Antifertility and prenatal effects - 646 entries found
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- Antifertility and prenatal effects
Brender J., Suarez L., Hendricks K., Baetz R.A., Larsen R.
Parental occupation and neural tube defect-affected pregnancies among Mexican Americans
In this case-control study, it was examined whether parental occupational exposures were related to neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies among Mexican Americans living along the Texas-Mexico border. Case women were 184 Mexican-American women with NTD-affected pregnancies; control women were 225 study-area residents who delivered normal babies during the same period as the case women. The women were interviewed in person about maternal and paternal occupations and work exposures during the peri-conceptional period. Compared with control women, case women were more likely to have had occupational exposures to solvents and also were more likely to have worked in cleaning or health care occupations than control women. No compelling associations were found between paternal work exposures or occupations and NTDs in offspring in this population.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.650-656. 40 ref.
Chia S.E., Shi L.M.
Review of recent epidemiological studies on paternal occupations and birth defects
Epidemiological studies on paternal occupations and birth defects were reviewed for the period from 1989 to 1999. Several common paternal occupations were repeatedly reported to be associated with birth defects, including janitors, painters, printers, and occupations exposed to solvents; fire fighters or firemen; and occupations related to agriculture. The common weaknesses in most of these studies are inaccurate assessment of exposures, different classification systems, different inclusion criteria of birth defects, and low statistical power. Future studies could be focused on these specific occupational groups so that causative agents may be confirmed enabling appropriate preventive measures to be taken.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.59, No.3, p.149-155. 56 ref.
Kirsch-Volders M., De Boeck M., Lison D.
Genotoxicity and occupational activity - Genotoxicity tests
Génotoxicité et activité professionnelle - Tests de génotoxicité [in French]
This article presents recent advances in the understanding of genotoxicity as well as their practical implications in occupational medicine. It includes definitions of terms used in the field of geonotoxicity, a description of mechanisms of genetic damage, mutations and their effects on health, as well as a comparison of genotoxic substance detection and evaluation methods. Proposals for medical supervision and hazard evaluation programmes to be implemented by occupational physicians are included, which take practical and ethical aspects into account. A second part of the article presents and compares five genotoxicity tests widely used for bio-monitoring: comet test, sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus test, gene mutations on the HGPRT locus and study of chromosome aberrations.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2002, No.134, 9p. Illus. 29 ref.+ 4p. 18 ref.
Polymorphisms of detoxification enzyme genes: Influence on sister chromatid exchange induction by epoxides in cultured human lymphocytes
Cytogenetic damage, a marker of increased cancer risk, is usually assessed in peripheral blood lymphocytes from people exposed to genotoxic occupational carcinogens. Similarly, in vitro test systems for genotoxicity of chemicals include analyses of cytogenetic endpoints, such as sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), in cultured human lymphocytes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms on the ability of some known genotoxins to induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human whole-blood lymphocyte cultures, and to determine epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity in human mononuclear leukocytes. SCE induction was investigated for several chemicals. It was found that polymorphisms of GST genes influenced the genotoxicity of 1,2-epoxy-3-butene, styrene, and trans-stilbene oxide. In vitro SCE analysis of cultured human lymphocytes appears to be a sensitive tool to detect even small genotype differences in genotoxic response. Such data may be used to predict the influence of genetic polymorphisms on genotoxic effects in exposed humans.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2002. 87p. Illus. Bibl. ref.
Carcinogens, mutagens and substances toxic for reproduction - Regulatory classification
Produits chimiques cancérogènes, mutagènes, toxiques pour la reproduction - Classification réglementaire [in French]
This document presents the list of substances classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or toxic for reproduction according to European regulations. This substances appear in Annex I of amended Directive 67/548/EEC (see CIS 92-23; it corresponds in French legislation to Annex I of the amended Ministerial Order of 20 April 1994, see CIS 95-17); this list includes all the substances mentioned in the various adaptations of this directive to technical progress. Carcinogens, mutagens and substances toxic for reproduction are classified in alphabetical order and by CAS number. The corresponding tables are preceded by definitions and classification criteria.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.187, Note No.2168-187-02, p.5-59.
Castegnaro M., Dayan-Kenigsberg J., Pleven C., Picot A., Rousselin X., Zajdela F., Falcy M.
Handling of genotoxic substances in laboratories: Prevention and safety
Manipulation des substances génotoxiques utilisées en laboratoire: prévention et sécurité [in French]
The handling and use of potentially genotoxic substances, namely carcinogens, mutagens and/or substances that show reproductive toxicity are widely used today in biological and biomedical research. This guide is the result of the efforts of a working group set up by the French National Commission on Cancer, under the aegis of the General Directorate of Health. It consists of three parts: instructions and recommendations applicable to the various phases of handling; list of the main genotoxic substances used in laboratories with their genotoxic and carcinogenic properties; treatment of wastes before discharging.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., Dec. 2001. 116p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: EUR 11.50.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/41568A922165C5F5C1256CD90051B130/$FILE/ed769.pdf [in French]
Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
Research into the genetic and oxidative damage resulting from exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds
Gumsok whahap mule ei han youjun jeok mit sanwha jeok sonsang yeon gu [in Korean]
This report describes research carried out on biological and genetic toxicity indices in relationship to cancers caused by exposure to Cr6+ used in the stainless steel welding, plating, casting and metal product manufacturing processes. White rats were used to measure the genetic and oxidative damage occurring after exposure to Cr6+. Chromium concentrations inside the inhalation chamber and in the blood and urine of the experimental animals were also measured in order to establish their relationship with the toxicity indices.
Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency, 34-4 Gu-san dong, Bupyung gu, Inchon 403-711, Republic of Korea, Dec. 2001. 40p. Illus. 49 ref.
Nersesyan A.K., Boffetta P., Sarkisyan T.F, Zalinyan G.G., Arutyunyan R.M.
Chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of persons exposed to an earthquake in Armenia
Chromosome aberrations were measured in blood samples taken from 41 victims of the earthquake that hit Armenia in 1988 and in samples of 47 reference blood donors. The victims suffered from severe psychoemotional stress but were otherwise healthy. All the samples were taken 2 to 3 weeks after the earthquake. All the subjects were lifetime nonsmokers. The subjects exposed to the earthquake had a higher proportion of cells with chromosome aberrations (3.1) than the referents (1.7). The difference persisted when the values were adjusted for age and sex (relative risk (RR) 1.9). The exposed subjects also had a lower percentage of cells with 46 chromosomes than the referents. This study suggests an increase in chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of victims of a severe earthquake. If not due to bias or confounding, the difference may reflect the effect of either environmental exposures related to the earthquake or severe psychogenic stress. The levels of chromosome aberrations found among the earthquake victims in this study are comparable with those found in prospective studies of long-term cancer risk.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.120-124. 22 ref.
Gradecka D., Palus J., Wąsowicz W.
Selected mechanisms of genotoxic effects of inorganic arsenic compounds
Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic compounds is known to cause various tumours and diseases. In many regions of Asia and Latin America, the concentration of inorganic arsenic in drinking water considerably exceeds the standard of 50µg/L recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The genotoxicity of inorganic arsenic has been confirmed in vitro and in vivo, as well as in examinations of exposed populations. Inorganic arsenic increases the frequency of micronuclei, chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges both in humans and in animals. Various studies suggest that inorganic arsenic may intensify the toxic effects of other physical and chemical agents, especially by DNA repair inhibition. Besides, it is believed that inorganic arsenic compounds may cause changes in the cell redox potential and alter DNA methylation and phosphorylation of cell-cycle control proteins. Some data also suggest that inorganic arsenic increases cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Possible cytotoxic mechanisms of inorganic arsenic compounds are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2001, Vol.14, No.4, p.317-328. Illus. 71 ref.
Wennborg H., Bodin L., Vainio H., Axelsson G.
Solvent use and time to pregnancy among female personnel in biomedical laboratories in Sweden
To elucidate possible effects on fecundity of chemical, biological, and physical agents in laboratories, a retrospective study based on a questionnaire was conducted among female personnel who worked in Swedish biomedical research laboratories. Female personnel in non-laboratory departments were used as a reference group. 560 women were included in the analyses, corresponding to 2519 menstrual cycles. These women had given birth at least once between 1990 and 1994. Time to pregnancy was used to estimate the fecundability, namely the probability of conception of a clinically detectable pregnancy per cycle. The fecundability ratio (FR) between exposed and unexposed cycles was calculated with an analogue of the Cox's model. The FR estimates below unity indicate sub-fecundity. Work with organic solvents in general in laboratory work, gave a decreased adjusted FR of 0.79. Moreover, work with acetone and handling viruses also showed decreased FRs of 0.72 and 0.66 respectively.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.58, No.4, p.225-231. Illus. 37 ref.
Kolstad H.A., Bisanti L., Roeleveld N., Baldi R., Bonde J.P., Joffe M.
Time to pregnancy among male workers of the reinforced plastics industry in Denmark, Italy and the Netherlands
The relationship between occupational styrene exposure and male fecundity was examined among 1560 Danish, Italian and Dutch reinforced plastics workers. 220 styrene-exposed workers and 382 unexposed referents who had fathered a child were identified. A total of 768 historical styrene measurements conducted in 1970-1996 formed the basis for semi-quantitative exposure assessment in combination with measurements of urinary styrene metabolite levels. All the subjects were interviewed about work conditions. Fecundity was measured as the reported time to pregnancy. A statistically non-significant reduced fecundity was observed for the styrene-exposed workers (fecundity ratio 0.79), but no consistent pattern of a detrimental effect on fecundity was found when time to pregnancy was related to work-tasks indicating higher styrene exposure levels. The workers with high exposure showed a fecundity ratio of 1.09. It is concluded that it is unlikely that styrene exposure has a strong effect on male fecundity.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.353-358. 22 ref.
Exposure to lead and male fertility
This literature review summarizes the epidemiological evidence for the effects of inorganic lead on male fertility. Blood lead measurements were applied to exposure assessment in all the studies. The results of the studies on fertility rates are consistent in showing an association between lead and reduced fertility. Also, there seems to be a tendency towards stronger association at older age with increasing duration of exposure. The studies conducted suggest that male exposure to lead may be associated with delayed conception. There are a number of mechanisms by which exposure to lead may reduce male fertility. On the basis of animal studies, alterations in sperm chromatin stability or epigenetic effects may be the most probable mechanisms involved at low exposure level.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2001, Vol.14, No.3, p.219-222. 20 ref.
Chia S.E., Tay S.K.
Occupational risk for male infertility: A case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men
To determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility, 218 men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85). Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75), financial analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49) and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers". Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2001, Vol.43, No.11, p.946-951. 19 ref.
Decree No.2001-97 of 1 Feb. 2001 setting up the particular rules of prevention of the hazards of carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity and modifying the Labour Code [France]
Décret n°2001-97 du 1er février 2001 établissant les règles particulières de prévention des risques cancérogènes, mutagènes ou toxiques pour la reproduction et modifiant le Code du travail [France] [in French]
This Decree takes into consideration the provisions of Directives 97/42/EC (see CIS 99-17) and 1999/38/EC (see CIS 00-1516), both modifications of the main Directive 90/394/EEC concerning carcinogenic agents in the workplace (see CIS 90-1758). Essentially, the provisions of the Labour Code relating to carcinogenic substances are extended to those related to mutagenic substances and to substances that are toxic to reproduction. Some administrative procedures are also modified. The employment of pregnant and lactating women in workplaces where they may be exposed to substances toxic to reproduction is prohibited. Exposure limits are provided for the airborne concentration of benzene (3.25mg/m3 = 1ppm) and vinyl chloride monomer (2.59mg/m3 = 1ppm) in the workplace, and the specific Decrees related to protection measures against these two substances (86-269 [see CIS 86-1021] and 80-203 [see CIS 80-1315], respectively) are repealed.
Journal officiel de la République française, 3 Feb. 2001, Year 133, No.29, p.1866-1868.
http://www.admi.net/jo/20010203/MEST0110001D.html [in French]
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
List of threshold limit values in air for substances with carcinogenic or mutagenic effects or toxicity to reproduction
Verzeichnis von Luftgrenzwerten und krebserzeugenden, erbgutverändernden oder fortpflanzungsgefährdenden Stoffen [in German]
This booklet provides a list of harmful substances, their threshold limit values in air and their classification with respect to carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and toxicity for reproduction. CAS, European EINECS and ELINCS registry numbers are also provided. This list contains all the substances of technical rules TRGS 900 and TSGS 905 of Appendix I of the Council Directive 67/548/EEC (CIS 87-1162). Replaces CIS 00-813.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 165p. 18 ref. + Diskette.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Principles for evaluating health risks to reproduction associated with exposure to chemicals
Following a summary of human reproductive physiology, this criteria document describes the in vitro and in vivo methods used for evaluating the sexual function, fertility and developmental effects of toxic substances, and proposes strategies for evaluating the risk of reproductive toxicity. It also presents recommendations in the form of 13 points aimed at improving basic understanding of reproductive and developmental toxicity.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. xxi, 187p. Illus. Approx. 325 ref. Price: CHF 42.00 (CHF 29.40 in developing countries).
Petrelli G., Lauria L., Figà-Talamanca I.
Occupational exposures and male fertility: Results of an Italian multicentre study in exposed populations
Esposizioni occupazionali e fertilità maschile: Risultati di uno studio italiano multicentrico tra popolazioni esposte [in Italian]
Report on a study on the fertility of couples where the men were occupationally exposed to three different kinds of toxic substances with effects on reproduction. Fertility was evaluated during the time that elapsed between attempting and achieving the first pregnancy of the couples. Data were collected from 153 workers of a mint (exposed to metal and solvents), 322 agricultural workers licensed to handle pesticides and 127 greenhouse workers, as well as from comparable non-unexposed groups of workers. Results suggest that workers exposed to metals, solvents and the agricultural and greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides experienced a delay in conception at the time of their wives' first pregnancy, although the delay was statistically significant (OR=2.4; 95% CI=1.2-5.1) only for greenhouse workers with heavy exposure (>100hrs of application time per year) to pesticides.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.307-313. Illus. 26 ref.
García A.M., Orts E., Esteban V., Porcuna J.L.
Experts' assessment of probability and level of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers
The occupational history of the parents of 261 Spanish infants with congenital malformations and 261 matched controls was collected. Preceding the birth of their child, 183 of the parents had been involved in agricultural activities, 49% of them directly in the application of pesticides. Two experts assessed the probability and level of exposure to a number of pesticides. Inter-rater agreement was estimated. In the analysis of some categories of exposure (non-applicators, herbicides) there was very low inter-rater agreement. Since in epidemiological studies a detailed product-by-product assessment of pesticide exposure is needed for the investigation of the health effects of pesticides, there is clearly a need for research on the application of experts' judgments in this area.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.42, No.9, p.911-916. 24 ref.
Landrigan P.J., Boffetta P., Apostoli P.
The reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity of lead: A critical review
Lead is a known reproductive toxin, causing reductions in sperm count and fertility in males and an increased risk of miscarriage in females. Recent research has shown that these reproductive effects occur at relatively low levels of exposure that were previously considered safe. Lead is also a potent neurotoxin. Prospective longitudinal studies demonstrate that prenatal and early postnatal exposure to lead at levels as low as 10-20µg/dL results in damage to the central nervous system, resulting in diminished intelligence and altered behaviour. These effects appear to be irreversible and untreatable, the only approach to their control being to reduce prenatal and early life exposure to lead. Lead is a proven animal carcinogen. It can cause renal cancer and possibly brain tumours in rats and mice. In humans, IARC had previously considered the evidence on the carcinogenicity of lead to be "inadequate". However, new data have accumulated on the cancer risk of workers exposed to lead, which justify a re-evaluation of the classification.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.231-243. 89 ref.
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Nitrous oxide - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of nitrous oxide based on the evaluation of studies on its effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: category 3 (substances which cause concern for human fertility) and R62 (possible risk for impaired fertility). Teratogenic effects: category 3 (substances which cause concern for humans owing to possible developmental toxic effects) and R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: nitrous oxide should not be labelled with R64 due to lack of appropriate data. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 51p. 84 ref.
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Mercury and its compounds - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of mercury and its compounds based on the evaluation of studies on their effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: no classification of mercury, methylmercury, phenylmercury acetate, mercuric chloride and mercuric nitrate due to lack of data. Teratogenic effects: category 2 (substances which should be regarded as if they impair fertility in humans) and R61 labelling for metallic mercury; category 1 (substances known to cause developmental toxicity in humans) and R61 labelling for methylmercury; no classification for phenylmercury acetate, mercuric chloride and mercuric nitrate due to lack of data. Effects during lactation: lack of appropriate data for mercury, phenylmercury acetate, mercuric chloride and mercuric nitrate; R64 labelling (may cause harm to babies) for methylmercury. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 55p. 70 ref.
Semple S., Dick F., Osborne A., Cherrie J.W., Soutar A., Seaton A., Haites N.
Impairment of colour vision in workers exposed to organic solvents
Since exposure to mixed solvents is associated with impairment of colour vision, a study was conducted on 68 male dockyard workers and 42 controls. Indices of exposure to solvents were calculated for all subjects. Colour vision was tested and, in order to assess the possibility of genetic effects, genotypes of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 and N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms were determined. Increasing annual exposure to solvents was associated with reduced colour vision, but no significant association was found between such acquired impairment and genetic polymorphisms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.582-587. Illus. 31 ref.
Kristensen P., Andersen A., Irgens L.M.
Hormone-dependent cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes in farmers' families - Effects of climatic conditions favoring fungal growth in grain
The impact of grain farming and climate on late-term abortion among female farmers, male genital birth defects among their sons, and hormone-dependent cancer among male and female farmers and their adult children was investigated. 246,043 male and female farmers born between 1925 and 1971 and 264,262 of their offspring were identified from the Norwegian national registers. Categories of high exposure were associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and cancer among female farmers, the strongest occurring for late-term abortion (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.6). Exposure associations for ovarian and breast cancer, and male genital defects, were more moderate. Endometrial cancer was associated with grain farming (OR 2.0). Exposure associations for cancer were strongest for pre-menopausal, parous women. The results are consistent with hormonal effects of inhaled mycotoxins during pregnancy.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.331-337. 24 ref.
Engel L.S., O'Meara E.S., Schwartz S.M.
Maternal occupation in agriculture and risk of limb defects in Washington State, 1980-1993
A retrospective cohort study was conducted using birth records from the state of Washington (USA) for the years 1980 through 1993. The exposed group, consisting of 4466 births to mothers employed in agriculture, was compared with 2 reference groups. The outcome of interest was limb defects (syndactyly, polydactyly, adactyly, and "other limb reductions" as listed in the birth record). An elevated risk of limb defects was observed for the exposed group in comparison with the reference groups. These results support the hypothesis that maternal occupational exposure to agricultural chemicals may increase the risk of giving birth to a child with limb defects.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.193-198. 10 ref.
Hjollund N.H.I., Bonde J.P.E., Jensen T.K., Henriksen T.B., Andersson A.M., Kolstad H.A., Ernst E., Giwercman A., Skakkebæk N.E., Olsen J.
Male-mediated spontaneous abortion among spouses of stainless steel welders
Clinical and early subclinical spontaneous abortions were examined among spouses of stainless-steel welders in Denmark. A cohort of men among couples planning a first pregnancy was recruited from members of the union of metal workers and three other trade unions. The cohort was followed for 6 menstrual cycles from the cessation of contraceptive use. Information on pregnancy outcome was collected for all 245 clinically recognized pregnancies. Increased risk of spontaneous abortion was found for pregnancies with paternal exposure to stainless-steel welding (adjusted relative risk 3.5). A mutagenic effect of hexavalent chromium has been found previously in both somatic and germ cells, and the findings could be due to mutations in the male genome.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.187-192. Illus. 25 ref.
Major J., Jakab M.G., Tompa A.
HPRT mutation frequencies in benzene-exposed oil refinery workers during an eleven-year-long follow-up study
Mutation and variant frequencies (VF) of the hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) loci of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 43 occupationally benzene-exposed, 30-40-year-old workers with increased chromosome aberration frequencies were investigated by autoradiography in an eleven-year-long follow-up study in order to assess the cancer risk. Data were compared to those of 87 age-matched controls. Ambient air benzene concentrations were measured with gas chromatography. Compared to the controls, the values of the labelling indices in PBLs of the exposed donors were decreased indicating a reduced response to lectine stimulation in the genotoxicologically compromised cells. In the years 1992-1993, the mean hprt VFs of the exposed workers were significantly higher than those of the controls, but not in the previous or subsequent years. The distribution of the individual VFs also indicated exposure-related increases in the years 1991-1993. The data indicate that occupational exposure to benzene can increase the cell mutation frequencies.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.288-299. Illus. 45 ref.
Cebulska-Wasilewska A., Wierzewska A., Dyga W., Drąg Z., Siffel C., Horváth M., Au W.
Induction of DNA and cytogenic damage in lymphocytes of Polish workers exposed to pesticides
This paper presents preliminary data from the Polish subgroup of a joint research program (Greece, Hungary, Poland, and Spain) investigating the relationship between exposure to agrochemicals and the induction of genotoxicity in human cells. Blood samples were collected from male donors (50 persons in a reference group and 50 persons in a group occupationally exposed to pesticides). The collected samples were analysed for the induction of DNA strand breaks and of chromosome damage. Analysis of the data from the interviews revealed that the occupationally exposed group showed significantly higher frequency of some health problems (cardiovascular disorders, kidney, neurological and dermatological problems, infections). The exposed group also had higher levels of DNA damage and sister chromatid exchanges compared to the reference group. It was also found that cigarette smoking played an important role influencing the biomarker response. Although the farmers in Poland have been using safety devices when handling pesticides, more rigorous procedures need to be employed.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.272-287. Illus. 18 ref.
Petrelli G., Figà-Talamanca I., Taggi F.
Recall of reproductive history in agricultural workers
The relationship between reproductive damage and occupational and environmental toxic substances has been investigated in retrospective epidemiological studies by means of time to pregnancy. This measure has been validated in several studies conducted on working populations, in particular among women. This paper attempts to evaluate the agreement between recalls of the husband and wife on reproductive history among agricultural workers. The study was carried out in an agricultural area of central Italy and involved 164 farmers, aged 20-55, licensed to handle pesticides, and their wives. Detailed data on reproductive history were collected by personal interview. Subsequently the farmers' wives were interviewed by telephone. On the basis of the results, it can reasonably be affirmed that the male's recall can be considered as acceptable to study the reproductive history in this agricultural population.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.265-271. Illus. 12 ref.
Guardino Solá X, Santolaya Martínez C
Agents toxic for female reproduction
Tóxicos para la reproducción femenina [in Spanish]
This information note summarizes information concerning the reproductive effects of toxic agents on exposed women, together with corresponding preventive measures. Contents: description of the female reproductive system and menstrual cycle; possible health effects (effects on the menstrual cycle, sterility, abortion and still-born children, newborn child malformations, low birth weight and premature delivery, child developmental problems and child cancer); agents that present reproductive hazards (table of chemical, physical and biological agents); classification criteria for substances and preparations that are toxic for reproduction or the offspring, in particular during breast feeding; legislation on the protection of pregnant and breast-feeding women; recommendations with respect to occupational hygiene.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 7p. 6 ref.
Occupational toxicology and reproductive and developmental effects
Toxicología laboral en la reproducción y el desarrollo [in Spanish]
Exposure to toxic agents in the working environment affects the reproductive system. This article reviews reproductive and developmental effects of such substances. Effects upon male fertility may be indirect, affecting sexual activity or spermatogenesis, or direct by altering spermatozoid production. Pesticides, heavy metals, solvents and other chemicals such as oestrogen agonists affect the male reproductive function. Not much is known about the effect of chemicals on the ovaries. An association between volatile organic solvents, chemical powders, pesticides, working with VDT and infertility risks for women has been shown. Exposure to various toxic substances is associated with spontaneous abortion. Exposure to cytostatic drugs, anaesthetic gas, lead, pesticides as well as working in the petrochemical industry gives rise to risks of malformation risks. Substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls and certain pesticides are found in maternal milk. Prevention measures include further research on potential risks of chemicals for reproduction, together with updated regulations based on current scientific knowledge.
Salud Ocupacional, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.XVIII, No.78, p.12-20. Illus. 49 ref.
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Lithium carbonate and lithium chloride - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of lithium carbonate and lithium chloride based on the evaluation of studies on their effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: category 3 (substances which cause concern for human fertility) and R62 (possible risk for impaired fertility). Teratogenic effects: category 1 (substances known to cause developmental toxicity in humans) and R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: R64 (may cause harm to breastfed babies). Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 45p. 49 ref.
http://www.gr.nl/overig/pdf/00@06OSH.pdf [in English]
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Halothane - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of halothane based on the evaluation of studies on its effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: no classification due to lack of appropriate data. Teratogenic effects: category 3 (substances which cause concern for humans owing to possible developmental toxic effects) and R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: no R64 labelling due to lack of appropriate data. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 35p. 38 ref.
http://www.gr.nl/overig/pdf/00@02OSH.pdf [in English]
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Ethanol - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of ethanol based on the evaluation of studies on its effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: category 1 (substances known to impair fertility in humans) and R60 (may impair fertility). Teratogenic effects: category 1 (substances known to cause developmental toxicity in humans) and R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: R64 (may cause harm to breastfed babies). Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 33p. 54 ref.
http://www.gr.nl/overig/pdf/00@01OSH.pdf [in English]
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Chloroform - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of chloroform based on the evaluation of studies on its effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: no classification due to lack of data. Teratogenic effects: category 2 (substances which should be regarded as if they had developmental toxicity to humans) and R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: no R64 labelling due to lack of appropriate data. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 38p. 27 ref.
http://www.gr.nl/overig/pdf/00@07OSH.pdf [in English]
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Cadmium and its compounds - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of cadmium (Cd) and its compounds based on the evaluation of studies on their effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: category 3 (substances which cause concern for human fertility) and R62 (possible risk for impaired fertility). Teratogenic effects: category 3 (substances which cause concern for humans owing to possible developmental toxic effects) and R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: R64 (may cause harm to breastfed babies). Safe level of Cd in (human) breast milk: 5µg/L. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 52p. 96 ref.
http://www.gr.nl/overig/pdf/00@04OSH.pdf [in English]
Abell A., Juul S., Bonde J.P.E.
Time to pregnancy among female greenhouse workers
This study examined the possibility that work in greenhouses with potential exposure to pesticides entails a risk for reduced fecundity in terms of increased time to pregnancy. 1,767 female members of the Danish Gardeners Trade Union were interviewed by telephone, and data were obtained on the 492 most recent pregnancies among women who were employed at the time when they stopped contraception. The pregnancies were classified according to job characteristics. The adjusted fecundability ratio for workers in flower greenhouses compared to other union members was 1.11. Among workers in flower greenhouses, the handling of cultures many hours per week, the spraying of pesticides, and the non-use of gloves was related to reduced fecundability.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2000, Vol.26, No.2, p.131-136. Illus. 23 ref.
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (DECOS)
Hardwood and softwood dust - Evaluation of the carcinogenicity and genotoxicity
Hardwood dust is a human carcinogen. It can cause sinonasal adenocarcinoma. A meta-analysis suggests that it can induce other tumours, especially nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Softwood is suspected of carcinogenic properties. Epidemiological data suggest that it can cause sinonasal squamous-cell carcinoma. Genotoxicity of wood dusts cannot be tested directly. Tests with the preparations used show genotoxicity for both hard and soft wood. Chronic and semi-chronic exposure leads to inflammation and cytotoxicity, but due to the mixed nature of the dusts it has not been possible to determine whether both dusts can cause these effects. Another unresolved matter is whether wood dust itself or components added or contaminants (preservatives, moulds) are responsible for the effects. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 43p. 44 ref.
Shih T.S., Hsieh A.T., Liao G.D., Chen Y.H., Liou S.H.
Haematological and spermatotoxic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in copper clad laminate factories
Impregnation workers from factories using ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) as a solvent were evaluated for haematological and reproductive effects together with a control group with indirect exposure to EGME. Results showed that the haemoglobin, packed cell volume and red blood cell count among exposed male workers were significantly lower than among controls. The frequency of anaemia in the exposed group was also significantly higher (26.1% vs. 3.2%). The red blood cell count was negatively associated with air concentrations of EGME, and haemoglobin, packed cell volume and red blood cell count were negatively associated with urinary concentrations of methoxyacetic acid. The pH of semen in the exposed workers was lower than that of controls, but there were no significant differences in sperm count or morphology.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.57, No.5, p.348-352. 18 ref.
Ündeğer Ü., Zorlu A.F., Başaran N.
Use of the alkaline comet assay to monitor DNA damage in technicians exposed to low-dose radiation
The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation is still of great concern in occupational and environmental medicine, and the widespread use of radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer has led to anxiety about the possible hazards to staff who are at risk of such occupational exposure. In this study, DNA damage in the peripheral lymphocytes of 30 technicians employed in radiation oncology departments for at least one year was examined by the alkaline electrophoresis "comet" technique. The results were compared with those of 30 controls with comparable age, sex, and smoking habits who were not working in radiation oncology or chemotherapy services. The DNA damage observed in the lymphocytes of the technicians was significantly higher than that in the controls (P < 0.001). Cigarette smoking was also related to increases in DNA damage, and a significant association was found between the duration of occupational exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation and the DNA damage.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.41, No.8, p.693-698. 36 ref.
Valanis B., Vollmer W.M., Steele P.
Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents: Self-reported miscarriages and stillbirths among nurses and pharmacists
Antineoplastic agents are mutagenic and teratogenic, with potential effects on reproduction among workers exposed to these agents. This study investigates pregnancy loss associated with occupational exposures to antineoplastic drugs by comparing rates of spontaneous abortion and stillbirths for pregnancies with and without antineoplastic exposure for either parent, before or during pregnancy. A total of 7,094 pregnancies of 2,976 pharmacy and nursing staff were examined. Exposure of the mother to antineoplastic agents during the pregnancy was associated with a significantly increased risk of spontaneous abortion (odds ratio = 1.5) and combined risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth (odds ratio = 1.4). Among the wives of exposed men, too few stillbirths occurred to allow analysis. However, for spontaneous abortion and any loss, the patterns of increased risk were similar to those seen for women, although the odds ratios were not statistically significant.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.41, No.8, p.632-638. 24 ref.
Leprince A., Falcy M., Le Bâcle C., Meyer J.P.
Fertility, pregnancy and occupational hazards
Fécondité, grossesse et risques professionnels [in French]
This article consists of the highlights of papers presented during a one-day seminar on occupational hazards for fertility and pregnancy held in Strasbourg (France) on 24 June 1998. Topics covered include: occupational hazards from conception to puberty; managing chemical hazards in the enterprise; other hazards (teratogenic effects of ionizing radiation, infectious diseases, physical and mental strain); description of the collaboration between the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) and the information centre on teratogenic agents as an example of preventive vigilance.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1999, No.77, p.21-33.
Pagès M., Falcy M.
Evaluation of the risk to pregnancy caused by exposure to solvents
Evaluation du risque solvants pour la grossesse [in French]
The questions frequently addressed directly to INRS or transmitted through the CRAT (Information centre for teratogenic agents) in the context of a common prospective programme having begun in 1995 led to a review of human epidemiological studies on occupational exposure to solvents among pregnant women published between 1980 and 1997. A total of 28 studies focussed on occupations or activity sectors and 20 focussed on solvents are analysed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1999, No.80, p.335-353. 59 ref.
Promise of molecular epidemiology - Epidemiological reasoning, biological rationale and risk assessment
Molecular epidemiology has emerged as a natural outgrowth of attempts to apply information derived from the rapid increase in the application of molecular biology to diseases. The incorporation of biomarkers into classical epidemiologic designs holds the promise of unrevealing mechanisms, elucidating gene-environment interactions, and dissecting heterogeneity. The primary interest of molecular epidemiology is in the identification of factors in the physical and social environment which affect the risk for disease and which are amenable to preventive intervention. As experience accumulates, there is new appreciation that attention to study design, infrastructure and biomarker validation can improve the results.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1999, Vol.25, No.6, p.498-504. 30 ref.
Hofmann A., Holstein A., Rüdiger H.W., Stahlmann R., Thiel R., Vater U.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Contributions to the workshop "Fertility disorders and embryotoxic effects due to workplace chemicals", 9th and 10th February 1998, Hennef
Beiträge zum Workshop "Fertilitätsstörungen und Fruchtschädigung durch Arbeitsstoffe" am 9. und 10. Februar 1998 in Hennef [in German]
Proceedings of a workshop on fertility disorders and embryotoxic effects caused by chemicals held in Hennef, Germany, 9-10 February 1998. The objectives of the workshop were: to establish the methods for detecting the effects of chemicals on human fertility and the embryotoxic effects of these chemicals; to identify results available today; to establish how should these results be evaluated; to identify topics for further study and to discuss possible legislation to implement the findings. Main topics covered: organization and regulation of gamete maturation; reproductive toxicity effects of chemicals; scientific criteria for the classification of chemicals according to reproductive toxicity; German and European Union regulations.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Aug. 1999, 107p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Decree-Law No.446/99 implementing certain EU directives concerning the sale and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations [Portugal]
Decreto-Lei: transpõe para a ordem jurídica interna [as directivas] relativas à aproximação das disposições legislativas ... dos estados membros respeitantes à limitação da colocação no mercado e da utilização de algumas substâncias e preparações perigosas [in Portuguese]
This Decree-Law implements in Portugal various European directives relating to the bringing to the market and the use of certain dangerous chemicals and preparations. These include: 97/56/EC (CIS 97-1779), modifying 76/769/EEC (CIS 92-22), and 97/64/EC adapting to technical progress Annex 1 of the same Directive. Carcinogenic and mutagenic substances and substances presenting a reproductive hazard are listed by name, with corresponding native Portuguese, EC and CAS numbers and hazard notes.
Diário da República, 3 Nov. 1999, No.256, Serie I-A, p.7474-7556.
Taskinen H., Chia S.E., Lindbohm M.L., Hong C.Y., Thein M.M.
Risks to the reproductive health of working women
Topics: agriculture; antifertility effects; lead; mercury; nickel; complications of pregnancy; developing countries; expectant mothers; harmful substances; ionizing radiation; legal aspects; manufacturing industries; noise; office work; pesticides; risk factors; service and sales workers; sexual harassment; shift work; stress factors; toxic substances; violence; women; work time schedules.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 1999. 76p. Illus. 331 ref.
Levy B.S., Levin J.L., Teitelbaum D.T.
DBCP-induced sterility and reduced fertility among men in developing countries
Topics: agriculture; antifertility effects; Nemagon; cohort study; developing countries; ethics; nematocides; pesticides; spermatogenic disturbances; sterility; toxic effects.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.5, No.2, p.115-150. Illus. 104 ref.
Plenge-Bönig A., Karmaus W.
Exposure to toluene in the printing industry is associated with subfecundity in women but not in men
In a cross-sectional study, a sample of 150 male and 90 female printing industry workers were interviewed retrospectively on reproductive experience with a modified version of the European study of infertility and subfecundity questionnaire. Male workers who had been exposed to different concentrations of toluene and their partners did not show a reduction in fecundity. In women fecundity was reduced. After considering possible biases, low daily exposure to toluene in women seems to be associated with reduced fecundity. This result is in accordance with other findings for organic solvents and supports both the hypotheses that they could affect hormonal regulation and that organic solvents increase early foetal losses, which in turn contributes to lower frequency of unprotected intercourse.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1999, Vol.56, No.7, p.443-448. Illus. 43 ref.
Hoerauf K., Lierz M., Wiesner G., Schroegendorfer K., Lierz P., Spacek A., Brunnberg L., Nüsse M.
Genetic damage in operating room personnel exposed to isoflurane and nitrous oxide
To evaluate possible genetic damage in lymphocytes, exposure of operating room personnel to waste anaesthetic gases was measured. Venous blood samples were drawn and lymphocytes were cultured. The operating room personnel at the hospital were exposed to an 8-hour time weighted average of 12.8ppm nitrous oxide and 5.3ppm isoflurane. The mean sister chromatid exchange frequency was significantly higher in exposed workers than controls; the proportion of micronuclei was also higher but not significant. Exposure even to trace concentrations of waste anaesthetic gases may cause dose-dependent genetic damage. Concerning the micronuclei test, no clastogenic potential could be detected after average chronic exposure to waste anaesthetic gas. However, an increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes could be detected.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1999, Vol.56, No.7, p.433-437. Illus. 28 ref.
Padungtod C., Niu T., Wang Z., Savitz D.A., Christiani D.C., Ryan L.M., Xu X.
Paraoxonase polymorphism and its effect on male reproductive outcomes among Chinese pesticide factory workers
The effects of the human paraoxonase gene (PON1) genotypes on male reproductive outcomes and its interaction with exposure to organophosphate pesticides were examined in 60 Chinese pesticide-factory workers and 89 textile-factory workers who were unexposed to pesticides. The respective allele frequencies of Arg192 and Gln192 were 0.62 and 0.38. Pesticide exposure among 36 exposed subjects and 12 unexposed subjects, regardless of gender, was assessed by personal measurement of pesticide residues over an entire 8-hr shift and measurement of urinary p-nitrophenol level over a 24-hr period. Semen and hormone data collected from male subjects were analysed. Exposed Arg192 homo/heterozygotes had significantly lower sperm count and lower percentage of sperm with normal morphology than the reference group. Both unexposed Gln192 homozygotes and exposed Arg192 homo/heterozygotes showed significantly lower sperm concentrations than the reference group. In addition, exposed Arg192 homo/heterozygotes had significantly higher serum LH levels than the reference group.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.36, No.3, p.379-387. 29 ref.
Padungtod C., Hassold T.J., Millie E., Ryan L.M., Savitz D.A., Christiani D.C., Xu X.
Sperm aneuploidy among Chinese pesticide factory workers: Scoring by the FISH method
Cases from a pesticide-manufacturing plant in Anhui, China, and controls from a nearby textile factory were recruited. Pesticide workers were exposed to ethyl parathion or methamidophos at a median level of 0.02mg/m3. Semen was collected from each subject. Scoring was based on three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Median semen parameters for exposed (and unexposed) men were: abstinence period, 3 days (4 days); sperm concentration, 52.8 x 106/mL (53.1 x 106/mL); proportion of sperm with normal motility, 50.5% (61.3%); and proportion of sperm with normal morphology, 59% (61.5%). The crude proportion of all aneuploidy combined was 0.30% and 0.19% for sperm from exposed and unexposed men, respectively. Poisson regression yielded significantly different crude risks of aneuploidy - 3.03 and 1.94 per 1,000 sperm from exposed and unexposed men, respectively. Regression coefficients remained statistically significant after adjustment for inter-technician variability giving a rate ratio of 1.51. It is concluded that occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides moderately increases the prevalence of sperm aneuploidy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.36, No.2, p.230-238. Illus. 32 ref.
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