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Motor vehicle manufacturing industry - 289 entries found

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CIS 12-0259 Lemarié J.
Automobiles - An information campaign for evaluating chemical hazards
Automobile - Une campagne d'information pour l'évaluation du risque chimique [in French]
This article describes the occupational safety and health campaign on chemical hazards of the occupational health and retirement insurance fund (French acronym CARSAT) aimed at automobile repair shops in a French region. The campaign is based on a network of trainers.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2012, No.724, p.16-17. Illus.
Automobile_Une_campagne_d'information_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 12-0202 Betenia N., Costello S., Eisen E.A.
Risk of cervical cancer among female autoworkers exposed to metalworking fluids
Cervical cancer is caused by human papilloma virus (HPV). However, only a small proportion of women infected with HPV, progress to cervical cancer. Other co-factors must therefore be necessary to cause cervical cancer. This study examined cervical cancer in relation to occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWF), which are complex mixtures containing several known carcinogens. A cohort of 4374 female autoworkers was followed from 1985-2004 for cancer diagnosis, with a focus on cervical cancer. Pooled logistic regression was used to model the relationship between exposure to three different types of MWF, selected constituents, and incidence of cervical cancer. Based on 40 cases, SIRs were statistically significantly elevated for both race-specific subgroups: 3.30 and 2.43, respectively for Caucasian and African-American women. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) was also statistically significantly elevated for Caucasian women (3.44) based on seven observed deaths. However there was no association with oil-based straight fluid. Relative risks for soluble and synthetic MWF and nitrosamines were modestly elevated but not statistically significant.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Jan. 2012, Vol.38, No.1, p.78-83. 33 ref.
Risk_of_cervical_cancer_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]


CIS 12-0251 Ceballos D.M., Fent K.W., Whittaker S.G., Gaines L.G., Thomasen J.M., Flack S.L., Nylander-French L.A., Yost M.G., Reeb-Whitaker C.K.
Survey of dermal protection in Washington State collision repair industry
This study investigated the personal and workplace factors associated with painters' dermal protection use during a large-scale exposure assessment. Survey data indicated that 69% of painters always used gloves, with latex gloves and nitrile gloves used most frequently. Among latex glove users, 53% used thin latex, 6% used medium latex and 12% used thick latex. Among nitrile glove users, 27% used thin nitrile and 45% used medium nitrile. Sixty-three percent of painters always used coveralls, 44% preferring one particular brand. Although overspray presents an opportunity for dermal exposure to the neck and face, only 19% of painters protected these areas with personal protective equipment. Exact logistic regressions along with random sample calculations indicated that the survey results were independent of the shops. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2011, Vol.8, No.9, p.551-560. 40 ref.
Survey_of_dermal_protection_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0309 Vyas H., Das S., Mehta S.
Occupational injuries in automobile repair workers
Mechanics are exposed to varied work stressors such as hot noisy environments, strenuous postures, improperly designed tools and machinery and poor psycho-social environments which may exert an influence on their health and safety. This study aimed to examine the occupational injury patterns and identify work stressors associated with injury amongst automobile mechanics. A descriptive ergonomic checklist and a questionnaire on general health and psycho-social issues were administered to 153 male automobile mechanics in an Indian city. The relative risk factors and correlation statistics were used to identify the work stressors associated with occupational injury. 63% of the workers reported injuries, mainly cuts. Poor work environment, machinery and tool characteristics, poor state of health and psycho-social stressors were the main risk factors.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.49, No.5, p.642-651. Illus. 43 ref.
Occupational_injuries_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0855 Brasseur G., Clergiot J., Lemarié J.
Spray painting booths - A sector of activity rich in colour
Cabines de peinture - Une industrie haute en couleur [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on the prevention of occupational hazards in spray painting booths: regulatory aspects; French and European standards concerning booth ventilation; booth design; spray painting booth at an automobile body repair shop; design of a paint tunnel at a marine engine manufacturer; painting of aircraft.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2011, No.721, p.16-32. Illus. 2 ref.
Cabines_de_peinture.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0854 Petit J.M., Sallé B.
LPG-powered vehicles - Working safely
Véhicules fonctionnant au GPL - Intervenir en sécurité [in French]
Following a brief review of the basic characteristics of LPG, this practical information sheet provides the main precautions to be taken for avoiding or limiting hazards during work on the fuel distribution system, and more generally on LPG-equipped vehicles. Replaces the earlier version published in 2003 (see CIS 03-1342).
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2011, No.719, insert, 4p. Illus.2 ref.
ED_139.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0827 Alexopoulos E.C., Bouros D., Dimadi M., Serbescu A., Bakoyannis G., Kokkinis F.P.
Comparative analysis of induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) profile in asbestos exposed workers
Induced sputum (IS) cellular profile was compared with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) profile in asbestos-exposed workers in order to assess its usefulness in monitoring workers exposed to asbestos for long periods of time. IS and BALF analyses were performed in 39 workers of a car brake and clutch plant using chrysotile asbestos. The type of cells, the existence of dust cells, of iron laden macrophages and of asbestos bodies were assessed and compared between IS and BALF samples. Findings are discussed. IS and BALF analyses showed a similar cellular profile indicating that IS sampling in exposed workers to asbestos, being a less invasive and expensive method, may be useful in providing an insight both for inhalation of dusts and inflammatory processes in the lung.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, 6:23, 7p. Illus. 22 ref.
Comparative_analysis.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0724 Ferguson S.A., Marras W.S., Gary Allread W., Knapik G.G., Vandlen K.A., Splittstoesser R.E., Yang G.
Musculoskeletal disorder risk as a function of vehicle rotation angle during assembly tasks
The objective of this study was to quantify exposures to musculoskeletal disease (MSD) risk factors as a function of vehicle rotation angle and position during assembly tasks. The study was conducted at the Center for Occupational Health in Automotive Manufacturing (COHAM) Laboratory. Twelve subjects participated in the study. The vehicle was divided into seven regions, (three interior, two underbody and two engine regions) representative of work areas during assembly. Three vehicle rotation angles were examined for each region. Exposure was assessed on the spine loads and posture, shoulder posture and muscle activity, neck posture and muscle activity as well as wrist posture. In all regions, rotating the vehicle reduced musculoskeletal exposure. In five of the seven regions, 45° of vehicle rotation represented the position that reduced MSD exposure most. Two of the seven regions indicated 90° of vehicle rotation had the greatest impact for reducing MSD exposure. This study demonstrated that vehicle rotation shows promise for reducing exposure to risk factors for MDS during automobile assembly tasks.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2011, Vol.42, No.5, p.699-709. Illus. 28 ref.
Musculoskeletal_disorder_risk.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0521 Gell N., Werner R.A., Hartigan A., Wiggermann N., Keyserling W.M.
Risk factors for lower extremity fatigue among assembly plant workers
Work-related fatigue of the lower extremities is a known cause of lost productivity and significant employer costs. This cross sectional study was conducted in an automotive assembly plant on employees with at least six months of tenure. Fatigue severity data were collected via questionnaires. Jobs were evaluated for lower extremity ergonomic exposures via videotaping, pedometers, interviews and industrial engineering records. Lower extremity fatigue at the end of the work day was associated with a higher prevalence of smoking, rheumatoid arthritis, job dissatisfaction, use of shoes with firmer outsoles, and increased time on the job spent standing or walking. Supervisor support and increased time spent on carpet were protective. Lower extremity fatigue that interfered with activities outside of work had additional risk factors including higher BMI, prior diagnosis of osteoarthritis and increased hours per week spent working. While these results identify carpet as being protective against lower extremity fatigue, no similar relationship was identified for anti-fatigue mats. No adverse relationship was found between hard surfaces such as concrete and lower extremity fatigue. Given the high costs associated with work-related fatigue, future areas for potential intervention include smoking cessation, specific shoe recommendations and enhancing psychosocial aspects of work such as supervisor support.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.216-223. 16 ref.

CIS 11-0536 Kakooei H., Hormozy M., Marioryad H.
Evaluation of asbestos exposure during brake repair and replacement
Occupational exposure to asbestos fibres among automobile brake repair mechanics has seldom been evaluated in Iran. This study evaluated asbestos fibre concentrations in the breathing zone of auto mechanics between July 2008 and December 2008. The asbestos fibre concentrations of 60 personal air samples collected from 30 car and trucks brake replacement mechanics were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The geometric means of the personal monitoring fibre concentrations were 0.92 fibres/ml and 0.46 fibres/ml respectively in car and heavy truck auto shops. Based on these findings, auto mechanics who worked with asbestos-containing brake linings may have been exposed to asbestos concentrations approximately seven times higher than the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fibres/ml. Fiber morphology and energy dispersive X-ray analysis by SEM revealed that amphibole fibres such as tremolite and actinolite existed in the brake dusts and that the vast majority of the airborne chrysotile fibres were greater than 1 μm in diameter. It can be concluded that the imported chrysotile asbestos contains trace amounts of tremolite and actinolite fibres and they are responsible for the high airborne asbestos levels and occupational exposure to amphibole asbestos among auto mechanics. Thus, it is to be expected that the auto mechanics will suffer negative health effects due to exposure to the serpentine and amphibole asbestos fibres.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.374-380. Illus. 23 ref.
Evaluation_of_asbestos.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0367 Friesen M.C., Costello S., Thurston S.W., Eisen E.A.
Distinguishing the common components of oil- and water-based metalworking fluids for assessment of cancer incidence risk in autoworkers
The various types of metalworking fluids (MWFs) have overlapping components. This study derived constituent-based metrics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), water-based MWF, biocides and nitrosamines to account for this overlap and examined their relations with cancer incidence. An autoworkers cohort of 30,000 was followed for cancer incidence. Hazard ratios for each cancer and cumulative exposures were estimated. For most cancer sites, the constituent-based metrics resulted in stronger exposure-disease associations than the MWF classes alone. Laryngeal and bladder cancer were most strongly associated with PAH. Protective effects for stomach and lung cancer were observed with biocide, a component that may be a surrogate for endotoxin. These findings provide support and clarification of possible etiologies for previous positive associations and provide support for distinguishing exposure from oil- and water-based MWF in epidemiologic studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.450-460. Illus. 42 ref.


CIS 11-0876 Keyserling W.M., Wiggermann N., Werner R.A., Gell N.
Inter-worker variability in lower body postures during assembly line work: Implications for exposure assessment
This study evaluated inter-worker variability in lower body posture and work activity during highly-structured assembly line work. Data were collected from 79 assembly line workstations in an engine manufacturing plant. Because the plant utilized work teams, 4-8 workers rotated through each workstation. At least 30 min of videotape was collected from at least three workers at each workstation. A computer-assisted work sampling procedure randomly selected 200 video "freeze-frames" for each worker. Lower body postures and movements were determined for each frame and used to estimate the percentage of time the worker spent in various postures and activities. Chi-square analyses were performed for each workstation to assess the significance of inter-worker differences. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2010, Vol.7, No.5, p.261-271. 24 ref.
Inter-worker_variability.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0387 Mehta A.J., Malloy E.J., Applebaum K.M., Schwartz J., Christiani D.C., Eisen E.A.
Reduced lung cancer mortality and exposure to synthetic fluids and biocide in the auto manufacturing industry
Water-based soluble and synthetic metalworking fluids (MWFs) used in automotive industry may be contaminated by endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria, a possible anti-carcinogen. This study investigated whether an inverse relationship between lung cancer and synthetic MWF and biocide persisted in an extended follow-up of autoworkers. A nested case-control analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort study of 46,399 automotive industry workers. Follow-up began in 1941 and was extended from 1985-1995. Mortality rate ratios for lung cancer were estimated in Cox regression models. Results suggest a non-linear inverse exposure-response for lung cancer mortality with increasing endotoxin exposure. Overall, the greatest reduction in mortality was observed among those with the highest exposure. Effect modification by biocides was marginally significant. The protective effect of synthetic MWFs against lung cancer mortality persisted through the extended period of follow-up, although attenuated, and was observed only among workers with co-exposure to biocide and synthetic MWFs.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.36, No.6, p.499-508. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 11-0190 Spallek M., Kuhn W., Uibel S., van Mark A., Quarcoo D.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the automotive industry due to repetitive work - Implications for rehabilitation
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) due to repetitive work are common in manufacturing industries, such as the automotive industry. This study investigated the health status of two populations working at two automotive plants in Germany. The first group consisted of 67 consecutive patients who were seen for acute or chronic MSDs at the forearm over a 4-month period at the plants' medical services. Information about patients' working conditions and musculoskeletal symptoms was obtained during a standardized interview, which was followed by a standardized orthopedic-chiropractic physical examination. The second group consisted of 209 workers with daily exposure to video display terminals (VDT), who completed a standardized questionnaire and were examined with function-oriented muscular tests on the occasion of their routine occupational precaution medical check-up. The majority of the first group consisted of blue-collar works from the assembly lines and trainees rather than white-collar workers from offices. Rates of musculoskeletal complaints were disproportionately higher among experienced people performing new tasks and younger trainees. The most common MSD in this group were disorders of flexor tendons of the forearm. By contrast, disorders of the neck and shoulders were more common than discomfort in the forearm in the second group. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, No.5:6, 6p. Illus. 23 ref.
Work-related_musculoskeletal_disorders.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0739 Chassaing K.
Understanding gesture and work organization: An analysis in the context of the car industry and civil engineering
Les 'gestuelles' à l'épreuve de l'organisation du travail: du contexte de l'industrie automobile à celui du génie civil [in French]
This study aims to analyze the elaboration of gestures learned on the job in order to examine the organization of work. The specific objective is to highlight the complexity of the organization of gestures in a social context which tends to deny the role of manual work and to underestimate the complexity of gestures. This organization is complex because it has been developed over time and with experience, because its structure is based on principles relating to gestures and finally because it has been circumscribed by the characteristics of a work situation. The analysis of the elaboration of gestures is carried out in three distinct work situations with respect to the latitude for gestures. Two of these relate to car assembly lines and the third to an expressway bridge construction site. The gestures are analyzed by similar methods using interviews and observations. Findings confirm that the combination of high demands (workload) and low latitude (highly constraining procedures) restrain the development of gestures, thereby penalizing operators' health. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Travail humain, Apr. 2010, Vol.73, No.2, p.163-192. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 10-0035 Working safely under motor vehicles being repaired
Working safely under motor vehicles being repaired.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2010. 11p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: GBP 3.50 for pack of 10 copies. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 10-0122 Safety during tyre inflation in motor vehicle repair
This booklet is aimed at persons working in the motor vehicle repair industry who work on or around tyres that are being inflated. It covers the various types of tyre failure and the dangers they can cause, particularly following tyre repair, where there has been sidewall damage or when fitting a tyre to split-rim wheel. Topics addressed: advice on inspecting tyres to avoid "ziper failure", which can cause fatalities; guidance on the risks posed by specific types of tyres and vehicles (tyres for automobiles, tyres for light commercial vehicles, tyres for multi-piece wheels, tyres for dividend wheels and very large tyres).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2010. 11p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: GBP 3.50 for pack of 10 copies. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 10-0600
Health and Safety Executive
Safety in motor vehicle repair - Working with isocyanate paints
This leaflet is aimed at owners, managers and supervisors of vehicle bodyshops, and may also be useful to employees. It explains the risks involved in using isocyanate paint and shows how to minimise the risks by taking the right precautions. A checklist at the end of the leaflet helps to prioritise the necessary preventive actions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2009. 12p. Illus. 6 ref.
HSE_Booklet_INDG_388(rev1).pdf [in English]

CIS 09-1207 Köper B., Möller K., Zwetsloot G.
The occupational safety and health scorecard - A business case example for strategic management
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a method for evaluating the contribution of occupational safety and health to enterprise value. Financial data and data on workers' health were collected from a German automobile manufacturer in order to test which health-related indicators had an impact on financial performance. Based on multivariate regression analyses, health-related interventions were found to contribute significantly to performance factors such as quality, productivity, absenteeism and cost reduction. The Balanced Scorecard approach was found to be an adequate means to control OSH issues within the context of overall enterprise strategic management.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2009, Vol.35, No.6, p.413-420. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 09-1120 Whittaker S.G., Reeb-Whitaker C.
Characterizing the health and safety needs of the collision repair industry
Production workers in the collision repair shops are potentially exposed to harmful chemicals, including isocyanates, known to cause work-related asthma. The objectives of this study were to gather information on the number of workers potentially exposed to isocyanates and other chemicals, together with health and safety practices for reducing exposure and increasing employer and worker awareness. Data were gathered using a combination of interviews, field investigations and a survey in Washington State. A key finding is that inappropriate selection and insufficient use of respirators and gloves contribute significantly to isocyanate exposures. Possible reasons and implications are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2009, Vol.6, No.5, p.273-282. 31 ref.

CIS 09-818 Gold J.E., d'Errico A., Katz J.N., Gore R., Punnett L.
Specific and non-specific upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder syndromes in automobile manufacturing workers
A longitudinal cohort of 1214 automobile industry workers was examined for the prevalence and persistence of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDs) and prognoses based on symptom characteristics and other factors. Eight specific disorders were identified through case definitions based on upper extremity physical examinations and symptom surveys administered on three occasions over six years. At baseline, 41% of the cohort reported upper extremity symptoms, of which 18% were non-specific disorders (NSDs). In each survey, tendon-related conditions accounted for over half of the specific morbidity. Specific UEMSDs were characterized by greater pain severity and functional impairment, and more lost work days than NSDs. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.52, No.2, p.124-132. Illus. 37 ref.


CIS 10-0832 Velázquez L., Bello D., Munguia N., Zavala A., Marin A., Moure-Eraso R.
A survey of environmental and occupational work practices in the automotive refinishing industry of a developing country: Sonora, Mexico
The objective of this study was to investigate environmental and occupational work practices of automotive repair and refinishing industry in a developing region of Mexico. It involved detailed workplace visits to 41 body shops and six paint suppliers, as well as a survey of shop owners and 24 workers. Information was collected on work practices, level of technology in the shops, use of personal protective equipment, consumption and handling of hazardous chemicals and waste, hazard communication and environmental consciousness. Most shops had little capital, outdated technology for exposure control, poor working conditions, high potential for exposure to hazardous chemicals, and little awareness of environmental and occupational health and safety. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol. 14, No.2, p.104-111. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 10-0494 Final Project Evaluation of the Public-Private-Partnership Project between VW/ILO/GTZ Global Compact and Safety and Health - OSH and Supply Chain Management
This report evaluates occupational safety and health among small and medium enterprises involved in supplying Volkswagen in Brazil, Mexico and South Africa. Data were obtained by means of desk research, interviews with relevant actors at international and country levels, and focus groups. Major insights are summarized in overall conclusions and recommendations. The project was managed by the ILO, while implementation at enterprise level was ensured by Volkswagen and funding provided by the German government. A summary of the report can be downloaded.
Collective Leadership Institute, Wilhelm-Staab-Str. 19, 14467 Potsdam, Germany, 2008. 153p.

CIS 09-643 Mingomataj E.Ç., Gjata E., Xhixha F., Hyso E.
A case of isocyanate-induced asthma possibly complicated by food allergy after peanut consumption: A case report
A 50-year male worker employed as vehicle body painter for eight years complained about breathlessness, wheezing, sneezing, nasal obstruction and excessive production of mucus during the use of an acrylic enamel paint. Symptoms occurred 15-20 minutes after workplace exposure and usually persisted until evening, or at times, up to two consecutive days. The symptoms were associated with a decrease in lung function. The use of inhaled adrenergic bronchio-dilatators and steroids relieved the symptoms. Three years earlier, the patient had developed an anaphylactic reaction due to peanut consumption, experiencing urticaria, angioedema and airway obstruction. Both cases gave rise to IgE-mediated symptoms, suggesting an induced Th2 profile.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Nov. 2008, Vol.3, No.29, 4p. 21 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-600 Kaiser J., Khodawandi D.
Application of development processes used in the automotive industry to the construction sector
Applikation der Automobilentwicklungsprozesse in der Bauwirtschaft [in German]
This article presents the findings of a research project aimed at transposing the processes used in the automotive industry to the construction sector. It describes lean construction together with the tools required for its implementation.
Tiefbau, Dec. 2008, Vol.120, No.12, p.757-761. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 09-630 Steinfort D.P., Pilmore J., Brenton S., Hart D.H.L
Absence of platinum salt sensitivity in autocatalyst workers exposed to tetraamine platinum dichloride
All 26 subjects employed at an automobile catalyst production plant undertook medical surveillance including reporting of symptoms, biological tests, skin prick tests and spirometry. Environmental testing of the workplace was also performed to determine the level of exposure to tetraamine platinum dichloride and other platinum-group elements. No subjects described the development of new respiratory or dermatological symptoms. No worker developed positive skin reactivity to platinum salts. FEV1 remained unchanged for all subjects over the course of the study period. It is concluded that tetraamine platinum dichloride should be used preferentially to other catalysts in view of its low sensitizing potential.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.58, No.3, p.215-218. 13 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-97 Ravallec C., Richez J.P.
Light utility vehicles
Véhicules utilitaires légers [in French]
Collection of two articles highlighting the advantages of cooperation among manufacturers, customizing shops and users of light utility vehicles with respect to occupational safety and health. The first concerns the development of a vehicle for transporting a road maintenance vehicle, while the second concerns the development of an on-board payload indicator.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2008, No.687, p.48-51. Illus.$file/TS687page48.pdf?openelement [in French]$file/TS687page50.pdf?openelement [in French]

CIS 09-89 Brasseur G.
Automobile - Dismantling is truly an industry
Automobile - "Déconstruire est un vrai métier" [in French]
This article presents the activities of an innovative and modern French automobile dismantling company handling approximately 25 vehicles each day according to a well-defined sequence of steps: ensuring safety, removing pollutants (recovering gasoline, oil, refrigerants) and dismantling par se. This emerging branch of activity fills the need specified in regulations concerning the recycling of materials, introducing an industrial approach into what is still largely an unorganized sector.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2008, No.687, p.2-11. Illus.$file/TS687page2.pdf?openelement [in French]

CIS 09-58 Bender J.R., Johnson A.J., Schenk T.W
The economic value of automotive occupational health services: Business metrics for performance management
An important automobile manufacturer in the United States investigated the financial impact of the occupational health clinics located within their plants and carried out a comparison of these clinics between plants. This allowed the firm to make business decisions regarding services offered and responsibilities assigned to the clinics. Models were developed to value the services provided by clinics. The estimated utilization and dollar value of occupational health services provided by each clinic were compared and ranked to establish internal benchmarks. The results show a significant assumption of non-clinical but essential duties by health clinic staff, especially by physicians. This information will allow the firm to better manage the occupational health clinics to support business objectives.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.138-145. 18 ref.

CIS 09-88 Apfelbacher C.J., Radulescu M., Diepgen T.L., Funke U.
Occurrence and prognosis of hand eczema in the car industry: Results from the PACO follow-up study (PACO II)
The aim of the Prospective Audi Cohort (PACO) II follow-up study was to estimate the burden and prognosis of hand eczema (HE) in an automobile industry setting in a long-term perspective (> 10 years). Eligible participants were 1909 subjects who had been examined in a previous study and had been followed through until the end of their apprenticeship. Participants were interviewed and underwent dermatological examination. An exposure assessment was carried out according to a pre-defined algorithm. The follow-up rate was 78.3%. Mean follow-up time was 13.3 years and the cumulative incidence of 29.3% for the entire study period. HE persisted after the end of apprenticeship in 40.0% of subjects who had had HE during apprenticeship. 18.0% developed HE in the follow-up period. Around 30% of subjects were affected by HE at least once during the study period.
Contact Dermatitis, June 2008, Vol.58, No.6, p.322-329. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 08-1067 Landau K., Rademacher H., Meschke H., Winter G., Schaub K., Grasmueck M., Moelbert I., Sommer M., Schulze J.
Musculoskeletal disorders in assembly jobs in the automotive industry with special reference to age management aspects
Production planners in the automotive industry are confronted with the problem of steadily increasing age of workers performing assembly jobs which involve highly repetitive short-cycle operations. A total of 256 work stations on an automobile assembly line were studied. Older workers were found mainly in jobs with favourable expert ratings, while younger workers were mainly found in jobs with unfavourable ratings. Accordingly, age and job strain are not independent variables. Older workers still complain of lumbar spine symptoms despite low demands imposed by their present jobs. This seems to indicate long-term cumulative effects. Neck and shoulder symptoms occur more frequently in older workers working under unfavourable conditions. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, July-Aug. 2008, Vol.38, No.7-8, p.561-576. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 08-1236 Edimansyah B.A., Rusli B.N., Naing L., Mohamed Rusli B.A., Winn T., Tengku Mohamed Ariff B.R.H.
Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychological job factors in male automotive assembly workers
This cross-sectional study explores the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors among automotive industry workers in Malaysia. A total of 728 workers, all male, responded to Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaire and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous working conditions were positively associated with depression, anxiety and stress, while supervisor support was inversely associated with depression and stress. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.46, No.1, p.90-100. 40 ref.

CIS 08-836 Alipour A., Ghaffari M., Shariati B., Jensen I., Vingard E.
Occupational neck and shoulder pain among automobile manufacturing workers in Iran
The prevalence of neck and shoulder pain and its association with work-related physical and psychosocial factors and life style was determined by a cross-sectional survey using the Nordic Questionnaire in an Iranian car manufacturing company. A total of 14,384 (79.8%) of all employees responded. Depending on the questions used to measure neck and shoulder symptoms, reported prevalences varied widely (from 20.5% to 3.9%). In the multiple logistic regression model limited to employees with at least one year of work experience, risk factors for disabling pain of the neck and shoulder were, for male workers: duration of employment, high visual demands, repetitive work; sitting position; awkward working position; lack of regular exercise; monotonous work; lack of an encouraging organizational culture; anxiety concerning change. For female workers, the corresponding risk factors were a sitting position and lack of support.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2008, Vol.51, No.5, p.372-379. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 08-971 d'Errico A., Punnett L., Gold J.E., Gore R.
JCQ scale reliability and responsiveness to changes in manufacturing process
The job content questionnaire (JCQ) was administered to automobile manufacturing workers in two surveys, taken five years apart. Between the two interviews, the company introduced substantial changes in production technology in some production areas. The aims of this study were to describe the impact of these changes on self-reported psychosocial exposures and to examine the reliability of the JCQ scales, taking into account possible changes in job assignment. The study population included 790 subjects at the first and 519 at the second survey, of whom 387 participated in both. The introduction of more automated technology produced an overall increase in job control but did not decrease psychological demand. The reliability of the control scale was low overall but increased to an acceptable level among workers who had not changed job. The demand scale had high reliability only among workers whose physical ergonomic exposures were similar on both survey occasions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, No.2, p.138-147. 53 ref.


CIS 09-546 Spallek M., Kuhn W., Schwarze S., Hartmann B.
Occupational medical prophylaxis for the musculoskeletal system: A function-oriented system for physical examination of the locomotor system in occupational medicine (fokus (C))
This paper presents a function-oriented system for physical examination of the locomotor system. It has been developed by the occupational health service of a large German automobile producer with a view to its relevance for occupational medical practice and does not aim primarily to provide a precise diagnosis. Decisive for an occupational medical assessment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system is information about functional disorders and any impairment of performance or mobility which they can cause. The division of the physical examination into a rapid screening phase and a subsequent more intensive functional diagnostic phase has proved its practicability in many years of day-to-day use.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Oct. 2007, Vol.2, No.12, 10p. Illus. 23 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-48 Schneider C.A., Herold G., Gysan D., Albus C., Bjarnason-Wehrens B., Predel H.G.
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged type 2 diabetic automobile employees assessed at the workplace - The Praeford study
The purpose of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk factors among employees of German automotive plants who identified themselves as having type two diabetes mellitus. The proportion of subjects exceeding the target values for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was identified. Among 4234 employees, 91 employees with diabetes were identified (mean age 52 years). Only seven of these diabetic employees met all three recommended target values: blood pressure target values were achieved by 26%, HbA1c target values by 54% and LDL target values by 31% of employees. These findings call for new treatment and monitoring strategies for employees with diabetes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.49, No.5, p.481-483. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 08-1065 Kovács L., Kákosy J.T., Vasas I.
Upper limb disorders caused by excessive physical strain among seat upholsterers
Erkrankungen der oberen Gliedmaßen durch Überbeanspruchung bei Fahrzeugpolsterern [in German]
Affections des membres supérieurs dues aux efforts physiques chez les selliers [in French]
Trastornos de las extremidades superiores en tapiceros causados por una tensión física excesiva [in Spanish]
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most common of all reported work-related health problems in the European Union. This article describes an ergonomic intervention at an automobile upholstery manufacturer in Hungary, following frequent cases of upper-limb MSDs, found to be due to excessive physical strain of the wrist. Prevention measures involving a change in technology and in work organization as well as the use of tools to reduce the physical strain have resulted in no new incidences of disorders due to excessive efforts of the upper limbs.
Magazine - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work / Agence européenne pour la sécurité et la santé au travail, 2007, No.10, p.28-30. Illus. 10 ref. [in German] [in English] [in Spanish] [in French]

CIS 08-470 Coune I.
All-out effort against MSDs
Mobilisation contre les TMS [in French]
Musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) are increasing at the rate of 20% per year. They represent the main cause of sickness absenteeism and an important source of costs, both in terms of compensation and lost productivity. The automotive component sector is particularly exposed because of its just-in-time mode of operation. This article presents some of the practical preventive measures against MSDs adopted by automotive component suppliers, which include: consciousness-raising film; development of a job observation method consisting of analysing repetitive movements and work postures; Hoshin workshops (plan, do, check, correct); reorganization of workplaces; warming-up exercises; computer-generated animation for the visualization of ergonomic problems. In box: reference to French legislation.
Face au risque, Apr. 2007, No.432, p.22-24. Illus.

CIS 08-134 The automobile body repair worker
Le carrossier [in French]
Automobile body repair involves working with vehicles involved in accidents by removing damaged parts, and repairing or replacing them. This work is characterized by high physical strenuousness and the exposure to various chemicals (solvents, lubricating greases, grinding dusts, welding fumes, adhesives and paints). Contents of this occupational data sheet devoted to automobile body repair workers: description of the job; work premises; work organization; tasks; tools and equipment (characteristics of the hazards, health effects, prevention); products, materials and exposed persons (characteristics of the hazards, health effects, prevention); work clothing; work and health.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2007, Vol.47, No.1, 2p. Insert.


CIS 09-726 Drexler H., Baumeister T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Vocational training in a shift system
Berufsausbildung im Schichtsystem [in German]
In this study, apprentices at a large German automobile manufacturer were examined for potential negative health effects of a newly established shift work system. Over a period of two years, the first batch of 124 apprentices trained within the new system (study group) was compared with the last batch of 77 apprentices trained within the conventional system (control group). Participants were subjected to medical examinations at baseline and after 12 and 24 months. Findings are discussed. Overall, the new shift system did not seem to have any negative health effect.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 68p. Illus. 54 ref. Index. Price: EUR 10.50.

CIS 08-906 White J., Coldwell M., Davies T., Helps J., Piney M., Rimmer D., Saunders J., Wake D.
Health and Safety Executive
Isocyanate exposure, emission and control in small motor vehicle repair premises using spray rooms: Phase 1
A mock up spray room was constructed within the Health and Safety Laboratory with dimensions, ventilation conditions and extraction rates set to represent typical car body spray room conditions. A robotic sprayer was used to simulate paint spraying of car parts under a range of conditions; including spray orientation relative to the extraction duct, spray gun type, ventilation set up and extraction rates. Real-time monitors were used in conjunction with standard methods for airborne isocyanate (NCO) concentration monitoring. The main findings were: high NCO levels are present in spray rooms during spraying; airborne NCO levels were homogeneous throughout the spray room; factors affecting the amount of airborne NCO include gun type, gun condition, spray pattern and NCO formulation; airborne NCO took a significant time to clear the spray room. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. x, 111p. Illus. 29 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-578 Ghaffari M., Alipour A., Jensen I., Farshad A.A., Vingard E.
Low back pain among Iranian industrial workers
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among Iranian industrial workers. The sample consisted of workers at the largest car-manufacturing group in the country. The prevalence of LBP, work exposures, personal and lifestyle factors were recorded using the standardized Nordic questionnaire. Of the 18,031 employees, 78% participated. The majority of subjects were young men, with a small proportion of women (4%). The one-year prevalence of self-reported LBP was 21% (20% for males and 27% for females). The rate of absenteeism due to LBP was 5% per annum. Multiple logistic regression models indicated the following risk factors for LBP in the previous 12 months: age; lack of regular exercise; heavy lifting; repetitive work; monotonous work.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.56, No.7, p.455-460. 32 ref.

CIS 08-587 Dawkins P., Robertson A., Robertson W., Moore V., Reynolds J., Langman G., Robinson E., Harris-Roberts J., Crook B., Burge S.
An outbreak of extrinsic alveolitis in a car engine plant
Twelve workers from a car engine-manufacturing plant in the United Kingdom presented with extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological and pathological findings. They were exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF) that cooled, lubricated and cleaned the machine tools. Data were collected on their occupational history, and they were subjected to medical examinations, spirometry, radiology, bronchoscopic lavage, lung biopsy and serology. Sera were tested for precipitins to used MWF and to reference cultures of bacteria suspected to be implicated. All were males and none were current smokers. All had dyspnoea, many had weight loss and cough, but only half had influenza-like symptoms and auscultator crackles. There was an overall loss of lung function and lung volumes. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.56, No.8, p.559-565. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 08-403 Pronk A., Yu F., Vlaanderen J., Tielemans E., Preller L., Bobeldijk I., Deddens J.A., Latza U., Baur X., Heederik D.
Dermal, inhalation and internal exposure to 1,6-HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters
The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers among car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. A total of 95 personal samples were collected from six car body repair shops and five industrial paint shops and analysed using impingers with di-n-butylamine (DBA) in toluene. In parallel, dermal exposure was assessed using nitrile rubber gloves submerged into a solution of DBA in toluene after sampling. Analysis for HDI and its oligomers was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Urine samples collected from 55 workers were analysed for hexamethylene diamine (HDA) by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Findings are discussed. HDA was detected in urine of 25% of the spray painters. In addition, HDA was detected in urine of a large proportion of non-spray painters in car body repair shops. Although painting with lacquers containing isocyanates results in the highest external exposures to HDI and oligomers, workers that do not perform paint related tasks are significantly exposed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.63, No.9, p.624-631. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 07-1371 Kakooei H., Shahtaheri S.J., Karbasi H.A.
Evaluation of workers' exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in an automobile manufacturing company, Iran
The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the inhalation exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among 39 employees working in the window assembly unit of an automobile manufacturing company in Iran. Controls consisted of 117 unexposed workers in other departments of the plant. MDI was determined with a UV-VIS spectrophotometer at 590nm. Lung function was assessed with a digital spirometer. The average concentration of MDI in the window fixation and window glue workplaces were 34.53 and 27.37µg/m3, respectively, which were lower than the threshold limit value recommended by the ACGIH of 51µg/m3. However, there was a significantly higher frequency of respiratory symptoms and a significantly lower lung capacity in the exposed group compared to the unexposed group.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.443-449. 22 ref.

CIS 07-969 Haesen B.
Ergonomics reduces suffering and expenditure
L'ergonomie allège les souffrances et les dépenses [in French]
This article reviews the efforts undertaken by an automobile manufacturer to reduce the level of absenteeism due to musculoskeletal diseases caused by poor ergonomics. It describes the ergonomic improvements implemented in the manual assembly of exhaust systems. Job observations and computer simulations resulted in an objective ergonomic evaluation of the physical workload, and the design and implementation an automated system. The number of days lost due to sickness absenteeism among workers assigned to this task was significantly reduced.
Prevent Focus, Nov. 2006,, No.9 p.18-20. Illus.

CIS 07-603 Lavender S.A., Oleske D.M., Andersson G.B.J., Morrissey Kwasny M.J.
Low-back disorder risk in automotive parts distribution
This descriptive study analyzed 53 jobs at seven automotive distribution centres in the northern USA. Data were collected using the Lumbar Motion Monitor (LMM) and analyzed using the LMM LBD risk model. Results indicate that, on average, the jobs in automotive parts distribution are moderately high risk; however, nearly half the sample had LMM LBD risk probability values greater than the 60% mark that has been used as a cut point in defining ''high'' risk. Many of the jobs contain trunk motions that are associated with high LBD risk; however, many of these same jobs had relatively low lifting frequencies which moderated the risk estimates.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep. 2006, Vol.36, No.9, p.755-760. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 07-635 Vitali M., Ensabella F., Stella D., Guidotti M.
Exposure to organic solvents among handicraft car painters: A pilot study in Italy
This study evaluated exposure to solvents in eight Italian car painting workshops using environmental sampling and personal sampling with charcoal samplers, and urinary determination of unmetabolized solvents. A simple regression analysis was performed to evaluate relationships between the three series of data. The solvents analysed were toluene, ethylbenzene, 1,2-dichloropropane, n-butylacetate, n-amylacetate, xylene isomers, ethylacetate and benzene. Benzene was found in all shops, at levels around or higher than the 8h time-weighted average limit (8h TWA). Other solvents were found at various levels, from 10-2 to 10-1 times the 8h TWA. Air concentrations of toluene, n-butylacetate, xylenes, and benzene were positively correlated with their urinary levels, while a negative correlation was found for ethylbenzene. The health implications of these exposure levels are discussed.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.2, p.310-317. 49 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-632 Sakai K., Hisanaga N., Shibata E., Ono Y., Takeuchi Y.
Asbestos exposures during reprocessing of automobile brakes and clutches
This study investigated asbestos exposures of workers in three small factories reprocessing automobile brakes and clutches in Japan. Airborne asbestos was collected on a membrane filter using an air sampler. Asbestos counting was performed on 295 samples using phase contrast microscopy. Only chrysotile asbestos was detected. Workers who reprocessed automobile brakes and clutches were exposed to asbestos concentrations of between 0.025 and 76.4 fibres/cm3. Geometric mean asbestos concentrations during attaching linings to brake shoes and attaching facings to clutch disks were 0.859 and 0.780 fibres/cm3, respectively. Concentrations during stripping worn brake linings and clutch facings were 0.484 and 0.382 fibres/cm3, respectively. Machine grinding and levelling of new brake lining surfaces represent potential sources of heavy asbestos exposures, unless enclosures and local ventilation are efficient.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.95-105. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 07-660 Preventing asthma and death from MDI exposure during spray-on truck bed liner and related applications
Contents of these recommendations for preventing asthma and other respiratory diseases during polyurethane spray-on applications: description of the polyurethane spray-on truck bed lining process; spray applications other than truck bed lining; health effects of isocyanates (lung injury, respiratory sensitization, cancer); current exposure limits; workplace exposure assessments; case reports of isocyanate-induced asthma and other respiratory diseases investigated by NIOSH; recommendations aimed at shop owners and suppliers of chemicals; future research. These recommendations are also summarized on a detachable sheet for display on a notice board. Appendices include: properties and chemical structure of isocyanates; spray enclosure and ventilation design considerations; supplied-air respirators and elements of a respiratory protection programme; surveillance guidelines for work-related asthma.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2006. 35p. Illus. 57 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-655 Lui Y., et al.
Respiratory protection from isocyanate exposure in the autobody repair and refinishing industry
This study evaluated the effectiveness of respiratory protection against exposure to aliphatic polyisocyanates in automobile body repair shops. A total of 36 shops were assessed for respiratory protection programme completeness. 142 workers were measured for respirator fit factor. In addition, 22 painters from 21 shops were sampled to determine the protection factors of negative pressure, air purifying half-facepiece respirators equipped with organic vapour cartridges and paint pre-filters during spray-painting and priming activities. Findings are discussed. It is concluded half-facepiece respirators equipped with organic vapour cartridges and paint prefilters provide effective protection against isocyanate exposure in spray and priming operations if workers are properly trained and fitted.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2006, Vol.3, No.5, p.234-249. Illus. 58 ref.

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