 1998, Vol.13, No.8, p.561-573. Illus. 30 ref.
Enander R.T., Gute D.M., Missaghian R.
Survey of risk reduction and pollution prevention practices in the Rhode Island automotive refinishing industry
Topics: airborne dust; coachwork; disposal of harmful waste; harmful substances; health engineering; job-exposure relation; organic solvents; paints; personal protective equipment; questionnaire survey; risk factors; spray booths; spray coating; substitution; vehicle repair and servicing; ventilation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1998, Vol.59, No.7, p.478-489. Illus. 29 ref.
Sullivan P.A., Eisen E.A., Woskie S.R., Kriebel D., Wegman D.H., Hallock M.F., Hammond S.K., Tolbert P.E., Smith T.J., Monson R.R.
Mortality studies of metalworking fluid exposure in the automobile industry: VI. A case-control study of esophageal cancer
Topics: biocides; case-control study; cutting fluids; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; latency; length of exposure; lubricants; machining; mortality; motor vehicle industry; nitroso amines; oesophageal carcinoma; risk factors; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1998, Vol.34, No.1, p.36-48. 61 ref.
Rose G., Bengtsson C., Dimberg L., Kumlin L., Eriksson B.
Life events, mood, mental strain and cardiovascular risk factors in Swedish middle-aged men. Data from the Swedish part of the Renault/Volvo Coeur Study
Topics: alcoholism; blood pressure; blue-collar workers; cardiovascular diseases; mental stress; motor vehicle industry; questionnaire survey; risk factors; serum changes; smoking; social aspects; stress factors; Sweden; white-collar workers.
Occupational Medicine, July 1998, Vol.48, No.5, p.329-336. 46 ref.
Greaves I.A., Eisen E.A., Smith T.J., Pothier L.J., Kriebel D., Woskie S.R., Kennedy S.M., Shalat S., Monson R.R.
Respiratory health of automobile workers exposed to metal-working fluid aerosols: Respiratory symptoms
Topics: aerosols; asthma; chronic bronchitis; cutting fluids; dyspnoea; exposure evaluation; functional respiratory disorders; machining; motor vehicle industry; oil mist; personal sampling; questionnaire survey; respiratory diseases; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1997, Vol.32, No.5, p.450-459. 36 ref.
Sprince N.L., Thorne P.S., Popendorf W., Zwerling C., Miller E.R., DeKoster J.A.
Respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities among machine operators in automobile production
Topics: aerosols; bacterial toxins; cross-sectional study; cutting fluids; determination in air; dose-response relationship; fungi; metalworking industry; motor vehicle industry; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; respiratory function tests; respiratory impairment; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1997, Vol.31, No.4, p.403-413. 29 ref.
Special issue: Some ergonomics aspects of European automotive industry
Topics: assembly-line work; ergonomic evaluation; ergonomics; Europe; fatigue; monotonous work; motor vehicle industry; quality control; work design; work organization; work posture; work study; workplace design.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Nov. 1997, Vol.20, No.5, p.355-422. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Becker N., Kuhn G., Marschall B.
Follow-up study among model and pattern makers in a German automobile company - Results of a second follow-up
Topics: cancer; cardiovascular diseases; gastrointestinal cancer; Germany; long-term study; mortality; motor vehicle industry.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1997, Vol.39, No.12, p.1228-1232. 13 ref.
Randolph B.W., Lalloo U.G., Gouws E., Colvin M.S.E.
An evaluation of the respiratory health status of automotive spray-painters exposed to paints containing hexamethylene di-isocyanates in the greater Durban area
Topics: dermatitis; eye irritation; hexamethylene diisocyanate; motor vehicle industry; paint spraying; pulmonary function; respiratory function tests; South Africa; spirometry.
South African Medical Journal, Mar. 1997, Vol.87, No.3, p.318-323. Illus. 24 ref.
These 17 chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various manufacturing industries: achieving safer products; robot system safety design; small companies; welding (ergonomics and occupational hygiene); conventional lathes, cutters and upright drilling machines; surface treatment and metal finishing; industrial photographic film developing; woodworking; automotive industry; road vehicle repair; the electronics and electromechanical workplace; mining industry; metallurgical industry; glass industry; printing; shipbuilding and ship repairing.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.435-648. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Ratti N., Pilling K.
Back pain in the workplace
In this survey the epidemiology of back pain in the workplace is examined together with risk factors (either individual or work related). The ergonomic interventions concerning the incidence of back pain in the motor vehicle industry are considered and one enterprise's programme is described. A cost-benefit analysis of the management and physical rehabilitation programmes is also included.
British Journal of Rheumatology, Feb. 1997, Vol.36, p.260-264. Illus. 26 ref.
When the company of the lion discovers ergonomic design
Quand la firme du lion découvre l'ergonomie de conception [in French]
Illustrated report on the Peugeot automobile industry at Sochaux, France. This company follows the principle of ergonomic design in order to improve the working conditions and performance of workers. Attention is paid to assembly-line work and mental workload.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 1997, No.559, p.24-35. Illus.
Laflamme L., Menckel E., Lundholm L.
Aging and occupational accidents - 2. Male and female assemblers in the Swedish automobile industry
This retrospective and longitudinal study examines age-related selection and accident risks for male and female assembly workers in the Swedish automobile industry. Results suggest that accident ratios tend to be higher among younger assemblers of both sexes, and lower among older ones, for both aggregate and specific accident risks. There was also strong evidence for age-related selection, i.e. for a tendency by younger workers to leave the profession. On the other hand, there was some evidence that older workers had more severe accidents - but the reasons for this may have socio-economic or psychological, rather than age-related medical, causes. Summaries in English and Swedish.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1996. 30 + p. 46 ref.
Fuchs J., Hengstler J.G., Hummrich F., Oesch F.
Transient increase in DNA strand breaks in car refinishing spray painters
Topics: coachwork; DNA; exposure tests; genetic effects; length of exposure; length of service; paints; spray coating.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1996, Vol.22, No.6, p.438-443. Illus. 20 ref.
Proctor S.P., White R.F., Robins T.G., Echeverria D., Rocskay A.Z.
Effect of overtime work on cognitive function in automotive workers
Topics: aptitude tests; behaviour study; cognitive performance; extra work; fatigue; hours of work; motor vehicle industry; psychological tests; vigilance; work organization.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1996, Vol.22, No.2, p.124-132. 35 ref.
Age-related accident ratios in assembly work: A study of female assembly workers in the Swedish automobile industry
Topics: accident proneness; age-linked differences; assembly-line work; causes of accidents; cohort study; location of injury; motor vehicle industry; occupational accidents; Sweden; women.
Safety Science, June 1996, Vol.23, No.1, p.27-37. 21 ref.
Park R.M., Mirer F.E.
A survey of mortality at two automotive engine manufacturing plants
Topics: bladder tumour; carcinogens; cirrhosis; coolants; diabetes mellitus; emphysema; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; gastrointestinal cancer; heart diseases; lung cancer; mortality; motor vehicle industry; neoplasms; nitroso amines; oil mist; pancreatic diseases; race-linked differences; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.30, No.6, p.664-673. 49 ref.
The healthy worker survivor effect and mortality at two automotive engine manufacturing plants
Topics: bladder tumour; cancer; cirrhosis; coolants; diabetes mellitus; emphysema; epidemiologic study; gastrointestinal cancer; healthy worker effect; heart diseases; length of exposure; lung cancer; mortality; motor vehicle industry; prostatic cancer; smoking; tumour of the pancreas; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.30, No.6, p.655-663. 32 ref.
Brandenburg U., Kuhn K., Marschall B., Verkoyen C.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Health promotion at the enterprise level
Gesundheitsförderung im Betrieb [in German]
Topics: conference; cost of accidents; cost of diseases; cost-benefit analysis; design of equipment; economic aspects; Germany; health programmes; iron and steel industry; motor vehicle industry; occupational medicine; older workers; plant health organization; quality control; role of insurance institutions; safety and health committees; safety programmes; social aspects; supply of information; women; work design; workers participation.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. viii, 581p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DM 81.00.
The working environment in the motor vehicle industry - A handbook
Motorbranschens arbetsmiljö - en handbok [in Swedish]
This manual describes Swedish regulations concerning the motor vehicle industry. It covers all aspects of the working environment, with examples. It can be used at the workplace for planning and training, including induction training. It is a complement to the Swedish directive on Work in the Motor Vehicle Industry (AFS 1995:6).
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 1st ed., 1996. 146p. Illus.
Hands D., et al.
Comparison of metalworking fluid mist exposures from machining with different levels of machine enclosure
Personal samples from automotive machining and grinding operations collected over six years were divided into three groups based on the type and extent of control measures: machining equipment with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) total enclosures and local exhaust ventilation; machining equipment with partial or retrofit enclosures and local exhaust ventilation; and equipment with little or no enclosure. Employees operating equipment with OEM enclosures had significantly lower exposures than the other groups. There was no difference between the exposures of operators of equipment with retrofit enclosures compared to operators without enclosures. OEM enclosures provide the most effective control of metalworking fluid mist exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1996, Vol.57, No.12, p.1173-1178. Illus. 16 ref.
Thorne P.S., DeKoster J.A., Subramanian P.
Environmental assessment of aerosols, bioaerosols, and airborne endotoxins in a machining plant
Bioaerosol monitoring was undertaken at eight machining sites and one assembly site in an engine plant. The machining sites represented areas supplied with three different metalworking fluid (MWF) formulations. Bulk in-use MWF samples were collected at the machining sites and compared with air measurements. Gravimetric concentrations of MWF aerosol in the air were all less than 5mg/m3 and were significantly higher on the older engine line with fewer engineering controls. Airborne levels of endotoxin were strongly correlated with the bulk MWF endotoxin concentration and were particularly high when microbial growth in MWF was excessive. Levels of endotoxin in these plants may exceed the thresholds previously identified for acute respiratory health effects.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1996, Vol.57, No.12, p.1163-1167. Illus. 14 ref.
Woskie S.R., et al.
Exposure assessment for a field investigation of the acute respiratory effects of metalworking fluids. I. Summary of findings
Worker exposures to metalworking fluids at an automotive part machining facility were evaluated. Exposures were measured as the inhalable concentrations of the metalworking fluid aerosol, a variety of metals and elements, and endotoxin. The level of culturable bacteria in the aerosol fraction less than 8µm was also measured. The exposed workers had higher inhalable aerosol exposures, higher airborne culturable microbial counts, and higher airborne endotoxin levels than unexposed workers. Elemental concentrations of iron, chlorine and sulfur were also higher among the exposed workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1996, Vol.57, No.12, p.1154-1162. Illus. 35 ref.
Park R. M., Krebs J. M., Mirer F . E.
Occupational disease surveillance using disability insurance at an automotive stamping and assembly complex
This study analyses occupational illnesses in motor vehicle assembly and stamping plants in the USA, employing data from sickness and accident insurance claims. Incidence rates were calculated. The following aspects are discussed: exposure assessments, short-tenure effects (i.e. high disability rates among employees with short assignments), gender effects, respiratory problems, heart diseases, musculoskeletal disabilities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1996, Vol.38, No.11, p.1111-1123. 16 ref.
Age-related accident risks among assembly workers: A longitudinal study of male workers employed in the Swedish automobile industry
Age-related accident ratios (ARs) among male assembly workers in the Swedish automobile industry were measured for all accidents aggregated and for six accidents types over a 10-year period, using five age categories and three time intervals. Regardless of accident type, ARs were generally higher among younger workers than older ones. ARs by age cohorts increased over time in four of the six accident situations for assemblers aged 25-34 (35-44 during 1990-1991). Inequalities in risk exposure, labour-market factors, and early deselection from the occupation were identified as significant factors in the age-related differences observed.
Journal of Safety Research, Winter 1996, Vol.27, No.4, p.259-268. 22 ref.
Workload evaluation and countermeasures in a company
Kigyō ni okeru sagyō futan no hyōka to taisaku [in Japanese]
A workload assessment technique known by the acronym GULHEMP was adapted for use by a large Japanese automobile company. The name stands for "General physique", "Upper body", "Lower body", "Hearing", "Eyesight", "Mentality" and "Personality". The modified technique treats the hands and arms separately, and divides "lower body" into "lumbar region" and "legs/feet". Numerical scores under each heading reflect the impact of working conditions on the worker. This facilitates the identification of problems and the choice of solutions. Another quantitative measure was developed: the "Toyota Verification of Assembly Line" (TVAL). This reflects the physical effort and duration of a task, and has likewise been used for process improvements.
Journal of Industrial Hygiene of Japan - Rōdō eisei kōgaku, 28 June 1996, No.35, p.23-31. Illus.
Influence of applied project management on the job satisfaction of the personnel integrated into a project organization. A field study in the motor vehicle industry
Einfluss des angewandten Projektmanagements auf die Arbeitszufriedenheit der in einer Projektorganisation integrierten Mitarbeiter. Eine Felduntersuchung in der Automobilindustrie [in German]
In this study a special questionnaire was developed to study the connection between the application of a project management method (described by Platz) and job satisfaction of the personnel involved in the project. The questionnaire covers cooperation, working conditions, special management aspects, attitude towards work and the success of the project. The questionnaire was applied to 149 volunteers who for the first time worked on a project managed according to this method and to a control group in a German motor vehicle manufacturing plant. The results show that the employees' interest in the tasks can be increased beyond keeping deadlines, controlling costs and improving quality.
Peter Lang GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1996. 249p. Illus. 121 ref.
Workplace-related relevance of patch testing using the motor vehicle industry as an example
Arbeitsplatzbezogene Relevanz der Epikutantestung am Beispiel der Automobilindustrie [in German]
The industrial physician who has to decide whether an employee with skin disease can keep his job must know the substances present at the patient's workplace, the severity of the disease and the likely prognosis. The results of a patch test may also help to support his decision. The results of 318 skin tests taken at the Ford motor company in Cologne, Germany, in the years 1982 to 1993 are presented to underscore this point. The need of intensive communication between the dermatologist and occupational health specialists is underlined. Patch testing without knowledge of workplace conditions does not provide sufficient information for further analysis.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Mar.-Apr. 1996, Vol.44, No.2, p.68-71. Illus.
Waluyo L., Ekberg K., Eklund J.
Assembly work in Indonesia and in Sweden - Ergonomics, health and satisfaction
Questionnaire surveys of Swedish and Indonesian assembly industry workers showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms was high in both groups. Swedish workers reported more stress and psychosomatic symptoms and rated their work conditions as worse in most respects. Work tasks were physically heavier in Indonesia, but less monotonous and with lower demands on productivity. Physical job demands were associated with musculoskeletal symptoms, while conflicts and harassment at work were associated with stress and psychosomatic symptoms. Implications for job design in the two countries are put forward.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1996, Vol.39, No.2, p.199-212. 30 ref.
Simpson C., Garabrant D., Torrey S., Robins T., Franzblau A.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reaction and occupational asthma associated with 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl) cyclohexane pre-polymer
Twenty three of 34 workers who had worked in the injection moulding operation making polyurethane foam parts at an automobile manufacturing plant developed respiratory symptoms and/or systemic symptoms over a 2-month period following the full production use of a new diisocyanate paint that contained 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl)cyclohexane pre-polymer (BIC). At 3 months, all subjects underwent an interview, physical examination, pre- and post-shift pulmonary function tests and either methacholine challenge test or bronchodilator challenge. The most frequently cited symptoms were dyspnoea, cough, chest tightness, chills, wheezing and myalgias, arthralgias and nausea. Thirteen subjects had either a positive methacholine challenge test or a positive response to bronchodilator challenge, making the overall prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness 38%. The overall prevalence of hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reactions among line operators in the injection moulding process was 27%. The results suggest that BIC may cause asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reactions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.48-55. 26 ref.
Silicosis in automobile foundries
Silicoses dans les fonderies automobiles [in French]
In 1989, eight occupational physicians from the largest French automobile foundries decided to organize joint meetings in order to discuss and find solutions to common OSH problems, to uniformize the procedures of medical surveillance in their enterprises and to organize epidemiologic and inter-enterprise studies. One of these study topics was that of silicosis: the physicians collected all relevant data concerning the workers in their enterprises so that they could provide a quantitative evaluation of the extent of the silicosis problem in large French automobile foundries. As a result of this survey, one can arrive at a better understanding of the silicosis hazard in these enterprises, and possibly extrapolate to medium-size foundries.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1996, No.68, p.323-328. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/silicoses_dans_les_fonderies_automobiles.html [in French]
Rosenman K.D., Reilly M.J., Rice C., Hertzberg V., Tseng C.Y., Anderson H.A.
Silicosis among foundry workers: Implication for the need to revise the OSHA standard
The incidence of pneumoconiosis in 1,072 current and retired workers of an American automotive foundry was investigated. Approximately half of these workers had worked at the foundry for 20 or more years. Sixty workers had radiographic evidence of pneumoconiosis. Twenty-eight workers had radiographs consistent with silicosis. The asbestos-related changes were not associated with increasing exposure to silica, but rather with being in the maintenance department. An increased risk of 1.45 was found for having a radiograph consistent with silicosis after 20 years of work at the current US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard, and an increased risk of 2.10 after 40 years of work. The data show that the current OSHA standard (0.1mg/m3) is not sufficiently low to protect workers against the development of radiologic evidence of silicosis. Exposures at the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 0.05mg/m3 already result in a lower prevalence (0.3-0.8%) of radiographic evidence of silicosis, suggesting that the OSHA standard is set at too high a value.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Sep. 1996, Vol.144, No.9, p.890-900. Illus. 21 ref.
Bergman B., Carlsson S.G., Wright I.
Women's work experiences and health in a male-dominated industry
Questionnaire surveys regarding the work environment, quality of life and health were carried out among 47 women working in the Swedish motor vehicle industry; two assessments were made with 4 to 9 years in between. Changes in work-role quality and in quality of life were associated with changes in somatic disorders and psychological distress. Based on in-depth interviews with four women, a theoretical model was developed to illustrate the effects on women's health of the surrounding organization and culture and the kind of leadership practised.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1996, Vol.38, No.7, p.663-672. Illus. 16 ref.
Cullen M.R., Redlich C.A., Beckett W.S., Weltmann B., Sparer J., Jackson G., Ruff T., Rubinstein E., Holden W.
Feasibility study of respiratory questionnaire and peak flow recordings in autobody shop workers exposed to isocyanate-containing spray paint: Observations and limitations
In a questionnaire survey of shop owners and workers at 23 autobody shops, data were collected on the characteristics of the shop and the spray paint systems in use, industrial hygiene practices, and workers' respiratory symptoms. Peak expiratory flow measurements were collected for 24 workers. The approach met with limited success. While a high rate of respiratory symptoms consistent with occupational asthma was identified (19.6%), validation of the questionnaire by use of peak expiratory flow recordings was limited by poor worker participation and inadequate data collection. Further studies are required to document rates of occupational asthma among these workers.
Occupational Medicine, June 1996, Vol.46, No.3, p.197-204. Illus. 29 ref.
Heitbrink W.A., Verb R.H., Fischbach T.J., Wallace M.E.
A comparison of conventional and high volume-low pressure spray-painting guns
Two coats of paint were applied to a car body shell in a downdraft spray-painting booth using both a gravity-fed conventional gun and a gravity-fed high volume-low pressure (HVLP) gun. Measurements were made of particulate overspray and solvent vapour concentrations, film thickness on the car body, and mass of paint. The film thickness per mass of paint for the HVLP gun was 33% higher than that for the conventional gun. The particulate overspray and solvent vapour concentrations were both higher with the conventional gun. The use of HVLP spray-painting guns should be encouraged.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.304-310. Illus. 19 ref.
Plato N., et al.
An index of past asbestos exposure as applied to car and bus mechanics
Different ways to describe historic exposure from asbestos-containing friction materials were studied and compared for a group of 103 car and bus mechanics with more than 20 years employment and 15 years of asbestos exposure. A model was constructed to calculate cumulative asbestos exposure from friction materials including duration, intensity and exposure last year. In order to validate the model, the mechanics' fibre exposure estimated using the model were compared with representative asbestos exposure measurements for car mechanics during the 1960s and the 1970s. Five lung physiological variable were used to study exposure-response relationships. None of the exposure parameters suggested any significant relationship between exposure and decrease in lung function.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1995, Vol.39, No.4, p.441-454. Illus. 39 ref.
Gräff B., Hubert K., Zoller H.J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Study on air velocities and air temperatures in industrial workplaces
Untersuchungen von Luftgeschwindigkeiten und Lufttemperaturen an industriellen Arbeitsplätzen [in German]
Air temperature, air velocity and relative humidity were measured at various locations in 11 industrial plants. The measurements were taken at 0.1, 1.1 and 1.7m above the ground. In all cases the values for air turbulence and air temperatures were in the acceptable range. Industrial plants studied included manufacturers of ventilation and air conditioning systems, a large truck assembly plant, a manufacturer of electronic components, a boiler manufacturer, a company producing punched metal products and chemical plants producing household products.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. 188p. Illus. 8 ref.
Car repair etc.
Autoreparation m.v. [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in the Danish automotive repair industry. There are about 17,500 persons employed in the reparation, painting etc. of motor vehicles, which corresponds to less than 1% of the active working population. This business sector is dominated by small enterprises. There are fewer than 10 employees at 95% of the enterprises. About 85% of the employees in this sector work in car repair shops, body shops and car painting shops. The work is dominated by assembly, repair and surface treatment. The principal harmful work environment factors in this sector are noise and exposure to chemicals (brain injuries, skin diseases). Other factors are strain injuries, accidents (most frequent in car repair shops) and low levels of autonomy. Most accidents in this sector occur in repair shops, but the incidence of reported accidents is below the average for all industries.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 58p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.
Onishi A., Mori K., Koriyama K., Miyata M., Murai Y., Ikeda M.
Application of neurobehavioural tests in an automotive parts factory
Mansei yūkiyozai bakuro-sha e no shikei kōdōgakuteki kensa hō no ōyō [in Japanese]
Three neurobehavioural tests and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire (parts of the WHO neurobehavioural core test battery) were administered to 106 workers engaged in the manufacture of automotive parts; 61 were chronically exposed to organic solvents, 45 were not. The exposed workers had lower scores than their unexposed peers in perceptual-motor performance tests, but not in a memory test. There was a positive correlation between the "fatigue" score on the POMS test and perceptual-motor performance. No correlation was found between urinary hippuric acid levels and test scores.
Journal of UOEH, 28 June 1995, Vol.17, No.3, p.165-172. Illus. 17 ref.
Quantification of biomechanical risk factors of carpal tunnel syndrome
Quantification des facteurs de risque biomécaniques du syndrome du canal carpien [in French]
Thesis. The biomechanical strain imposed on the wrists of operators in an automobile seat factory was determined by electromyographic, goniometric and video recordings. Fifteen workstations and/or tasks were analyzed. Indices of posture, force and repetitivity were calculated and used as factors in an equation expressing quantitatively the risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome. This quantitative indicator of risk was compared with other indices used in the literature.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 1995. ii, 201p. Illus. 62 ref.
Wenzl T.B., Kriebel D., Eisen E.A., Ellenbecker M.J.
Comparisons between magnetic field exposure indices in an automobile transmission plant
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.341-348. Illus. 20 ref. ###
Beall C., Delzell E., Macaluso M.
Mortality patterns among women in the motor vehicle manufacturing industry
The mortality experience of 11,271 women employed in a large motor vehicle manufacturing company in 1973 was evaluated. Follow-up was conducted to 1985. The overall mortality rate of the cohort was lower than the U.S. rate by 15% among whites and by 40% among blacks. Among whites, the low mortality rate was due primarily to deficits of noncancer deaths, although a 32% deficit was also observed for breast cancer. Despite evidence of a strong healthy worker effect among women in this industry, the study found excesses of lung cancer among white women in assembly jobs and of pancreatic cancer among white assembly workers in upholstery and trim operations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1995, Vol.28, No.3, p.325-337. 30 ref.
Garmer K., Dahlman S., Sperling L.
Ergonomic development work: Co-education as a support for user participation at a car assembly plant - A case study
The design and implementation of an ergonomics co-education programme at a car assembly plant in Sweden is described. The aim of the programme was to extend ergonomics understanding and increase cooperation among operators, manufacturing engineers and managers. The programme consisted of a basic ergonomics package and a dialogue model in which operators specified their requirements and manufacturing engineers suggested alternative solutions. Trial development projects were also carried out. Evaluation studies showed that the programme was successful and provided a good starting point for a process of change and participation.
Applied Ergonomics, Dec. 1995, Vol.26, No.6, p.417-423. 23 ref.
George D.K., Flynn M.R., Harris R.L.
Autocorrelation of interday exposures at an automobile assembly plant
Serial 8-hr TWA exposures were obtained for six automobile assembly plant workers performing tasks involving the use of either isopropyl alcohol or hexane. Exposures were monitored for periods ranging from 20 to 110 consecutive days. Relatively little autocorrelation in the values was observed. The study highlights potential difficulties in autocorrelation analysis. In particular, nonrandom events, such as ventilation and process changes and extended down times, should be considered in any such analysis. Since exposure distributions vary over time, samples collected across the full range of procedures, activities and environmental conditions should be included when developing an exposure assessment strategy.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1995, Vol.56, No.12, p.1187-1194. Illus. 14 ref.
Heitbrink W.A., Wallace M.E., Bryant C.J., Ruch W.E.
Control of paint overspray in autobody repair shops
Controls for reducing worker exposure to paint overspray were evaluated in six autobody shops and a spray-painting equipment manufacturer's test facility. Respirator usage was also studied. Of the three types of spray-painting booths studied, downdraft spray-painting booths appeared to provide the lowest worker exposure to paint overspray. Ventilated vehicle preparation stations did not control paint overspray. Switching from a conventional spray-painting gun to a high-volume low-pressure gun reduced particulate overspray exposure by 50%. Respirator usage was generally inappropriate; respirators were poorly maintained and/or did not fit. Proper use of engineering controls and respirators is recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1995, Vol.56, No.10, p.1023-1032. Illus. 39 ref.
Demers P.A., Schade W.J., Demers R.Y.
Lymphocytopenia and occupational exposures among pattern and model makers
This study was performed to examine the relationship between a high prevalence of lymphocytopenia observed during a cancer screening programme for pattern and model makers, and 15 occupational exposures. Elevated risks were associated with exposure to epoxy resins and plastic dusts after adjustment for age and smoking status. No clear associations were found with duration of exposure or percentage of time potentially exposed. While firm conclusions cannot be drawn, the strongest associations observed in this study were for exposure to epoxy resins, wood and plastic dusts coming way behind.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1994, Vol.20, No.2, p.107-112. 24 ref.
Muttray A., Konietzko J.
Perturbations of the sense of smell caused by chemicals at work
Störungen des Riechvermögens durch und für Arbeitsstoffe [in German]
The work and exposure histories and results of the medical examinations of three victims of anosmia (loss of smell) are described. The chemicals involved in causing the loss of smell were acetone, cyclohexanone, dichloromethane and tetrahydrofuran in the case of a plumber whose work involved installing and repairing plastic pipes in water treatment plants. Mixtures of organic solvents and non-occupational factors led to loss of smell in the case of a painter. Chromates or solvents were involved in the case of a worker in the chromium plating department of a shock-absorber manufacturing plant.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Oct. 1994, Vol.29, No.10, p.409-413. 43 ref.
White R.F., Robins T.G., Proctor S., Echeverria D., Rocskay A.S.
Neuropsychological effects of exposure to naphtha among automotive workers
The association between exposure to naphtha and neurobehavioural measures was examined prospectively over one year among workers employed at an automotive plant that used naphtha to calibrate fuel injectors. In June 1988, 248 workers were tested and 185 of these were tested again in 1989. Concentrations of naphtha at the plant ranged from 6 to 709mg/m3, although exposure was greater in 1988 than in 1989. Duration of exposure for individual subjects ranged from 0.8-7.3yrs. Threshold model analyses of the 1989 data showed an association between score on visual reproductions immediate recall and daily exposure to naphtha at or above 1,050h x mg/m3. Models of chronic exposure showed no associations between chronic exposure and negative neurobehavioural outcome. Results suggest that naphtha produces mild acute reversible effects on function of the central nervous system at or above daily exposure of 540h x mg/m3 (approximately 90ppm/h).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1994, Vol.51, No.2, p.102-112. 70 ref.
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