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Antifertility and prenatal effects - 646 entries found

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  • Antifertility and prenatal effects

1976

CIS 76-1909 Courtney K.D., Copeland M.F., Robbins A.
The effects of pentachloronitrobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and related compounds on fetal development.
Comparison of the effects of pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as major contaminant, purified PCNB, tetrachloronitrobenzene (TCNB) and pentachloroaniline (PCA), a PCNB metabolite, suggested that the teratogenic activity of contaminated PCNB was probably due to HCB. TCNB and PCA were not teratogenic in rats. Tissue distribution of PCNB, PCA and methyl pentachlorophenyl sulfide, pentachlorobenzene (or quintochlorobenzene, QCB), and HCB were studied in pregnant mice. Neither PCNB nor QCB accumulated in tissues; HCB accumulated in fat, urinary bladder, skin, thymus, etc.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Feb. 1976, Vol.35, No.2, p.239-256. 19 ref.

CIS 76-1891 Ruzicska P., Péter S., Laczi J., Czeizel E.
Study on chromosomal mutagenicity of Fundazol 50 WP
A Fundazol 50 WP kromoszóma mutagenitásának vizsgálata [in Hungarian]
The mutagenic effects of Fundazol 50 WP (methyl 1-butylcarbamoyl-2-benzimidazolecarbamate) were studied in vivo and in vitro. The peripheral blood of workers producing the fungicide was analysed to determine exposure; there was no mutagenesis. While there was no effect on mature rats, doses of 200 and 500mg/kg/day had considerable mutagenic effects on foetal rat tissue.
Egészségtudomány, 1976, Vol.20, No.1, p.74-83. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 76-1386 Forni A., Cambiaghi G., Secchi G.C.
Initial occupational exposure to lead.
Description of chromosome and biochemical studies in 11 subjects before and during their first exposure to lead fumes at a storage battery plant. The rate of abnormal metaphases, which are described in detail, doubled after one month of exposure. It further increased after 2 months, remained steady up to 7 months, and then tended to decrease. Blood lead levels increased for some months and then reached a steady state. Urinary lead and coproporphyrin levels showed a sharp increase, and urinary δ-ALA a moderate increase, in the first month. Erythrocyte ALAD activity fell by almost 50% in the first month, fell further subsequently, and remained low throughout the subsequent months of the study.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1976, Vol.31, No.2, p.73-78. 20 ref.

CIS 76-1359 Susanne C., Kirsch-Volders M., Verschaeve L., Driesen M., Alexander A., Tiboldi T., Hens L.
Mutagenic factors in occupational medicine
Mutagene factoren in de arbeidsgeneeskunde [in Dutch]
Series of 7 articles on mutagenic factors encountered in workplaces. 1) Mutagenic effects on man: methods for detecting genetic effects (Susanne C.) (the best method for analysing mutagenic effects appears to be the study of human lymphocytes in vitro, or in vivo in exposed subjects). 2) Chromosome aberrations in the peripheric blood as a measurement of the mutation rate (Kirsch-Volders M.). 3) Genetic effects of lead, mercury and cadmium (Verschaeve L., Driesen M.). 4) Influence of medroxyprogesterone acetate on the karyotype (Kirsch-Volders M., Alexander A., Tiboldi T.). 5) Genetic effects of ionising radiations (Hens L.) (brief review of essential facts concerning chromosome and genome mutations in man and animmals). 6) Protection of the foetus: genetic risks involved in using ultrasound and X-rays during pregnancy (Kirsch-Volders M.) (comparative study of irradiated foetus in utero). 7) Conclusion (Susanne C.) (urgency of the problem on account of the high percentage (around 12% at birth) of congenital malformations of genetic origin).
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, June 1976, Vol.13, No.2, p.67-126. Illus. 225 ref.

CIS 76-1330 Infante P.F., Wagoner J.K., McMichael A.J., Waxweiler R.J., Falk H.
Genetic risks of vinyl chloride.
This study covered 95 vinyl chloride polymerisation workers, and 158 rubber and PVC fabrication workers as controls. A significant excess of foetal loss was found among wives of the vinyl chloride group. Possible mechanisms by which foetal loss may arise are briefly discussed: either foetal or maternal toxicity or germ-cell mutagenesis in the mother through indirect vinyl chloride exposure from the father might be considered, although the high volatility of vinyl chloride seems to exclude this possibility, the most probable cause being germ-cell damage in the father through direct exposure. Further details of the method of data collection are added in a letter from the authors to the Editor in: Lancet, London, United Kingdom, 12 June 1976, Vol.1, No.7972, p.1289-1290. 3 ref.
Lancet, 3 Apr. 1976, Vol.1, No.7962, p.734-735. 13 ref.

CIS 76-1065 Gambini G., Farina G., Arbosti G.
Oestroprogestogenic syndrome in a worker involved in production of a contraceptive pharmaceutical
Sindrome da estroprogestinici in operaio addetto alla produzione di un farmaco anticoncezionale [in Italian]
Clinical, laboratory and histological studies in a male worker who had been occupied in weighing out ethynyloestradiol and vinyloestrenolone and mixing them with fillers, over a period of 3-6 days 4 times per year. He presented swelling of the breasts, altered spermatogenesis and psychosexual changes. The causative role of exposure to the hormones is discussed. The exhaust hood employed, and the mask and gloves worn by the worker were not sufficient to limit exposure, and stricter hygiene measures, as well as preventive medical examinations, are recommended. Forensic aspects are briefly referred to.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1976, Vol.67, No.2, p.152-157. Illus. 12 ref.

1975

CIS 76-1895 Reznik Ja.B., Sprinčan G.K.
Experimental data on the gonadotoxic effect of Nemagon
Ėksperimental'nye dannye o gonadotoksičeskom dejstvii nemagona [in Russian]
Nemagon (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) is used as a nematocide for soil dressing in market gardening. Tests on white rats show that one-time doses of 100mg/kg and repeated doses of 10mg/kg have gonadotoxic effects. Damage to the genital organs involves their hormonal functions and causes dysfunction of spermatogenesis and of the oestrous cycle.
Gigiena i sanitarija, June 1975, No.6, p.101-102.

CIS 76-1894 Vozovaja M.A., Maljarova L.K.
Mechanism of the action of dichloroethane on the embryo of laboratory animals
K voprosu o mehanizme dejstvija dihlorėtana na plod ėksperimental'nyh životnyh [in Russian]
Results of research on white rats to investigate the mechanism of the action of dichloroethane on the embryo. After inhalation this substance can affect the uterus and ovaries of non-pregnant females. In pregnant females it can cross the placenta barrier and be deposited in the tissue of the embryo. The authors observed high levels of dichloroethane in the embryo liver and in the females' milk.
Gigiena i sanitarija, June 1975, No.6, p.94-96. 8 ref.

CIS 76-1666 Mirkova E.
Effects of the herbicide Ramrod on embryogenesis in white rats
Văzdejstvie na herbicida ramrod vărhu embriogenezata na beli plăhove [in Bulgarian]
The acetamide Ramrod (1/5, 1/10, 1/20 and 1/40 of the LD50) was administered to 100 female rats during gestation. Embryonic mortality was increased, while foetal bodyweight and head-tail length were reduced. 1/40 of the LD50 had no effect on embryogenesis, while 1/5 and 1/10 had slight teratogenic effects.
Problemi na higienata, 1975, Vol.1, No.1, p.57-60. 7 ref.

CIS 76-1664 Ivanova-Čemišanska L., Vălčeva V., Čakărov E., Načev Č., Takeva C.
Gonadal and reproductive changes in white rats after oral intoxication with maneb
Promeni v gonadite i v sposobnostta za reprodukcija na beli plăhove sled oralna intoksikacija s maneb [in Bulgarian]
Administration of 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 and 1/500 of the DL50 twice weekly to rats produced biochemical and histological changes in the gonads and loss of reproductive power (fertility, gestation, survival of offspring, lactation). These effects were also seen in the 2 next generations.
Problemi na higienata, 1975, Vol.1, No.1, p.25-30. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 76-1305 Horvat Đ.
Chromosomal aberrations in persons occupationally exposed to ionising radiation
Kromosomske aberacije u osoba profesionalno izloženih ionizirajućem zračenju [in Serbocroatian]
Chromosomes of a lymphocyte culture were analysed by the Moorhead technique. Cytogenetic findings in workers exposed to ionising radiation were compared to those in control subjects. Chromosome breaks, acentric or bicentric chromosomes and polyploids were the predominant damage. The rate and type of chromosome changes were significantly different from the control group.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1975, Vol.26, No.2, p.139-146. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 76-1366 Aldyreva M.V., Klimova T.S., Izjumova A.S., Timofeevskaja L.A.
Effects of phthalate plasticisers on genetic function
Vlijanie ftalatnyh plastifikatorov na generativnuju funkciju [in Russian]
A brief literature survey of the effects of phthalates on women (tendency to difficult pregnancy, miscarriage and anovulation) is followed by the results of research on pregnant female rats to which dibutyl (DBP), dioctyl and other phthalates were administered intragastrically. Administration of DBP during the development of the placenta resulted in a considerable reduction in placenta weight as compared with the controls. On the contrary, the weight of the embryo was above normal, except in cases where DBP was administered on the 11th day of pregnancy. The authors observed a direct dose-response relationship between dose and embryotropic effects.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1975, p.25-29. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 76-1365 Zlobina N.S., Izjumova A.S., Ragul'e N.Ju.
Effects of low styrene concentrations on the specific functions of the female organism
O vlijanii nizkih koncentracij stirola na specifičeskie funkcii ženskogo organizma [in Russian]
Statistical evaluation of the results of gynaecological examinations of 110 styrene-exposed women (concentrations around the Soviet TLV: 5mg/m3) employed in manufacturing polystyrene products, and of 231 controls. The authors observed menstrual disorders, particularly perturbations of the menstrual cycle and a hypermenorrhoea syndrome. The styrene-exposed women often suffered from toxicoses during gestation. Experiments carried out in white rats confirmed the gonadotropic effects of styrene in concentrations approaching the TLV.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1975, No.12, p.21-25. 8 ref.

CIS 76-1364 Šumilina A.V.
Genetic and menstrual functions in women occupationally exposed to formaldehyde
Menstrual'naja i detorodnaja funkcii rabotnic, imejuščih po uslovijam proizvodstva kontakt s formal'degidom [in Russian]
Results of gynaecological examinations of 446 women employed in finishing, inspecting and taking up fabrics treated with formaldehyde-based finishings. Women applying the finishings were sometimes exposed to concentrations of 1.5 to 4.5mg/m3 (the Soviet TLV is 0.5mg/m3), whereas those inspecting the finished fabrics were exposed to concentrations below the TLV. The author observed statistically more significant menstrual disorders (principally dysmenorrhoea) among the women exposed to formaldehyde than among controls. The percentage of children underweight at birth born to formaldehyde-exposed women was higher than among the controls.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1975, No.12, p.18-21. 6 ref.

CIS 76-1357 Kimmerle G., Lorke D., Machemer L.
Inhalation toxicity of tert-butyl isocyanide in rats and mice - Acute toxicity and evaluation of embryotoxic and mutagenic effects
Inhalationstoxikologische Untersuchungen mit tertiärem Butylisonitril an Ratten und Mäusen - Akute Toxicität und Prüfung auf embryotoxische und mutagene Wirkungen [in German]
Description of the methods used and results obtained in experiments with tert-butyl isocyanide, used as an intermediate in the chemical industry. Lethal effects were observed in rats only with high concentrations. However, embryotoxic and spermatotoxic effects were observed with low concentrations to which the parent animals did not react.
Archives of Toxicology, 1975, Vol.33, No.3, p.241-250. 12 ref.

CIS 76-1311 Kimmerle G., Machemer L.
Studies with N,N-dimethylformamide for embryotoxic and teratogenic effects on rats after dynamic inhalation.
Rats were exposed to 18ppm (MAC 20ppm) and 172ppm dimethylformamide (DMF) from the 6th to the 15th day of gestation. Apart from the reduced weight of foetuses after the 172ppm exposure, all other parameters were within the normal range. Inhalation of DMF in concentrations of up to approximately 10 times the MAC had no teratogenic effect.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 2 May 1975, Vol.34, No.3, p.167-175. 14 ref.

CIS 76-1396 Morimoto K.
Combined cytogenetic effects of benzene and radiation on cultured human lymphocytes.
Human blood samples in benzene-containing media and controls were exposed to gamma-rays (100 rad) at room temperature. Concentrations and methods are indicated, and the chromosome aberrations observed are tabulated. The study showed a good relationship between benzene concentration and percentage of the cells with structural chromosome aberrations. The combined effect of benzene and radiation on chromosomes seems to be synergistic only with respect to dicentrics and rings, and to be additive for the other aberrations.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Mar. 1975, Vol.17, No.2, p.106-107. 13 ref.

CIS 76-943 Lavappa K.S., Fu M.M., Epstein S.S.
Cytogenetic studies on chrysotile asbestos.
The mutagenic effects of chrysotile were investigated in vivo in monkeys and mice and in vitro in hamster cells. Single oral administration to monkeys failed to induce qualitative or quantitative chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells. Similarly, oral or intraperitoneal administration to mice failed to induce micronuclei formation in bone marrow cells. In contrast, chrysotile induced a significant and dose-related increase in the incidence of chromosome aberrations and an extensive mitotic inhibition in hamster cells. The exact mechanism of these aberrations is not clear.
Environmental Research, Oct. 1975, Vol.10, No.2, p.165-173. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 76-995 Fontana L., Siccardi M., Ardoino V.
Chromosome changes caused by ionising radiation.
Alterazioni cromosomiche indotte da radiazioni ionizzanti. Contributo casistico [in Italian]
Report on observations in 4 workers who underwent moderate acute exposure to 60Co when using γ-ray testing equipment. The doses absorbed were 1.5, 9, 23rem, and an unknown quantity, respectively. Cytogenic examination of lymphocytes from the peripheral blood showed unstable chromosome changes in 3-8% of cells (the lower figure referring to the 1.5-rem exposure), and in up to 5% after one month. All other clinical examinations and tests yielded normal results. Thus the circulating lymphocytes can provide useful information on the degree of exposure. Possible modes of formation of the changes observed are discussed with reference to the literature.
Lavoro umano, Nov. 1975, Vol.27, No.6, p.188-200. Illus. 94 ref.

CIS 76-503 Proctor N.H., Casida J.E.
Organophosphorus and methylcarbamate insecticide teratogenesis: Diminished NAD in chicken embryos.
Studies with 36 organophosphorus and 12 methylcarbamate compounds establish a correlation between reduction in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels and severity of teratogenic signs in chicken embryos, a relation supported by reversal of these effects by nicotinamide derivatives. Diminished NAD occurring at organophosphorus and methylcarbamate concentrations as low as 0.6 to 2.0ppm in the egg constitutes a newly recognised biochemical lesion induced by the two most important classes of insecticide chemicals.
Science, 7 Nov. 1975, Vol.190, No.4214, p.580-582. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 76-408 Popescu H.I., Klepsch I., Lancranjan I.
Eliminations of pituitary gonadotropic hormones in men with protracted irradiation during occupational exposure.
24-h urinary total gonadotropins were measured in 57 men with long-term exposure to ionising radiations (industrial technicians working with X-ray and γ-ray sources, radiologists, dial painters). All except one were healthy with normal blood cell counts. Exposure had not exceeded the maximum permissible level for 5-10 years. Gonadotropins were below the norm (taken as 10-25 mouse uterus units per 24h) in 25 men (p<0.01). Determination of total urinary gonadotropins appears an ideal tool for study of the long-term effects of ionising radiations on the central nervous system and subordinate structures.
Health Physics, Sep. 1975, Vol.29, No.3, p.385-388. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 76-407 Lancranjan I., Măicănescu M., Rafailă E., Klepsch I., Popescu H.I.
Gonadic function in workmen with long-term exposure to microwaves.
31 technicians (mean exposure 8 years) were investigated by questionnaire, semen analysis, and determination of 17-ketosteroids and and gonadotropin in 24-h urine. Libido was decreased in 22 subjects and 23 showed disorders of spermatogenesis. A diret effect of microwaves on the germinal epithelium appeared probable.
Health Physics, Sep. 1975, Vol.29, No.3, p.381-383. 6 ref.

CIS 76-118 Popescu H.I., Lancranjan I.
Spermatogenesis alteration during protracted irradiation in man.
Semen analysis was performed in 72 persons with long-term (up to 22 years) exposure to ionising radiation (12 medical radiology workers, 6 luminous dial painters, 32 industrial technicians, 22 uranium miners) and 42 controls. The incidence of hypospermia (45.8%), asthenospermia (68%) and teratospermia (75%) was significantly increased, a relationship between these effects and degree of exposure being noted. Parvisemia did not differ significantly from control values. Hypofertility and infertility were correspondingly frequent. The findings are discussed in relation to the literature.
Health Physics, May 1975, Vol.28, No.5, p.567-573. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 75-1666 Bui T.H., Lindsten J., Nordberg G.F.
Chromosome analysis of lymphocytes from cadmium workers and itai-itai patients.
The mutagenicity of cadmium compounds was investigated in workers in an alkaline battery factory where the average cadmium concentration in air was 35µg/m3. Also studied was the blood of female itai-itai patients not exposed to cadmium compounds. The blood samples of both groups contained more cadmium than those of control subjects. There was no significant difference in chromosome breakage between exposed and control groups, a conclusion different from that of Shiraishi and Yosida (1972).
Environmental Research, Apr. 1975, Vol.9, No.2, p.187-195. Illus. 9 ref.

1974

CIS 76-187 Sal'nikova L.S., Čirkova E.M.
Gonadotropic and embryotropic effects of carbon disulfide
O gonadotropnom i ėmbriotropnom dejstvii serougleroda [in Russian]
Analysis of the results of research carried out in rats, to determine the relation between the magnitude of the embryotropic and gonadotropic effects of CS2 and the degree of exposure to this substance, showed that exposure to the USSR maximum permissible concentration (10mg/m3) has a significant embryotoxic effect. At a concentration 5 times lower CS2 causes an abnormal increase in weight ratios of certain organs of first generation progeny. No adverse effect on male gonads was observed after one-time or repeated exposure.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1974, No.12, p.34-37. 16 ref.

CIS 75-1917 Todorov S.
Radiation-induced chromosome changes in lymphocytes from human peripheral blood - Effects of X-rays
Lăčevo-inducirani hromozomni narušenija v limfociti ot čoveška periferna krăv - Vlijanie na rentgenovoto lăčenie [in Bulgarian]
Results of in vitro irradiation experiments in which human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed to X-ray doses of from 25 to 500 rad. The author found a non-linear relationship between radiation dose and aberrations of the dicentric, interstitial deletion and ring type, and a linear relationship between radiation dose and aberrations of the gap and break type. The frequency of cell changes increased as a linear function of the dose, while the frequency of breaks increased as a non-linear function of the dose. Regression coefficients are calculated from the experimental data and equations are given for assessing the different types of chromosome changes as a function of the dose received.
Letopisi na higienno-epidemiologičnata služba, 1974, Vol.8, No.43, p.71-82. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 75-1613 Koizumi A., Dobashi Y., Tachibana Y., Tsuda K., Katsunuma H.
Cytokinetic and cytogenetic changes in cultured human leucocytes and HeLa cells induced by benzene.
The methods for chromosome analysis and determination of DNA synthesis and the results of this experimental study with human whole blood are described. The findings concerning decreased DNA synthesis in leucocytes and HeLa cells, and chromosomal gaps and breaks, are discussed in relation to the findings of other authors.
Industrial Health, June 1974, Vol.12, No.1-2, p.23-29. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 75-1430 Ščickova A.P.
Evaluation of the specific action of pesticides on the human body
Nekotorye aspekty ocenki specifičeskogo dejstvija na organizm pesticidov [in Russian]
Account of animal and in vitro experiments to study allergic reactions to pesticides and certain other toxic substances by electrophoresis, antibody determination and an imprint technique enabling changes in the skin microflora to be studied. Some results of investigations into the genetic effects of pesticides and of tissue culture studies are given.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1974, No.8, p.76-78.

CIS 75-1399 Bokov A.N., Gus'kova S.I., Gus'kov E.P., Mas'ko V.I.
Use of anaphase studies for estimating bone-marrow chromosome aberrations in the hygienic assessment of the mutagenic effect of polymer building materials
Ispol'zovanie anafaznogo metoda učeta hromosomnyh perestroek v kostnom mozge pri gigieničeskoj ocenke mutagennogo ėffekta polimernyh stroitel'nyh materialov [in Russian]
Literature review and results of animal experiments concerning the chromosome aberrations induced by exposure to polymer-containing concretes and putties. It was found that polymer concretes which produced no chronic toxic action in animals had no cytogenic effect. Polymer putties containing unsaturated hydrocarbons, petrol, divinyl and xylene caused changes characteristic of certain toxic effects and an increase (by a factor of almost 2) in the number of chromosome aberrations as compared with a control group.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1974, No.8, p.17-20. 6 ref.

CIS 75-1094 Vozovaja M.A.
Development of two generations of progeny from female animals exposed to dichloroethane
O razvitii potomstva dvuh pokolenij, polučennyh ot samok, podvergavšihsja vozdejstviju dihlorėtana [in Russian]
Long-term inhalation experiments with pregnant rats exposed to 57±10mg/m3 of dichloroethane failed to show general toxic effects. However, fertility and the weight of new-born animals were reduced, and the still-birth rate was higher. The progeny of the first and second generations was less viable.
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1974, No.7, p.25-28. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 75-1081 Sobels F.H.
Chemical mutagenesis and genetic toxicology
Chemische mutagenese en genetische toxicologie [in Dutch]
Genetic toxicology is the discipline dealing with substances which may, after entering the body, reach the gonads and damage them. Metabolic processes may activate such substances or render them ineffective. The article deals with type mutations, the mutation mechanism, chromosomal aberrations, differences between the genetic effects of chemical substances and ionising radiation, the connection between mutations and chromosomal aberrations, specificity, dose-response relationships, genetic toxicology of environmental mutagens, the detection of mutagenic action and the evaluation of potentially genetic damage.
TNO-Project, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.382-388. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 75-996 Perepečin E.A., Dubova V.M., Semenov L.N., Knjazeva T.G.
Some problems related to the general biological effects and the embryotropic effect of a permanent magnetic field
Nekotorye voprosy obščebiologičeskogo i ėmbriotropnogo dejstvija postojannogo magnitnogo polja [in Russian]
To determine the genetic effects of a magnetic field of industrial strength, the authors exposed gravid white rats to an electromagnetic field supplied by a rectified alternating current of 50Hz. The lines of force of the field were vertical. Exposure of 2h per day to a magnetic field with a power of 8-21kA/m produces biological and embryotropic effects, the degree of which depends on the state of health of the individual and the reactivity of the body.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1974, No.9, p.23-26. 3 ref.

CIS 75-771 Vinyl chloride - Hearing before the Subcommittee on Environment of the Committee on Commerce.
Detailed record of testimonies received by this Subcommittee with a wealth of factual and statistical evidence of health damage to workers: acroosteolysis, Raynaud's syndrome, angiosarcoma and other liver damage, gastrointestinal and lung disease, etc. Attention is drawn by witnesses to increasing evidence of mutagenic and teratogenic effects, and hence of the need for both male and female workers not to be exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) during the fertile age. Authoritative statements were made by witnesses representing the scientific and medical professions, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the National Cancer Institute, the Food and Drug Administration, the plastics industry and trade unions, etc. Urgent need for cohort studies among retired workers with prolonged occupational exposure was stressed as well as for research on other monomers and polymers produced or used in industry, and on the interactive effects of VCM with other carcinogens. Future and present action by ACGIH, NIOSH, WHO and other bodies is mentioned.
United States Senate, 93rd Congress, Committee on Commerce, Subcommittee on Environment, 2nd session on dangers of vinyl chloride, 21 Aug. 1974, Washington, D.C. Serial No.93-110, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. USA, 1974. 156p. 96 ref.

CIS 75-472 Trinh Van Bao, Szabó I., Ruzicska P., Czeizel E.
Chromosome studies in persons poisoned with phosphoric acid esters (pesticides)
Kromoszóma-vizsgálatok heveny foszforsav-észter (peszticid) mérgezettekben [in Hungarian]
Results of chromosome studies performed on cultures of peripheral blood from persons suffering from acute phosphoric acid ester poisoning. Blood samples had been taken both during the period of intoxication and 1 and 6 months later. The rate of chromatid breaks, acentric fragments and stable chromosome aberrations (deletions, translocations) was significantly high during the intoxication phase and 1 month later. No definite correlation was found between the frequency of chromosome alterations and the severity of clinical manifestations. Chromosome aberrations were most frequent in cases of thiophosphate poisoning.
Egészségtudomány, 1974, Vol.18, No.4, p.348-360. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 75-452 Lindquist N.G.
An autoradiographic study on the distribution of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid in pregnant mice.
The toxicity of the phenoxy herbicides has been reported to be moderate but teratogenic effects have been produced in rodents by 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) derivatives and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid ethyl ester (MCPA). The distribution of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D in experimental animals has already been investigated. In this study whole-body autoradiography was used to ascertain the distribution of radioactivity after injection of MCPA in pregnant mice. The distribution of MCPA was found to be very similar to that observed for 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. The results indicate a teratogenic mode of action for MCPA similar to that postulated for 2,4,5-T, i.e. inhibition of the embryotrophic nutrition.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Nov. 1974, Vol.30, No.2, p.227-236. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 75-195 Efimenko L.P.
Data on the evaluation of the gonadotropic and mutagenic effects of the herbicide mixture butyl ether/2,4,5-T
(Materialy k ocenke gonadotropnogo i mutagennogo dejstvija gerbicida butylovogo ėfira 2,4,5-T [in Russian]
Description and results of animal experiments designed to determine the systemic toxicity and the gonadotropic and mutagenic effects of the herbicide mixture butyl ether and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The author establisehd a close correlation between the cytogenic effect and the dose; he situated the threshold dose in the region of 0.01mg/kg and the threshold of systemic toxicity in chronic exposure conditions at around 0.1mg/kg; the last-mentioned dose is also the threshold for the gonadotropic effect.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.24-27. 12 ref.

CIS 74-1928 Singh A.R., Lawrence W.H., Autian J.
Mutagenic and antifertility sensitivities of mice to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and bis(methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP).
Numerous plastic materials used for medical and paramedical applications as well as for food processing and packaging are made of polyvinyl chloride. To provide the desirable physical characteristics, significant quantities of plasticisers are added. One commonly used group of plasticisers is the phthalic acid esters, probably the most widely used. It is known that small quantities of plasticisers can be leached from such materials by blood, milk and other solutions. This communication presents the results of dominant lethal mutation and antifertility studies on bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dimethoxyethyl phthalate in mice. These 2 phthalate esters produced some degree of dose-dependent and time-dependent antifertility and mutagenic effects.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, July 1974, Vol.29, No.1, p.35-46. 28 ref.

CIS 74-788 O'Riordan M.L., Evans H.J.
Absence of significant chromosome damage in males occupationally exposed to lead.
A study of the extent of chromosome damage in a population of men occupationally exposed to oxides of lead. 70 male workers employed by a shipbreaking yard were investigated. The results do not indicate an increased chromosome aberration frequency in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals chronically exposed to high levels of lead. Difficulties which may be encountered in the interpretation of chromosome aberration data are discussed, and the conflicting results of previous studies into the possible mutagenic effects of lead are evaluated.
Nature, 4 Jan. 1974, Vol.247, No.5435, p.50-53. 20 ref.

1973

CIS 75-163 Khan H., Khan M.H.
Cytogenetic studies following chronic exposure to benzene
Cytogenetische Untersuchungen bei chronischer Benzolexposition [in German]
Results of examinations carried out on 15 workers exposed to benzene for periods of 2 to 20 years and on 14 healthy controls (leucocyte culture and direct analysis of bone marrow). A higher percentage of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations was observed among the exposed workers than among the controls. Variations in length of exposure seemed to play only a minor role. In one case myelopathy due to benzene was observed. The authors conclude that cytogenetic examinations are a useful diagnostic method for assessing the degree of benzene poisoning.
Archiv für Toxikologie, 1973, Vol.31, No.1, p.39-49. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 74-1687 Katosova L.D.
Cytogenetic analysis of the peripheral blood of workers engaged in the production of chloroprene
Citogenetičeskij analiz periferičeskoj krovi rabočih, zanjatyh v proizvodstve hloroprena [in Russian]
Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of workers exposed to chloroprene vapour (age 23 to 59 years; length of service 1 to 31 years) showed a high incidence of chromosomal aberrations compared to a control group. These aberrations are attributed to the action of chloroprene present at a mean atmospheric concentration of 0.018mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1973, No.10, p.30-32. 6 ref.

CIS 74-420 Brock R.D., Peacock W.J., Geard C.R., Kossoff G., Robinson D.E.
Ultrasound and chromosome aberrations.
To evaluate the effects of ultrasound on chromosomes, experiments were carried out using both marsupial and human blood. The results suggest that, as measured by ability to produce chromosome aberrations in unstimulated whole blood or blood-medium mixtures, doses of ultrasonic radiation many orders of magnitude higher than those used for diagnostic studies produce very few chromosome aberrations. High doses of ultrasound did cause mitotic inhibition. This, and the fact that ultrasonic irradiation may induce genetic damage which is not detectable at cytological level, must be taken into account with regard to the safety of ultrasound in diagnostic procedures.
Medical Journal of Australia, 15 sep. 1973, Vol.2, No.11, p.533-536. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 73-1310 Lloyd D.C.
Chromosome aberration dosimetry in a case of overexposure to radiation
Description of a case where a radiation worker was referred to hospital with radiation injury to both hands after working for 3yrs with iridium-192 sources; 2yrs later the chromosome aberration technique was used to assess accumulated radiation dose, as he had continued in radiation work. From a blood sample lymphocyte cultures were made and 500 metaphase spreads were examined, with the following results: dicentrics, 49; centric rings, 7; acentric rings, 10; interstitial deletions, 31; terminal deletions, 21. It is claimed that studies of this kind illustrate the valuable contribution of chromosome analysis to radiological protection practice, espcially where there is a lack of reliable physical dosimetry data, as well as to the eventual evaluation of risk of the late effects of radiation in terms of acute biological effect.
Nature, 5 Jan. 1973, Vol.241, No.5384, p.69-70. 7 ref.

1972

CIS 75-126 Petrova-Vergieva T., Ivanova-Chemishanska L.
The effect of maneb on intrauterine development of rats.
A single dose of the fungicide maneb (manganese diethyldithiocarbamate) administered to pregnant female rats during the phase of organogenesis induces nervous-system and skeleton malformations in the foetus (exencephalia, encephalocele, cheilognathopalatoschisis, phocomelia, amelia, ectrodactylism, microcaudia, acaudia, etc.). Doses corresponding to 2/3, 1/3 and 1/6 of the lethal dose 50 (6g/kg for adult rats) proved to be teratogenic. A dose corresponding to 1/12 LD50, both single and repeated, did not affect gestation.
Works of the United Research Institute of Hygiene and Industrial Safety, 1972, Vol.23, p.65-70. 5 ref.

CIS 74-142 Epstein S.S., Arnold E., Andrea J., Bass W., Bishop Y.
Detection of chemical mutagens by the dominant lethal assay in the mouse.
Data are given on 174 agents (including pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, carcinogens, food additives, pesticides, air and water pollutants) tested in the modified dominant lethal assay. The range in variability of various reproductive parameters is analysed in concurrent control populations. Based on these analyses, standard criteria for the evaluation of dominant lethal assay data are developed.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Oct. 1972, Vol.23, No.2, p.288-325. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 72-2470 Liniecki J.
The in vitro dose-response relationship for chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a reference system for in vivo biological dosimetry of ionising radiation
The potential usefulness of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a biological dosimeter is emphasised. The first step in the quantitative evaluation of dose following in vivo irradiation of man is to obtain a reference system (adequate dose-effect relation) - and this can be achieved by cell irradiation in vitro. Allowance must be made for the effect of varius factors (culture time, age and sex of blood donors, radiation quality, cell stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin, oxygenation and temperature at irradiation) on dicentric yield and the character of the dose-effect relationship in lymphocytes irradiated in vitro. The best method of stimulating in vivo radiation is indicated.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1972, Vol.24, No.2-3, p.86-92. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 73-39 Gäth J., Thiess A.M.
Chromosome studies of chemical workers
Chromosomenuntersuchungen bei Chemiearbeitern [in German]
Paper read at the 1st International Symposium of Plant Physicians of the Chemical Industry (Ludwigshafen, 27-29 April 1972). Chromosome studies were carried out during the periodic medical examination of workers exposed to ethylenimine, benzene, lead or dimethylsulfate. Methods and results are detailed. High levels of exposure that caused the aberrations reported in the literature were not encountered in this study and, consequently, no increased chromosome aberrations were found. In only one case of subacute lead poisoning was the chromosome aberration rate (14%) above normal. (For the complete proceedings of this symposium, see CIS 73-32.)
I. Internationales Symposium der Werksärzte der chemischen Industrie, Medichem, BASF Ärztliche Abteilung, 67 Ludwigshafen, Federal Republic of Germany, 1972. 17p. Illus. 20 ref.

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