Antifertility and prenatal effects - 646 entries found
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- Antifertility and prenatal effects
Padungtod C., Hassold T.J., Millie E., Ryan L.M., Savitz D.A., Christiani D.C., Xu X.
Sperm aneuploidy among Chinese pesticide factory workers: Scoring by the FISH method
Cases from a pesticide-manufacturing plant in Anhui, China, and controls from a nearby textile factory were recruited. Pesticide workers were exposed to ethyl parathion or methamidophos at a median level of 0.02mg/m3. Semen was collected from each subject. Scoring was based on three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Median semen parameters for exposed (and unexposed) men were: abstinence period, 3 days (4 days); sperm concentration, 52.8 x 106/mL (53.1 x 106/mL); proportion of sperm with normal motility, 50.5% (61.3%); and proportion of sperm with normal morphology, 59% (61.5%). The crude proportion of all aneuploidy combined was 0.30% and 0.19% for sperm from exposed and unexposed men, respectively. Poisson regression yielded significantly different crude risks of aneuploidy - 3.03 and 1.94 per 1,000 sperm from exposed and unexposed men, respectively. Regression coefficients remained statistically significant after adjustment for inter-technician variability giving a rate ratio of 1.51. It is concluded that occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides moderately increases the prevalence of sperm aneuploidy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.36, No.2, p.230-238. Illus. 32 ref.
Gunnarsdottir H.K., Rafnsson V.
Women's health: Occupation, cancer and reproduction
Special issue with 29 papers devoted to cancer and reproductive health problems among women exposed to a variety of occupational factors. The papers were presented at an international conference on cancer and reproductive risks among women, held at Reykjavik, Iceland, 14-15 May 1998.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1999, Vol.36, No.1, p.1-222 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Irgens Å., Krüger K., Ulstein M.
The effect of male occupational exposure in infertile couples in Norway
The objective of the study was to assess whether reduced semen quality in male workers is associated with occupational exposures known to be hazardous to fertility. Results of semen analysis in 365 men investigated for infertility were linked to occupational exposure data from a self-administered questionnaire. Reduced semen quality was found in men exposed to electromagnetic fields. A tendency toward reduced semen quality was seen in commuters, shift workers and men exposed to heavy metals. In general, the impact of occupational exposure on semen quality in male workers in Norway seemed to be minor. However, the lack of significant results may be explained by the small number of responses and further investigations would be necessary.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.41, No.12, p.1116-1120. 25 ref.
Kolstad H.A., Bonde J.P., Spano M., Giwercman A., Zschiesche W., Kaae D., Larsen S.B., Roeleveld N.
Change in semen quality and sperm chromatin structure following occupational styrene exposure
Semen samples were collected from 23 reinforced plastics workers at the time of employment and after six months of styrene exposure and from 21 nonexposed farmers. Intraindividual changes in conventional semen parameters and sperm-DNA denaturation patterns were related to the internal dose of styrene exposure measured by postshift urinary mandelic acid. A significant decline in sperm density was seen during styrene exposure from 63.5 to 46.0 million sperm/ml, whereas no decline was seen in nonexposed subjects. Total sperm count was almost halved from an initial value of 175 million sperm/ejaculate. No relationship was apparent when the sperm parameters were related to internal levels of exposure. A small exposure-response relationship was shown for DNA-denaturation patterns. A declining sperm count following styrene exposure is suggested, although the findings of the internal and external comparisons are inconsistent. This may be due to the high intraindividual variability of semen parameters, the limited study size and a weak internal exposure gradient. Topics: styrene; mandelic acid; case-control study; determination in urine; DNA; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; individual susceptibility; plastics industry; reinforced plastics; spermatogenic disturbances.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 1999, Vol.72, No.3, p.135-141. 29 ref.
Khattak S., K-Moghtader G., McMartin K., Barrera M., Kennedy D., Koren G.
Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to organic solvents - A prospective controlled study
125 pregnant women who were exposed occupationally to organic solvents and seen during the first trimester between 1987 and 1996 were matched to a pregnant woman who was exposed to a nonteratogenic agent for age, gravidity, and smoking and drinking status. Significantly more major malformations occurred among foetuses of women exposed to organic solvents than of controls. Twelve malformations occurred among the 75 women who had symptoms temporally associated with exposure, while none occurred among 43 asymptomatic exposed women. More of the exposed women had previous miscarriages while working with organic solvents than did controls. However, exposed women who had a previous miscarriage had rates of major malformation that were similar to exposed women who had had no miscarriage. Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of major foetal malformations. This risk appears to be increased among women who report symptoms associated with organic solvent exposure. Women's exposure to organic solvents should be minimized during pregnancy. Topics: abortion; case-control study; embryotoxic effects; expectant mothers; exposure evaluation; organic solvents; teratogenic effects; teratogens.
Journal of the American Medical Association, Mar. 1999, Vol.281, No.12, p.1106-1109. 19 ref.
The effects of workplace hazards on female reproductive health
Topics: abortion; antifertility effects; cancer; children; expectant mothers; harmful substances; infectious diseases; list of occupations; menstrual disorders; nursing mothers; personal hygiene; safe working methods; teratogenic effects; viruses; women.
Publications Dissemination, EID, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Feb. 1999. 20p. Illus. 2 ref.
The "Comet Assay": A new tool in occupational medicine for the detection of genotoxic hazards
Der Comet Assay - eine molekulargenetische Nachweismethode in der Arbeitsmedizin für gentoxische Belastungen [in German]
Le "Comet Assay": un nouveau test en médecine du travail pour le dépistage des risques génotoxiques [in French]
Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; chromosome changes; cytogenetic studies; description of technique; DNA; electrophoresis; exposure tests; genetic effects; microscopic determination; occupational medicine; smoking; testing; toxic substances.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, Spring 1999, No.71, p.56-63. Illus. 17 ref.
Kevekordes S., Gebel T.W., Hellwig M., Dames W., Dunkelberg H.
Human effect monitoring in cases of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs: A method comparison
The aim of the study was to investigate whether DNA damage increased in subjects possibly exposed to high amounts of antineoplastic agents. The level of genetic damage was determined in peripheral mononuclear blood cells with the sister chromatid exchange test, the alkaline elusion technique and the cytokinesis block micronucleus test. The supposed increased exposure of the study subjects was caused by a malfunction of a safety hood resulting in leakage of air during preparation of an infusion of an antineoplastic drug. Two months after a new safety hood was installed, the frequencies of micronuclei and sister chromatic exchanges of exposed nurses were still significantly increased when compared with a matched control group. In a second examination seven months later, the frequency of micronuclei had significantly decreased to control values. Moreover, the study subjects who smoked had significantly increased frequencies of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1998, Vol.55, No.3, p.145-149. Illus. 30 ref.
Garcia A.M., Fletcher T.
Maternal occupation in the leather industry and selected congenital malformations
Cases and controls were selected from eight public hospitals in Spain. Cases were located from the hospital discharge records, including children born and diagnosed in some of the selected hospitals during their first year of life. Controls were selected from births without congenital defects in the same hospitals and dates of the cases. Both parents of selected children were interviewed (mainly by phone) and information about potential confounding variables and occupational history during the three years before the birth was collected in structured questionnaires. A total of 261 cases and the same number of controls were included in the study. Adjusted odds ratios (ORB) were estimated for maternal occupation in the leather industry in the period between three months before the conception and the birth of the child, and each selected group of congenital malformations: nervous system defects, cardiac defects of closure, oral clefts, epispadia or hypospaslia, and multiple anomalies. These data are compatible with an increased risk for oral clefts in the offspring of women working in the leather industry.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.55, No.4, p.284-286. 8 ref.
Wingren G., Persson B.
Male reproductive pattern in a glass producing area
The objective of the study was to evaluate the reproductive pattern among male crystal glassworkers in comparison to other males in a restricted area in the south-east part of Sweden. The comparison of reproductive patterns was made between groups of glassworkers, farmers, and workers of other occupations. As an indicator of fertility, birth rates and time to first child-birth were calculated. Male sex ratios (number of boys/all child-births) were calculated as a measure of reproductive disturbances. The total birth rates as well as the birth rates for sons were slightly decreased among glassworkers when compared to the group of non-farmers/non-glassworkers and significantly decreased when compared to farmers. The total birth rate of the non-farmer/non-glassworker group was also significantly decreased when compared to farmers. Among the glassworkers, the reduction in birth rates was most pronounced among engravers/grinders both in comparison to farmers and others. The results indicate that paternal exposure in crystal glassworks might somewhat negatively affect the male reproduction at least in a historical perspective. Topics: agricultural operations; antifertility effects; epidemiologic study; glass industry; male workers; manufacturing industries; statistical evaluation.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol. 11, No.3, p.227-234. 24 ref.
Joksić G., Spasojević-Tišma V.
Chromosome analysis of lymphocytes from radiation workers in tritium-applying industry
Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; tritium; chromosome changes; determination in urine; exposure tests; luminous paints; lymphocytes; radiation injury.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol.71, p.213-220. Illus. 39 ref.
Lai J.S., Kwo H.W., Liao F.C., Lien C.H.
Sister chromatid exchange induced by chromium compounds in human lymphocytes
In a study of chromium and nickel-chromium electroplating workers, blood and urine chromium concentrations were highest among chromium workers, next highest among nickel-chromium workers and lowest among a non-exposed control group. After adjustment for smoking, values of sister chromatid exchange (SCE)/cell followed a similar pattern. Among smokers with high levels of chromium exposure, a synergistic effect resulted: percentages of high-frequency cells were higher in this group than in any other. Analysis of SCE in lymphocytes is useful for the evaluation of the biological effects of environmental mutagens. Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; nickel; case-control study; chromium and compounds; chromosome changes; determination in blood; determination in urine; electroplating; genetic effects; length of exposure; lymphocytes; mutagens; smoking; synergism.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1998, Vol.71, No.8, p.550-553. Illus. 16 ref.
Padungtod C., Lasley B.L., Christiani D.C., Ryan L.M., Xu X.
Reproductive hormone profile among pesticide factory workers
In a study of pesticide factory workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides, there was a negative correlation between urinary levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sperm count and between urinary FSH level and sperm concentration. Pesticide exposure alone was associated with serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH) but not with serum FSH or testosterone or with any urinary hormone levels. With adjustment for age, rotating shift work, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, exposure increased serum LH level; serum FSH level was slightly elevated and the serum testosterone level was decreased with increasing exposure. Age and rotating shift work appeared to act as confounders. It was concluded that organophosphate pesticides have a small effect on male reproductive hormones, suggestive of a secondary hormonal disturbance after testicular damage. Topics: antifertility effects; case-control study; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; hormone secretion; hormones; organophosphorus compounds; pesticide production; smoking; spermatogenic disturbances; testosterone.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.40, No.12, p.1038-1047. Illus. 38 ref.
Lin S., Gensburg L., Marshall E.G., Roth G.B., Dlugosz L.
Effects of maternal work activity during pregnancy on infant malformations
The association between two birth defects, neural tube defects and oral cleft defects, and maternal physical work demands during the periconceptional period was examined. Occupational exposure information was collected from mothers of malformed infants and from those of non-malformed infants. Case groups were further subdivided on whether infants had additional defects. Results showed no general differences between cases and controls in most variables. However, those infants with cleft defects plus additional defects tended to have marginally increased risk in relation to maternal jobs requiring standing. Topics: case-control study; embryotoxic effects; expectant mothers; exposure evaluation; physical workload; questionnaire survey; standing posture; teratogenic effects.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.40, No.9, p.829-834. 23 ref.
Influence of the work environment in a Pb-Zn mine on the incidence of cytogenetic damage in miners
In a study of cytogenetic damage in 120 miners occupationally exposed to radon and heavy metals in a lead-zinc mine, end points studied were structural chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges. Radon measurements were performed and the effective equivalent radiation doses over a 2-year period were calculated. The mean values of the percentage of structural chromosomal aberration frequency were 4.09% in miners, compared to 1.43% and 1.88% in two non-occupationally exposed control groups. The frequency of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges were also higher in the miners. Findings should be interpreted with regard to simultaneous exposure to radon and metals (lead, cadmium and zinc). Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; radon; lead; case-control study; chromosome changes; cytogenetic studies; determination in blood; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; lymphocytes; mining industry; smoking; workplace monitoring; zinc.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.34, No.5, p.455-463. Illus. 21 ref.
Irgens Å., Krüger K., Skorve A.H., Irgens L.M.
Reproductive outcome in offspring of parents occupationally exposed to lead in Norway
All births in Norway 1970-1993 with possible maternal or paternal occupational lead exposure were compared with a reference population. Offspring of lead-exposed mothers had an increased risk of low birth weight and neural tube defects. Effects on birth weight and gestational age showed significant dose-response associations. Offspring of lead-exposed fathers had no increased risks of any of the analysed reproductive outcomes. However, decreased risks were observed of low birth weight and preterm birth. Further efforts are needed to protect the offspring of lead-exposed mothers. Topics: lead; case-control study; list of occupations; parental exposure; sex-linked differences; teratogenic effects.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.34, No.5, p.431-437. 28 ref.
McMartin K.I., Chu M., Kopecky E., Einarson T.R., Koren G.
Pregnancy outcome following maternal organic solvent exposure: A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies
Maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents is associated with a tendency toward an increased risk for spontaneous abortion and additional studies may affect the trend. There is a statistically significant association with major malformations which warrants futher investigation. Topics: abortion; embryotoxic effects; epidemiologic study; expectant mothers; literature survey; organic solvents; parental exposure; teratogenic effects.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.34, No.3, p.288-292. 15 ref.
Major J., Jakab M.G., Tompa A.
The frequency of premature chromosome condensation in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 400 control and occupationally exposed human donors
Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; chromosome changes; cytogenetic studies; frequency rates; genetic effects; length of exposure; lymphocytes; mutagens.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1998, Vol.4, No.2, p.146-154. Illus. 36 ref.
Xu X., Wiencke J.K., Niu T., Wang M., Watanabe H., Kelsey K.T., Christiani D.C.
Benzene exposure, glutathione S-transferase theta homozygous deletion, and sister chromatid exchanges
Topics: age-linked differences; analysis of chromosome aberrations; benzene; cancer; glutathione transferase; China; chromosome changes; determination in air; individual susceptibility; sex-linked differences; smoking.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1998, Vol.33, No.2, p.157-163. 45 ref.
Cone J.E., Vaughan L.M., Huete A., Samuels S.J.
Reproductive health outcomes among female flight attendants
Topics: abortion; air transport; aircraft; antifertility effects; complications of pregnancy; hours of work; questionnaire survey; USA; women.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1998, Vol.40. No.3, p.210-216. Illus. 20 ref.
Occupational exposure to pesticides and congenital malformations: A review of mechanisms, methods and results
Topics: agriculture; embryotoxic effects; epidemiologic study; genetic effects; literature survey; parental exposure; pesticides; teratogenic effects.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1998, Vol.33, No.3, p.232-240. 95 ref.
5th ECSC Medical research programme
Biological indicators of exposure, internal dose, biological effective dose and of early biological effects in coke oven workers exposed to genotoxic compound (PAH)
This study compares a high-risk group of coke-oven workers exposed do PAH with a reference group in order to evaluate the levels of environmental exposure and the biomarkers of internal dose (urinary 1-hydroxyphenol and urinary mutagenicity), of effective dose (DNA and haemoglobin adducts) and of early genomic modifications. Levels of DNA adducts, amino-haemoglobin adducts and sister chromatid exchanges were significantly higher in coke workers and depending on their job, certain categories of workers showed a higher risk. Urinary hypoxypyrene was associated with a high level of DNA adducts; urinary mutagenicity was associated with the amino-fluoranthrene haemoglobin adducts. Smoking was associated with both PAH-DNA and amino-haemoglobin adducts. Summaries in French, German and Italian.
European Commission, Directorate-General V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Directorate V/F, Public Health and Safety at Work Unit V/F/5 Occupational Health and Hygiene, EUROFORUM Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1997. 115p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Huici Montagud A., Bonilla Hidalgo M.
Toxic substances for male reproductive health
Tóxicos para la reproducción masculina [in Spanish]
Topics: antifertility effects; classification; comment on directive; data sheet; embryotoxic effects; labelling; legislation; mutagens; Spain; spermatogenic disturbances; toxic substances; warning notices.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1997. 8p. Illus. 7 ref.
Roos F., Renier A., Ettlinger J., Iwatsubo Y., Letourneux M., Haguenoer J.M., Jaurand M.C., Pairon J.C.
Assessment of potential damage to DNA in urine of coke oven workers: An assay of unscheduled DNA synthesis
In a study of 60 coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 40 controls, the high concentrations of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) observed in the coke oven workers reflected recent exposure to PAHs and were in agreement with assessment of exposure by job. No significant difference was found between coke oven workers and controls in the DNA repair levels of rat cells treated with urine samples. However, the rat cell repair capacity decreased with increasing 1OHP concentration in the exposed population. While exposure to PAHs was not associated with a clear cut modification of the urinary excretion of DNA damaging factors in this test, impairment of some repair mechanisms by urinary constituents is suspected. Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; coke ovens; determination in urine; DNA; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; job-exposure relation; polycyclic hydrocarbons; urinary metabolites.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1997, Vol.54, No.12, p.854-860. Illus. 42 ref.
Perdrix A., Madon N., Maitre A., Parat S., Mann S., Clavel T.
Non-infectious biological hazards
Risques biologiques autres qu'infectieux [in French]
Topics: agriculture; bacteria; bacterial toxins; biological hazards; cancer; carcinogenic effects; encyclopaedia; fungi; immuno-allergy; inhalation toxicity; literature survey; microorganisms; mutagenic effects; mycotoxins; respiratory diseases; sick building syndrome; viruses.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 1997, No.115, 6p. 70 ref.
Pelclová D., Picková J., Patzelová V.
Chromosomal aberrations, hormone levels and oxidative phenotype (P450 2D6) in low occupational lead exposure
Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; chromosome changes; determination in blood; hormone secretion; metabolic disturbances.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.4, p.314-322. Bibl.ref.
Vaglenov A.K., Laltchef S.G., Nosko M.S., Pavlova S.P., Petkova V.V., Karadiov A.D.
Cytogenetic monitoring of workers exposed to lead
Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; blood-cell anomalies; lead; cytogenetic studies; determination in blood; genetic effects.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.4, p.298-308. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Takeuchi Y., Ichihara G., Kamijima M.
A review on toxicity of 2-bromopropane: Mainly on its reproductive toxicity
Risk asessment of 2-bromopropane based on recent epidemiologic and experimental animal data and the toxicity of structurally related bromopropanes. Conclusions: 2-bromopropane has demonstrated specific reproductive and haematopoietic toxicity in both sexes in humans and in experimental animals. This includes impaired spermatogenesis; impaired ovarian function, resulting in a disturbed oestrus cycle and loss of oocytes in females; and pancytopenia. It is also mutagenic in bacterial mutation assays. An occupational exposure limit of less than 10 ppm is recommended. Topics: 2-bromopropane; animal experiments; antifertility effects; determination in air; diseases of blood-forming organs; epidemiologic study; length of exposure; menstrual disorders; organic solvents; pancytopenia; spermatogenic disturbances.
Journal of Occupational Health, July 1997, Vol.39, No.3, p.179-191. 43 ref.
Bonassi S., Forni A., Bigatti P., Canevarollo N., De Ferrari M., Lando C, Padovani P., Bevegni M., Stella M., Vecchio D., Puntoni R.
Chromosome aberrations in hospital workers: Evidence from surveillance studies in Italy (1963-1993)
Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; chromosome changes; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; health care personnel; hospitals; ionizing radiation; Italy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1997, Vol.31, No.3, p.353-360. Illus. 37 ref.
Fuortes L., Clark M.K., Kirchner H.L., Smith E.M.
Association between female infertility and agricultural work history
Topics: agricultural chemicals; agriculture; antifertility effects; case-control study; occupation disease relation; sterility; USA; women.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1997, Vol.31, No.4, p.445-451. 44 ref.
The politics of reproductive hazards in the workplace: Class, gender, and the history of occupational lead exposure
Topics: antifertility effects; lead; lead poisoning; legislation; literature survey; plant health organization; sex-linked differences; social aspects; USA; women.
International Journal of Health Services, 1997, Vol.27, No.3, p.501-521. 67 ref.
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Hydrazinoethanol, phenylhydrazine, isoniazid, maleic hydrazide - Evaluation of the carcinogenicity and genotoxicity
Topics: carcinogenic effects; carcinogens; criteria document; genetic effects; hydrazinoethanol; isonicotinic acid hydrazide; maleic acid hydrazide; mutagenic effects; Netherlands; phenylhydrazine; toxicity evaluation; toxicology.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 5406, 2280 HK Rijswijk, Netherlands, 1997. 50p. Bibl.ref.
Directive 97/56/EC of the European Parliament and Council of 20 Oct. 1997 specifying the 16th modification of Directive 76/769/EEC concerning the approximation of legal provisions ... relating to the ... certain dangerous substances and preparations [European Communities]
Dir. 97/56/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 oct. 1997 portant 16e modif. de la dir. 76/769/CEE concernant le rapprochement des dispositions législatives, ... relatives à la ... de certaines substances et préparations dangereuses [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This Directive should be introduced into national legislation by 1 March 1999. It modifies annex I of Directive 76/769/EEC (CIS 92-22) by introducing the CAS numbers of substances and by providing notes on the classification of carcinogenic and mutagenic substances and substances with reproductive toxicity (categories 1 and 2).
Journal officiel des Communautés européennes - Official Journal of the European Communities, 4 Dec. 1997, No.L 333, p.1-84.
Elghany N.A., et al.
Occupational exposure to inorganic mercury vapour and reproductive outcomes
Pregnancy outcomes were investigated among 46 women production workers exposed to inorganic mercury vapour and 19 unexposed controls. There were 104 recorded pregnancies during the period 1948-1977. A higher frequency of adverse reproductive outcomes, especially congenital abnormalities, was observed among women exposed to inorganic mercury at levels at, or substantially lower than, 0.6mg/m3; no significant differences in stillbirth or miscarriage rates were noted between the two groups. The increased risk observed was not statistically significant.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1997, Vol.47, No.6, p.333-336. 15 ref.
Bogadi-Šare A., et al.
Genotoxic effects in workers exposed to benzene: With special reference to exposure markers and confounding factors
Cytogenetic tests were carried out on the lymphocytes of 49 female shoemakers exposed to benzene and toluene. Levels of benzene and toluene in the workers' blood and levels of phenol in urine were also measured. Chromosome aberration analysis revealed a significant increase in dicentric incidence in the exposed workers with respect to a control group. While significant correlation between cytogenetic test results and exposure biomarkers was not established, correlation between cytogenetic test results and data on confounding factors (age, alcohol consumption) was marked. The influence of confounding factors should be considered when estimating individual genotoxicity risk related to low level benzene exposure.
Industrial Health, July 1997, Vol.35, No.3, p.367-373. 31 ref.
Occupational reproductive hazards
The effects of occupational agents on the reproductive system (fertility, pregnancy) are reviewed and the role of the physician is described in terms of clinical assessment (identification of the source and extent of exposure, physical examination and documentation of health effects) and the education and management of patients.
Lancet, May 1997, Vol.349, No.9062, p.1385-1388. 29 ref.
Smith E.M., et al.
Occupational exposures and risk of female infertility
This case-control study examined the association between occupational chemical and radiation exposures and risk of infertility (diagnosed medically). Increased risk factors among 281 infertile women (when compared with 216 fertile controls) were exposure to volatile organic solvents, chemical dusts, pesticides and video display terminals. The crude odds ratios of risk were 2 to 3 times higher in women exposed to these factors than in those not exposed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1997, Vol.39, No.2, p.138-147. 69 ref.
Reproductive toxins: A growing concern at work and in the community
This editorial is a comment on a study conducted by Smith E.M. et al. (CIS 97-1875) concerning the risks of female infertility due to occupational exposures, in particular to toxic substances.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1997, Vol.39, No.2, p.105-107. 27 ref.
These 20 chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine selected issues in occupational medicine: a forward looking approach to occupational medicine; how workplace chemicals enter the body; basic concepts of toxicology; epidemiology; prevention of musculoskeletal disorders; lung disorders; chemicals and hypersensitivity in the airways; allergy and other hypersensitivity; causes of occupational dermatoses; neurological diseases; occupational cancer; reproductive health; radiation injuries; health effects of noise exposure; vibration-induced disorders; carpal tunnel syndrome; stress-related illness; economic aspects of occupational health; health and safety in a multinational company; occupational databases and the Internet.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.1, p.745-977. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Valanis B., et al.
Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents and self-reported infertility among nurses and pharmacists
The relationship between infertility and chemotherapeutic drug handling was investigated in a group of 405 nurses and pharmacy personnel reporting infertility. Each subject was matched with three controls. Results for the total sample and for women showed a significantly elevated odds ratio for self-reported infertility associated with occupational handling of chemotherapeutic drugs prior to the onset of infertility. For men, the odds ratio was similar, but not significant. The use of adequate protection during the handling of antineoplastic drugs is recommended.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1997, Vol.39, No.6, p.574-580. 30 ref.
Schenker M.B., et al.
Self-reported stress and reproductive health of female lawyers
In a questionnaire survey of 584 female lawyers aged 25 to 63, job hours per week was a strong predictor of job stress. Women who worked more than 45 hours per week during their first trimester of pregnancy were more likely to report high stress at work during pregnancy. Weekly job hours during the first trimester of pregnancy showed a strong independent association with spontaneous abortion risk, as did 7 or more alcohol drinks per week. Self-reported stress during pregnancy was positively, but not significantly, associated with spontaneous abortion.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1997, Vol.39, No.6, p.556-568. 40 ref.
Maeng S.H., Yu I.J.
Mutagenicity of 2-bromopropane
2-bromopropane, a substitute for freon, is suspected to be responsible for an outbreak of reproductive dysfunctions among workers in an electronics factory. Bacterial mutation assays, chromosome aberration analysis in vitro and micronucleus tests in vivo were carried out to clarify the mutagenicity of 2-bromopropane. Results from reverse mutation assays using Salmonella typhimurium were positive and showed a dose-response relationship. The chromosome aberration tests and the micronucleus tests showed negative results.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.87-95. Illus. 30 ref.
Bubak A., Mielżyńska D., Siwińska E.
Can we detect mutagenic activity of urinary sediment by the Ames test?
The urine of five children and four coke-oven workers in a Polish town was tested for mutagenic substances. Mutagenic activity was found in samples from both groups, but only in acetone extracts of the urinary filtrate and not in the urinary sediment.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1997, Vol.10, No.1, p.47-54. 9 ref.
Blatter B.M., Roeleveld N., Zielhuis G.A., Gabreëls F.J.M., Verbeek A.L.M.
Maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of spina bifida
A case-control study was carried out to explore associations between spina bifida and occupational exposure of the mother. Cases were 470 children with spina bifida aperta born between 1980 and 1992 from nine hospitals in the Netherlands. The controls were 2350 children born healthy in the same period as the cases. Analyses of occupation showed an increased risk for women working in agricultural occupations (OR = 3.4) and, although less distinct, for cleaning women (OR = 1.7). Only a few mothers of cases seemed to be occupationally exposed to chemical or physical agents. No differences in occurrence of specific exposures could be detected between cases and controls. Besides, no differences were seen in pesticide or disinfectant exposure among case and control mothers in agricultural occupations.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.53, No.2, p.80-86. 23 ref.
Genetic monitoring: Experiences, possibilities, and applications in occupational health practices
Topics: cytogenetic studies; exposure tests; genetic abnormalities; genetic effects; genetic screening; hazard evaluation; medical supervision; mutagens; neoplasms.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1996, Vol.2, No.3, Supplement, p.S54-S56. 12 ref.
Fuchs J., Hengstler J.G., Hummrich F., Oesch F.
Transient increase in DNA strand breaks in car refinishing spray painters
Topics: coachwork; DNA; exposure tests; genetic effects; length of exposure; length of service; paints; spray coating.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1996, Vol.22, No.6, p.438-443. Illus. 20 ref.
Monitoring of the health of traffic policemen in Egypt
Topics: lead; chromosome changes; Egypt; epidemiologic study; exhaust gases; genetic effects; police forces; road transport; smoking.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 1996, Vol.6, No.2, p.44-46. Illus. 15 ref.
Dimich-Ward H., Hertzman C., Teschke K., Hershler R., Marion S.A., Ostry A., Kelly S.
Reproductive effects of paternal exposure to chlorophenate wood preservatives in the sawmill industry
Topics: antifertility effects; Canada; chlorophenols; cohort study; dioxins; exposure evaluation; parental exposure; sawmilling industry; teratogenic effects; wood preservatives.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1996, Vol.22, No.4, p.267-273. 31 ref.
Merler E., Villa L., Lucchini R.
Adverse effects of exposure in the production, handling and administration of antineoplastic drugs
Effetti patologici causati da chemioterapici antiblastici nei lavoratori addetti alla loro produzione, preparazione o somministrazione [in Italian]
Many antineoplastic drugs are carcinogenic or mutagenic in humans. This study concerns the increased risk of cancer for workers handling such drugs. Among women workers there is an increased risk of spontaneous abortions and offspring malformations. This is an important effect, since the majority of health care workers exposed to antineoplastic drugs are women. Adequate protective equipment during the production and administration of these drugs and suitable preventive educational programmes are necessary for these workers.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1996, Vol.87, No.3, p.207-221. 42 ref.
Alessio L., et al.
Prevention of risks from occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs. Consensus document
Prevenzione dei rischi da esposizione professionale a chemoterapici antiblastici. Documento di consenso [in Italian]
This consensus document prepared by Italian research institutes deals with the pathological effects of antineoplastic drugs in patients and occupationally exposed subjects. Preventive measures are discussed, including exposure assessment, health surveillance of workers and guidance for workers' protection (information and training programmes). A particular hazard is that of deformed foetuses, due to the teratogenic effects of these drugs on exposed pregnant women. The importance of preventive measures in the pharmaceutical industry is stressed, in particular those applying to packaging and storage of these products.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1996, Vol.87, No.3, p.194-200 (Italian), 201-206 (English).
Lander F., Ronne M.
Frequency of sister chromatid exchange and haematological effects in glass-houses fumigators exposed to pesticides
Frecuencia del intercambio entre cromátidas hermanas y efectos hematológicos en los fumigadores de invernaderos expuestos a pesticidas [in Spanish]
A cross-sectional study involving 134 glass-houses fumigators exposed to a mixture of pesticides and 157 controls was carried out in order to investigate the genotoxicity and haematotoxicity of the products used. Sister chromatid exchange method (SCE) and blood count were used to evaluate chromosome and haematological alterations. SCE frequency was higher in non-smoking fumigators, as opposed to controls. No difference was found in the haematological profiles of the two groups. The results suggest that occupational exposure to pesticides may have genotoxic effects.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1996, Vol.43, No.168, p.161-169.
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