Antifertility and prenatal effects - 646 entries found
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NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin No.55 - Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde, and mutagenicity of related low-molecular-weight aldehydes
This bulletin presents recent information about the potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde and discusses the chemical reactivity and mutagenicity of 9 related aldehydes (acrolein, butyraldehyde, crotonaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, glyoxal, paraformaldehyde, propiolaldehyde, propionaldehyde and valeraldehyde). Results of animal expirements provide sufficent evidence to conclude that acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde are carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Evidence for the carcinogenicity of the other 9 aldehydes is inconclusive. Adequate epidemiologic data are not available from workers exposed to acetaldehyde or malonaldehyde, although both chemicals meet the OSHA criteria for potential carcinogens and it is recommended that worker exposure be reduced to the lowest feasible concentration.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1991. 39p. Illus. 192 ref.
Update on the genetic effects of ionizing radiation
Discussion of the genetic implications of human exposures to ionising radiation with reference to recent studies and findings. These include reports of an excess of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma in the vicinity of the Sellafield nuclear plant in the United Kingdom, a new analysis of data on radiation effects in survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and a recent review of experimental data on the genetic effects of the irradiation of mice. Data from the last 2 studies suggest a much lesser genetic sensitivity to radiation than do results of the Sellafield study. Future research will include studies at DNA level.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 7 Aug. 1991, Vol.266, No.5, p.698-701. 21 ref.
The use of experimental data in teratogenic risk assessment: Standard testing and recent developments
L'utilisation des données expérimentales dans l'évaluation des effets tératogčnes des produits industriels. Les acquis et les développements récents [in French]
Developmental toxicity hazard assessment of industrial chemicals usually involves an evaluation of human studies and animal data. Epidemiological data being generally scarce, adequate assessment of human risk from experimental reproductive studies requires knowledge and familiarity with the performance of conventional teratology testing protocols and understanding of several parameters involved in embryonal or foetal toxicity. This paper examines the influence of time of exposure and route of administration in standard teratology testing with special emphasis on the influence of experimental doses. The use of high dose levels in experiments frequently induces overt maternal toxicity that causes considerable difficulties in the interpretation of concurrent embryo/foetal insult. In response to these problems, most teratologists propose to rank the teratogenic potential of xenobiotics on the basis of the A/D ratio derived from the adult toxic dose (A) and the developmental toxic dose (D). The last part of the discussion focuses on the concepts of threshold, no-observed-effect level and safety factor which form the bases of extrapolation for a safe human exposure.
Travail et santé, Summer 1991, Vol.7, No.2, p.S-11 to S-16. Illus. 41 ref.
Milković-Kraus S., Horvat D.
Chromosomal abnormalities among nurses occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs
The effect of handling antineoplastic drugs was examined in 42 nurses working in an oncology department, and the same number of nurses not exposed to antineoplastic drugs acted as controls. The exposure effect was evaluated by analysis of the incidence of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and of structural chromosomal abnormalities. SCE as well as chromosomal abnormalities in the exposed group were increased (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). The sign test for paired sample was used for statistical assessment.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1991, Vol.19, No.6, p.771-774. 25 ref.
McDiarmid M.A., Lees P.S.J., Agnew J., Midzenski M., Duffy R.
Reproductive hazards of fire fighting. II - Chemical hazards
Studies of the health of fire fighters have historically focused on non-malignant respiratory disease and cancer. More recently, concerns have surfaced about reproductive health effects in many areas of the workforce, including fire fighting. These concerns prompted this review of chemical exposures that may contribute to adverse reproductive health outcomes in male as well as female fire fighters. A review of the industrial hygiene literature was undertaken to identify agents commonly found in fire smoke. These agents were then examined for evidence of reproductive toxicity or mutagenicity/carcinogenicity. This profile of chemical agents and their reproductive toxicities permits a qualitative determination that fire fighters are exposed to potential reproductive toxicants as a part of their normal fire fighting duties. Considerations for mitigating these risks are also discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.19, No.4, p.447-472. ca. 220 ref.
Agnew J., McDiarmid M.A., Lees P.S.J., Duffy R.
Reproductive hazards of fire fighting. I - Non-chemical hazards
Fire fighters are regularly exposed to chemical and non-chemical agents that have known or suspected adverse effects on reproductive health. Although chemical agents have received some attention, non-chemical hazards such as heat, noise, and physical exertion have only recently been examined for their reproductive effects. There is evidence that heat, noise, and physical exertion may have various effects on reproductive health, including loss of fertility, foetal loss, and retarded growth of offspring. In particular, hyperthermia, a major fire fighting hazard, has been shown to impair male fertility and may also be teratogenic. Further study of the potential reproductive effects of this and other common non-chemical agents in the fire environment is needed to learn more about the reproductive effects of non-chemical hazards on male and female fire fighters.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.19, No.4, p.433-445. 86 ref.
Effects on reproduction of dichloromethane, n-hexane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane
This Nordic Council of Ministers report reviews the available literature on the toxicology and reproductive hazards of dichloromethane, n-hexane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Overall, the data from animal experiments suggest that dichloromethane does not pose any special risk to reproductive processes; there is a lack of adequate data on human fertility, teratogenicity and postnatal functions. No human reproduction studies of n-hexane are available, although animal studies suggest that it may have a toxic effect on the male human reproductive system. There is a lack of data on the effects of trichloroethane on human reproduction; animal studies show that it is not teratogenic but may cause retarded development at high exposure levels.
Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, P.O. Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 70p. Bibl.ref.
Hass U., Jakobsen B.M., Brandorff N.P., Jelnes J.E., Petersen S.H.
Chemical substances in the work environment that have an adverse effect on reproduction
Reproduktionsskadende kemiske stoffer i arbejdsmiljřet [in Danish]
This report deals with chemical hazards affecting human reproduction, including those reducing fertility and damaging the foetus. A method to determine the distribution of chemical substances with antifertility effects in various sectors of the economy is presented. Most sectors were found to use such substances to some extent. An annex of the report contains chemical data sheets for the substances considered to have antifertility, mutagenic or teratogenic effects.
Direktoratet for arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 Křbenhavn Ř, Denmark, 1990. 206p. Bibl.ref.
McGregor A.J., Mason H.J.
Chronic occupational lead exposure and testicular endocrine function
Lead concentrations in blood and bone were measured as indices of short and long-term, cumulative exposure in a group of 90 men occupationally exposed to inorganic lead. Results showed that the lead exposure levels encountered in the UK at present may result in a subclinical increase in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) which is related to blood lead levels. This suggests that lead may be causing some subclinical primary damage to the seminiferous tubules in the testes. At blood lead levels of <47µg/dL this effect on serum FSH is not apparent.
Human and Experimental Toxicology, 1990, Vol.9, p.371-376. 16 ref.
Ong C.N., Thein M.M., Berquist U.
A review of adverse effects on reproduction amongst female computer terminal workers
Some recent studies on the possible reproductive effects of VDUs are reviewed with emphasis on spontaneous abortion and birth defects. Factors affecting pregnancy outcomes in general are explained along with the need to compensate for such factors in comparative studies. Clusters of reproductive failures among VDU operators within several organisations are described along with epidemiological investigations. Suggested reproductive factors in VDU work are outlined. According to current scientific knowledge, the use of computer terminals during pregnancy does not by itself lead to increased risks of adverse reproductive effects.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, Sep. 1990, Vol.19, No.5, p.649-655. Illus. 52 ref.
Comité technique national des Industries chimiques
Irreversible effects of chemical substances, preparations and procedures
Effets irréversibles des substances, préparations et procédés [in French]
Recommendations adopted on 14 June 1990, aimed at managers whose staff might be exposed to mutagenic, toxic or genotoxic substances and preparations: identification of these substances, safe use, exposure evaluation by air sampling; maintenance and repair; emergency planning; waste disposal; training and information; medical surveillance. The EEC list of carcinogens, mutagens and substances with reproductive toxicity is given in an annex.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 1991, No.4, p.290-295. Illus.
Albracht G., Bolm-Audorff U.
Health problems due to handling pesticides
Gesundheitliche Probleme beim Umgang mit Pflanzenschutzmitteln [in German]
Acute and chronic toxicity as well as the sensitising, mutagenic, teratogenic and cancerogenic effects of pesticides are reviewed. A list of pesticides with known or suspected carcinogenic effect on humans is provided. The lack of compliance with the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, in effect in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1986, by agricultural and horticultural enterprises is criticised. No measurements of pesticides in the breathing zone of workers as required by the ordinance are taken and exposed workers receive no medical examinations.
WSI Mitteilungen, 1990, Vol.43, No.12, p.777-783. Illus. 22 ref.
Monaco M., Dominici R., Barisano P., Di Palermo G.
Mutagenicity of barium chloride tested in Salmonella typhimurium
Studio dell'attivitŕ mutagena del bario cloruro in Salmonella typhimurium [in Italian]
Barium chloride, which is an important industrial chemical used in pigments, lacquers, dyes, glass and pesticide production, leather tanning and cloth dying, was tested on Salmonella typhimurium strains by the reverse mutation test, with and without metabolic activation , in order to assess its possible genotoxic effects and any possible action with respect to standard mutagens (sodium azide, 9-aminoacridine, 2-nitrofluorene, mitomycine-C, 2 aminoacridine). Using the platelet incorporation technique, barium chloride at various progressive concentrations gave negative results under the experimental conditions of the study.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1990, Vol.81, No.1, p.54-64. 24 ref.
Guirguis S.S., Pelmear P.L., Roy M.L., Wong L.
Health effects associated with exposure to anaesthetic gases in Ontario hospital personnel
Retrospective study (by questionnaire) of 8032 personnel exposed to anaesthetic gases in operating and recovery rooms in Ontario hospitals, and of 2525 non-exposed hospital staff, for the period 1981-85. Logistic regression analysis, with age and smoking standardised, showed that women in the exposed group had significantly increased frequencies of spontaneous abortion and their children had significantly more congenital abnormalities (p<0.05). No chronic disease was significantly associated with the exposed group. These findings, together with similar ones from other studies, suggest that it is prudent to minimise exposure to waste anaesthetic gases.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1990, Vol.47, No.7, p.490-497. 39 ref.
Brandt L.P.A., Nielsen C.V.
Congenital malformations among children of women working with video display terminals
In a case-base study among 214,108 commercial and clerical employees in Denmark the potential effect of the use of video display terminals on the risk of congenital malformations in pregnancy was investigated. The study base was defined by means of register linkage of the Medical Birth Register and the National Register of In-patients. In the source population 24,352 pregnancy outcomes were registered, 661 of which with congenital malformations formed the case group, and a base sample of 2,252 pregnancies was drawn. Data concerning the use of video display terminals, job stress, ergonomic factors, exposure to organic solvents, and life-style factors were obtained from postal questionnaires. The results of this study did not support the hypothesis that the use of video display terminals during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1990, Vol.16, No.5, p.329-333. 11 ref.
Bonde J.P., Hansen K.S., Levine R.J.
Fertility among Danish male welders
Welding may be detrimental to the male reproductive system. Fertility was examined in a Danish cohort of 3702 male metalworkers over a follow-up of 47,674 person-years. Occupational histories were gathered by postal questionnaires. Information on births was obtained by record linkage to the Danish Central Population Register. Among persons who had ever workerd as welders, the probability of having a child was slightly reduced the year after a year of welding exposure. The reduction in fertility was associated with the welding of mild steel, but not with the welding of stainless steel. These findings are consistent with results of previous studies of time to conception and semen quality in welders.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1990, Vol.16, No.5, p.315-322. Illus. 14 ref.
Restrepo M., Muńoz N., Day N.E., Parra J.E., De Romero L., Nguyen-Dinh X.
Prevalence of adverse reproductive outcomes in a population occupationally exposed to pesticides in Colombia
A prevalence survey of adverse reproductive outcomes was carried out in a population of 8867 persons (2951 men and 5916 women) who had been working in the floriculture industry in the Bogotá area of Colombia for at least 6 months. These workers were exposed to 127 different types of pesticides. The prevalence rates for spontaneous abortion, prematurity, stillbirths, and malformations were estimated for pregnancies occurring among the female workers and the wives of the male workers before and after they started working in floriculture, and these rates were related to various degrees of exposure. A moderate increase in the prevalence of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and congenital malformations was detected for pregnancies occurring after the start of work in floriculture.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1990, Vol.16, No.4, p.232-238. Illus. 31 ref.
Tompa A., Ungváry G.
Genotoxic effects and prevention possibilities of chemical exposure at the workplace
A munkahelyi vegyi expozició genotoxikus hatása és prevenciójának lehetőségei [in Hungarian]
Literature survey of in vitro and in vivo methods used for the evaluation of cancer risk and genotoxic hazard due to chemical agents at the workplace. The article provides the list of proven and probable carcinogens (categories 1 and 2A), established by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) and it provides as well a list of industries with an increased cancer risk. On the basis of international experience it is recommended that cytogenetic monitoring be applied at workplaces with cancer risk. Though these methods cannot yet be fully applied for diagnosis, together with clinical, laborarory and x-ray diagnostic tests they can be useful in workplace cancer prevention.
Népegészségügy, 1990, No.71, p.154-158. 27 ref.
Norman C.A., Halton D.M.
Is carbon monoxide a workplace teratogen? A review and evaluation of the literature
Sixty case reports of carbon monoxide exposures involving pregnant women are reviewed. The circumstances under which carbon monoxide exposures adversely affected pregnancy and the types of effects seen are summarised. Severe acute exposures to carbon monoxide caused foetal death or toxic effects, including anatomical malformations and functional alterations. Foetal outcome was related to two major indices of carbon monoxide exposure: maternal blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels and maternal toxicity.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1990, Vol.34, No.4, p.335-347. 44 ref.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 91. N-nitroso compounds and cancer
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation - 91. N-Nitrosoforbindelser og kreft [in Norwegian]
N-nitroso compounds are mutagenic, teratogenic, toxic and carcinogenic. N-nitroso compounds are very versatile and are potent chemical carcinogens. They induce tumours in a wide range of species and organs. Humans are exposed to N-nitroso compounds from endogenous formation and from environmental and occupational sources. Workers may be exposed to relatively high concentrations of N-nitroso compounds in certain industries, such as the metalworking industry, leather tanneries, and the rubber and tyre industry.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 60p. Illus. 167 ref.
Olsen J., Hemminki K., Ahlborg G., Bjerkedal T., Kyyrönen P., Taskinen H., Lindbohm M.L., Heinonen O.P., Brandt L., Kolstad H., Halvorsen B.A., Egenćs J.
Low birthweight, congenital malformations, and spontaneous abortions among dry-cleaning workers in Scandinavia
With a common study protocol, case-referent studies within cohorts were performed in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland to study reproductive hazards of women doing dry-cleaning work. Due to national differences not all of the studies could follow exactly the same procedures in data collection, but they were all based on the linkage of cohorts of dry-cleaning and laundry workers to national registers of births and reproductive failures. Summary measures from each study were combined without the data being pooled. The most significant finding was an increased risk of spontaneous abortion among the most exposed women in the Finnish data. This finding was only supported by the results of the other studies to a minor degree.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1990, Vol.16, No.3, p.163-168. 11 ref.
Can employers exclude women to protect children?
This article discusses the legal issues involved when an employer is suspected of discrimination on the basis of sex when excluding fertile women from situations of foetal risk through maternal exposure. To date, 6 cases raising this issue have reached US federal or state courts of appeals. Instances are given where exposure to harmful substances, in particular to lead, can cause reproductive effects in men as well as women. It is considered that employer decisions to exclude fertile women from certain jobs will not eliminate occupational foetal hazards; there is no rational basis for treating male and female workers differently in this respect.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 24/31 Oct. 1990, Vol.264, No.16, p.2113-2117. 53 ref.
Reuterwall C.,, Aringer L., Elinder C.G., Juringe L., Rannug A., Ekdahl M., Eriksson R., Gillstedt-Hedman B., Hägg G., Levin J.O., Olsson M., Pehrsson A., Rosén G.
Assessment, using different biological monitoring methods, of genotoxic exposure in coke oven workers
Genotoxisk exponering i koksverksarbete, bedömt med flera metoder för "biological monitoring" [in Swedish]
Evaluation of information obtained from different methods designed to monitor human exposure to mutagenic/carcinogenic agents, used for the monitoring of coke oven work. Blood samples from 44 male coke oven workers, and 48 male controls (rolling-mill workers) were examined for cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes. Further, urine thioether excretion was determined for 62 of the subjects and urinary mutagenicity for 31. Levels of thioether excretion, urine mutagenicity, and cytogenetic damage did not differ between the exposed group and the control group. Smokers, however, displayed significantly higher thioether excretion, urinary mutagenicity and sister chromatid exchange frequencies than non-smokers. The absence of biological indications of genotoxic exposure related to the coke oven work suggests that these analyses are insensitive monitoring methods under the present conditions.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 64p. Illus. 76 ref.
Schaumburg I., Olsen J.
Congenital malformations and death among the offspring of Danish pharmacy assistants
Congenital malformation, stillbirth, and infant mortality were studied in a cohort of all female assistants in Denmark under the age of 40 years who were members of the national union in 1979 to 1984 (4,939). Data on all births and deaths during first year of life during the study period were identified through the national birth register. In general, pharmacy assistants had a low frequency of congenital malformation and death among their offspring. Compared with an internal reference group, pharmacy assisants engaged in production or packing of pharmaceutical products experienced an increased prevalence of congenital malformations among their offspring. Working with identification and controls showed a slightly increased risk of death during the first year of life of the children. This could indicate occupational risks, but other explanations cannot be excluded.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.18, No.5, p.555-564. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Lindbohm M.L., Taskinen H., Sallmén M., Hemminki K.
Spontaneous abortions among women exposed to organic solvents
This study investigates the association between medically diagnosed spontaneous abortions and occupational exposure to organic solvents. The study population was composed of women biologically monitored for solvents. The workers were classified into exposure categories on the basis of work description and the use of solvents as reported in the questionnaires, and on biological exposure measurements. The odds ratio of spontaneous abortion for solvent exposure, adjusted for potentially confounding factors, was significantly increased (2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-4.1). The increase was most consistent among workers exposed to aliphatic hydrocarbons. The odds ratio was increased also among toluene-exposed shoe workers. Thus exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy, especially to aliphatic hydrocarbons, increases the risk of spontaneous abortion.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.17, No.4, p.449-463. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Clonfero E., Venier P., Granella M., Levis A.G.
Identification of genotoxic compounds used in the leather processing industry
Identificazione di composti genotossici utilizzati nella lavorazione delle pelli [in Italian]
The release of mutagens from 7 carbon black-based leather dyes and from leather samples at various stages of finishing was determined. After vigorous treatment with toluene, 4 commercial dyes yielded mutagenic extracts on Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of microsomal enzymes. Only one of the responsible chemicals was a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The low bioavailability of mutagens contained in carbon black and their low mutagenic activity suggest that the risk associated with the use of these dyes is probably negligible. Ethanol extracts of finished leather were mutagenic in the absence of S9 mix. Analysis of extracts of leather samples at various stages of processing showed that mutagenic activity was detectable after the colouring process. The responsible compound was a nitroazo dye, C.I. Acid Brown 83. 18 commercial tannins containing mainly Cr(III) sulfates were assessed for genotoxicity. Most were contaminated with Cr(VI), a known mugaten and carcinogen, at levels sufficient to include sister chromatid exchanges in mammalian cells.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1990, Vol.81, No.3, p.212-221. 45 ref.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 89. Thiurams and dimethyldithiocarbamates
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation - 89. Tiuramer och Dimetylditiokarbamater [in Swedish]
A critical survey of the literature relevant for the discussion of an occupational exposure limit is given. Disulfiram: The critical target of the toxic effects is the thyroid gland. Ferbam: The critical effects are sensitisation and cross-sensitisation with other thiurams. Thiram: The critical effects are sensitisation and cross-sensitisation with other thiurams. Thiram may also affect spermatogenesis. Ziram: The critical effects are sensitisation and cross-sensitisation with other thiurams. The present occupational exposure limit values for thiurams and dimethyldithiocarbamates are mainly based on their sensitising properties and effects on skin. There is a need to conduct short- and long-term inhalation exposure studies to clarify dose-effect relationships between effects and exposure to thiurams and dimethyldithiocarbamates in thyroids and gonads.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 35p. Illus. 183 ref.
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Kommission für Pflanzenschutz-, Pflanzenbehandlungs- und Vorratsschutzmittel
Criteria for the evaluation of studies of reproductive toxicity with plant pesticides
Kriterien zur Beurteilung von Studien zur Reproduktionstoxizität mit Pflanzenschutzmitteln [in German]
Contents: introduction and statement of purpose; general definitions; determination of potential reproductive toxicity; testing strategies; quantitative assessment of reproductive toxicity; significance of in-vitro methods and short-term tests in reproductive toxicology; quality criteria for reproductive toxicology studies; interpretation of test results; general criteria for the evaluation of reproductive toxicological risks.
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, W-6940 Weinheim, Germany, 1990. 54p. 14 ref.
Nordic Council of Ministers
Effects on reproduction of styrene, toluene and xylene
Exposure to styrene is reported to cause an increase in spontaneous abortion and an increased frequency of structural chromosomal abnormalities in adults. There is currently insufficient evidence to determine the carcinogenicity of styrene, although styrene oxide is probably carcinogenic. Toluene sniffing during pregnancy is reported to cause malformation of the foetus at high concentrations. At low concentrations, toluene is a reproductive toxicant affecting the hormone balance in adults and development of the foetus. Human data suggest that exposure to solvents during pregnancy may cause congenital malformations and spontaneous abortions, although no firm conclusions on the contribution of xylene can be made.
Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, Information Secretariat, P.O. Box 1484, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 77p. 39 ref. Price: SEK 80.00.
Yardley-Jones A., Anderson D., Lovell D.P., Jenkinson P.C.
Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in workers exposed to low level benzene
Metaphase chromosome preparations were analysed as part of a larger study from a population occupationally exposed to benzene and compared with a control group. The incidence of chromosomal aberrations in the exposed group was slightly increased compared with the control group. This increase was of borderline significance in parametric statistical tests but was significant using Fisher's exact test. No lifestyle factors had any consistent effect on the incidence of chromosome aberrations, although there was a small reduction in gaps with increasing cigarette smoking. Older individuals had a higher incidence of chromosome exchanges and "other" aberrations. Individuals who reported a recent viral illness had a higher incidence of aberrations, particularly gaps. The increased incidence of aberrations seen in the group exposed to benzene may result from a history of exposure to benzene. Nevertheless, other explanations such as sampling, interindividual variability, and unintentional bias in the selection of the 2 groups cannot be excluded.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1990, Vol.47, No.1, p.48-51. 7 ref.
Occupational environment and failures in reproduction
Environnement professionnel et échecs ŕ la reproduction [in French]
The difficulty in the collection and interpretation of data in the study of the interaction between the occupational environment and reproduction is stressed and the methodological procedures for doing so are outlined. These include the study of exposure factors and of the existence of confounding factors dependent on occupation and social level, outcome of earlier pregnancies and other effects. Examples of studies are taken from the health professions, where there are exposures to anaesthetics and cytostatic drugs, the chemical industry, agriculture and offices equipped with computer terminals. A glossary is included.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, Pathologie du travail, 1989, 2p. 14 ref.
Catalog of teratogenic agents
This catalogue contains information on 1968 teratogenic agents, including chemicals, drugs, physical factors and viruses, arranged alphabetically. Each listing includes a main entry with synonyms followed by any known human teratogenic data, a summary of the results of published animal experiments including species, dose, gestational age at time of administration and type of congenital effects produced, and a list of the relevant bibliographic references.
The John Hopkins University Press, 701 West 40th Street, Baltimore, MD 21211, USA, 6th ed. 1989. xxv, 793p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 72.00.
Alternative approaches for the assessment of reproductive toxicity (with emphasis on embryotoxicity/teratogenicity)
This monograph reviews the present status of alternative in vivo and in vitro tests developed for evaluating the effects of chemicals on reproduction, and assesses their relevance and validity. It is concluded that at present no test can totally replace the existing reproductive toxicity tests which use live animals. In many instances the alternative methods can be used to screen chemicals for further technical development or further testing, and to provide information on the reproductive toxicity of those chemicals which do not warrant full-scale testing. Application of the results from the alternative test approaches to human hazard assessment is also discussed.
European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Avenue Louis 250, Bte 63, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, Nov. 1989. 50p. 116 ref.
Nehéz M., Nehéz I., Vetró G., Csankó J., Lévay S., Maurer J., Dési I.
Cytogenetic examination of commercial clerks who sell pesticides
Peszticideket is forgalmazó kereskedelmi alkalmazottak citogenetikai vizsgálata [in Hungarian]
A cytological study was carried out among 35 commercial clerks (12 women and 23 men) exposed to pesticides in the course of their work and among 53 controls (23 women and 30 men). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups in the incidence of chromosome alterations.
Egészségtudomány, 1989, Vol.33, p.275-278. 41 ref.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Development toxicology: Risk assessment and the future
Review of efforts to estimate the risk of developmental defects and disabilities in humans due to the exposure of parents to chemicals before conception, during pregnancy or during childhood. Emphasis is on areas of needed research identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency, including paternally mediated effects, nonbehavioural functional effects, pharmacokinetic and physiological models, structure-activity relationships and mathematical modelling. Carcinogenicity, interspecies differences and methodological issues are also discussed.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003, USA; Chapman and Hall, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, United Kingdom, Dec. 1989. 279p. Illus. Approx. 810 ref. Index. Price: GBP 32.50.
Clonfero E., Granella M., Gori G.P., Venier P., Levis A.G., Morandi P., Bartolucci G.B., Saia B.
Urinary excretion of mutagens and cis-platinum in nursing staff exposed to cytostatic drugs in cancer therapy departments
Escrezione urinaria di mutageni e cisplatino nel personale infermieristico dei reparti di oncologia medica esposto a farmaci citostatici [in Italian]
Exposure to cytostatic drugs was assessed in a group of 9 nurses employed in a hospital cancer therapy department by measuring the post-shift levels of urinary mutagens and cis-platimum. A slight but significant increase in urinarymutagenic activity compared to 11 controls was observed in the non-smokers: the mean values of mutagenic acitvity on the TA100 strain in the presence of both microsomal and deconjugating enzymes were 4,418 ± 1,186 and 2, 468 ± 1,681 respectively. Conversely, the urinary platinum concentration was below the detection limit of the analytical method (10µg/L) in all samples. The increased urinary mutagenic activity in the exposed group can probably be attributed to the absorption of cyclophosphamide either during preparation and administration of the drug, or due to accidental contact with contaminated biological fluids, in view of the fact that the level of mutagens in urine samples from cyclophosphamide-treated patients is extremely high (up to 319,478 revertants/g creatinine in the case examined).
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1989, Vol.80, No.5, p.412-419. 29 ref.
Campo P., Cnockaert J.C.
Effect of noise during pregnancy on foetal hearing - Review
Risques auditifs encourus par le fżtus chez la femme enceinte exposée au bruit - Etude bibliographique [in French]
Literature review on the effects of noise on the inner ear (cochlea) of the foetus in pregnant women exposed to noise. The last 3 months of pregnancy are the 'critical period' during which the cochlea seems particularly susceptible to noise. Prolonged exposures to high noise levels, even below the 85dB(A) legal limit, can produce hearing loss in the foetus. Surrounding material tissue can attenuate noise exposure in the foetus by 20-30dB at frequencies above 500Hz. Low frequencies (<500Hz) are far less attenuated and therefore are more dangerous for the foetus. The A weighting is therefore not well adapted to estimate the harmfulness of a pre-natal noise exposure. In the absence of more data, it is recommended that the noise exposure of pregnant women be limited, especially during the last 3 months of pregnancy, and when there is much noise at frequencies <500Hz.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th Quarter 1989, No.137, Note No.1756-137-89, p.633-637. 30 ref.
Lagersted A., Nielsen P.A., Jensen A.A., Danielsen S., Hart J., Larsen J.C.
Existing chemicals: Evaluating the use of QSAR for estimating biological effects. Mutagenicity of hydrazines
A number of hydrazines were selected to examine the use of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) in the prediction of biological behaviour. The mutagenic activity of the selected hydrazines was tested using the same method of assay and test results were evaluated statistically. All the hydrazines tested were found to be mutagenic, with potencies varying over 2-3 orders of magnitude. Modelling procedures were used to determine which descriptors should be used to establish the QSAR. Results showed that it is possible to predict the mutagenic potential of a series of N,N-disubstituted hydrazine derivatives from their physicochemical properties by the use of a systematic test series design.
Nordic Council of Ministers, Store Strandstrćde 18, 1255 Křbenhavn K., Denmark, 1989. 159p. Illus. 30 ref. Appendices.
Nurminen T., Lusa S., Ilmarinen J., Kurppa K.
Physical workload, fetal development and course of pregnancy
The effects of physical workload during pregnancy were analysed in connection with a nationwide case-referent study that screened for associations between selected structural malformations and occupational exposures. The strain of the occupational activities of 1475 mothers of malformed infants and an equal number of mothers of noncase babies was assessed from a description of the work tasks by an expert using a standardised method reflecting energy expenditure. The noncase mothers' experience revealed a relation between physical load and growth retardation that has also been suggested by other epidemiologic studies. No relation was found between an increase in mean physical load and the occurrence of threatened abortion; yet work involving much standing had an increased risk. Mothers whose work included occasional high physical loads had more pregnancy-induced hypertension. The data showed unexpected associations between physical load and structural malformations.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1989, Vol.15, No.6, p.404-414. 36 ref.
Shift work, fetal development and course of pregnancy
Information on 1475 mothers of infants with selected structural malformations and an equal number of mothers of "normal" babies was analysed for a possible relationship between shift work and adverse pregnancy outcome or a complicated course of pregnancy. The primary data were obtained from the Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations supplemented by special interviews on the mothers' work conditions. No signs of a teratogenic risk were observed. The relationship between course of pregnancy and outcomes other than malformations was determined from the noncase mothers' experience. Threatened abortion and pregnancy-induced hypertension were not associated with rotating shift work alone, but in a noisy work environment moderate risks could not be ruled out. Rotating shift work was associated with a slight excess of babies small for their gestational age independently of noise exposure. The results suggest that further studies on the effects of different work schedules on pregnancy are worth consideration.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1989, Vol.15, No.6, p.395-403. 30 ref.
Benigni R., Andreoli C., Giuliani A.
Interrelationships among carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, acute toxicity, and chemical structure in a genotoxicity data base
Computerised data analysis of the data base generated by the International Program for the Evaluation of Short-Term Tests for Carcinogens (IPESTTC). With the use of statistical regression methods, three main associations were evidenced: (1) the well-known correlation between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity; (2) a correlation between mutagenicity and toxicity (LD50 ip in mice); and (3) a correlation between toxicity and a recently introduced estimator of the free energy due to the binding of molecules to biological receptors. No simple relationship between mutagenicity or carcinogenicity and chemical descriptors was found. To overcome this problem, a new pattern recognition method (REPAD) was used. This approach generated a classification rule able to correctly assign about 80% of carcinogens or mutagens.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, May 1989, Vol.27, No.1, p.1-20. Bibl.
Skyberg K., Hansteen I.L., Jelmert Ř., Rřnneberg A.
A cytogenic and haematological investigation of oil exposed workers in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company
Cytogenetic and haematological parameters were studied in 31 oil exposed workers and 31 office workers matched for age and smoking, all men employed by a Norwegian cable manufacturing company. Information was obtained about tobacco and alcohol consumption, infections, allergies, chronic diseases, use of medicines, and exposure to radiography. A decrease in the absolute lymphocyte counts was observed in the most heavily exposed subgroup (p < 0.05) but no other significant differences were found between exposed workers and referents. The influence of non-occupational variables on the cytogenetic parameters was studied by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges appeared to be influenced by smoking history (p < 0.05) and season of sampling ( p < 0.01) and, if season was excluded, by age (p < 0.05) and current smoking (p < 0.05). The number of cells with chromosomal aberrations increased with age (p < 0.05) and lymphocyte count ( p < 0.05), whereas the frequency of stable rearrangements was negatively correlated with current smoking (p < 0.01).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1989, Vol.46, No.11, p.791-798. 23 ref.
Taskinen H., Antilla A., Lindbohm M.L., Sallmén M., Hemminki K.
Spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations among the wives of men occupationally exposed to organic solvents
A case-referent study nested in a cohort monitored biologically for exposure to six organic solvents (styrene, toluene, xylene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane) was conducted to investigate the effects of paternal exposure on pregnancy outcome. The pregnancies were identified from medical registers. The exposures of the men during the spermatogenesis preceding the pregnancies and of the women during the first trimester of the pregnancies were obtained with questionnaires, and the available biological monitoring measurements were used in the exposure assesment. Factors which significantly increased the odds ratio of spontaneous abortion were paternal exposure to organic solvents in general, high/frequent exposure to toluene or miscellaneous organic solvents (including thinners), and maternal heavy lifting. No significant association between paternal or maternal exposure and congenital malformations was found, but because of the few cases no firm conclusions can be drawn.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1989, Vol.15, No.5, p.345-352. Illus. 19 ref.
Kurppa K., Rantala K., Nurminen T., Holmberg P.C., Starck J.
Noise exposure during pregnancy and selected structural malformations in infants
The study tested the hypothesis of exposure to noise during pregnancy being teratogenic. It included 1,475 Finnish mothers who had given birth to a malformed child (orofacial cleft or structural defect of the central nervous system, skeleton, or heart and great vessels) and 1,475 reference mothers. A special interview soon after delivery yielded the primary information on exposure. Of the 783 mothers who reported noise exposure in the first trimester, 370 were case mothers and 413 were referents. Hygienic assessment indicated that 102 case mothers and 103 referents had been exposed in the first trimester to a sound level of around 80dB or higher. Adjustment for potential confounders by logistic regression methods gave similar results. There was no obvious trend suggesting a hazard when different exposure categories were considered.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1989, Vol.15, No.2, p.111-116. 26 ref.
Carcinogenesis and teratogenesis may have common mechanisms
The specific mechanisms of carcinogenesis and teratogenesis are poorly understood. There are, however, some known or potential common mechanisms, such as gene or chromosome mutations, interference with gene expression, altered membrane properties, or altered intracellular homeostasis. Carcinogenesis is generally regarded as a multistage process, and a carcinogen can act at one or several stages. Agents acting in the early stages of the neoplastic process are DNA-reactive, mutagenic compounds which enable cells to be transformed to malignancy. These agents can also, if acting during critical periods of ontogenesis, induce abnormal development of the embryo. Agents which block gap junctional intercellular communication may act both as tumour-promoting agents and as teratogens in the developing embryo. Hormones are essential in the control of development and differentiation. Modulation of the intracellular hormone receptors may lead to changes in homeostatis with abnormal cellular proliferation and development as a consequence.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1989, Vol.15, No.1, p.13-17. Illus. 21 ref.
Nagaya T., Ishikawa N., Hata H.
Sister chromatid exchange analysis in lymphocytes of workers exposed to hexavalent chromium
To investigate the usefulness of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis in lymphocytes as an indicator for mutagenic effects after in vivo exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr), SCE frequency was analysed in lymphocytes of 44 Cr platers occupationally exposed to hexavalent Cr and 47 controls. Although urinary Cr analysis confirmed that the Cr platers were exposed to Cr, no effects of the exposure on SCE frequency were found. Smokers, both Cr platers and controls, had a significantly higher SCE frequency than non-smokers. These results suggest that SCE analysis in human lymphocytes is not a good indicator of possible mutagenic effects of exposure to hexavalent Cr.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1989, Vol.46, No.1, p.48-51. Illus. 24 ref.
Sixth International Symposium - Epidemiology in Occupational Health, Stockholm, Sweden, August 16-18, 1988 - Book of abstracts
Abstracts of 121 papers delivered during a symposium organised by the International Commission on Occupational Health, and during post-meeting workshops. Major themes: cancer, methodology, respiratory diseases, exposure assessment, medical surveillance, reproductive hazards, musculoskeletal diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neurobehavioural diseases, other work-related diseases, accidents, occupational epidemiology in developing countries.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 172p.
Indicators for assessing exposure and biological effects of genotoxic chemicals: Consensus report
Indications pour l'évaluation de l'exposition aux produits chimiques génotoxiques et de leurs effets biologiques: rapport commun [in French]
This document contains the report and conclusions of an international workshop held in Luxembourg in 1987. Nine types of biological monitoring methods are described: methods measuring the chemical or its metabolite in biological media; determination of mutagenic activity in biological material; cytogenetic observations on human somatic cells; detection of gene mutations in somatic cells; determination of protein or nucleic acid adducts; determination of markers of cell proliferation and transformation; determination of DNA repair; sperm assays; determination of nucleic acid damage by products in urine. It is concluded that none of the methods is able to assess exposure and estimate health risk at the individual level, although some methods are able to identify groups who are potentially at risk. Also available from the European Communities in the other official languages.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2985 Luxembourg, 1988. 37p. 2 ref. Price: ECU 5.00.
Zhou S.Y., Ziang Y.X., Chen Z.Q., Wang Y.Z.
Effects of occupational exposure to low-level carbon disulfide (CS2) on menstruation and pregnancy
In a retrospective cohort study, 265 female workers exposed to CS2 and 291 non-exposed female workers, as well as 530 pregnancies, were investigated with regard to the status of menstruation and the term and outcome of pregnancy. The average CS2 concentration to which the workers had been exposed for the 15 years prior to the study was 1.7-14.8mg/m3. Exposed female workers had a higher incidence rate of menstrual disturbance than non-exposed women (35.9% vs. 18.2%, relative risk = 2.0, p<0.01), and there was an exposure-response relationship between the CS2 level and the incidence rate of menstrual disturbance. There was no significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups in terms of rates of toxaemia, emesis gravidarum, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, premature and overdue delivery, or congenital malformation. Thus, exposure to CS2 at around 10mg/m3 may affect the function of the female reproductive system.
Industrial Health, Apr. 1988, Vol.26, No.4, p.203-204. 14 ref.
Aitio A., Becking G., Berlin A., Bernard A., Foa V., Kello D., Krug E., Léonard A., Nordberg G.
Indicators for assessing exposure and biological effects of genotoxic chemicals: Consensus and technical reports
Proceedings of a workshop held in Luxembourg from 6 to 9 July 1987 to evaluate the current methods which use indicators in human biological materials for assessing exposure to and/or biological effects of genotoxic chemcials. The conclusion of the workshop was that despite the existence of a number of tests available to assess exposure and/or effects of genotoxic chemicals, none of these tests can assess the health risks at an individual level. Experience gained from routine biological monitoring in this area, is therefore limited. The importance of ethical considerations with regard to biological testing was stressed.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Grand Duchy of L-2985 Luxembourg, 29 rue Aldringen, L-2985 Luxembourg, 1988. 191p. Bibl. Price: ECU 15.00.
Kitaeva L.V., Švarcman P.Ja.
Toxicological and hygienic evaluation of inhalation toxicity of formaldehyde
Toksiko-gigieničeskaja ocenka formal'degida pri ingaljacionnom vozdejstvii [in Russian]
The cytogenetic activity of formaldehyde in rat bone marrow was studied after 4 months inhalation exposure to the substance. Formaldehyde concentrations in the exposure chambers were maintained at 0.5mg/m3 (current USSR MAC) and 1.5mg/m3. Formaldehyde increased the frequency of chromosome damage (aberration rate). The findings suggest that the existing USSR MAC for formaldehyde in workplace air of 0.5mg/m3 cannot be viewed as genetically safe and needs revising.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1988, No.5, p.75-76. 8 ref.
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