Antifertility and prenatal effects - 646 entries found
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- Antifertility and prenatal effects
Van Sittert N.J., De Jong G., Clare M.G., Davies R., Dean B.J., Wren L.J., Wright A.S.
Cytogenetic, immunological, and haematological effects in workers in an ethylene oxide manufacturing plant
Samples of blood were collected over a period of up to 14 years from 36 workers engaged in ethylene oxide (EO) manufacture and from 35 matched controls. There was a small positive correlation between length of employment in EO manufacturing and frequency of chromosome breaks and with the percentage of neutrophils in a differential white blood cell count. There was a small negative correlation between length of employment and the percentage of lymphocytes. None of these correlations had a significance for health. No correlations were found between EO exposure and the other biological parameters investigated.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1985, Vol.42, No.1, p.19-26. 21 ref.
Berlin A., Draper M., Hemminki K., Vainio H.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Monitoring human exposure to carcinogenic and mutagenic agents: Proceedings of a joint symposium held in Espoo, Finland, 12-15 Dec. 1983
These papers presented at this symposium convened by the Institute of Occupational Health in Helsinki, and organised by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) jointly with the CEC and the IARC, review the basic principles of monitoring for carcinogenic and mutagenic agents. The following aspects are covered in detail: assessment of human exposure to carcinogenic and mutagenic agents by direct chemical measurements; the toxicokinetics and metabolic pathways of these agents; dose-response relationships and individual variation in metabolism and susceptibility to the agents; currently available techniques for the assessment of human exposure to genotoxic agents.
Oxford University Press, Walton Str., Oxford OX2 6DA, United Kingdom, 1984. 457p. Illus. Bib.ref. Indexes.
Allegations of reproductive hazards from VDUs
Proceedings of a conference held in London (United Kingdom), 29-30 Nov. 1984. Contents: epidemiology of spontaneous abortions, birth defects and prematurity; adverse pregnancy outcome amongst VDT operators - the cluster phenomenon; reproduction and work with visual display units - a pilot study; physical and chemical environments at VDT work stations - air ions, electrostatic fields, magnetic fields and PCBs; electric and magnetic fields around VDTs - review of biological efects, standards and practical solutions for reducing exposure levels; a manufacturer's viewpoint; a trade union response to the allegations of reproductive hazards from VDUs; visual display unit operation - possible reproductive effects; work and pregnancy in Montreal - preliminary findings on work with visual display units; review of the radiation emission surveys of VDUs.
Humane Technology, P.O. Box 2, Quorn, Leicestershire LE12 8EG, United Kingdom, 1984. 206p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 15.00 (Europe), GBP 16.50 (elsewhere).
Your reproductive health at risk: A GMB guide to hazards in the workplace
Training and information booklet aimed at workers, outlining the major reproductive hazards in the workplace caused by chemical and physical agents.
General, Municipal, Boilermakers' and Allied Trades Union, Thorne House, Ruxley Ridge, Claygate, Esher, Surrey, KT10 OTL, United Kingdom, 1984. 9p. 12 ref. Price: GBP 1.00 (for a minimum order of 5 copies; GBP 1.50 for 10 copies; GBP 5.00 for 50 copies)
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 50. Benomyl
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 50. Benomyl [in Swedish]
The metabolism and toxic effects of benomyl and its analogues carbendazim and thiophanate-methyl are reviewed. The acute toxicity of benomyl is very low in rodents. Acute toxic effects at low concentrations are only found in aquatic organisms. Long-term toxicity studies indicate that testes and spermatogenesis are special targets of the toxic manifestations of benomyl and its degradation product carbendazim. Benomyl also causes mitotic disturbances. Chromosome damage and point mutations have been caused by benomyl. Benomyl at moderate dose levels has caused malformations and foetal deaths in mouse and rat. Evidence exists suggesting hepatocarcinogenicity for benomyl and carbendazim in mice. Benomyl must be considered a potential mutagen, carcinogen and teratogen. The possible effects on health of benomyl are most obviously shared by carbendazim and thiophanate-methyl (metabolised into carbendazim). Quantitative estimation of the risk to man, especially in occupational exposure to benomyl, is impossible at present due to a lack of human data.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 42p. 55 ref.
Experimental study on Endodan for teratogenicity and embryotoxicity
Eksperimentalno proučvane na endodan za teratogennost i embriotoksičnost [in Bulgarian]
An experiment was carried out on albino rats for assessment of the effect, during gestation, of the fungicide endodan (ethylene-thiuram monosulfide) on the intrauterine and postnatal development of the progeny. A low teratogenic and embryotoxic activity was found after a single treatment with 1/2LD50 on the 13th day of gestation. The preparation has a pronounced cumulative effect on daily administration of 1/5, 1/10 and 1/20LD50, manifested by clinical symptoms and death of a part of the pregnant animals. Behavioural abnormalities were observed in the progeny but no changes in viability and weight gain during the postnatal period.
Problemi na higienata, July 1984, Vol.9, p.88-95. Illus. 13 ref.
Principles for evaluating health risks to progeny associated with exposure to chemicals during pregnancy
This document is intended to aid in the design and assessment of studies concerned with exploring the association between exposure to chemicals during pregnancy and defective development. Aspects covered: processes involved in normal and abnormal development; methods for assessing prenatal toxic manifestations; postnatal manifestations; current and future applications of in-vitro developmental and non-mammalian animal systems; human risk evaluation; conclusions and recommendations for future activities; glossary of terms.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 177p. Bibl. Price: SF.16.00.
Third Finnish-Polish symposium on assessment of chemical exposure
Extended summaries of papers presented at the title symposium at the Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, 24-25 Sep. 1984. Topics: short-term tests for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of chemicals; genotoxicity of dioxolane and trioxane; genotoxicity of some dyes produced in Poland; chemical measurements in biological monitoring of occupational exposure to genotoxic agents; genotoxicological methods in biological monitoring; Nordic approaches to cytogenetic studies in the occupational environment; measurement of exposure to carcinogenic agents in Finland; the Finnish register of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents at work; prevention of exposure to genotoxic agents; quality control of chemical analyses in industrial hygiene; quality control rounds in dust analysis, toxicology and biological monitoring; interlaboratory quality studies; effect of sample storage conditions on lead and mercury concentrations in biological samples.
Institute of Occupational Health, Haartmaninkatu 1, 00290 Helsinki, Finland, 1984. 55p. Illus. Bibl.
Sexual disorders in male workers occupationally exposed to methyl methacrylate and vinyl chloride
Sostojanie seksual'noj sfery u rabočih-mužčin, podvergajuščihsja proizvodstvennomu vozdejstviju metilmetakrilata i vinilhlorida [in Russian]
Questionnaire surveys of 198 workers in the plastics industry and 95 controls were supplemented with hormone assays in the case of 32 plastics workers and 10 controls. Both methyl methacrylate and vinyl chloride inhibit sexual activity. Vinyl chloride seems to act primarily via the central nervous system, while methyl methacrylate acts on the sex organs; both compounds produce toxic hypogonadism. Sexual dysfunction was seen in conjunction with other occupational diseases due to exposure to the monomers. The effects of methyl methacrylate disappear 1-2 years after cessation of exposure without special treatment; workers exposed to vinyl chloride should be treated with a testosterone preparation.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1984, No.6, p.19-23. 9 ref.
Koerselman W., van der Graaf M.
Acrylonitrile: A suspected human carcinogen
Review of the literature on the carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile (an important intermediate in the chemical industry). Main conclusions: acrylonitrile has genotoxic effects in various tests in microorganisms and in mammal cells, chronic exposure to acrylonitrile causes tumours in rats; results of epidemiological studies indicate that acrylonitrile may be a human carcinogen. Acrylonitrile is very probably carcinogenic to humans. Therefore a reduction of acrylonitrile standards to the lowest practicable limit and frequent personnel monitoring are recommended.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.54, No.4, p.317-324. 41 ref.
Laurent C., Frederic J., Léonard A.Y.
Sister chromatid exchange frequency in workers exposed to high levels of ethylene oxide in a hospital sterilization service
Blood samples were taken from a group of 25 subjects exposed to high levels of ethylene oxide (EO); the quantity of EO inhaled during the past 2 years was evaluated to fall between 500 and 5800mg. Compared to a control group, the exposed group demonstrated a significant increase in the sister chromatid exchange (SCE); the rise was 100% in certain individuals. Senior workers had the highest SCE mean levels. This observation shows that the effect of exposure to EO was sufficient to produce a genetic reaction, was cumulative and in some cases persistent.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.54, No.1, p.33-43. 40 ref.
Belova I.Ju., Rafikov H.S., Husnutdinova Ė.K., Vasanova N.I., Ivaško G.A., Škuratov I.I.
Quantitative features of the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the blood serum of workers engaged in the production of chlorinated organic pesticides
Količestvennoe projavlenie aktivnosti izofermentov laktatdegidrogenazy v syvorotke krovi rabočyh, zanjatyh na proizvodstve hlororganičeskih pesticidov [in Russian]
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme made up of 4 protein chains. There are 2 genes (A and B) for these proteins. An LDH molecule can consist of 4 A-gene products, 3 A-gene products and a B-gene product, 2 of each, etc. There is a spectrum of these isoenzymes typical of healthy humans. When the LDH of workers in a chlorinated organic herbicide plant was examined, altered isoenzyme spectra were observed, even in workers with less than 5 years at the plant. The alterations imply that environmental factors at the plant activate gene B and inhibit gene A.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1984, No.2, p.30-34. 13 ref.
Potential embryotoxic hazard of the herbicide betanal (experimental data)
O potencial'noj opasnosti ėmbriotoksičeskogo dejstvija gerbicida betanala (ėksperimental'nye dannye) [in Russian]
When administered to rats in a single peroral dose of 2000mg/kg (0.5LD50) or in repeated inhalation doses of 40mg/kg (0.01LD50) at a concentration of 30mg/m3, betanal was embryotoxic and teratogenic. Changes were noted in the nucleic acid contents of certain organs of the mothers and offspring. The threshold concentration for embryotoxic action is 2mg/m3. A MAC of 0.5mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1984, No.4, p.16-18. 8 ref.
Clonfero E., Venier P., Toffolo D., Busi L., Gava C.
Mutagenesis test on urine of workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an anode plant
There was no significant increase in the mutagenicity of urine of non-smoking workers exposed to low levels (30-60µg/m3) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a plant processing anodes for aluminium electrolysis. High mutagenic activity was found in the urine of smokers, regardless of exposure to PAH.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1984, Vol.75, No.4, p.275-281. Illus. 28 ref.
Reproductive risks in the workplace
The possible effects of workplace exposure to some chemicals on the reproductive organs and cycles of men and women are described (benzene, carbon monoxide, dibromochloropropane, chlordecone, chloroprene, epichlorohydrin, ethylene dibromide, ethylene oxide, vinyl chloride, anaesthetic gases, polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury).
National Safety News, Sep. 1984, Vol.130. No.3, p.38-46.
Kurppa K., Holmberg P.C., Rantala K., Nurminen T.
Birth defects and video display terminals
A case-referent study of 183 mothers of babies born with congenital malformations, and of 203 controls. No association was found between video display terminal work (minimum 4h a day) and birth defects.
Lancet, 8 Dec. 1984, Vol.2, No.8415, p.1339. 6 ref.
Wilkins J.R., Sinks T.H.
Occupational exposures among fathers of children with Wilms' tumour
An occupation-and-exposure linkage system was used to perform an epidemiologic case-control study of paternal occupation and Wilms' tumour in offspring. Calculation of odds ratios indicated that there was no statistical difference in the frequency of occupational exposure to lead or lead compounds for fathers of children with Wilms' tumour and fathers of controls. Case fathers were found more likely to have been exposed to boron, while control fathers were found more likely to have encountered insecticides, acetylene, o-chlorobenzylidene, oil orange ss and diethylene glycol, and the differences found were statistically significant. Methodologic problems including exposure misclassification, sample size and multiple comparisons are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1984, Vol.26, No.6, p.427-435. Illus. 32 ref.
Nikula E., Kiviniitty K., Leisti J., Taskinen P.J.
Chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of nurses handling cytostatic agents
Chromosome damage was evaluated in the lymphocytes of 11 nurses with long-term exposure to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, 5-fluorouracil, DTIC and methotrexate. 5 laboratory workers and 11 hospital clerks served as referents. The number of chromosomally aberrant lymphocytes and the number of chromosome-type breaks was significantly higher in the group of nurses than in the referent group. There was no significant difference in the number of chromatid-type breaks between the groups.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1984, Vol.10, No.2, p.71-74. 20 ref.
Goldsmith J.R., Potashnik G., Israeli R.
Reproductive outcomes in families of DBCP-exposed men
The families of 30 male workers employed in a plant which, until 1977, produced 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) were monitored for 5 years. Of 13 men who were azospermic in 1977 and had >100h of estimated exposure, 4 have recovered spermatogenesis and 2 have fathered children. 8 men who were oligospermic in 1977 and were exposed for 34-95h have also fathered children. 5 men with exposure times estimated at 10-60h and who were normospermic in 1977 have fathered 5 children. The outcome of the pregnancies among families of 4 non-exposed men and of exposed men prior to exposure resulted in 27 male and 24 female children. No increase in spontaneous abortion occurred in pregnancies fathered by exposed men. No infant or foetal deaths and no congenital abnormalities occurred among children born to wives of men after exposure whereas 4 infant deaths and 5 congenital abnormalities occurred among babies born of unexposed pregnancies. A female sex predominance was found in children born to families of exposed workers but all are in good health.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1984, Vol.39, No.2, p.85-89. 16 ref.
Lemasters G.K., Selevan S.G.
Use of exposure data in occupational reproductive studies
Different types of chronic and acute exposure models are presented that can be used to help reduce misclassification and delineate exposure-effect relationships more accurately in reproductive studies. The latency period between exposure and the adverse effect may be days, weeks or months, and inaccurate identification of the specific exposure period which initiated the adverse event can contribute to sizeable misclassification errors. The advantages and disadvantages of different sources of exposure data are also discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1984, Vol.10, No.1, p.1-6. 20 ref.
Hansen J.P., Allen J., Brock K., Falconer J., Helms M.J., Shaver G.C., Strohm B.
Normal sister chromatid exchange levels in hospital sterilization employees exposed to ethylene oxide
Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies were determined for 9 female and 5 male hospital workers exposed to ethylene oxide (EO) in sterilising areas and were compared with those of 14 controls matched for sex, race and age. Time-weighted average (TWA) and peak ambient levels of EO were measured in the sterilising areas. All workers were exposed to <5ppm TWA of EO, and there were no statistically significant differences in SCE levels between workers and controls. Smoking was associated with increased SCE levels. In this particular hospital setting no evidence of genetic effects stemming from exposure to low levels of EO was found.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1984, Vol.26, No.1, p.29-32. Illus. 15 ref.
Degraeve N., Chollet M.C., Moutschen J.
Genetic and cytogenetic effects of fenitrothion
Mice were injected intraperitoneally with a 1g/kg dose of the organophosphorus insecticide fenitrothion. No increase in the percentage of chromosome aberrations was observed in bone marrow cells and spermatogonia. A dominant lethal mutation assay did not show any enhancement of foetal mortality before or after implantation.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1984, Vol.39, No.1, p.24-26. 13 ref.
Ericson A., Källén B., Zetterström R., Eriksson M., Westerholm P.
Delivery outcome of women working in laboratories during pregnancy
Record-linkage of the 1975 Swedish census and the Medical Birth Register of infants born in 1976 was used to identify 1,161 infants who were born to women coded as laboratory workers. When these infants were compared to 98,354 born in Sweden in 1976, a higher than expected number were found to have died neonatally and/or had congenital malformations. A group of 26 singleton infants who died or had serious malformations were selected for a case-control study using 50 controls from the total group of 1,161. An analysis of a questionnaire survey asking about work during pregnancy revealed no specific type of laboratory work which was more common among the cases than the controls.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1984, Vol.39, No.1, p.5-10. 12 ref.
Axelsson G., Lütz C., Rylander R.
Exposure to solvents and outcome of pregnancy in university laboratory employees
Results of a questionnaire survey of 745 Swedish women who worked in laboratories of the University of Göteborg between 1968 and 1979. There were altogether 1160 pregnancies in the group. When analysed according to exposure and non-exposure to organic solvents, a slightly raised, but not significant, rate of miscarriage was found among the exposed women. Perinatal death rates and the prevalence of malformations were the same in both groups. Shift work during pregnancy was significantly related to a higher miscarriage rate (relative risk: 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.36-7.47).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1984, Vol.41, No.3, p.305-312. 27 ref.
Bos R.P., Hulshof C.T.J., Theuws J.L.G., Henderson P.T.
Genotoxic exposure of workers creosoting wood
Creosote, a mixture of liquid and solid hydrocarbons used as a wood preserver, was tested positive for mutagenicity. Rats experimentally exposed (by intraperitoneal injection) to creosote also had mutagenic substances in their urine. No mutagenicity was found in the urine of workers occupationally exposed to creosote.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1984, Vol.41, No.2, p.260-262. 7 ref.
Gillian Clare M., Yardley-Jones A., Maclean A.C., Dean B.J.
Chromosome analysis from peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers after an acute exposure to benzene
10 dockworkers were accidentally exposed to benzene, after a spillage of 1200 gallons during the loading of a ship. Shortly afterward, the workers' urine showed heavy phenol excretion. Approx. 3 months after the incident, venous blood from the exposed workers and from 11 controls was analysed for lymphocyte chromosome aberrations and for sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). No significant increase in chromosome aberrations was found in the exposed group; the increase in the frequency of SCE, slightly higher in the exposed group and varying with the phenol excretion level, was not statistically significant.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1984, Vol.41, No.2, p.249-253. 19 ref.
Genetic toxicology in Belgium
Collection of abstracts of papers presented at the 1982 and 1983 annual meetings of the "Belgian Environmental Mutagen Society". Most of the papers give the results of mutagenicity tests in rats, or of the analysis of the genetic effects on certain animal cells of exposure to toxic substances.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, 1984, Vol.21, No.1, p.1-16.
Mabille V., Roels H., Jacquet P., Léonard A., Lauwerys R.
Cytogenetic examination of leucocytes of workers exposed to mercury vapour
22 workers at chloralkali plant and at a plant where mercury is amalgamated with zinc were studied together with 25 controls. Average level of mercury in the urine of exposed workers was 117µg/g creatinine, in blood 3.1µg/100ml. There was no increase in the number of structural aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The results of cytogenetic studies (sister chromatid exchanges, chromosomal aberrations) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes are not good biological indicators of mercury exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.53, No.3, p.257-260. 14 ref.
Inhalation exposure of rats and mice to 1,3-butadiene (BD) at 625-8000ppm induced a carcinogenic response at multiple sites. Offspring of pregnant rats exposed to BD at 8000ppm had major skeletal defects, and foetal toxicity was observed after exposure at 200-8000ppm. Workers employed in facilities producing styrene-butadiene rubber showed an increased, but not statistically significant, risk of mortality from neoplasms of the lymphatic and haematopoietic tissues and from leukaemia. BD should be regarded as a potential occupational carcinogen and teratogen and a possible reproductive hazard.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 9 Feb. 1984. 18p. 32 ref.
Identification and assessment of the effects of chemicals on reproduction and development (Reproductive toxicology)
Contents: introduction (motivation of the study); the reproductive cycle in mammals; influence of exogenous agents on reproduction; some characteristics of the reproductive toxic effects of chemicals; current status of testing for reproductive toxicity (tests in current guidelines and other techniques; epidemiology); significance of experimental animal data and their relevance to man; areas deserving further investigation; summary and conclusions (interspecies differences in response to chemicals mean that testing protocols must be developed for each substance of interest, but many of the difference between the guidelines of different countries could be eliminated). In appendixes: glossary; list of leading guidelines for reproductive toxicity testing; recommendations from some leading guidelines.
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, Boîte 63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 1983. 32p. Illus. 10 ref.
Christian M.S., Galbraith W.M., Voytek P., Mehlman M.
Assessment of reproductive and teratogenic hazards
Section I of this volume includes a statement of the problem, an overview of historical perspectives and a discussion of major incidents that have raised concern about reproductive hazards and deals with hazards presented by environmental substances, pharmaceuticals, radiation and food additives and with practical applications of systems for rapid detection of potential teratogenic hazards. Section II contains the proceedings of 2 conferences sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1-3 Oct. 1980, Atlanta, Georgia, 7-10 Dec. 1980, St. Louis, Missouri, USA) and describes in detail a variety of toxicity and screening tests available to assess risk to female reproduction. Reproductive hazards to males are also examined, and the current state of knowledge on estimation of risk to human conceptus from environmental substances is presented.
Princeton Scientific Publishers, 301 N. Harrison Street, Suite 120, CN 5279, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA, 1983. 160p. Illus. Bibl. Index.
Mirkova E., Antov G.
Experimental evaluation of the risk of prenatal pathology due to warfarin, a coumarin rodenticide
Eksperimentalna ocenka na riska ot prenatalna patologija pri văzdejstvie na kumarinovija rodenticid varfarin [in Bulgarian]
The embryotoxic and teratogenic effect of the coumarin preparation warfarin, the active ingredient of the Bulgarian rodenticide formulation Raton, was studied in rats. The prenatal toxicity of the preparation (peroral administration) was determined at doses of 8-0,04mg/kg (LD50 oral for rats, 16mg/kg). Warfarin, at all levels studied, was embryotoxic and teratogenic. It increased the level of embryonal lethality, provoked a characteristic haemorrhagic syndrome in the foetus, induced structural malformations of the hind limbs, internal hydrocephalus and haemorrhages in the brain tissue and abdominal cavity. Measures are proposed for the protection of women working in the production of coumarin rodenticides.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, Mar. 1983, Vol.26, No.6, p.476-482. Illus. 33 ref.
Mirkova E., Zaikov C., Antov G., Mikhailova A., Khinkova L., Benchev I.
Prenatal toxicity of xylene
Pregnant rats were exposed to an industrial mixture of xylene isomers. Three levels of xylene were tested: 10mg/m3, 50mg/m3 (MAC value for xylene in Bulgaria) and 500mg/m3 in sessions of 6h/day 5days/week throughout the gestation period. The experimental conditions result in increased postimplantation embryonal mortality, delayed physical development of the foetus, increased incidence of internal organ anomalies (hydrocephalus, microphtalmia, intercerebral haematomas, haemorrhages in the liver) as well as impaired sternum and skull ossification. At 50 and 500mg/m3, disturbances in postnatal development are observed. The 50mg/m3 concentration is apparently the threshold of xylene's embryotropic effect. Protective measures for reducing occupational exposure to xylene are proposed.
Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology and Immunology, 1983, Vol.27, No.3, p.337-343. Illus. 15 ref.
Sorsa M., Donner M., Falck K., Heinonen T., Hemminki K., Husgafvel-Pursiainen K., Lindbohm M.L., Mäki-Paakkanen J., Norppa H., Vainio H.
Genotoxic effects of occupational chemical exposure
Työperäisen kemiallisen altistumisen genotoksiset vaikutukset [in Finnish]
A study of groups of workers in the reinforced plastics, rotogravure printing and rubber industries. The reactivity, metabolism and mutagenicity of some potential problem chemicals were studied in the laboratory. Worker exposure to genotoxic agents was then assessed by determining the mutagenicity of urine samples, with bacteria as the indicator organisms. Examination of lymphocytes from the workers showed a marked elevation in chromosomal aberrations in reinforced plastics workers, who are exposed to styrene; rubber workers, who are exposed to several agents, showed frequencies of chromosomal aberration only slightly higher than control values, and printing industry workers, exposed to toluene, showed no increase at all. Smoking was associated with chromosome defects. There was no elevated frequency of spontaneous abortion among women in the rubber industry as a whole, and no teratogenic effect was observed. A subset of the women in the rubber industry was at risk of spontaneous abortion, but no cause was identified.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia, 1983, No.3, p.170-191. Illus. 102 ref.
Davidkova E., Balabaeva L., Kurčatova G., Ribarova F.
Experimental study on the gonadotoxic effect of carbon disulfide
Eksperimentalno proučvane na gonadotoksičnija efekt na serovăgleroda [in Bulgarian]
Carbon disulfide at concentrations of 50mg/m3 and 10mg/m3 had no gonadotoxic effect on rats. The concentration 0.03mg/m3, corresponding to the maximum allowable concentration in atmospheric air, induced no statistically significant alterations in the experimental animals.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1983, Vol.26, No.3, p.271-223. 25 ref.
Norpoth K., Waschinsky S.
Documentation of the methods and results of published teratogenesis studies
Dokumentation der Methoden und Ergebnisse publizierter Teratogenesestudien [in German]
This is a synoptic table giving an alphabetical list of substances tested (mainly those on the German MAC list), their possession or lack of demonstrated teratogenicity, the nature of the damage produced by those substances with teratogenic action, the species in which the damage was demonstrated, the dose and route of administration of the tested substance, the gestation period of the test animal, the German MAC value, and the document(s) in which the tests were reported. The list is divided into compounds administered by inhalation, compounds administered by other routes, metals and compounds, biocides, and mixtures. The presentation enables rapid evaluation of teratogenic hazards in the workplace.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1983. 98p. 321 ref. Price: DM.20.25.
Methods for detecting occupational causes of male infertility - Reproductive history versus semen analysis
While traditional parameters of semen quality are easily measured and changes may indicate an effect on the reproductive tract due to exposure, semen specimens are hard to obtain, and appropriate reference groups cannot be ensured. Changes in semen quality need not lead to reproductive abnormalities, and past exposures may not be detectable. Reproductive histories, on the other hand, are easily obtained, and effects of exposure are evident. However, long-term exposure may be needed to produce a detectable effect. Analysis of fertility data requires technical expertise. Data for analysis should be gathered during employee medical examinations whenever potential reproductive effects exist.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1983, Vol.9, No.5, p.371-376. Illus. 15 ref.
Glycol ethers: 2-methoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethanol
Animal experiments provide evidence of dose-related embryotoxicity and other reproductive effects after exposure, by different routes of administration, to 2-methoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethanol. Increased incidences of embryonic death, teratogenesis and growth retardation were found in female animals, and testicular atrophy and sterility in male animals exposed at levels below the OSHA Permissible Exposure Levels. These substances, and formulations containing them, should be regarded as having the potential to cause adverse reproductive effects in male and female workers, and this information should be provided to workers, consumers, and professional and trade associations.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 2 May 1983. 22p. 37 ref.
Genotoxic health hazards in the rubber industry
Proceedings of a symposium at Espoo, Finland (29-30 Nov. 1982). 12 papers are reproduced under the general heads: chemistry and toxicology of rubber chemicals, biological monitoring among rubber workers, cancer mortality and morbidity, reproductive and teratogenic hazards, conclusions and recommendations.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1983, Vol.9, Suppl.2, 93p. Illus. 1 ref.
Effects of the work environment on reproductive function and foetal development
Arbetsmiljöns inverkan på fortplantningsförmåga och fosterutveckling [in Swedish]
Proceedings of a conference held in Malmö (Sweden), 16-17 Nov. 1982. Topics covered: observed cases of reproductive effects and examples of genotoxic substances; metabolic fate of toxic substances in the environment; methodological problems; concrete examples in industry (general effects of contaminants in the workplace on the foetus; miscarriages - survey problems, laboratory staff, nurses exposed to anaesthetic gases; genotoxic risks in the rubber industry); practical problems in the workplace (the pharmaceutical industry, operating theatres, the rubber industry, the lead industry); examples of research in progress in the Nordic countries; TLVs; compensation problems.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, Nov. 1983. 126p. Illus. 13 ref.
Genotoxicity of phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA
Academic dissertation. There was no correlation between exposure of sprayers to 2,4-D or MCPA and the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in their blood lymphocytes. Exposure of rats to the compounds likewise gave no increase in lymphocyte SCE. MCPA gave a slight increase in SCE in the bone marrow of Chinese hamsters; 2,4-D and the drug clofibrate (a suspected carcinogen structurally related to 2,4-D and MCPA) did not. Both herbicides gave a slight increase in SCE in hamster ovary cells in culture, but there was no dose-effect correlation and no relation between the frequency of SCE and the purity of the compounds administered. Both 2,4-D and MCPA induced proliferation of peroxysomes in the livers of hamsters and rats, and decreased serum lipid levels in rats; both effects are typical of clofibrate. Thus, any genotoxic effect that the herbicides might have would be due to the same indirect mechanism as that postulated for clofibrate.
Institute of Occupational Health, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 1, Helsinki, Finland, 1983. 140p. Illus. Bibl.
Teratogens and the male - An analysis with special reference to herbicide exposure
There are 3 mechanisms by which exposure of the male to toxic substances may cause poor reproductive performance or congenital malformations in his offspring: a direct effect on pituitary-hypothalamic function or male sex hormones; a direct effect on the sperm itself; abnormalities in seminal fluid with secondary abnormalities due to dissolved toxins. Experimental studies with 7 drugs and 5 groups of toxic chemicals are reviewed. Clinical studies reviewed relate to lead, vinyl chloride, the insecticide carbaryl, the pesticides chlordecone and dibromochloropropane, radiation, fathers with epilepsy, and male and female anaesthetists.
Medical Journal of Australia, 9 July 1983, Vol.2, No.1, p.16-20. 44 ref.
Littorin M., Högstedt B., Strömbäck B., Karlsson A., Welinder H., Mitelman F., Skerfving S.
No cytogenetic effects in lymphocytes of stainless steel welders
In 24 manual metal arc stainless steel welders with intense and long-term exposure to welding fumes no statistically significant differences from 24 matched controls were found in the frequency of cells with structural aberrations, frequency of micronuclei, or sister chromatid exchanges.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1983, Vol.9, No.3, p.259-264. Illus. 38 ref.
Pesticide suit hits Dow: six workers awarded $5 million
6 workers in the United States were awarded substantial damages following sterility and testicular damage caused by occupational exposure to the pesticide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). The workers were not adequately informed of the dangers of exposure by the manufacturers of DBCP.
Chemical and Engineering News, 25 Apr. 1983, Vol.61, No.17, p.4.
Bempong M.A., Hall E.V.
Reproductive toxicology of 1,3-diphenylguanidine: Analysis of induced sperm abnormalities in mice and hamsters and reproductive consequences in mice
Animals were given 4 or 8mg/kg diphenylguanidine (DPG) for 1-5 weeks. DPG induced time and dose-dependent morphological changes in sperm; significant decreases in sperm count and testicular weight; irregularly shaped seminiferous tubules; reduced fertility indices and implants per pregnancy, and increased foetal mortality.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1983, Vol.11, No.4-6, p.869-878. Illus. 13 ref.
Wägar G., Tolonen M., Tanner P., Helpiö E.
Serum gonadotropins and testosterone in men occupationally exposed to carbon disulfide
69 men exposed to CS2 in viscose rayon production and 22 non-exposed controls were studied. Duration of exposure was 1-36 years. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were significantly higher in the exposed men, that of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) significantly lower. Luteinising hormone (LH) values were significantly higher in 24-31 year-old exposed men than similar-aged controls. SHBG, FSH, LH and free testosterone index were significantly different from controls in men aged <39 years exposed to CS2 for 1-9 years, whereas when exposure was ≥10 years, only FSH levels were significantly different in this age group from controls. In men aged ≥40 years after 10 years of exposure, only FSH and LH were significantly higher. Levels of CS2 well below the TLV of 30mg/m3 may affect the hormonal balance in the pituitary-gonadal axis, suggesting an increased risk of latent primary gonadal insufficiency.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1983, Vol.11, No.4-6, p.691-701. Illus. 20 ref.
Workplace reproductive risk: Corporate responsibilities
Corporate occupational health teams are developing effective programmes to protect the reproductive health of employees. Existing resources in toxicology, epidemiology, industrial hygiene, clinical occupational medicine and data systems are being used to resolve remaining problems. An organised, methodical approach stressing inventory, toxin identification, risk assessment, worker education and appropriate workplace controls is needed.
Medical Bulletin, 1983, Vol.43, No.1, p.30-39. 29 ref.
Hanis N.M., Phillips S.C.
Considerations in the development of a reproductive surveillance system for Exxon
A plan is presented for a corporation-wide medical surveillance system which can be used to determine the reproductive risk to workers resulting from occupational exposure to toxic substances. Sections cover: background; objectives; human reproductive outcome measures (biologic basis of adverse human reproductive outcomes; definition of reproductive outcome measures; criteria for evaluating the suitability of reproductive outcomes for use in a surveillance system; recommendations; sample size requirements); definition of exposure; data requirements, sources and handling; study management; planning and implementation.
Medical Bulletin, 1983, Vol.43, No.1, p.3-29. 24 ref.
Farulla A., Alimena G., Naro G., Boccia G., Monaco E., Nanni M., Raymondi G., Tomei F.
Study of the effect of occupational exposure to mutagenic substances on the karyotype clonal evolution in acute leukaemias
Studio dell'effetto della esposizione professionale a sostanze mutagene sulla evoluzione clonale del cariotipo nelle leucemie acute [in Italian]
83 patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia were classified according to their occupational exposure to mutagenic agents (solvents, insecticides, petroleum products). 21 patients had such exposure, while 62 did not. 85.5% of the exposed patients, but only 40.3% of the unexposed ones, showed clonal abnormalities according to chromosome banding experiments. The distribution of certain chromosome aberrations also differed between the two groups. Mutagenic agents seem to influence the karyotype clonal evolution during leukaemia.
Lavoro umano, Jan.-Feb. 1983, Vol.31, No.1, p.5-13. 19 ref.
Parodi S., Zunino A., Ottaggio L., De Ferrari M., Santi L.
Quantitative correlation between carcinogenicity and sister chromatid exchange induction in vivo for a group of 11 N-nitroso derivatives
Studies in mice. All the compounds were carcinogenic, and 4 of them were direct-acting alkylating agents. The correlation was compared with that of alkaline DNA fragmentation in liver DNA in vivo and with the Ames test, and the correlation between DNA adducts and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) was evaluated. DNA damage was slightly more predictive and the Ames test less predictive than SCE evaluation. The predictivity of these tests for hydrazine derivatives, aromatic amines and azo derivatives is also examined. Different tests are suitable for different classes of compounds.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar. 1983, Vol.11, No.3, p.337-346. Illus. 25 ref.
Golding J., Sladden T.
Congenital malformations and agricultural workers
Information collected for all births in Oxfordshire and West Berkshire (United Kingdom) since 1965 shows no evidence of excess congenital malformation in the children of agricultural, horticultural or forestry workers. There is no evidence to suggest that the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenol has a teratogenic effect.
Lancet, 18 June 1983, Vol.1, No.8338, p.1393. 7 ref.
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