Antifertility and prenatal effects - 646 entries found
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- Antifertility and prenatal effects
Lander F., Ronne M.
Frequency of sister chromatid exchange and haematological effects in glass-houses fumigators exposed to pesticides
Frecuencia del intercambio entre cromátidas hermanas y efectos hematológicos en los fumigadores de invernaderos expuestos a pesticidas [in Spanish]
A cross-sectional study involving 134 glass-houses fumigators exposed to a mixture of pesticides and 157 controls was carried out in order to investigate the genotoxicity and haematotoxicity of the products used. Sister chromatid exchange method (SCE) and blood count were used to evaluate chromosome and haematological alterations. SCE frequency was higher in non-smoking fumigators, as opposed to controls. No difference was found in the haematological profiles of the two groups. The results suggest that occupational exposure to pesticides may have genotoxic effects.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1996, Vol.43, No.168, p.161-169.
Kersemaekaers M., Roeleveld N., Xielhius G.A.
Reproductive disturbances in female hairdressers due to exposure to chemical products
Alteraciones en la reproducción debidas a exposición a productos químicos entre peluqueras [in Spanish]
Analysis of epidemiologic studies from 1985 to 1993 in the database Medline on reproductive hazards of exposure to chemical products used in hairdressing. Not much evidence was found of reproductive disturbances in hairdressers due to the use of chemical products. However, the limited availability of data in humans and the unknown effects of some chemical substances should be taken into account.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1996, Vol.43, No.168, p.147-160.
Bureau of Workers' Activities
Male and female reproductive health hazards in the workplace
This training module contains information on how occupational hazards can affect the reproductive system of workers of either sex. Topics discussed include: the mechanism of reproductive damage (prior to conception, during pregnancy, after birth); sources of knowledge on reproductive hazards of chemical, physical or biological agents and of the work situation in general; protection against reproductive hazards; role of the health and safety representative; case study of negative male fertility outcome due to chemical exposure at work; glossary. In appendices: list of chemicals with reproductive toxicity; reproductive hazards to men and women; industries where there is evidence of adverse reproductive outcome in exposed women (without linkage to specific exposures); examples of agents toxic to the male reproductive system; carcinogenic chemical in electronics manufacturing; examples of substances observed to induce adverse reproductive outcomes following exposure during pregnancy.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. x, 35p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 5.00 (for the collection: CHF 50.00).
Lehucher-Michel M.P., Ait Amara Y., Botta A.
Micronucleus assay on exfoliated urothelial cells: Effect of smoking and application to occupational biomonitoring
Application du test de numération des micronoyaux aux cellules urothéliales exfoliées: effet du tabagisme et intérêt en médecine du travail [in French]
Exposure to genotoxic chemicals increases the incidence of bladder cancer. Smoking seems to have an additive effect on this cancer risk. Exfoliated bladder cell micronuclei assays may constitute a useful testing for genotoxic effects in populations with an increased risk of bladder cancer due to exposure to chemical substances. A micronucleus assay was applied to 73 healthy donors not occupationally exposed to genotoxic chemicals. Among the variables studied in 50 subjects presenting a number of analyzed urothelial cells at least equal to 1000, only smoking showed a significant effect on micronucleated cell rates (P = 0.007). Micronucleated cell levels in ex-smokers were slightly lower but not significantly different from that of smokers suggesting that smoking could generate clones of basal micronucleated cells in urothelial tissues. The importance of extending the micronucleus assay to target tissues is stressed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.6, p.429-437. Illus. 82 ref.
Jakab M.G., Major J., Tompa A.
HPRT mutation frequencies in control human populations in Hungary
Mutation frequencies in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) genes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined in two groups of donors: 101 healthy persons living and working in non-industrialized areas (historical controls), and 87 persons working in chemical industrial estates with no known exposure to genotoxic materials (industrial controls). The distribution of the variant frequency of HPRT point mutations showed no statistical difference between the two groups. Results are analyzed with respect to age, sex, smoking and drinking habits, seasonal factors and residential area. Implications for genotoxicological monitoring are discussed.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.4, p.317-328. 47 ref.
Ahlborg G., Axelsson G., Bodin L.
Shift work, nitrous oxide exposure and subfertility among Swedish midwives
By means of a questionnaire survey of approx. 4000 Swedish midwives born in 1940 or later, the probability of becoming pregnant in a given menstrual cycle was calculated for each category of exposure to nitrous oxide. The relationship of per-cycle probability of exposed workers to that of the unexposed was expressed as fecundability ratios (FRs). No significant effect of exposure was noted except in a small group (n=41) reporting that they assisted at more than 30 nitrous oxide deliveries per month (crude FR=0.51; FR adjusted for extraneous factors=0.63). The conclusion is that shift work and frequent, high levels of occupational exposure to nitrous oxide may have a negative influence on the ability of women to become pregnant.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Aug. 1996, Vol.25, No.4, p.783-790. Illus. 37 ref.
Brumen V., Horvat D.
Work environment influence on cytostatics-induced genotoxicity in oncologic nurses
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of workplace conditions on chromosomal damage incidence in nurses handling cytostatics. The study involved two groups of 17 oncologic nurses each and the same number of matched controls. Sister chromatid exchange method (SCE) was used for genotoxicity assessment. In the group of nurses provided with a safe working environment, the SCE-frequency was insignificantly increased when compared with the controls, although wide SCE-ranges were obtained. By contrast, in the group of nurses provided with neither such an environment nor with the appropriate personal protective equipment, the SCE-frequency was significantly higher, not only compared with the control group, but also with the first group of nurses.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.67-71. Bibl.ref.
Hewitt J. B., Tellier L.
A description of an occupational reproductive health nurse consultant practice and women's occupational exposures during pregnancy
This article describes the advanced practice public health nurse role, as implemented in the US state of Wisconsin in 1986, and the women who seek reproductive health consultation with these nurses. Data on the types of workplace exposures that these women had during pregnancy are used to illustrate their occupational history and its importance for pre-conception and early-pregnancy counselling. The sample was limited to 118 women, 19-43 years old, whose pregnancies resulted in live births. Most of the inquiries involved exposure to solvents, which can result in transplacental exposure of the foetuses.
Public Health Nursing, 1996, Vol.13, No.5, p.365-373. Illus. 21 ref.
Todd A.C., Wetmur J.G., Moline J.M., Godbold J.H., Levin S.M., Landrigan P.J.
Unraveling the chronic toxicity of lead: An essential priority for environmental health
Exposure to lead in the general population has declined, but chronic lead toxicity remains a major public health problem in the United States, affecting millions of children and adults. To close current gaps in knowledge of chronic lead toxicity an integrated, multidisciplinary, marker-based research programme combines a) direct measurement of individual lead burden by Cd-109 X-ray fluorescence analysis of lead in bone, b) determination of ALA-D phenotype as index of individual susceptibility to lead, and c) assessments of subclinical injury produced by lead in the kidneys, nervous system and the reproductive organs. This marker-based research program offers a feasible approach to understand the following questions: a) are current environmental and occupational standards adequate to prevent chronic lead intoxication? b) is lead mobilized from the skeleton during pregnancy or lactation to cause foetal toxicity? c) is lead mobilized from bone during menopause to cause neurotoxicity? d) what is the significance of genetic variation in determining susceptibility to lead? e) what is the contribution of lead to hypertension, renal disease, chronic neurodegenerative disease or declining sperm counts? f) is chelation therapy effective in reducing body lead burden in persons with chronic overexposure to lead?
Environmental Health Perspectives, Mar. 1996, Vol.104, Suppl.1, p.141-146. 68 ref.
Jankovic J., Drake F.
A screening method for occupational reproductive health risk
The purpose of this study was to provide a reproductive health risk assessment for a large number of chemicals (213). Searching the literature for no observed adverse effect levels and lowest observed adverse effect levels for the reproductive toxicants, occupational reproductive guidelines (ORGs) were developed in the dose-response evaluation step. The majority of the chemicals (85%) have had a screening level dose-response assessment completed. Of these, 13% are greater than or equal to a threshold limit value (TLV). The remaining 87% do not have a TLV or ORGs below the TLV.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1996, Vol.57, No.7, p.641-649. Illus. 20 ref.
Petrelli G., Mucci N., Siepi G., Pace F.
Assessment of agricultural pesticides for potential carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity
Antiparassitari agricoli valutati per potenziali effetti cancerogeni, mutageni e tossico-riproduttivi [in Italian]
The aim of this study was to present a review of core information issued by Italian and international sources on the toxicity of pesticide products used in Italy. A comprehensive table on the carcinogenic, mutagenic and anti-fertility effects of active ingredients and their concentration ranges in commercially available products, as given by the Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN, an Italian toxicological agency), the European Union, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), together with CAS numbers, is presented. This information can be useful for the carrying out of risk assessments of the listed pesticides and their solvents in occupationally exposed populations.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1996, Vol.87, No.2, p.110-121. 23 ref.
Novara R., Coda R., Martone T., Vineis P.
Exposure to aromatic amines and ras and c-erB-2 overexpression in bladder cancer
Since overexpression of ras and c-er B-2 oncogenes occurs in bladder cancer, immunohistochemical analysis of the encoded protein products p21 and p185 was performed in six bladder cancer biopsies of workers exposed to high levels of 2-naphthylamine and benzidine. Eleven unexposed bladder cancer patients, 6 subjects with benign bladder conditions and 16 healthy subjects were similarly analyzed. In the latter group biopsies were obtained during cystoscopies prompted by clinical symptoms. Overexpression of ras was found in 4 of 6 exposed cancer patients, 3 of 11 unexposed cancer patients, 0 of 6 benign disease patients and none of 16 healthy subjects. No association was found between occupational exposure and c-er B-2 overexpression.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1996, Vol.38, No.4, p.390-393. 26 ref.
The human lymphocyte micronucleus assay. A review of its applicabilities in occupational and environmental medicine
The use of the micronucleus assay from human lymphocytes in the detection of cytogenic changes is reviewed. Base values of human micronucleus frequencies obtained from a number of studies are tabulated and discussed, and dose-response data relating to the effect of ionizing radiation on these frequencies are reviewed. The use of the micronucleus test in evaluating the genotoxic effects of chemicals (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic solvents, clastogenic agents) and in assessing the efficiency of radioprotective compounds is also discussed.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.1, p.12-30. Illus. 78 ref.
Correa A., Gray R.H., Cohe R., Rothman N., Shah F., Seacat H., Corn M.
Ethylene glycol ethers and risks of spontaneous abortion and subfertility
Occupational exposures to ethylene glycol ethers (EGE) are of concern since their reproductive toxicity has been well documented in animal studies. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among workers at two semiconductor manufacturing plants in the eastern United States in 1980-1989. Assessment of potential exposure to mixtures containing EGE was based on reported processes and company records. Among female workers potential exposure to mixtures containing EGE was associated with increased risks of spontaneous abortion and subfertility. Both of these risks exhibited a dose-response relation. Among spouses of male worker potentially exposed to mixtures containing EGE, there was no increased risk of spontaneous abortion, but a nonsignificant increased risk of subfertility was ascertained.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Apr. 1996, Vol.143, No.7, p.707-717. 38 ref.
ACOEM Reproductive Hazard Management Guidelines
This report describes the guidelines put forward by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) for the management of reproductive and developmental risks. Topics covered: reproductive and developmental toxicity (known human teratogens, limited epidemiological and toxicological data); assessment of health risks (hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response evaluation); management options (hazard elimination, exposure controls, risk communication, notification of pregnancy, temporary reassignment, medical surveillance, breast feeding policy, paraoccupational disease management).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1996, Vol.38, No.1, p.83-90. 12 ref.
Thonneau P., Ducot B., Bujan L., Mieusset R., Spira A.
Heat exposure as a hazard to male fertility
This brief communication describes the results of a questionnaire survey of 522 French women who gave birth to a child between June and October 1992. The questionnaire included questions about the father's working conditions around the time of conception. Couples where the father was occupationally exposed to heat or seated in a vehicle for more than three hours per day at work had longer times to pregnancy than a reference group. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that professional exposure to heat is a risk factor for male fertility.
Lancet, 20 Jan. 1996, Vol.347, No.8995, p.204-205. Illus. 4 ref.
Reproductive and general toxicology of some inorganic borates and risk assessment for human beings
This report reviews the data on general toxicity and reproductive and antifertility effects of some inorganic borates: boric acid, borax pentahydrate, anhydrous borax, boric oxide, sodium perborate tetrahydrate and sodium perborate monohydrate. In animal studies, exposure to high levels of boric acid or borax has adverse effects on fertility and developmental toxicity; the precise mechanism of this action is unclear. At borate concentrations found in the environment (food, fresh waters, drinking water) risk assessment has demonstrated that exposure is not likely to cause any health hazard to human beings
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Feb. 1995. ii, 91p. Illus. 168 ref.
Lander F., Rønne M.
Frequency of sister chromatid exchange and hematological effects in pesticide-exposed greenhouse sprayers
Topics: blood cytology; chromosome changes; crop protection; cross-sectional study; cytotoxic effects; Denmark; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; haematological effects; horticulture; pesticides; smoking.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1995, Vol.21, No.4, p.283-288. Illus. 32 ref.
Kersemaekers W.M., Roeleveld N., Zielhuis G.A.
Reproductive disorders due to chemical exposure among hairdressers
Topics: abortion; antifertility effects; formaldehyde; ethanol; hexachlorophene; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; dichloromethane; dyes; epidemiologic study; hair preparations; hairdressing; literature survey; menstrual disorders; nitroso amines; organic solvents; teratogenic effects.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1995, Vol.21, No.5, p.325-334. 85 ref.
Catalog of teratogenic agents
This catalogue provides information on 2571 teratogenic agents including chemicals, drugs, physical factors and viruses. Entries are arranged alphabetically and provide details of any known human teratogenic data, brief summaries of published animal studies, and relevant bibliographic references.
The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4319, USA, 8th ed., 1995. xxvii, 542p. Bibl.ref. Indexes. Price: USD 110.00.
Aismara B., Doris A.
Working conditions and the reproductive health of women workers in the textile industry
Condiciones de trabajo y salud reproductiva de trabajadoras de la industria textil [in Spanish]
Cross-sectional study, during a 5yr period, of 34 reproductive outcomes in 29 women textile workers of the La Victoria - Tejerias - El Consejo area of Venezuela, and of 83 reproductive outcomes in 61 housewives (age-matched controls). Among the workers, there was a significant increase in spontaneous abortion, stillbirths and low birth weight in newborns, with a particularly strong relationship between production-line work and undesirable pregnancy outcome. It is proposed that the responsible factors for these reproductive outcomes are the heavy production schedule and the requirements for continuous body movement.
Salud de los Trabajadores, July 1995, Vol.3, No.2, p.83-91. 31 ref.
Gundy S., Bank J., Bojtor I., Köteles G.J.
The occurrence of sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of radon-exposed underground ore miners
Frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were investigated in peripheral blood samples taken from underground uranium miners exposed to various levels of radon and from unexposed controls. Six exposure groups were identified according to the level of exposure. While no general tendency was observed in change of SCE frequencies with increasing radon exposure, significant differences were found between certain groups of miners. The findings are discussed with respect to the opportunity for biological monitoring of radon exposed persons.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.78-86. 13 ref.
Brumen V., Horvat D., Trošić I.
Potential genotoxic risk related to simultaneous exposure to radionuclides and cytostatics
Mutagenic testing was carried out on 12 female nurses concurrently exposed to ionizing radiation and antineoplastic drugs in a hospital nuclear medicine department. Both conventional structural chromosome aberration analysis and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests were carried out. Although neither the incidence of structural chromosome aberrations nor the mean SCE-frequency rate were significantly increased among the nurses compared to a control group, irreparable chromosomal damages and wide SCE-ranges were observed. Findings suggest the possibility of genotoxic implications of concurrent occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and antineoplastic drugs.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1995, Vol.27, No.6, p.871-876. 16 ref.
Potashnik G., Porath A.
Dibromochloropropane (DBCP): A 17-year reassessment of testicular function and reproductive performance
15 men with DBCP-induced testicular dysfunction, and whose last contact with DBCP (nemagon) was 17 to 22 years ago, were periodically evaluated since initial diagnosis in 1977. Sperm count recovery was evident within 36 to 45 months of the last exposure in 3 of the 9 azoospermic and in 3 of the 6 oligozoospermic men with no improvement thereafter. An increase in plasma follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and a decrease in testosterone level were detected in the severely affected individuals. There was no increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations among pregnancies conceived during or after exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1995, Vol.37, No.11, p.1287-1292. 18 ref.
Sallmén M., Lindbohm M.L., Kyyrönen P., Nykyri E., Anttila A., Taskinen H., Hemminki K.
Reduced fertility among women exposed to organic solvents
A questionnaire survey was carried out among 197 women biologically monitored for exposure to organic solvents between 1965 and 1983. Time to pregnancy was used a measure of fertility. The women were classified into exposure categories on the basis of work descriptions and the use of solvents and on biological monitoring measurements. Daily or high solvent exposure was significantly associated with reduced fertility. Risks were observed among shoe factory, dry cleaning and metal workers. Women exposed to tetrachloroethylene or highly exposed to aliphatic hydrocarbons seemed to have prolonged times to pregnancies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1995, Vol.27, No.5, p.699-713. 39 ref.
Fučić A., Hitrec V., Garaj-Vrhovac V., Barkovic D., Kubelka D.
Relationship between locations of chromosome breaks induced by vinyl chloride monomer and lymphocytosis
The distribution of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)-induced chromosome breaks was studied in cultured lymphocytes of 20 workers in a polyvinyl chloride plant. VCM concentration was 1ppm, periodically reaching 300ppm for a short period. The examined workers had considerably higher values of chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges than did a non-exposed control group. Exposure to VCM caused lymphocytosis together with disturbances of mitogenic activity in lymphocytes stimulated by phytohaemagglutinin. Results of G-banding showed that sites of chromosome breakpoints caused by VCM can be related to lymphatic tissue disorders. Lymphomas and leukaemias can be expected even with a VCM concentration of 1ppm.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1995, Vol.27, No.4, p.565-571. 33 ref.
Karačić V., Skender L., Bosner-Cucančić B., Bogadi-Sare A.
Possible genotoxicity in low level benzene exposure
Structural chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in peripheral blood were studied in female workers in the shoe-making industry in Croatia in 1987 and 1992. Occupational exposure to benzene and toluene were determined. Levels of atmospheric benzene and benzene absorption were higher in 1987 (a period of intensified production) than in 1992 (reduced production), but still lower than permissible levels. There was an increase in dicentric chromosomes in both groups compared to a non-exposed control group; higher SCE frequencies were observed in the 1987 group. Genotoxicity may occur in workers exposed to low levels of benzene.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.27, No.3, p.379-388. 30 ref.
Mirkova E., Ivanova-Čemišanska L., Hinkova L., Antov G., Muhtarova M.
Cytogenetic effects (frequency of micronuclei) in peripheral lymphocyte cultures from workers in automobile tyre manufacture
Citogenetični efekti (čestota na mikronukleusi) v limfocitni kulturi ot periferna krăv na rabotnicite ot proizvodstvoto na avtomobilni gumi [in Bulgarian]
Studies at the Preparatory Workshop of a plant for automobile tyres included chemical analyses for levels of identifiable human carcinogens in the working area (benz(a)pyrene, mineral oils, 2-naphthylamine), questionnaire investigations, cytogenetic analysis by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus method in peripheral lymphocyte cultures from 23 workers in occupational groups at risk and urinanalysis for mercapturic acids. The control group was 13 nonexposed subjects from outside the plant. For levels of benz(a)pyrene and mineral oils exceeding 2.5 to 3.5 times the respective exposure limits, cytogenetic analysis showed a 4-fold increase in indicators of genotoxicity (frequency of micronucleated binucleated lymphocytes, number of micronuclei per 1,000 binucleated lymphocytes). These results imply an increased risk of cancer in the exposed workers. Summary in English.
Problemi na higienata, 1995, Vol.20, p.146-162. 13 ref.
Directive on reproductive hazards in the working environment [Norway]
Forskrift - Forplantningsskader og arbeidsmiljø [in Norwegian]
This Directive is issued in order to implement in Norway the minimal requirements of Directive 92/85/EEC (CIS 93-22). It applies to all physical, psychological and organizational factors that might affect adversely the foetus before delivery and babies through mother's milk. Provisions concern: hazard evaluation; implementation of preventive measures; responsibilities of employers to provide information; reassignment of workers at risk. Detailed commentary.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Fr. Nansens vei 14, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo, Norway, Oct. 1995. 9p.
Hemminki K., Dipple A., Shuker D.E.G., Kadlubar F.F., Segerbäck D., Bartsch H.
DNA adducts - Identification and biological significance
Topics: aflatoxins; aldehydes; allyl compounds; aromatic amines; aromatic hydrocarbons; benzene; biological effects; carcinogens; DNA; literature survey; mutagenic effects; mycotoxins; nitroso amines; nitrosoureas; nucleic acids; polycyclic hydrocarbons; pyrrole derivatives; tobacco; triazenes.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1994. x, 478p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Solans Lampurlanés X., Hernández Malo M.R.
Biological monitoring of genotoxic exposures: Cytogenetic techniques
Control biológico de la exposición a genotóxicos: técnicas citogenéticas [in Spanish]
Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; chromosome changes; cytogenetic studies; data sheet; exposure tests; genetic effects; Spain; toxic substances.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 4p. Illus. 9 ref.
Whorton M.D., et al.
Reproductive effects of sodium borates on male employees: Birth rate assessment
The purpose of the study was to investigate potential reproductive effects of sodium borates on occupationally exposed male employees at a large mining and production facility in California (USA). There was a highly significant excess of offspring fathered by the male employees. There was no evidence of a relation between exposure and this excess of offspring, nor were there any temporal differences during the period of observation (>30 years). Conclusion: under the conditions studied, there were no adverse reproductive effects of high borate doses as reported from oral ingestion studies in animals.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1994, Vol.51, No.11, p.761-767. 22 ref.
Caporaso N.E., Landi M.T.
Molecular epidemiology: A new perspective for the study of toxic exposures in man. A consideration of the influence of genetic susceptibility factors on risk in different lung cancer histologies
Epidemiologic evidence for genetic susceptibility factors in tobacco-related cancer is suggestive but not determinant. Variability in results depends on: assay misclassification, non-correspondence of phenotype/genotype in certain subjects, disease heterogeneity, exposure variation, ethnic and racial variation. Future studies should concentrate on the presence of multiple genetic markers. The observation that the tobacco-cancer association is weaker for adenocarcinoma than for the other lung cancers suggests some interaction of the genetic trait with exposure to tobacco smoking.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1994, Vol.85, No.1, p.68-77. 45 ref.
Scassellati Sforzolini G., Moretti M., Villarini M., Angeli G., Pasquini R., Monarca S., Scarselli R., Crea M.G., Leonardis C.
An evaluation of toxic and genotoxic risk from work-related exposure to chemical compounds
Valutazione del rischio tossico e genotossico da eposizione professionale a composti chimici [in Italian]
A series of investigations was conducted to test the genotoxic and enzyme-inducing activity of deltamethrin (decamethrin), in order to contribute to its risk assessment in occupational exposure to pesticides. Using in-vitro methods, its mutagenic activity was tested on procaryotic cells (Ames test) and eucaryotic cells (cytogenetic tests, DNA damage). With in-vivo experiments on rats, various enzyme activities were determined to investigate the capability of deltamethrin to act as "co-mutating/co-cancerogenous" agent and/or "promoter" of carcinogenic processes. The results allow to state that pure deltamethrin, while negative in the Ames test, is capable of damaging the DNA and increasing the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes, requiring therefore the monitoring of such an indicator in the exposed workers. Both the pure and commercial product are able to alter cell metabolism in various ways, with a potential "indirect" genotoxic risk.
Prevenzione oggi, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.6, N°4, p.125-138. Illus. 45 ref.
de Cock J., Westveer K., Heederik D., Te Velde E., Van Kooij R.
Time to pregnancy and occupational exposure to pesticides in fruit growers in the Netherlands
This explorative study investigates the relation between exposure of the fruit grower to pesticides and fecundability (probability of pregnancy) in a population of fruit growers. The analysis was based on self-reported data and included 91 pregnancies during 1978-1990 of 43 couples. Cox' proportional hazards model was used to analyze time to pregnancy after correction for gravidity and consultation with a physician for fertility problems. Application of pesticides solely by the owner was associated with a long time to pregnancy, resulting in a fecundability ratio of 0.46. Similarly a low spraying velocity resulted in a fecundability ratio of 0.47 and was associated with the use of older spraying techniques and tractors without a cabin. The effect of high exposure was mainly apparent if the couple had intended to become pregnant in the period from March-November (fecundability ratio 0.42). In the high exposure group 28% of the pregnancies had been preceded by consulting a physician because of fertility problems, compared with 8% in the low exposure group. These findings indicate that an adverse effect of exposure to pesticides on fecundability is likely.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1994, Vol.51, No.10, p.693-699. Illus. 29 ref.
Saiki C.L., Gold E.B., Schenker M.B.
Workplace policy on hazards to reproductive health
This chapter on workplace policy pays particular attention to the paradox that the worker's right to be free of discrimination in the workplace may conflict with the right to be free of hazards to reproduction. Legal and ethical concerns are discussed, as are issues such as employee counselling, job transfers and reassignments, and screening, monitoring, and surveillance.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.9, No.3, p.541-549. 26 ref.
Congenital malformations related to occupational reproductive hazards
Occupational and environmental agents are the suspected cause of at least some of the approximately 60% of birth defects whose aetiology is unknown. Studies of birth defects published since 1988 are reviewed, including those that examine associations between congenital malformations and both maternal and paternal exposures.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.9, No.3, p.471-494. 82 ref.
Gold E.B., Tomich E.
Occupational hazards to fertility and pregnancy outcome
Many diverse substances and other factors encountered in the workplace that have been associated with infertility and spontaneous abortion are addressed in this chapter, including toluene, mercury, organic solvents, noise, shift work, irregular work schedules, stress, dry cleaning chemicals, antibiotics, and others. Extensive tables detail the results of numerous studies that have assessed the reproductive effects of occupational exposures.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.9, No.3, p.435-469. 101 ref.
Clinical approach to female reproductive problems
Conditions of infertility addressed here include ovulatory dysfunction, tubal and pelvic factors, uterine and cervical factors, immunologic factors, and unexplained infertility. A discussion of recurrent loss of pregnancy and antenatal diagnosis completes the chapter.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.9, No.3, p.415-422. 14 ref.
Schrader S.M., Kanitz M.H.
Occupational hazards to male reproduction
Since the field of reproductive toxicology was firmly established a generation ago, various approaches have been used to study toxicologic effects. This report details the reproductive effects that have been observed in a number of population-based studies, case-control studies, standardized fertility ratio studies, cohort studies, and clinical studies.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.9, No.3, p.405-414. 77 ref.
Clinical approach to male reproductive problems
This review of the currently recommended clinical and laboratory approach to the evaluation of male reproductive problems describes history-taking, physical examination, evaluation of semen, evaluation of abnormalities of the endocrine system, and specialized laboratory tests such as bioassays, biochemical tests of sperm function, and tests for antisperm antibodies.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.9, No.3, p.387-404. 124 ref.
Golub M.S., Chernoff G.F.
Issues in regulatory protection of reproductive health in the workplace
Provisions of US federal laws that protect reproductive health in the workplace and information on recent federal actions that seek to enhance such protection are reviewed. The state of California's Birth Defects Prevention Act and its Proposition 65, regulatory programmes that specifically address reproductive toxicity, also are described.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.9, No.3, p.373-386. 52 ref.
Gold E.B., Lasley B.L., Schenker M.B.
Introduction: Rationale for an update
More than 104,000 chemical and physical agents have been identified in the workplace, but the effects on reproduction of at least 95% of them have not been assessed. Changes in the workforce, which underscore the need for evaluating potential hazards to reproduction are described. Findings regarding occupational reproductive hazards to men and women that have been reported over the past decade are reviewed.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.9, No.3, p.363-372. 79 ref.
Gubéran E., Campana A., Faval P., Gubéran M., Sweetnam P.M., Tuyn J.W.N., Usel M.
Gender ratio of offspring and exposure to shortwave radiation among female physiotherapists
The goal of this study was to investigate whether the deficit of male births found among the offspring of Danish physiotherapists exposed to shortwave radiation during the first month of their pregnancy could be confirmed among the offspring of physiotherapists from Switzerland. A self-administrated questionnaire was mailed to all of the 2,846 female members of the Swiss Federation of Physiotherapists. It included questions on the sex and birthweight of all children of the physiotherapists, as well as on the use of shortwave or microwave equipment during the first month of each pregnancy. The sex ratio (number of males per number of females x 100) was 107 with a 95% confidence interval of 89-127 for the 508 pregnancies exposed to shortwave radiation and 101 (95% CI 90-113) for the 1,273 unexposed pregnancies. The prevalence of low birthweight (≤2,500g) was not related to exposure to shortwave radiation for either the boys or the girls. No atypical sex ratio was found for the children of female physiotherapists from Switzerland who had been exposed to shortwave radiation at the beginning of pregnancy. The findings of the Danish study could not be confirmed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1994, Vol.20, No.5, p.345-348. 7 ref.
Snyder R., Kalf G.F.
A perspective on benzene leukemogenesis
This review focuses on several of the problems facing investigators who study the mechanism of benzene-induced leukaemogenesis. Benzene metabolism is reviewed with the aim of suggesting metabolites that may play a role in the aetiology of the disease. The formation of DNA adducts and their potential significance are analyzed. The clastogenic activity of benzene is discussed both in terms of biomarkers of exposure and as a potential indication of leukaemogenesis. The significance of chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus formation and chromosomal translocations is discussed. The mutagenic activity of benzene metabolites is reviewed and benzene is placed in perspective as a leukaemogen with other carcinogens. Finally, a pathway from benzene exposure to eventual leukaemia is discussed in terms of biological mechanisms, the role of cytokines and related factors, latency and expression of leukaemia.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, July 1994, Vol.24, No.3, p.177-209. 278 ref.
Fuchs J., Wullenweber U., Hengstler J.G., Bienfait H.G., Hiltl G., Oesch F.
Genotoxic risk for humans due to work place exposure to ethylene oxide: Remarkable individual differences in susceptibility
Single strand breaks of DNA of peripheral mononuclear blood cells from 97 workers exposed to ethylene oxide were analyzed by the alkaline elution method. The maximum concentration of ethylene oxide detected in the air was 16.5mg/m3 calculated as 4-h time-weighted average (4h TWA). Compared to the mean elution rate of the DNA from non-smoking workers exposed to air concentrations of ethylene oxide below the detection limit of 0.1mg/m3 (4h TWA) the non-smokers working in rooms with a concentration of ethylene oxide between 0.5mg/m3 and 2mg/m3 showed a statistically significant (P<0.05) 119% higher mean elution rate and even for the non-smokers exposed to 0.1-0.5mg/m3 of ethylene oxide a statistically significant (P<0.05) 53% higher mean elution rate was observed. In the majority of the non-smokers (67%) approximately 5-fold more DNA strand breaks were induced by ethylene oxide than in the other non-smokers.
Archives of Toxicology, 1994, Vol.68, No.6, p.343-348. 36 ref. Illus.
Alaura C., Scala D.
Centro regionale di documentazione per la prevenzione ambientale e del lavoro (CEDOC)
Work and pregnancy
Lavoro e gravidanza [in Italian]
Contents of this monograph devoted to the study of the relationship between work and pregnancy: the legislative framework (ILO Conventions, EEC Directives, Italian national and regional laws and regulations); statistics on reproductive health in the population (with particular attention to the Tuscany Region in Italy); relevant research projects in Italy (traces of chlorinated hydrocarbons in mother's milk, medical and sociodemographic characteristics of women seeking abortions, the multi-centre EUROCAT study of exposures and pregnancy, lead levels in pregnant women, factors in repeated cases of spontaneous abortion); reproductive health in working women: physiology of pregnancy and increased susceptibility to occupational hazards, reproductive pathologies (infertility, spontaneous abortion, foetal malformations, childhood cancers); classification of reproductory risk factors (including list of substances classified as teratogenic by the EC); hazards and pathologies of pregnancy (infections, noise, vibration, organic solvents, metals, pesticides); profile on hazards in various occupations (incl. information on transfer to other jobs for the duration of the pregnancy); training and information of workers. In appendices: texts of Italian and EC legislative texts for the protection of pregnant women at work.
Regione Toscana Giunta Regionale, Via dei Servi 51, 50122 Firenze, Italy, 1994. 188p. Bibl.ref.
Lin S., Marshall E.G., Davidson G.K.
Potential parental exposure to pesticides and limb reduction defects
The effects of the potential pesticide exposure of parents on the risk of limb reduction defects in their offspring was studied in a case-control study utilizing New York State Congenital Malformation Register data. Persons with limb reduction defects and controls were compared in terms of parental occupations and counties of residence. Parental occupations and industries reported on birth certificates were qualitatively rated by industrial hygienists to estimate potential pesticide exposures. Residential exposures were estimated from agricultural census data according to county of residence. Neither parental exposure to pesticides nor farming occupation had an effect on the risk of total limb reduction defects. Those persons with limb reduction defects who had additional defects showed weak but consistent elevated risks in relation to parental occupational pesticide exposure. Cases of limb reduction defect with additional malformations appear to be associated with parental occupational pesticide exposure. In appendix: detailed data on potential pesticide exposure based on hygienists' assessments.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1994, Vol.20, No.3, p.166-179. 40 ref.
Brooks L., Merkel S.F., Glowatz M., Comstock M.L., Shoner L.G.
A comprehensive reproductive health program in the workplace
This paper summarizes the reproductive health component of the occupational health programme in place at a telecommunication company's research laboratory. The comprehensive Research and Development Reproductive Health Program is a collaborative effort between the Health Services Group and the Environmental Health & Safety Center. It provides a tailored curriculum to occupational health nurses and physicians so that they may respond to employee questions and concerns with detailed information and with referrals to appropriate subject matter experts. Expanding on the typical regulatory approaches of hazard communications and right to know, the programme encourages employees of both sexes to learn about workplace, environmental and lifestyle aspects of reproductive and developmental health.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1994, Vol.55, No.4, p.352-357. 15 ref.
Türkel B., Egeli U.
Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in shoe workers exposed long term to benzene
Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was used to compare 58 shoe workers (57 men and one woman) exposed to benzene and 20 subjects selected from the general population not exposed to particular mutagenic or carcinogenic agents (control group). Frequencies of damaged cells, including gaps, breaks, and rearrangements (acentric fragments, deletions, translocations) were scored for both groups. The incidence of chromosomal aberrations (particularly chromatid gaps and breaks) in the exposed group was significantly higher than in the control group. There were no effects of smoking and only breaks were affected by alcohol. Nor was there a significant relation between the working period in the group exposed to benzene and frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Recommended safety measure: lowering of the limit value from 20ppm to 1ppm and improvement of working conditions.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.51, No.1, p.50-53. 19 ref.
Rowland A.S., Baird D.D., Weinberg C.R., Shore D.L., Shy C.M., Wilcox A.J.
The effect of occupational exposure to mercury vapour on the fertility of female dental assistants
To study the effects of mercury vapour on fertility in women, eligibility questionnaires were sent to 7,000 registered dental assistants in California, USA. The final eligible sample of 418 women, who had become pregnant during the previous four years, were interviewed by telephone. Detailed information was collected on mercury handling practices and the number of menstrual cycles without contraception it had taken them to become pregnant. Dental assistants not working with amalgam served as unexposed controls. Women with high occupational exposure to mercury were less fertile than unexposed controls. The fecundability (probability of conception each menstrual cycle) of women who prepared 30 or more amalgams per week and who had five or more poor mercury hygiene factors was only 63% of that for unexposed women (95% CI 42%-96%) after controlling for covariates. Women with low exposure were more fertile, however, than unexposed controls. Possible explanations for the U-shaped dose response and limitations of the exposure measure are discussed. Further investigation that uses biological measures of mercury exposed is needed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.51, No.1, p.28-34. 66 ref.
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