Antifertility and prenatal effects - 646 entries found
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- Antifertility and prenatal effects
Rowland A.S., Baird D.D., Weinberg C.R., Shore D.L., Shy C.M., Wilcox A.J.
The effect of occupational exposure to mercury vapour on the fertility of female dental assistants
To study the effects of mercury vapour on fertility in women, eligibility questionnaires were sent to 7,000 registered dental assistants in California, USA. The final eligible sample of 418 women, who had become pregnant during the previous four years, were interviewed by telephone. Detailed information was collected on mercury handling practices and the number of menstrual cycles without contraception it had taken them to become pregnant. Dental assistants not working with amalgam served as unexposed controls. Women with high occupational exposure to mercury were less fertile than unexposed controls. The fecundability (probability of conception each menstrual cycle) of women who prepared 30 or more amalgams per week and who had five or more poor mercury hygiene factors was only 63% of that for unexposed women (95% CI 42%-96%) after controlling for covariates. Women with low exposure were more fertile, however, than unexposed controls. Possible explanations for the U-shaped dose response and limitations of the exposure measure are discussed. Further investigation that uses biological measures of mercury exposed is needed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.51, No.1, p.28-34. 66 ref.
Abell A., Ernst E., Bonde J.P.
High sperm density among members of organic farmers' association
In a Danish study of reproductive effects of pesticides in male greenhouse workers, an unexpectedly high sperm density was found in members of an association of organic farmers who manufacture their products without the use of pesticides or chemical fertilizers. This is in contrast to a world-wide decreasing trend of sperm density in the general population. No hypotheses are put forward to explain this finding.
Lancet, 11 June 1994, Vol.343, No.8911, p.1498. 3 ref.
Reproductive hazards in the workplace - Mending jobs, managing pregnancies
This manual identifies potential reproductive hazards for men and women in the workplace and discusses control strategies. Contents: historical survey of hazardous working conditions which affected womenšs reproductive functioning; review of reproductive hazards for men and women; the impact of the physical and social work environment on pregnant women; hazards in specific sectors (health care, industry, service sector, agriculture, office work, in schools and at home); obtaining information and learning to judge risks and hazards; organizing and lobbying techniques used by women for the reduction of work-related reproductive health hazards; protective legislation.
The Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamtom, NY 13904-1580, USA, 1993. xvii, 306p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 49.95 (paper USD 19.95).
Huuskonen H., Juutilainen J., Komulainen H.
Effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on fetal development in rats
Mated females of the Han:Wistar-strain of rat were exposed to a 50Hz (sinusoidal) magnetic field or to a 20,000pps (sawtooth) magnetic field from day 0 to day 20 of pregnancy. Each treatment group contained 72 rats. No major malformations were observed in the exposed rats and there was no increase in the number of resorptions or dead foetuses compared to the unexposed controls. Foetal body masses and measures of gross foetal development were normal. However, an increase in the number of skeletal anomalies and implantations observed suggests that exposure to these magnetic fields may have some developmental effects in rats.
Bioelectromagnetics, 1993, Vol.14, p.205-213. 24 ref.
Frölen H., Svedenstĺl B.M., Paulsson L.E.
Effects of pulsed magnetic fields on the developing mouse embryo
The influence of a pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on the embryogenesis of mice (CBA/S-strain) was investigated in five experiments based on 707 exposed and 543 unexposed pregnant females. No significant increase in PMF-induced foetal malformations was observed. However, though not significantly increased, there were more malformations in PMF-treated mice consistently across all experiments than in controls. In all groups in which exposure started on day 5 post-conception, or earlier, placental resorptions were significantly more frequent than in controls. Comparison with earlier studies suggests that the effects seen here may be strain-related.
Bioelectromagnetics, 1993, Vol.14, p.197-204. 7 ref.
Kurttio P., Norppa H., Järventaus H., Sorsa M., Kalliokoski P.
Chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of workers employed in the plywood industry
A statistically significant elevation of the frequency of cells with chromatid-type breaks as compared with the corresponding frequency of the referents was observed for the lymphocytes of the wood workers. This confirms the results of previous studies suggesting that wood-drying fumes may be carcinogenic.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1993, vol.19, No.2, p.132-134. 14 ref. ###
Occupational and environmental reproductive hazards - A guide for clinicians
This manual is in four parts: 1. Background information on the physiology of reproduction and development and how toxicants exert their effects. 2. Overview of toxicological and epidemiological research methods used to assess the effects of toxicants. 3. Clinical evaluation and management of patients. 4. Information on specific reproductive and developmental hazards (radiation, video display terminals, ergonomic factors, noise and vibration, metals, asphyxiants, organic solvents, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, polyhalogenated biphenyls, viral infections, home and community exposures). An appendix lists exposure limits for some hazardous chemicals.
Williams and Wilkins, 428 East Preston Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202, USA, 1993. xvii, 426p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Available from: Waverly Europe Ltd., Broadway House, 2-6 Fulham Broadway, London SW6 1AA, United Kingdom. Price: GBP 75.00.
Skyberg K., Hansteen I.L., Vistnes A.I.
Chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of high-voltage laboratory cable splicers exposed to electromagnetic fields
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1993, Vol.19, No.1, p.29-34. 23 ref. ###
Murata M., Takigawa H., Sakamoto H.
Teratogenic effects of noise and cadmium in mice: does noise have teratogenic potential?
The teratogenicity of combined exposure to noise and cadmium was studied in mice. Although combined treatment with cadmium and noise resulted in an increase in total percentages of malformed foetuses compared to the same dose of cadmium alone, the interactions between cadmium and noise showed no synergistic effect on teratogenicity. The magnitude of teratogenicity due to noise is much weaker than that of cadmium, and is therefore easily masked by that of cadmium in statistical tests of the significance of differences.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, June 1993, Vol.39, No.2, p.237-245. 25 ref.
Avoidance of health risks in the manufacture of semiconductors
Vermeiden von Gesundheitsrisiken in der Halbleiterfertigung [in German]
The proportion of micronuclei in the lymphocytes of female workers in a semiconductor production plant was determined. The workers were responsible for cleaning and maintenance of the plasma etching reactor and exposed to more than 70 different chemical substances. With 9 to 14 micronuclei per 500 cells the number was above that expected (<8/500 cells). In order to reduce the incidence of micronuclei to <8/500 cells, exhaust hoods were installed, the training of the workers was improved, respirators were distributed for work on the open plasma etching reactor, and the reactor was purged with nitrogen prior to opening.
Siemens-Zeitschrift, Special-FuE, Fall 1993, p.22-25. Illus.
Górecka D., Górski T.
The influence of cigarette smoking on sister chromatid exchange frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes among nurses handling cytostatic drugs
Genotoxic compounds and various cancer chemotherapeutic agents can interact with tobacco smoke synergistically, especially among cigarette smoking nurses who handle cytostatic drugs. The aim of the study was to examine the hypothesis that tobacco smoking has a greater influence on sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies among nurses than the influence of cytostatics in working conditions. The frequencies of SCE in lymphocytes investigated among hospital staff who handle anti-cancer drugs were higher than in a control group which did not handle them (smokers and non-smokers). The increase of SCE frequencies was observed more often among cigarette smoking nurses and less among non-smoking nurses who handle cytostatics 3 times a week.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.2, p.143-148. Illus. 11 ref.
Šrám R.J., Binková B., Dobiáš L., Rössner P., Topinka J., Veselá D., Veselý D., Stejskalová J., Bavorová H., Řeřicha V.
Monitoring genotoxic exposure in uranium miners
Three groups of miners from different uranium mines were studied for the effects of chemical mutagens. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes, unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in lymphocytes, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in both plasma and lymphocytes were studied on 66 exposed miners and 56 controls. Throat swabs were taken from 116 miners and 78 controls. Significantly increased numbers of aberrant cells were found in all groups of miners, as well as decreased UDS values in lymphocytes and increased LPO plasma levels in comparison with controls. Moulds were detected in throat swabs from 27% of miners, and 58% of these moulds were embryotoxic. Only 5% of the control samples contained moulds, and none were embryotoxic. The following mycotoxins were isolated from miners' swab samples: rugulosin, sterigmatocystin, mycophenolic acid, brevianamid A, citreoviridin, citrinin, penicilic acid, and secalonic acid. These data suggest that mycotoxins are a genotoxic factor affecting uranium miners.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Mar. 1993, Vol.99. p.303-305. 14 ref.
Sullivan F.M., Watkins W.J., van der Venne M.T.
Commission of the European Communities
The toxicology of chemicals - 2. Reproductive toxicity: Volume 1 - Summary reviews of the scientific evidence
This volume contains reviews of 26 chemicals of industrial interest, about half of which are solvents to which there is wide exposure, three major drugs of addiction (heroin, cocaine, morphine) and methadone. Also included are CEC guidelines for the Evaluation of Reproductive Toxicity. Each monograph provides a general introduction to the chemistry and uses of the chemical followed by a brief review of general toxicity, kinetics and metabolism and detailed reviews of animal and human data on reproductive effects (endocrine and gonadal effects, fertility and pregnancy studies).
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1993. ix, 431p. Bibl.ref. Price: ECU 40.00.
Strohmer H., Boldizsar A., Plöckinger B., Feldner-Busztin M., Feichtinger W.
Agricultural work and male infertility
Data from couples (n=103) seeking artificial insemination with donor sperm because of poor sperm quality and a control group of couples treated by in-vitro fertilization due to female causes were analyzed according to the occupations of the spouses. Comparison of occupational categories revealed a significant difference in the prevalence of agricultural occupation (11/103 vs. 1/103, p<0.01) between the group with male factor infertility and the normospermic controls. These patients also reported more long-term exposure to several insecticides and other pesticides. These toxic chemicals probably have a detrimental effect on male fertility and therefore it is suggested that they should be handled with caution.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.24, No.5, p.587-592. Illus. 3 ref.
This collection of papers addresses the effects of chemical substances on the male and female reproductive systems. Contents: occupational carcinogens and teratogenicity; effects of occupational chemicals on reproductive functions (reviews of Soviet and Chinese literature); environmental chemicals and the outcome of human pregnancy; male reproductive toxicology (chromium compounds; monitoring the adverse effects of environmental chemicals; offsprings of testicular cancer patients); female reproductive toxicology (pesticides and other adverse factors in agriculture; heavy metals); human health aspects (reproductive hazards relating to some occupations; methods of testing for reproductive toxicity; quantitative risk assessment of reproductive toxicants; epidemiological research and surveillance; reproductive toxicity of aluminium).
VCH, P.O. Box 10 11 61, 69469 Weinheim, Germany, and VCH, 220 E 23rd Street, New York, NY 10010, USA, 1993. xix, 286p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: DEM 195.00; GBP 80.00.
Walles S.A.S., Edling C., Anundi H., Johanson G.
Exposure dependent increase in DNA single strand breaks in leucocytes from workers exposed to low concentrations of styrene
Single-strand breaks in DNA were monitored in leucocytes from 17 men occupationally exposed to styrene. Personal air monitoring was carried out during one workday, exposure to styrene was also monitored by analyzing blood and urine. Single-strand breaks were measured by the alkaline elution technique. The biological samples were collected before a shift, at the end of a shift, and the next morning, before the next shift. An exposure-dependent increase in single-strand breaks was seen at the end of a shift but not before a shift or the next morning. The amount of DNA damage was roughly doubled after eight hours of exposure to 18ppm styrene or at a urine concentration of 240mg mandelic acid/g creatinine compared with the damage in non-exposed men. This study indicates that single-strand breaks may be sensitive markers of genotoxic effects. This is the first time that such markers have been shown to correlate with exposure to less than 20ppm styrene.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.570-574. Illus. 16 ref.
Matte T.D., Mulinare J., Erickson J.D.
Case-control study of congenital defects and parental employment in health care
Health care workers are occupationally exposed to known and suspected teratogens such as viruses, anaesthetic gases, sterilizing agents, mercury, and X-radiation. To assess the risk of congenital defects among offspring of health care workers, the authors analyzed parental occupational history for 4,915 case babies with congenital defects, registered during the years 1968-1980 by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) registry, and for 3,027 control babies born without defects during the same period. Offspring of mothers employed in a nursing occupation during the periconceptional period were at statistically significant increased risk of having anencephaly or spina bifida, coarctation of the aorta, genital system defects, and urinary system defects. Associations were also found between neural tube defects and potential exposure to anaesthetic gases and to X-radiation. Only one of five previous studies reviewed found an increased risk of congenital defects among offspring of nurses, but three of the four negative studies had substantially smaller sample sizes than the present study. Detection bias may be a possible explanation for the apparent excess risk of certain defects among offspring of nurses.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1993, Vol.24, No.1, p.11-23. 32 ref.
Woźniak H., Więcek E., Stetkiewicz J., Wyszyńska K.
Experimental carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of non-asbestos natural fibres - Preliminary report
The aim of this investigation was to quantify the carcinogenic and mutagenic activity of antigorite occurring in the form of admixtures in different mineral raw materials (serpentinite, magnesite, dolomite and nickel ore). The carcinogenicity of dusts was evaluated after intraperitoneal injections of 5mg (mice) or 20mg (rats) of dust suspended in saline. A pathomorphological examination was performed in all the dead animals. For two raw materials - serpentinite and nickel ore - their mutagenic potency was investigated (the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test was used). Results obtained in the experiments on animals showed that the biological aggressiveness of the mineral raw materials tested was associated with the content of antigorite fibres. The frequency of mesothelioma (5-85%), in particular, was related to the number of antigorite fibres longer than 5µm. Both of the investigated raw materials (serpentinite and nicker ore) were mutagenic in the SCE test.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.1, p.55-60. Illus. 5 ref.
Inherited factors and environmental exposures in cancer risk
Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process resulting from the interaction of carcinogenic exposures, cellular macromolecules (eg. DNA), and endogenous mutational mechanisms. Involved in these processes are metabolic activation and detoxification of chemical carcinogens, genetic sequences of protooncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, and DNA repair, among others. Cytochrome P4501A1, P4502E1 and N-acetyl transferase 2 are examples of enzymes involved in the metabolic activation of potential environmental carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and aromatic amines, respectively. Germ-line mutations in these genes are common and associated with abnormal enzymatic function that are mechanistically related to quantitative changes in binding of carcinogens to DNA. Risk assessments attempt to predict human cancer rates using mathematical models that are often based on limited experimental data. They do not generally incorporate the numerous stages of carcinogenesis or inter-individual variation.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1993, Vol.35, No.1, p.34-41. Illus. 97 ref.
A review of in vitro studies - Low-frequency electromagnetic fields
In-vitro studies of the effects of low-frequency (LF) electromagnetic (EM) fields have reported on: (1) DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis; (2) cell proliferation; (3) cation fluxes and binding; (4) immune responses; and (5) membrane signal transduction. Typically, such effects occurred as a result of short-term exposure of cells to EM at frequencies of 100Hz or less and at low field intensities. Because of confounding interpretations of the results use of these data to assess human health effects is limited. This paper reviews selected published reports of LF EM fields on in-vitro systems. Where possible, relevance of the findings to occupational exposures will be assessed, principally by considering the consistency of in-vitro and in-vivo EM exposure effects and comparison of EM field intensities that affect in-vitro systems with occupational EM exposure intensities. Finally, suggestions will be made for the direction of future in-vitro research of direct pertinence to occupational exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1993, Vol.54, No.4, p.178-185. 62 ref.
Wiley M.J., Corey P., Kavet R., Charry J., Harvey S., Agnew D., Walsh M.
The effects of continuous exposure to 20-kHz sawtooth magnetic fields on the litters of CD-1 mice
Four groups of mated CD-1 mice were exposed to 20kHz magnetic fields from day 1 to day 18 of pregnancy. There were at least 140 pregnant females in each group. Evaluation of numbers of implantations, foetal deaths and resorptions, gross external, visceral and skeletal malformations, and foetal weights revealed no significant differences between any of the exposed groups and the unexposed controls. Results do not support the hypothesis that the 20kHz magnetic fields associated with video display terminals are teratogenic in mammals.
Teratology, 1992, Vol.46, p.391-398. Illus. 34 ref.
Brandt L.P.A., Nielsen C.V.
Fecundity and the use of video display terminals
Data on waiting time to pregnancy, occupational exposures, and life-style factors were obtained for a random sample of 2252 pregnancies among commercial and clerical employees in Denmark. Overall exposure to a video display terminal indicated a slightly increased association with prolonged waiting time to pregnancy. A significant association was observed for self-reported high exposures (≥ 21h per week), but this finding was based on a small number of persons. Limitations of the study are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1992, Vol.18, No.5, p.298-301. 19 ref.
Beyersmann D., Hartwig A.
The genetic toxicology of cobalt
Genetic and related effects of cobalt compounds are reviewed and discussed with respect to mechanisms. The sections of the paper discuss: exposure, absorption, and general toxicity, including human exposure levels; carcinogenicity and genetic effects in vivo; genetic and related effects in vitro, including prokaryotic assays, genetic studies with yeast and plants, and genotoxicity studies in mammalian systems; modulation of genotoxicity of other agents; mechanistic aspects, including the role of reactive oxygen species, effects on DNA synthesis and possible role of DNA repair inhibition. These mechanisms are regarded as relevant for the risk assessment of human exposure to cobalt in combination with other agents.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, July 1992, Vol.115, No.1, p.137-145. 78 ref.
Beauchamp R.O., St. Clair M.B.G., Fennell T.R., Clarke D.O., Morgan K.T.
A critical review of the toxicology of glutaraldehyde
Glutaraldehyde, a low molecular weight aldehyde, was investigated for toxicity in humans and animals. Examination of this dialdehyde was indicated from previous studies with other aldehydes in which carcinogenicity of formaldehyde and toxicity of acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde have been disclosed. Information gaps concerning the actions of glutaraldehyde are identified in this review and recommendations are made for additional short-term and long-term studies. In particular, information regarding irritation of the respiratory tract, potential neurotoxicity, and developmental effects would assist in a complete hazard evaluation of glutaraldehyde. Further study related to disposition, metabolism, and reactions of glutaraldehyde may elucidate the mechanism of action.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 1992, Vol.22, No.3-4, p.143-174. Illus. 244 ref.
Brinkworth M.H., Yardley-Jones A., Edwards A.J., Hughes J.A., Anderson D.
A comparison of smokers and nonsmokers with respect to oncogene products and cytogenetic parameters
Human monitoring studies can be valuable tools for assessing the adverse effects of chemicals. Cytogenetic parameters have been frequently employed but are rarely related directly to possible adverse health effects. Recently, the measurement of oncoprotein levels in plasma has been proposed as a possible and more appropriate indicator of exposure and carcinogenic risk but, unlike chromosome damage, little is known about the effects of possible confounding factors. This study compared the effect of smoking on chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, and plasma rasoncoprotein levels, in 40 humans not otherwise known to be exposed to any specific chemical hazard. No effect was found on any of these end points, with the exception of a moderate, statistically non-significant elevation of sister chromatid exchange levels. It is concluded that smoking is unlikely to be a confounding factor in human monitoring studies using oncoprotein levels as an end point.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1992, Vol.34, No.12, p.1181-1188. Illus. 17 ref.
Hooper K., LaDou J., Rosenbaum J.S., Book S.A.
Regulation of priority carcinogens and reproductive or developmental toxicants
In California, 370 carcinogens and 112 reproductive/developmental toxicants have been identified as a result of the State's Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. The lists of chemicals were compiled following systematic review of published data, including technical reports from the US Public Health Service - National Toxicology Program (NTP), and evaluation of recommendations from authoritative bodies such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Given the large number of chemicals that are carcinogens or reproductive/developmental toxicants, regulatory concerns should focus on those that have high potential for human exposure, e.g., widely distributed or easily absorbed solvents, metals, environmental mixtures, or reactive agents. This paper presents a list of 33 potential priority carcinogens and reproductive/developmental toxicants, including alcoholic beverages, asbestos, benzene, chlorinated solvents, formaldehyde, glycol ethers, lead, tobacco smoke, and toluene.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1992, Vol.22, No.6, p.793-808. 52 ref.
Genes, cancer and radiation protection
Proceedings of the annual meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) held on 3-4 April 1991, at Washington, D.C., USA. The scientific sessions contain an introduction on radiation-induced cancer risk estimation and carcinogenesis, followed by papers on radiation mechanisms - damage, repair and mutagenesis at DNA and cellular levels; the genetic aspects of carcinogenesis with emphasis on radiation-induced tumours; molecular cytogenetic techniques in radiation dosimetry and epidemiology of population with inherited predisposition to cancer. A special lecture on the dosage aspect of radiation exposure, presentation of prices and report on NCRP activities are also recorded.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA, Sep. 1992. viii, 215p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: USD 25.00.
Styrene toxicology investigations on the potential for carcinogenicity
New toxicokinetic data on styrene and the metabolic occurrence of styrene oxide are presented along with information on macromolecular binding in vivo. Based on experimental data, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for styrene and styrene oxide was developed, validated and used to calculate the body burden of these compounds for man in relation to animals. From results of these studies and DNA binding studies, it is concluded that the carcinogenic potential of styrene, if one exists at all, must be so low that occupational or environmental exposure to styrene is unlikely to present any genotoxic or carcinogenic hazard for man.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Nov. 1992. 61p. ca. 180 ref.
Relationship of ergonomic stressors to birthweight and gestational age
Women in many occupations are exposed to ergonomic stressors (eg, prolonged standing, physical exertion, and long work weeks). After a consideration of the major methodological problems encountered in studying effects of ergonomic stressors on birthweight and gestational age, epidemiologic studies that have addressed this issue are reviewed. No individual ergonomic stressor has been consistently associated with effects on gestational age. However, most studies which have attempted to look at the cumulative effect of several stressors report that women in the highest exposure category are at higher risk of giving birth prematurely. In contrast, data regarding an association with birthweight are more variable, and firm conclusions cannot be drawn. While future studies that assess exposure to ergonomic stressors with a more comprehensive and quantitative approach are needed, current evidence is sufficient to suggest that clinicians should take ergonomic stressors into account in the assessment of their patients' risk for preterm delivery.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.18, No.2, p.73-83. 36 ref.
Bonde J.P.E., Olsen J.H., Hansen K.S.
Adverse pregnancy outcome and childhood malignancy with reference to paternal welding exposure
This study examines reproductive end points in a Danish cohort of 10,059 metalworkers who fathered 3,569 children in 1973 through 1986. Occupational histories were gathered by postal questionnaires. Information on pregnancy outcomes and offspring was obtained by record linkage to medical registers. The occurrence of reduced birthweight, preterm delivery, infant mortality, and congenital malformation was not increased among children at risk from paternal welding exposure in comparison with children not at risk. The overall incidence of childhood malignancies among 23,264 children born in 1968 through 1986 with a total of 259,113 person-years of follow-up was equal to national rates (relative risk 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.63-1.42). However, pregnancies preceding a birth at risk from paternal exposure to stainless steel welding were more often terminated by spontaneous abortion (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.2). This finding needs cautious interpretation and the effects of exposure to welding on spermatogenesis should be further investigated.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1992, Vol.18, No.3, p.169-177. Illus. 31 ref.
Cordier S., Ha M.C., Ayme S., Goujard J.
Maternal occupational exposure and congenital malformations
A case-referent study was conducted to assess the risk of congenital malformations in relation to maternal occupational exposure before and during pregnancy. 325 cases of major malformations and 325 normal referents identified in 15 maternity hospitals were included in the study. The results suggested that mothers of the case children with oral clefts were more often exposed to solvents during pregnancy (odds ratio, OR 7,9, 90% confidence internal, CI, 1,8-44,9) and worked more often as cleaners. Digestive anomalies (OR 11,9; 90% CI 2,0-14,9) and multiple anomalies (OR 4,5; 90% CI 1,4-16,9) were also associated with occupational exposure to solvents at work. These results were not modified when differences in maternal age, area of residence, and socioeconomic status were taken into account.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1992, Vol.18, No.1, p.11-17. 16 ref.
Straume T., Lucas J.N., Tucker J.D., Bigbee W.L., Langlois R.G.
Biodosimetry for a radiation worker using multiple assays
Four state-of-the-art biodosimetric methods (glycophorin-A (GPA) somatic mutations, chromosome translocations, micronuclei, dicentrics) were used to evaluate a radiation worker who believed that the official dosimetry records substantially underestimated his actual dose. Dosimetry records indicated that the worker received 0.56Sv during a 36-year employment history, always within dose limits. The worker believed his dose equivalent may have been more than 2.5Sv because much of the exposure was received during an earlier period when dosimetry capabilities and practices were not as good as they are today. The results suggest that dose-equivalent estimates in the ≈0.4 to ≈2Sv range, which include the value in the worker's dosimetry records, cannot be confidently excluded at this time based on biodosimetry. However, a value greater than 2.5Sv appears unlikely. Important new information on the temporal stability of chromosome translocations is also presented.
Health Physics, Feb. 1992, Vol.62, No.2, p.122-130. Illus. 43 ref.
Nordic Council of Ministers
Effects on reproduction of chloroform and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane
This Nordic Council of Ministers report reviews the available literature on the toxicology and reproductive hazards of chloroform and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DCBP). Little data is available on the effects of chloroform on reproduction. Chloroform passes the placenta in all studied species, including man, and studies indicate a teratogenic potential after exposure for several hours per day during organogenesis. At occupational exposure levels DBCP caused serious effects on spermatogenesis without any other signs of intoxication and should therefore be considered as a specific testicular toxicant. Animal data show that it should also be considered as a mutagen and a carcinogen.
Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, P.O. Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 67p. 92 ref.
Milkovic-Kraus S., Kubelka D., Vekic B.
Biological monitoring of three 60Co γ-radiation incident victims
Radiation-induced structural chromosomal aberrations were the only adverse effects found in three workers overexposed to 60Co γ-radiation. Chromosomal analyses were performed on the 5th and 75th days after exposure. Haematologic follow-up was carried out on the 5th, 12th, 16th, and 75th days after exposure. Haematologic findings did not differ over time in any of the three exposed workers. In two workers, we found dicentric chromosomes, which are conventional indicators for exposure to ionising radiation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1992, Vol.22, No.2, p.243-247. Illus. 8 ref.
Pińa-Calva A., Madrigal-Bujaidar E., Fuentes M.V., Neria P., Perez-Lucio C., Velez-Zamora N.M.
Increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in railroad car painters
Study conducted on 25 railroad car painters and 25 controls in Mexico.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1991, Vol.46, No.6, p.335-339. 38 ref. ###
Eighth International Symposium - Epidemiology in Occupational Health
8e Symposium international d'épidémiologie de la santé au travail [in French]
The proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health organized under the aegis of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) in Paris, France, 10-12 Sep. 1991 include: (1) The text of 6 invited lectures on the epidemiology of occupational neurobehavioural hazards: methodological experiences from organic solvent research; epidemiology of occupational reproductive hazards: methodological aspects; epidemiology of respiratory hazard; recent advances; methodological problems of time-related variables in occupational cohort studies; electromagnetic fields and cancer risks; use of biochemical and biological markers in occupational epidemiology. (2) Abstracts of some 130 papers classified under the following headings: methods; exposure assessment; occupational cancer; cardiovascular diseases; respiratory diseases; musculoskeletal diseases; neurobehavioural diseases; psychosocial factors; medical surveillance; work accidents; other related diseases; reproductive effects.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.6 bis, p.II, 495-613. Bibl.ref.
Welch L.S., Plotkin E., Schrader S.
Indirect fertility analysis in painters exposed to ethylene glycol ethers: Sensitivity and specificity
Semen analysis has proven useful in the clinical diagnosis of infertility and is the most widely used method of monitoring the effects of occupational exposure on male fertility. Collection and analysis of semen samples in a field setting, however, is not always feasible. Techniques of monitoring male worker fertility using questionnaires to avoid some of the difficulties of semen analysis have been developed. These methods compare the rate of observed births for wives of workers with expected birth rates derived either from U.S. fertility tables or from unexposed workers. The present study compares the sensitivity of this questionnaire method with that of semen analysis in an evaluation of reproductive function in men exposed to ethylene glycol ethers. The reproductive function of 74 married painters exposed to ethylene glycol ethers was compared with that of 51 married controls employed at a shipyard. The groups differed in sperm count, but the questionnaire method showed no effect of exposure on fertility. This analysis suggests that the questionnaire assessment of fertility is less sensitive than semen analysis as a screening tool for male reproductive function.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.20, No.2, p.229-240. 27 ref.
Kardaun J.W.P.F., Hayes R.B., Pottern L.M., Brown L.M., Hoover R.N.
Testicular cancer in young men and parental occupational exposure
To investigate whether parental occupation, especially during the 12-month period before birth, could be responsible for elevated rates of testicular cancer in young men, data from a case-control study of 223 cases and 212 controls conducted in the Washington, DC area were analysed. For all histologic types of testicular cancer combined, no significant associations were found for specific occupations, nor for the broad occupational categories of professional, other white collar, or blue collar workers. However, for cases with seminomas, excess risks were seen for those with parents employed in the following occupations: mothers in health-related occupations, O.R.=4.6 (1.1-19.1), and fathers working in automobile service stations, O.R.=4.0 (0.6-24.5), manufacturing industries, O.R.=2.2 (1.0-4.2), and aircraft production and maintenance, O.R.=5.3 (0.7-24.1). Although these findings for seminoma are intriguing, they do not explain the increase of testicular cancer in young men.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.20, No.2, p.219-227. 16 ref.
Waters M.D., Stack H.F., Garrett N.E., Jackson M.A.
The Genetic Activity Profile Database
A Genetic Activity Profile (GAP) is a graphic data matrix on the genetic and related effects of selected chemicals. The profiles provide a visual overview of the dose and test result data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Data are available on 299 compounds selected from volumes 1-50 of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Priority Substances. By examining the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluating chemical analogues. GAPs have provided useful data for the development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from assessing the GAPs of component chemicals.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1991, Vol.96, p.41-45. 33 ref.
Pilličre F., Falcy M.
Exposure to genotoxic chemical products: Biological markers used in the monitoring of workers
Exposition aux produits chimiques génotoxiques - Marqueurs biologiques pour la surveillance des salariés [in French]
This information note surveys the scientific literature on genotoxic products, i.e. those that are liable to induce cancers or genetic mutations. The advantages and disadvantages of current methods used for the monitoring of workers exposed to such products are discussed. These methods are: 1. Detection of mutagenic activity in biological fluids (the Ames test). 2. Tests that detect cytogenetic changes (chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, sister-chromatic exchanges) in human cells. 3. Protein and DNA adducts. 4. Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). All these tests are subject to very sensitive interpretation, and there are actually few laboratories able to carry them out. As far as choice is concerned, it makes more sense to use a short-time test (sister-chromatic exchanges, adducts) when monitoring recent exposure, and a long-term test (chromosomal aberrations) when monitoring ancient or cumulative exposure.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1991, No.48, p.329-336. Illus. 40 ref.
Mehlman M.A., Legator M.S.
Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry - Part II. Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of 1,3-butadiene
1,3-butadiene (BD) is present in synthetic rubber and motor fuels (gasoline). BD is shown to cause lymphocytic lymphomas, heart haemangiosarcomas, lung alveolar bronchiolar cancers, forestomach-squamous cell cancers, harderian gland neoplasms, preputial gland adenoma or carcinoma, liver-hepatocellular cancers, mammary gland acinar cell carcinomas, ovary-glanulosa cell carcinoma, brain cancers, pancreas adenoma and carcinoma, testis-Leydig cell tumours, thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and zymbal gland carcinoma in rodents and to date no exposure level has been established at which this chemical does not cause cancers. In humans BD causes increase in lymphomas, leukaemias, and other cancers of haematopoietic systems and organs. BD is also a potent alkylating agent, directly toxic to developing embryos and damages progeny after parental exposure. For previous article, see CIS 92-206.
Toxicology and Industrial Health, 1991, Vol.7, No.3, p.207-220. Illus. 29 ref.
Fatma N., Jain A.K., Rahman Q.
Frequency of sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberrations in asbestos cement workers
Exposure to asbestos minerals has been associated with a wide variety of adverse health effects including lung cancer, pleural mesothelioma, and cancer of other organs. Twenty-two workers from an asbestos cement factory and 12 controls were investigated. Controls were matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 48h for studies of chromosomal aberrations and at 72h for SCE frequency determinations. Asbestos workers had a higher mean SCE rate and increased numbers of chromosomal aberrations. Most of the chromosomal aberrations were chromatid gap and break types.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1991, Vol.48, No.2, p.103-105. 11 ref.
Martin F., Earl R., Tawn E.J.
A cytogenetic study of men occupationally exposed to uranium
Blood lymphocyte cultures from 2 groups of workers occupationally exposed to uranium showed significant increases in asymmetrical chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). For dicentrics this appeared to be particularly associated with exposure to soluble uranium. The external radiation exposure experienced by these men was insufficient to explain the increase in dicentrics, and irradiation of lymphocytes by internally deposited uranium (lung, kidneys) would have been minimal. As the SCEs were also raised, the genotoxic effect is likely to be due to the chemical nature of the compound. The increase in frequency of dicentrics associated with smoking was greatest in the group with exposure to soluble uranium, suggesting some interaction between the 2 clastogens. No such interactive effect was seen for SCE frequencies.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1991, Vol.48, No.2, p.98-102. 17 ref.
Skogstad M., Kristensen P.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 98. Trichloroethylene
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation - 98. Trikloreten [in Norwegian]
The literature on trichloroethylene was reviewed and evaluated. The critical effect for the establishment of an occupational exposure limit is neurotoxicity. Carcinogenicity and genotoxicity should also be taken into account.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 76p. 313 ref.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 97. Dimethyl sulfoxide
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 97. Dimethylsulfoxid [in Danish]
The literature on dimethyl sulfoxide was reviewed and evaluated. DMSO has a very low acute toxicity, and chronic effects are seen only at high exposure levels. The critical toxicological effects are irritation (skin and mucous membranes), central nervous system effects (dizziness and nausea) and disturbance of normal cellular functions, which contribute to development of cancer and teratogenic effects. Occupational exposure is most likely to occur by skin contact; DMSO also greatly enhances the permeability of the skin to other substances. Further studies on the genotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of DMSO are necessary before these hazards can be properly evaluated.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 36p. 113 ref.
Larsen A.I., Olsen J., Svane O.
Gender-specific reproductive outcome and exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic radiation among physiotherapists
The aim of this case-referent study was to investigate reproductive hazards other than congenital malformations after exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Cases and referents were sampled from a cohort of pregnancies of members of the Union of Danish Physiotherapists through linkage of the union file with national medical registers. Case groups were spontaneous abortions and children with low birthweight, prematurity, and stillbirth/death within one year. Exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic radiation before and during pregnancy was assessed through telephone interviews. As referents to the 270 cases, 316 pregnancies were randomly sampled. A total of 8.4% did not participate. Only 23.5% of the children born by the highly exposed mothers were boys. This value is a statistically significantly altered gender ratio showing a dose-response pattern. High-frequency electromagnetic radiation was furthermore associated with low birthweight, but only for male newborns. The other outcomes were not statistically significantly associated with exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic radiation.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1991, Vol.17, No.5, p.324-329. 20 ref.
Lindbohm M.L., Sallmén M., Anttila A., Taskinen H., Hemminki K.
Paternal occupational lead exposure and spontaneous abortion
A case-referent study was conducted in order to find out if occupational exposure of men to inorganic lead is related to spontaneous abortion in their wives. The men were biologically monitored for lead exposure. The cases (213 spontaneous abortions) and referents (300 births) were identified from Finnish medical registers. Lead exposure was assessed with blood lead (PbB) measurements and data obtained from a questionnaire. The results did not show a statistically significant relationship between spontaneous abortion and paternal lead exposure among the study subjects. A significant increase was observed in the risk of those women whose husbands had been monitored (PbB ≥1.5µmol/L) during or close to the time of spermatogenesis. The association between lead exposure and spontaneous abortion was modified also by the age of the wife and paternal alcohol use. The findings suggest that there may be an association between paternal lead exposure and the risk of spontaneous abortion.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1991, Vol.17, No.2, p.95-103. Illus. 19 ref.
Effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on embryonic development and pregnancy
Experimental and epidemiologic studies on the effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on pregnancy are reviewed. Most of the epidemiologic studies have concerned operators of a video display terminal (VDT). The results do not provide evidence for an association between adverse pregnancy outcome and use of a VDT. Other (stronger) sources of low-frequency magnetic fields have been addressed in only a few studies. It is not yet possible to conclude whether occupational or residential exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields affects human prenatal development. There is an apparent need for further investigation.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1991, Vol.17, No.3, p.149-158. 77 ref.
Goulet L., Thériault G.
Stillbirth and chemical exposure of pregnant workers
A case-referent study was conducted among women in health and personal services, agriculture, and manufacturing industries. Stillbirths (N = 227) were matched with live births (N = 227) on mother's age, gravidity, and socioeconomic status. Exposure was assessed by workplace visits, telephone calls, or estimations. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used which controlled for maternal education, race, cigarette and alcohol consumption, and previous stillbirths. The results showed a significant decreased risk of stillbirth for hairdressers (odds ratio (OR) 0.1), and garment workers (OR 0.2). Women in metal-electrical-chemical industries (OR 5.1) and those with low-level exposure to pesticides or germicides (OR 3.1) had an increased risk. Ergonomic factors could be related to some of these findings.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1991, Vol.17, No.1, p.25-31. 40 ref.
Miltenburger H.G., Timm A., Poth A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Genotoxicity of formaldehyde
Lokale Genotoxizität des Formaldehyd [in German]
Discussion of the biological effects, in particular of the genotoxicity, of formaldehyde (FA) on nasal epithelial cells (NEC), as studied in in vivo animal experiments and in vitro cultures of NEC. In in vitro experiments, genotoxic effects were induced at lower concentrations in the absence of a metabolising system. In in vivo studies toxic and genotoxic effects in the NEC were reported at 20ppm FA after a 5 day-exposure (6h/day). Concentrations recommended for human exposures (0.1, 0.5 and 1ppm) produced no genotoxic effects. Following a 4-week exposure (4 x 5 days; 6h/day) at 1ppm FA, an increased rate of sister chromatic exchanges and of micro-nuclei was reported. Summaries in English, French and German.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1991. 134p. Illus. 90 ref.
NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin No.55 - Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde, and mutagenicity of related low-molecular-weight aldehydes
This bulletin presents recent information about the potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde and discusses the chemical reactivity and mutagenicity of 9 related aldehydes (acrolein, butyraldehyde, crotonaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, glyoxal, paraformaldehyde, propiolaldehyde, propionaldehyde and valeraldehyde). Results of animal expirements provide sufficent evidence to conclude that acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde are carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Evidence for the carcinogenicity of the other 9 aldehydes is inconclusive. Adequate epidemiologic data are not available from workers exposed to acetaldehyde or malonaldehyde, although both chemicals meet the OSHA criteria for potential carcinogens and it is recommended that worker exposure be reduced to the lowest feasible concentration.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1991. 39p. Illus. 192 ref.
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