Antifertility and prenatal effects - 646 entries found
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Kitaeva L.V., Švarcman P.Ja.
Toxicological and hygienic evaluation of inhalation toxicity of formaldehyde
Toksiko-gigieničeskaja ocenka formal'degida pri ingaljacionnom vozdejstvii [in Russian]
The cytogenetic activity of formaldehyde in rat bone marrow was studied after 4 months inhalation exposure to the substance. Formaldehyde concentrations in the exposure chambers were maintained at 0.5mg/m3 (current USSR MAC) and 1.5mg/m3. Formaldehyde increased the frequency of chromosome damage (aberration rate). The findings suggest that the existing USSR MAC for formaldehyde in workplace air of 0.5mg/m3 cannot be viewed as genetically safe and needs revising.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1988, No.5, p.75-76. 8 ref.
Yardley-Jones A., Anderson D., Jenkinson P.C., Lovell D.P., Blowers S.D., Davies M.J.
Genotoxic effects in peripheral blood and urine of workers exposed to low level benzene
Blood samples were obtained from a population of refinery workers of different age groups. 66 men with low average exposure to benzene and 33 male controls were investigated. An examination of cell cycle kinetics and sister chromatid exchange was carried out which showed no significant differences between groups of individuals varying in their drinking and smoking habits or their exposure to diagnostic x-rays. Individuals with the lowest and highest phenol values were examined for urine mutagenicity, with urinary phenol used here as an indicator of benzene exposure. There were no differences in any of the biochemical measures or haematological parameters investigated in any of the indidivuals except that higher values for mean corpuscular volume were found in exposed than in control individuals.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1988, Vol.45, No.10, p.694-700. Illus. 22 ref.
The mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride: a historical review and assessment
It is well established that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of vinyl chloride can cause angiosarcoma of the liver, but there is no convincing evidence that it causes cancer at other sites, or that it has teratogenic or heritable mutagenic effects in man. Various non-carcinogenic effects of chronic occupational exposure, collectively called "vinyl chloride disease" have not been reported in workers exposed to vinyl chloride after permissible levels were lowered to a few ppm in the early 1970s. Compliance with limits on industrial emissions and residual monomer in plastic products has reduced general exposure to negligible levels.
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louise 250, B. 63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 28 July 1988. 147p. Illus. Bibl.
Nehéz M., Berencsi G., Freye H.A., Huszta E., Mazzag É., Scheufler H., Dési I.
Analysis in mice of the prenatal toxicity of some paints used in the ceramics industry
Néhány kerámiaipari festék prenatális-toxikológiai hatásának vizsgálata egéren [in Hungarian]
No embryotoxic or teratogenic effects were found in mice exposed to any one of 16 paints used in the ceramics industry. The paints were fed to pregnant mice in 3 doses of 1000mg/kg during the 6th - 12th days of pregnancy.
Egészségtudomány, 1988, Vol.32, No.172-175.
Shaw G.M., Gold E.B.
Methodological considerations in the study of parental occupational exposures and congenital malformations in offspring
The existence of hazardous substances in the workplace has raised concerns about the potential of these substances for adverse reproductive effects. Identification of associations between parental occupational exposures and congenital malformations in the offspring may provide the opportunity for preventing such exposures and thus reduce the risk of malformations. However, there are many methodological considerations inherent in studying the potential relation between parental occupational exposures and congenital malformations in the offspring. Considerations relating to outcome include methods and timing of ascertaining cases with malformations, diagnostic criteria, and problems in grouping malformations for purposes of analysis. With regard to measuring exposures, issues include methods for obtaining valid estimates of the nature, duration, timing of exposure, and exposure-response relationship. Other methodological issues discussed include selection of appropriate reference groups, sample size, and multiple hypothesis testing.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1988, Vol.14, No.6, p.344-355. 88 ref.
Pastides H., Calabrese E.J., Hosmer D.W., Harris D.R.
Spontaneous abortion and general illness symptoms among semiconductor manufacturers
Personal interviews were conducted with manufacturing workers, spouses of male manufacturers, and an internal control group. Elevated spontaneous abortion ratios were observed for females working in the "diffusion" (38.9%) and photolithographic processes (31.1%). Various general health symptoms were examined and reported more frequently among manufacturers than the non-exposed. These results should be viewed as tentative until studies with larger numbers and more detailed exposure data are carried out.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1988, Vol.30, No.7, p.543-551. 46 ref.
Annotated bibliography on reproductive health hazards in the workplace in Canada
Les risques pour la reproduction inhérents au milieu de travail au Canada - Bibliographie annotée [in French]
The emphasis is on Canadian material and experience since 1980 and relevant legal cases since 1970. It includes social, legal, medical, economic, scientific and political research and arguments which commonly arise. The issues addressed in the material include: hazards of women's jobs traditionally considered safe; reproductive hazards to men; protective and anti-discrimination legislation; exclusionary policies of employers; hazards associated with video display terminal (VDT) use; strategies for achieving healthier and safer workplaces. On some subjects, there is a divergence of opinion and/or approach. There are references to Canadian research in progress, important legal cases and pertinent legislation.
Publications Distribution Centre, Labour Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OJ2, Canada, 1988. 74p.
Berg M., Lindelöf B., Langlet I., Victorin K.
Absence of mutagenic response to radiation from a video display terminal
The standard Ames Salmonella test (TA 100) was used to assess the mutagenicity of radiation from a video display terminal. The Ames test is a sensitive assay that assesss the ability of a chemical to damage deoxyribonucleic acid. It has also been employed to assess the mutagenicity of electromagnetic radiation. An extremely short distance (62mm) from a video display terminal and an extremely high electrostatic field strength (250 kV/m) was employed. No mutagenic response was found in this test system.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1988, Vol.14, No.1, p.49-51. 15 ref.
The alleged reproductive hazards of VDUs
This paper reviews the available evidence on the alleged reproductive hazards of VDUs. It concludes that it is unlikely that any threat is posed by irradiation. Poor design of the work station and job-related stress may pose a problem for some users. However, these reflect the way in which the VDU is used, and not the VDU per se. It is recognised that anxiety about VDU use needs to be taken into account. Current guidelines on VDU are introduced and briefly discussed.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1987, Vol.1, No.1, p.49-57. 43 ref.
Ercolanelli M., Bavazzano P., Lapini V.
Sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in occupational exposure to dyes in the textile industry
Scambi tra cromatidi fratelli e aberrazioni cromosomiche in soggetti professionalmente esposti a coloranti nell'industria tessile [in Italian]
The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) was studied in peripheral lymphocytes of 10 workers exposed to dyes in the textile industry and was compared to the frequency found in a group of 5 controls. The results showed a higher frequency both of SCE and of CA in the exposed workers compared to the controls and although obtained in a small group of subjects, suggest the need for further investigations on genotoxic risk in this occupational area.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1987, Vol.78, No.5, p.393-396. 7 ref.
Kuz'minov B.P., Kokot V.R.
Toxicological and hygienic characteristics of methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate
Toksikologo-gigieničeskaja harakteristika metilovogo ėfira 2-benzimidazolil-karbaminovoj kisloty [in Russian]
In animal experiments, methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate (MBC) showed teratogenic and gonadotoxic effects. Its threshold of action was 33.9mg/m3. MBC is not absorbed by the skin. Its effects are strongly cumulative. The results of the studies permitted the establishment of a MAC for MBC in workplace air (0.1mg/m3) on the basis of its gonadotoxic action.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Mar. 1987, No.3, p.58-60. Illus. 24 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer
IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans - Silica and some silicates
This publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans (10-17 June, 1986, Lyon, France). Minerals considered were: silica, wollastonite, sepiolite, talc, erionite. Information covered for each mineral: synonyms and trade names, structure, mechanisms of biological activity, chemical and physical properties, occupational and nonoccupational exposures, occupational exposure limits, biological data relevant to the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk to humans, carcinogenicity studies in animals, toxic effects, mutagenicity and other short-term tests, long-term toxicity, effects on reproduction and prenatal toxicity, epidemiological studies, extensive bibliography.
Distribution and Sales Service, World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1987. 289p. Illus. Bibl. Glossary. Price: CHF 65.00.
IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Genetic and related effects: An updating of selected IARC Monographs from Volumes 1 to 42
Presentation of the results of a recent appraisal of the findings from tests for genetic and related effects in experimental systems and from studies of DNA damage, chromosomal effects and mutation in humans for all agents (chemicals, groups of chemicals, industrial processes, occupational exposures and cultural habits totalling 209 items) that had been evaluated in Volumes 1-42 of the Monographs.
International Research Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, 1987. 729p. Bibl.
Simultaneous assessment of genetic and occupational risk factors
The medical and epidemiological literature were surveyed and the methods for assessing genetic and occupational risks in the study were identified and critiqued. 5 major methodological approaches were identified: adjustment for race, ethnicity, and sex; case studies of occupational disease in genetically susceptible workers; cross-sectional evaluations of the prevalence of disease among genetically differentiated groups; case-control studies of the association of genetic characteristics and disease; and family studies of disease aggregations. These approaches, in part, allow for controlling genetic factors or identifying susceptible genes or phenotype markers that may differentiate occupational populations according to risk.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1987, Vol.29, No.11, p.884-891. 71 ref.
El Batawi M.A., Fomenko V., Hemminki K., Sorsa M., Vergieva T.
Effects of occupational health hazards on reproductive functions
This report of a WHO meeting (Geneva, Switzerland, 4-8 Aug. 1986) covered: human reproduction; reproductive dysfunction; assessment of hazards; outcomes of occupational exposure (altered fertility and sexual function, menstrual disorders, work-related disorders during pregnancy, spontaneous abortions, reproductive risks in certain occupational groups, congenital malformations, childhood cancers); evaluation and control of reproductive hazards; research needs.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1987. 60p. Illus. 186 ref.
Ulfvarson U., Alexandersson R., Aringer L., Svensson E., Hedenstierna G., Hogstedt C., Holmberg B., Rosén G., Sorsa M.
Effects of exposure to vehicle exhaust on health
Exposure to combustion engine exhaust and its effect on crews of roll-on roll-off ships and car ferries and on bus garage staff were studied. The peak concentrations recorded for some of the substances were: total particulates (diesel only) 1.0mg/m3, benzene (diesel) 0.3mg/m3, formaldehyde (gasoline and diesel) 0.8mg/m3, and nitrogen dioxide (diesel) 1.2mg/m3. The highest observed concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 30ng/m3 from gasoline and diesel exhaust. In an experimental study, in which volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust diluted with air to achieve a nitrogen dioxide concentration of 3.8mg/m3, no effect on pulmonary function was observed. Pulmonary function was affected during a workday of occupational exposure to engine emissions, but it normalised after a few days with no exposure. The impairment of pulmonary function had no appreciable, adverse, short-term impact on individual work capacity. Analyses of urinary mutagenicity and thioether excretion showed no sign of exposure to genotoxic compounds among the occupationally exposed workers or among the subjects in the experimental study.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1987, Vol.13, No.6, p.505-512. 39 ref.
Selevan S.G., Lemasters G.K.
The dose-response fallacy in human reproductive studies of toxic exposures
The manner in which exposure is defined can affect the findings of reproductive studies of toxic exposures. The individual end points potentially examined, such as foetal loss, subfertility, and congenital malformations are effects of different severity. The most extreme effect of the 3 is infertility because no pregnancy is possible, and the least extreme, congenital malformations recognised at birth. End points observed at birth are survivors of a long and complex process. The process yielding one of these adverse end points may result from a number of factors, of which exposure is only one. For example, a very high exposure could result in early foetal loss, whereas a lower one might result in a congenital malformation observed at birth. If the probability of a less severe end point falls due to increasing probability of more severe end points with increasing exposure, then a contradictional dose-response relationship may be observed in the study of one type of outcome.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1987, Vol.29, No.5, p.451-454. Illus. 13 ref.
Schroder S.M., Ratcliffe J.M., Turner T.W., Hormung R.W.
The use of new field methods of semen analysis in the study of occupational hazards to reproduction: The example of ethylene dibromide
Mobile laboratory facilities to analyse fresh samples for semen characteristics, concentration and morphology are described. A cross-sectional study was made of workers engaged in papaya fumigation and the results were discussed in the context of semen analysis as an indicator of hazards to the male reproductive system.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1987, Vol.29, No.12, p.963-966. 25 ref.
Rosenberg M.J., Feldblum P.J., Marshall E.G.
Occupational influences on reproduction: A review of recent literature
There has been great interest in reproductive impairment, estimated to affect 30% of US couples, but the proportion of such problems resulting from occupational exposures remains unknown. This interest has spawned numerous papers that investigate the relation between occupation and reproduction. Updating a previous review, a comprehensive listing is provided of the literature published between 1981 and 1985. The review reveals common weaknesses, including inadequate sample size and poor response rates, potential for selection bias, inadequate attention to potentially confounding factors, and poor characterisation of exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1987, Vol.29, No.7, p.584-591. Bibl. 1 ref.
Sarto F., Clonfero E., Bartolucci G.B., Franceschi C., Chiricolo M., Levis A.G.
Sister chromatid exchanges and DNA repair capability in sanitary workers exposed to ethylene oxide: Evaluation of the dose-effect relationship
Determination of ethylene oxide (EtO) in the working environment and induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in peripheral lymphocytes of 10 exposed workers and 10 control subjects matched for sex, age, and smoking habits are reported. The 10 newly examined workers were exposed to EtO concentrations (1.84ppm as time-weighted average) intermediate between the high (10.7ppm) and low (0.35ppm) levels of exposure of the two previously examined groups (19 and 22 workers, respectively). A statistically significant increase of SCE frequency was observed between the present control and exposed groups. The inducibility of UDS by gamma rays was insignificantly lower in the lymphocytes of the exposed workers than in controls. A significant relation between the frequency of SCE and the level of EtO exposure for the three exposed groups was demonstrated by two statistical methods. It is suggested that the present Italian threshold limit value for EtO (3ppm) may not protect the exposed workers against possible genotoxic effects and that even a chronic exposure to 1ppm may not be devoid of genotoxic risk.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.5, p.625-637. Illus. 30 ref.
Ahlborg G., Bjerkedal T., Egenaes J.
Delivery outcome among women employed in the plastics industry in Sweden and Norway
Employment records for 1973-1981 were obtained from companies producing and/or processing plastics and these were matched with the national medical birth and malformation registers. Within the cohorts of pregnancies during which the mother held employment in a plastics factory (1,397 in the Swedish and 288 in the Norwegian study), cases of stillbirths or infant deaths, selected minformations, or low birthweight (< 2,000g) were identified. For each case, two controls from the same source were individually matched with regard to date of birth, age of mother, and parity. An increased odds ratio was found for processing of polyvinyl-chloride plastics. However, processing of cold plastics yielded a higher odds ratio than processing of heated plastics. No increased odds ratio was found for processing of styrene or polyurethane plastics. Since the whole of the plastics industry in the two countries did not participate in the studies and the number of cases was small, the result must be interpreted with caution.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.5, p.507-517. 22 ref.
Ratcliffe J.M., Schrader S.M., Steenland K., Clapp D.E., Turner T., Hornung R.W.
Semen quality in papaya workers with long-term exposure to ethylene dibromide
A cross-sectional study of semen quality was conducted among 46 men employed in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii, with an average duration of exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) of 5yrs and a geometric mean breathing zone exposure to airborne EDB of 88ppb (8h TWA) and peak exposures of up to 262ppb. The control group consisted of 43 unexposed men from a nearby sugar refinery. Significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate, the percentage of viable and motile sperm, and increases in the proportion of sperm with specific morphological abnormalities (tapered heads, absent heads, and abnormal tails) were observed among exposed men by comparison with controls after consideration of smoking, caffeine and alcohol consumption, age, abstinence, history of urogenital disorders, and other potentially confounding variables. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology, or YFF bodies was observed. These data strongly suggest that EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45ppb (as an 8h TWA) and far below the current standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of 20ppm.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1987, Vol.44, No.5, p.317-326. 48 ref.
Johnson J.A., Buchan R.M., Reif J.S.
Effect of waste anesthetic gas and vapor exposure on reproductive outcome in veterinary personnel
This epidemiologic and questionnaire study was designed to investigate adverse reproductive outcome in veterinary personnel who are exposed to waste anaesthetic gas and vapours at levels near the US NIOSH recommended standards. The study employed case-control methodology using a sample of male veterinarians, female veterinary assistants. Exposure to waste anaesthetic gas and vapours was not associated significantly with adverse reproductive outcome at the 95% confidence level for female veterinary personnel when adjustment was made for use of diagnostic x-rays. Use of diagnostic x-rays in veterinary practice was associated with a statistically significant increase in odds ratios for spontaneous abortion in female veterinarians and veterinary assistants.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1987, Vol.48, No.1, p.62-66. 27 ref.
Occupationally induced sperm cell alteration - as revealed in a study of fertility clinic patients
Erhvervsbetingede sćdcellepĺvirkninger - belyst ved undersřgelse af et fertilitetsklientel [in Danish]
This case-referent study by questionnaire covered childless men (1981-1983) and their wives. Workers in the textile and chemical industries and laundries had insignificant risks of reduced sperm quality. The men in the paper, rubber and plastic, and printing industries as well as painters were similar except that the odds ratio increased after combination with information on organic solvent exposure. Managers and clerks had significant increases in risk of reduced sperm quality. Drivers of heavy machinery, tractors, forklift trucks and locomotives had an insignificant odds ratio increase; the increase for metalworkers and welders was significant.
Arbejdsmiljřfondet, Vesterbrogade 69, 1620 Křbenhavn V, Denmark, 1986. 157p. 239 ref.
The Second International Scientific Meeting to examine the allegations of reproductive hazards from VDUs
Papers presented at a meeting held in London, (United Kingdom), 25-26 Nov. 1986. Some topics covered: epidemiology of the problem; review of proposed current and completed studies; VDU work and pregnancy outcome; electromagnetic radiation and VDUs; biological effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields; interpretation of scientific data; experience in the United Kingdom) of the Health and Safety Executive and the Trades Union Congress; counselling for VDU users.
Humane Technology, P.O. Box 2, Quorn, Leicestershire LE12 8EG, United Kingdom, 1986. 194p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 16.50 (Europe), GBP 18.00 (elsewhere).
Molodkina N.N., Fomenko V.N., Sal'nikova L.S., Domšlak M.G., Kotosova L.D., Matveev A.A., Voroncov R.S., Gluščenko V.I., Silant'eva I.V., Pavlenko G.I.
Bases for a MAC for dimethyl sulfate in workplace air
Materialy k obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimyh koncentracij dimetilsulfata v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) was administered to animals by inhalation in single, repeated and chronic doses. DMS may induce acute (lethal or nonlethal) or chronic poisoning; it shows marked irritating action and penetrates the skin. It is also embryotopic, mutagenic and blastomagenic. The most sensitive indicator of DMS toxicity is its cytogenic effect, as at the lowest concentration tried (0.3µg/m3) a cytogenic effect was manifested in the frequency of chromosome abberation in bone marrow cells. The recommended MAC for DMS in workplace air is 0.1mg/m3 with note "dangerous: skin penetration" hazard class 1, state aggregation-vapour.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1986, No.9, p.38-41. Illus. 7 ref.
Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of benzene and alkylbenzene compounds
A benzol és alkil-származékainak embriotoxikus és teratogén hatása [in Hungarian]
Animal experiments involving female rats, mice and rabbits at or about the time they become pregnant. Exposure was by inhalation of different concentrations of benzene, toluene, o-, m-, p- and mixed xylenes, ethylbenzene, aromatol (a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons) and clean air. On the whole, at a high enough exposure level, growth retardation or death of the foetus was noted, but teratogenic effects were found only for ethylbenzene and aromatol. Abortion was induced mostly in rabbits. A method is described for the determination of exposure levels and times at which no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects are found.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1986, Vol.32, No.7-9, p.146-166. Illus. 86 ref.
Seniori Costantini A., Paci E., Scala D., Cariaggi P., Cipparrone G., Confortini M., Maddau C., Butt R., Dolara P., Salvadori M., Caderni G.
Monitoring of carcinogenic risks in tannery workers by means of desquamative lung and bladder cytology and urinary mutagenicity
Proportional mortality data on a cohort of tannery workers showed an increased risk of lung cancer, oesophageal cancer, sarcomas and leukaemias. From a cohort of workers and controls in the same area, data were obtained on urinary mutagenic activity using Salmonella typhimurium TA1538 and TA100 as tester strains, with and without metabolic activation. The mutagenic activity of the urine of tanning workers did not differ from that of clerical workers. Bladder desquamative cytology did not show any difference between clerical controls and workers. Pulmonary cytology specimens were normal or showed cellular atypical metaplasia. No cases with atypical cells or obvious neoplastic changes were found. The relative risk of pathological lung cytology was higher in chemical refining than in mechanical refining and tanning.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1986, Vol.31, No.1, p.21-30. Illus. 18 ref.
Zahlsen K., Nilsen O.G.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 69. Acetaldehyde
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 69. Acetaldehyd [in Norwegian]
A survey of literature on acetaldehyde to serve as background information for a discussion on occupational exposure limits. Exposure to relatively low concentrations of acetaldehyde irritates the mucous membranes of the eyes and the respiratory system. Acetaldehyde has been shown to have genotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic eeffects in animal experiments in vivo and/or in vitro. The risk of these effects occurring in humans following occupational exposure is difficult to estimate from the current literature. Further experiments are required if an adequate extrapolation of risk is to be made. It is recommended that an exposure limit be based on the irritant effect of acetaldehyde on the mucous membranes, and that possible genotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic eeffects be further investigated.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 45p. Illus. 101 ref.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Threshold Limit Values - 65. Allyl alcohol
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 65. Allylalkohol [in Swedish]
A critical review of the literature relevant to discussions for an exposure limit is presented. In man the earliest symptom of exposure to allyl alcohol is irritation of the mucous membranes. Damage to internal organs has not been registered. In animal experiments the liver was found to be the most severely damaged organ, while damage to other organs was slight. In long-term experiments a certain adaptation was demonstrated in that the liver when damaged may heal in spite of continued exposure. There is no information on teratogenicity or carcinogenicity. The metabolite glycidaldehyde may have slight carcinogenic properties. Allyl alcohol is mutagenic in the Ames test. A threshold limit value should prevent mucous membrane irritation.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 38p. Illus. 81 ref.
Mohtashamipur E., Norpoth K., Hallerberg B.
A fraction of beech wood mutagenic in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay
Base-pair substitition mutagens were isolated from the dusts of several untreated samples of beech wood and tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay. These compounds reverted Salmonella typhimurium his-TA100 in the presence of Aroclor-induced rat S9 liver extract. These mutagens were toxic to the cells when tested in a histidine-rich medium (complete medium). Mutagenicity of the non-fractionated wood-dust extracts could not be confirmed due to the presence of some inhibitory compounds. These inhibitors counteracted the reversion of bacteria when known mutagens, such as benzo(a)pyrene, aflatoxin B1 and ethyl methanesulfonate, were tested. The results indicate that beech wood-dust contains (a) mutagenic constituent(s) which may contribute to nasal cancer among woodworkers, especially in the furniture industry.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1986, Vol.58, No.3, p.227-234. 34 ref.
Mirkova E., Zaikov H.
Studies of the mutagenic effect of the preparation Alachlor in the Ames test
Proučvanija vărhu mutagennoto deistvije na preparata Alachlor săs mikrobialnata test-sistema na Ames [in Bulgarian]
Alachlor is the active ingredient of the herbicide Lasso. The studies were carried out by the standardised incorporation method on 5 standard histidine-autotrophic strains of Salmonella. The preparation was tested in parallel series of experiments with and without metabolic activation at 8, 20, 40 and 100µg/Petri dish. Alachlor is a directly acting bacterial mutagen. It is now necessary to evaluate its mutagenicity in mammals.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1986, Vol.29, No.1, p.26-31. 11 ref.
Chromosomal alterations as markers of exposure and effect
Structural changes in chromosomes were one of the first recognised forms of genetic injury resulting from exposure to physical and chemical agents. Depending on the lesions induced in the DNA, and therefore, on the nature of the genotoxic substances, damage to chromosomes falls into 2 categories, structural aberrations and sister chromatid exchange (SCE). Because these 2 end points respond differently to chromatin lesions, they are complementary in any study designed to identify potential exposure. The circulating lymphocyte in the human is an appropriate cell type in which to measure cytogenetic changes because it is readily accessible, carries genotoxic substances and their metabolites throughout the body, is long-lived, and can integrate exposure. In animal and human studies, it has been shown that both SCEs and aberrations can persist in the lymphocyte following acute or chronic exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1986, Vol.28, No.10, p.1112-1116. Illus. 28 ref.
Reproductive hazards in the workplace: Some legal considerations
Several court decisions in the USA are reviewed and the legal status of "foetal protection policies" enacted by several large industries are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1986, Vol.28, No.2, p.103-109. 74 ref.
Schwartz D.A., Newsum L.A., Heifetz R.M.
Parental occupation and birth outcome in an agricultural community
Investigation based on the review of birth records in a major hospital in Imperial Country, California, USA. Of all singleton births occurring within a 4-year period (2,463 births), 40.2% involved children at least one of whose parents were agricultural workers. The progeny of agricultural and non-agricultural workers were similar with regard to sex ratios, prevalence of low birth-weight infants, stillbirth rate, minor and major malformation rates and prevalence of neonatal deaths. Limb reduction defects, however, occurred more frequently among children of agricultural workers (rate ratio=2.3). The rate was 3 to 14 times higher when compared to the US rate. These findings suggest that agricultural workers in the USA may be at excess risk of producing a child with a limb reduction defect.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1986, Vol.12, No.1, p.51-54. 20 ref.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Guidelines for the study of genetic effects in human populations
This document provides guidance on the design and conduct of genetic studies on human populations exposed, or suspected of being exposed, to mutagenic agents. General principles and examples of possible procedures are described in relation to methodological and epidemiological issues, mutations in somatic cells, and germinal mutations.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1985. 126p. approx. 270 ref. Price: CHF 12.00.
Fernández Granda A., González Domínguez A., Pérez Garrido S.
Asbestos and tobacco
Asbesto y tabaco/Asbesto y tabaco [in Spanish]
Literature survey on the interaction of exposure to tobacco smoke and asbestos in the evolution of lung cancer. Coverage: Part 1: histopathology of tobacco and asbestos; the impairment of the immune system of the lungs due to smoking. Part 2: carcinogenic effects of tobacco; mutagenic effects of tobacco and asbestos; the synergistic effects of asbestos and tobacco smoke.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1985, Vol.32, No.128, p.35-41; Oct.-Dec. 1985, Vol.32, No.129, p.27-34. 98 ref.
Yuan C., Zhang D.
Frequency of lymphocyte sister chromatid exchanges in coke-oven workers
Jiaoluzuoye gongren waizhou xuelinbaxibao zimeiranseti huhuan [in Chinese]
The analysis of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is a useful technique for the study of genetic damage in humans exposed to environmental mutagens and carcinogens. In the present study, lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange frequencies were determined for 12 long-term coke-oven workers and 20 controls. The duration of exposure to the coke oven emissions ranged from 15 to 32 years. The mean SCE frequency for the exposed group was 13.04 ± 1.47 SCEs per cell and that for the control group was 8.82±1.26. The increased SCE frequency in coke-oven workers may be related to the long-term exposure to coke-oven emissions.
Industrial Health and Occupational Diseases, 1985, Vol.11, No.6, p.336-338. 6 ref.
Nordenson I., Hansson Mild K., Östman U., Ljungberg H.
Chromosomal aberrations in 400 kV substation workers
Kromosomförändringar hos 400 kV-ställverksarbetare [in Swedish]
Data are presented on 38 employees of electric power companies. 19 of the subjects worked with the repair and maintenance of circuit breakers and disconnectors in 400kV substations and the other 19 served as controls and were only exposed to normal environmental electromagnetic fields. Coded blood samples were sent to a laboratory for determination of the rate of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), and cells with micronuclei (MN). Compared to the control group the exposed men displayed a significant increase in CA and cells with MN. No increase was found in the frequency of SCE. Since in vitro studies of lymphocytes exposed to transient electric currents (spark discharges) produced similar results, the increase in chromosomal damage in substation workers may be associated with exposure to transient electric currents during work.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 22p. Illus. 12 ref.
Toxicity and mutagenic effects of perfluoromethylperfluorocyclohexane
The results of in-vitro experiments suggest that perfluoro(methylcyclohexane) (C7F14) is of low microgenotoxicity. It was positive in Ames' test using TA100 and TA98 cells with S-9 liver extract, but negative in chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange tests with human peripheral lymphocytes.
Industrial Health and Occupational Diseases, 1985, Vol.11, No.3, p.143-147. Illus. 5 ref.
Frequency of lymphocyte sister chromatid exchanges in coke oven workers
The analysis of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) might be a useful technique for the study of genetic damage in humans exposed to environmental mutagens and carcinogens. In the present study, lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange frequencies were determined for 12 long-term coke oven workers and 20 controls. The duration of exposure to the coke oven emissions ranged from 15 to 32yrs. The mean SCE frequency for the exposed group was 13.-4±1.47 SCEs per cell and that for the control group was 8.82±1.26 SCEs per cell. The difference was highly significant (P<0.0001). The increased SCE frequency in coke oven workers may be related to long-term exposure to coke oven emissions.
Industrial Health and Occupational Diseases, 1985, Vol.11, No.6, p.336-338.
Toxicity of nitroaromatic compounds
Papers presented at the Fifth Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology Conference on Toxicology, held in Raleigh, North Carolina (USA), 28-29 Jan. 1982. They cover: occurrence and uses of nitroaromatic compounds in industry; carcinogenicuty, mutagenicity and teratogenicity of the compounds; interaction of the compounds with DNA; sex, strain and species differences in rodent response to nitrobenzene; mammalian and bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics; skin penetration; absence of reduced fertility among chemical plant workers exposed to dinitrotoluene and toluene diamine; subclinical effects of trinitrotoluene; risk assessment.
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 79 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016, USA, 1 Dec. 1985. 295p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$49.50 (USA and Canada).
Hemminki K., Sorsa M., Vainio H.
Occupational hazards and reproduction
Papers by participants in the 1981 International Course on Occupational Hazards and Reproduction in Helsinki, Finland. Contents: human reproductive biology; toxic effects on reproduction (effects on male and female reproductive organs and on the developing foetus); indicators of reproductive failure; epidemiology of reproductive hazards (industrial chemical exposures, exposure of medical personnel to anaesthetic gases, maintenance and use of registers).
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 79 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016, USA, 1 Dec. 1985. 333p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$69.95 (USA and Canada).
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Threshold Limit Values - 55. Acrylonitrile
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 55. Akrylonitril [in Norwegian]
The acute toxicity of acrylonitrile is relatively high in tests on animals. The first acute symptoms produced at low concentrations include eye irritation, sneezing, headache, nausea, weakness and vomiting. Acute exposure to higher concentrations causes profound weakness, respiratory distress and asphyxia. Acrylonitrile can be absorbed through the skin. Metabolism of acrylonitrile liberates cyanide. Acrylonitrile is teratogenic in rats and hamsters. Acrylonitrile is mutagenic, induces breaks in DNA strands and causes unscheduled DNA synthesis, sister chromatid exchange and cell transformation. Acrylonitrile is carcinogenic in rats. Epidemiological studies of workers exposed to acrylonitrile supply limited, although consistent, evidence of carcinogenicity in human. Thus, the carcinogenic properties of acrylonitrile should be the biological effects used in establishing an occupational exposure limit.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 54p. Illus. 125 ref.
Ehlert Knudsen L.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Threshold Limit Values - 60. Propylene oxide
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 60. Propylenoxid [in Danish]
A critical survey and evaluation of the relevant literature as the basis for determination of an occupational exposure limit for propylene oxide. Propylene oxide is a highly reactive, electrophilic substance, which reacts with cellular macromolecules such as RNA, DNA and proteins, by alkylating nucleophilic centres. Propylene oxide is a mutagen. It induces local tumours when inhaled or administered by subcutaneous and intragastric routes and has an adverse effect on male and female reproduction in animals (mice and rats). In 1984, a working group in the IARC determined that there was sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of propylene oxide in experimental animals. Propylene oxide is an allergic sensitiser. It is recommended that the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects serve as the biological effects to be used as a basis for an evaluation in setting an occupational exposure limit for propylene oxide.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 43p. 89 ref.
Jakobsen B.M., Astrup Jensen A.
Nordic Expert Group on the Documentation of Threshold Limit Values - 56. Hydrazine and hydrazine salts
Hydrazin og hydrazinsalte [in Danish]
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 56. Hydrazin och hydrazinsalter [in Swedish]
Hydrazine and its salts are readily absorbed into the body through the skin, the lungs and the gastro-intestinal tract. Absorbed hydrazine is distributed to most organs, but the highest concentrations are found in the kidneys. Hydrazine is metabolically degraded by mixed-function oxidases, mainly to nitrogen and water. Other important metabolites are N-acetylhydrazine and 1,2-diacetylhydrazine. Hydrazine and its metabolites are mainly excreted via the urine or via exhalation. The oral LD50 of hydrazine in rodents is about 60mg/kg body weight. The toxicological mechanism is probably inhibition of enzymes in the gamma-aminobutyrate system. Pure hydrazine is highly corrosive, and dilute solutions of hydrazine and salts are irritating to the skin and to the mucous membranes. Hydrazine and its salts are also potent sensitisers. In long-term exposure experiments, the liver is the most sensitive organ: fatty liver has been produced in mice (but not in rats). In rodent studies, hydrazine is carcinogenic, teratogenic and embryotoxic, and its effects the morphology of sperm. Hydrazine and its salts damage DNA and produce mutations in bacterial and mammalian cell cultures. Occupational exposure limits should be based on the carcinogenic and reproductive effects of hydrazine and its salts.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 64p. Illus. 158 ref.
Steenland K., Carrano A., Clapp D., Ratcliffe J., Ashworth L., Meinhardt T.
Cytogenetic studies in humans after short-term exposure to ethylene dibromide
Ethylene dibromide (EDB) has been shown to increase sister chromatid exchange in animal cells in vitro, but its cytogenic effects in humans have not been previously studied. 14 workers who used a solution of EDB to spray felled pine trees to kill pine beetles were tested for the presence of SCE and chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood. 6 non-exposed workers were also tested. The sprayers were exposed to an average EDB concentration of 60 ppb (8h TWA). The workers sprayed EDB for only 5 to 26 days during the summer months. After adjusting for smoking and the use of prescription drugs, there was no statistically significant difference between the frequencies of either SCEs or chromosomal aberrations before and after spraying.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1985, Vol.27, No.10, p.729-732. 25 ref.
Clarkson T.W., Nordberg G.F., Sager P.R.
Reproductive and developmental toxicity of metals
Aspects covered in this lecture given at the XXI International Congress on Occupational Health in Dublin, Ireland, 9-14 Sep. 1984: toxic effects of aluminium, arsenic, lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel and components of these metals on the reproductive organs of men and women and on offsprings from the embryo to the perinatal stages; metabolism of metals in reproduction and development.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1985, Vol.11, No.3, special issue. p.145-154. Illus. 28 ref.
Crebelli R., Paoletti A., Falcone E., Aquilina G., Fabri G., Carere A.
Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in vitro activity of workers' urinary concentrates and raw materials
Urine concentrates of 72 workers in an Italian tyre factory, and of 16 controls, were assayed to study the urinary mutagenicity of occupational exposure in the rubber industry. Smoking habits, but not occupation, were significantly related to urinary mutagenicity. 3 raw materials checked were weakly mutagenic in strain TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium: poly-p-dinitrosobenzene (in the absence of metabolic activation) and mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines and tetramethylthiuram disulfide (in the presence of metabolic activation).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1985, Vol.42, No.7, p.481-487. Illus. 22 ref.
Wulf H.C., Aasted A., Darre E., Niebuhr E.
Sister chromatid exchanges in fishermen exposed to leaking mustard gas shells
This letter to the editor reports on 11 cases of fishermen who were accidentally exposed to mustard gas leaking from gas shells dumped off the coast of Denmark after the Second World War. The shells, heavily corroded, are dug up by trawlers. In addition to skin and eye irritation, most cases showed significant mutagenic changes as revealed by the sister chromatid exchange test.
Lancet, 23 Mar. 1985, Vol.1, No.8430, p.690-691. 6 ref.
Van Sittert N.J., De Jong G., Clare M.G., Davies R., Dean B.J., Wren L.J., Wright A.S.
Cytogenetic, immunological, and haematological effects in workers in an ethylene oxide manufacturing plant
Samples of blood were collected over a period of up to 14 years from 36 workers engaged in ethylene oxide (EO) manufacture and from 35 matched controls. There was a small positive correlation between length of employment in EO manufacturing and frequency of chromosome breaks and with the percentage of neutrophils in a differential white blood cell count. There was a small negative correlation between length of employment and the percentage of lymphocytes. None of these correlations had a significance for health. No correlations were found between EO exposure and the other biological parameters investigated.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1985, Vol.42, No.1, p.19-26. 21 ref.
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