Antifertility and prenatal effects - 646 entries found
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- Antifertility and prenatal effects
Central-nervous-system defects in children born to mothers exposed to organic solvents during pregnancy.
Exposure to noxious influences during pregnancy was analysed in mothers of children with congenital central-nervous-system defects and matched-pair controls. The number of mothers exposed to organic solvents during the first trimester of pregnancy was statistically significant. The commonest defect was anencephaly.
Lancet, 28 July 1979, Vol.2, No.8135, 177-179. 5 ref.
Meirik O., Källén B., Gauffin U., Ericson A.
Major malformations in infants born of women who worked in laboratories while pregnant
Among 727 women working at Uppsala University Laboratories in 1972-1977, were 322 deliveries: 245 mothers had worked in a laboratory during pregnancy. There was a significant increase in the malformation rate, especially serious malformations, in the mothers working in a laboratory during pregnancy; a total of 29. Four infants had anal or oesophageal atresia or stenosis (incidence in the Swedish population: 1:1,000).
Lancet, 14 July 1979, Vol.2, No.8133, p.91. 5 ref.
Blood cell damage in drivers exposed to diesel oil
Blodkroppar skadas hos dieselförare [in Swedish]
Cytogenetic studies in workers of 4 occupations showed an abnormal increase in chromosome aberrations in diesel-engined vehicle drivers. At filling stations drivers are exposed to fuel oil and exhaust gas vapours in addition to a skin hazard from the filling nozzles, which are usually covered with a film of oil. Wearing of gloves during filling is recommended.
Arbetsmiljö, 7 May 1979, No.6, p.18-19. Illus.
Koemeester A., Mes J., Brimicombe R.
Possible health damage to offspring of operating theatre personnel
Gesondheidsrisico's voor het nageslacht van operatiekamerpersoneel [in Dutch]
This literatue survey is divided into 3 parts: observed biological effects on man (high percentage of spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations due to the mother's occupational exposure to halothane, nitrous oxide, methoxyflurane, and enflurane; results of questionnaire surveys carried out in the USA, West Germany and the Netherlands); results of research on guinea pigs, rabbits, rats and mice); prevention (exhaust ventilation for removal of anaesthetic gases, monitoring of their concentrations in operating theatre air, medical supervision of exposed personnel).
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 21 Mar. 1979, Vol.57, No.6, p.196-200. 25 ref.
Mitelman F., Brandt L., Nilsson P.G.
Relation among occupational exposure to potential mutagenic/carcinogenic agents, clinical findings and bone marrow chromosomes in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
Chromosome banding patterns, cytological diagnosis and clinical findings were compared in 23 patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) exposed to chemical solvents, insecticides, and petroleum products, and 33 with ANLL and no history of such exposure. Acute myeloid leukaemia was more common in the exposed group, and monocytic varieties of ANLL were common in the non-exposed group. 24.2% of the non-exposed and 82.6% of the exposed group had chromosome aberrations; 84.2% of the exposed group had at least one of monosomy 5 or 7 or trisomy 8 or 21, compared with only 2 aberrations in the non-exposed group. Other aberrations in the non-exposed group were not seen in the exposed subjects.
Blood, Dec. 1978, Vol.52, No.6, p.1229-1237. 28 ref.
Thiess A.M., Fleig I.
Research on chromosome changes in workers exposed to bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DOP)
Chromosomenuntersuchungen bei Mitarbeitern mit Exposition gegenüber Di-2-äthylhexylphthalat (DOP) [in German]
DOP is used as a plasticiser in the production of non-rigid plastics. Technical data and diagram of production method, exposure of workers involved in DOP production in a chemicals plant. A study of chromosome changes was made in 10 workers with history of 10-30 years exposure to 0.0006-0.01ppm DOP. When compared to the results obtained with non-exposed workers, the results of the present research did not indicate high levels of chromosome changes, which precludes the existence of a mutagenicity hazad in DOP production.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Dec. 1978, Vol.28, No.12, p.351-355. Illus. 22 ref.
Lloyd D.C., Purrott R.J., Prosser J.S., Edwards A.A., Dolphin G.W., White A.D., Reeder E.J., White C.M., Cooper S.J., Stephenson B.D., Tipper P.A.
Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis - VIII. A review of cases investigated: 1977.
55 cytogenic examinations undertaken in 1977 are reviewed, bringing the total in the series to 327. A brief description of each of the 1977 investigations, with physical and cytogenetic dose estimates, is given. The 327 cases are divided into 4 exposure categories, and the types of aberrations found are analysed. The majority of cases originated in industrial radiography. Estimation of dose and its uncertainty is discussed in an appendix.
NRPB-R70, National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell, Didcot OX11 ORQ, United Kingdom, Jan. 1978. 21p. Price: Ł1.00.
Health and Safety (Genetic Manipulation) Regulations 1978.
These regulations dated 22 May 1978 (effective 1 Aug. 1978) provide that no person (self-employed or other) shall work on genetic manipulation without giving prior notification to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and that such work shall be covered by the terms of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. The regulations define genetic manipulation as: "the formation of new combinations of heritable material by the insertion of nucleic acid molecules, produced by whatever means outside the cell, into any virus, bacterial plasmid, or other vector system so as to allow their incorporation into a host organism in which they do not naturally occur but in which they are capable of continued propagation". They cover the following activities which could present a health hazard to laboratory workers: introduction of plant or animal virus nucleic acid into a prokaryote or a primitive eukaryote; introduction of prokaryote viral or plasmid nucleic acid into an eukaryote cell; or co-infection with potential vector nucleic acid and prepared DNA. HSE has issued a booklet in its Health and Safety at work series: "Genetic manipulation" (ISBN 0-11-883202-6; 14p., price Ł0.70) also available from H.M. Stationery Office, reproducing the text of these regulations, with guidance notes and comments, sources of further information, etc.
Statutory Instruments, No.752/1978, H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom. 3p. Price: Ł0.20.
Thiess A.M., Fleig I.
Chromosome investigations on workers exposed to styrene/polystyrene.
Twelve men exposed to styrene for 19-39 years, or who had high urinary mandelic acid levels, were studied against a control group. There were no significant differences between the groups. Styrene concentrations at the workplace were well below the limits of exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1978, Vol.20, No.11, p.747-749. 9 ref.
Fleig I., Thiess A.M.
Chromosome investigations of persons exposed to dimethylcarbamoyl chloride and diethylcarbamoyl chloride.
Ten workers exposed to these substances for 4-17 years and a control group were studied. No statistically significant differences were found, and there was thus no evidence of chromosomal damage as a result of exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1978, Vol.20, No.11, p.745-746. 3 ref.
Cirla A.M., Bertazzi P.A., Tomasini M., Villa A., Graziano C., Invernizzi R., Gilioli R., Bulgheroni C., Cassitto M.G., Jacovone M.T., Camerino D.
Endocrinological functions and sexual behaviour, neurological and neurophysiological impairment, and behavioural alterations in carbon disulphide workers.
These 3 papers presented at the IVth International Symposium on Occupational Health in the Production of Artificial Fibres at Helsinki, Finland, 6-10 June 1977, report on studies in 254 viscose rayon workers exposed to CS2 and 54 controls. The first study (Cirla et al., p.118-129) showed disturbances of thyroid hormones, reduction of sex hormones and impaired sexual potency in exposed workers. The second study (Gilioli et al., p.130-143) showed predominantly psycho-organic disturbances and electromyographic and conduction velocity changes related to exposure. The third study (Cassitto et al., p.144-150) used a battery of intelligence, personality and memory tests, and discusses their value as indicators of mental impairment by CS2.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1978, Vol.69, No.2, p.118-150. 56 ref.
Fleig I., Thiess A.M.
Mutagenicity of vinyl chloride.
Chromosome analysis was done on lymphocyte cultures from (1) 6 workers with estimated vinyl cloride (VC) exposure and 4 workers with monitored exposure, (2) 20 workers with unknown exposure, presenting symptoms of VC disease, and one worker with angiosarcoma due to VC exposure, and (3) on bone marrow cells of hamsters after inhalation of 2,500 or 5,000ppm or i.p. injection of 300 or 600mg/kg. The rate of chromosome aberrations showed no significant difference from controls in group (1), whereas it was significantly increased in workers with symptoms of VC disease and the exposed animals.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1978, Vol.20, No.8, p.557-561. Illus. 15 ref.
Genetic hazards of industrial toxins
Aperçu des risques génétiques présentés par les toxiques industriels. [in French]
Some 3,500,000 chemicals, 25,000 of which are manufactured in relatively important quantities, now exist, and each year some 25,000 new substances are added, including 500 produced on an industrial scale. This article reviews the various tests for mutagenic properties, the necessary conditions for their occurrence, their precise nature and the doses which give rise to them: tests using live bacteriophage, bacteria or funghi, Habrobracon or Drosophila, in vitro induction of genetic mutations in mammalian cells, etc. The value of cytogenetic testing of workers in industry is stressed (methods, types of anomalies). Examples are given of studies on the mutagenicity of vinyl chloride and lead.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, June 1978, Vol.15, No.2, p.119-129. Illus. 48 ref.
Occupational disease during pregnancy and its effects on the foetus
Les maladies professionnelles chez la femme enceinte et leur retentissement sur le fżtus. [in French]
MD thesis. Considerations on teratogenesis and ways in which the ovum can be harmed are followed by a review of the various pathogenic agencies to which a female worker could be occupationally exposed during pregnancy: physical (mechanically-caused trauma, whole-body vibration, ultrasound, effects of hot workplaces, ionising radiation); infectious, viral or chemical (benzene, lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, pesticides, etc.), indicating the particular hazards of each. The author then refers to French labour legislation as it applies to pregnancy during employment, emphasising the role of the plant physician, who is in the best position to assess the hazards to which an expectant mother is exposed if she continues in her employment.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Necker - Enfants malades, Paris, France, 1978. 112p. 63 ref.
Lloyd D.C., Purrott R.J., Prosser J.S., Dolphin G.W., Tipper P.A., Reeder E.J., White C.M., Cooper S.J., Stephenson B.D.
Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis: VII. A review of cases investigated: 1976.
Results from cytogenetic investigations into 66 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1976 are reviewed. This report is the seventh in an annual series which together contain data on 272 studies (for report VI see CIS 77-99). Brief accounts are given of the circumstances behind the investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. Review of the laboratory's published dose-response data for several energies of neutron radiation. Reference to collaboration in an international experiment in which comparisons were made between a variety of dosemeters exposed to a controlled criticality pulse. Two experiments are described in which inter- and intra-donor effects on chromosome aberration yields were examined. It was found that differences in dicentric yields were small, whereas acentric aberrations were more variable.
NPRB - R 57, National Radiological Protection Board, H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Jan. 1977. 25p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: Ł0.50.
Hazards of occupational exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields
Risques présentés par l'exposition professionnelle aux champs électromagnétiques ŕ haute fréquence. [in French]
Translation of: Rischi e danni derivanti da esposizione professionale a campi elettromagnetici ad alta frequenza. Securitas, Roma, Italy, Jan.-Feb. 1976, Vol. 61, No.1-2, 30 ref. Commenting that knowledge of the pathological effects of short and ultrashort electromagnetic waves is still inadequate, the author analyses a number of articles from the literature (mainly Soviet) on the subject, and describes his own studies of 2 groups of workers (5 in one group, 26 in the other) exposed to electromagnetic fields from high-frequency wood gluing equipment. The results he obtained show conclusively the effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on the genital organs, and would seem to confirm the findings of other authors on their effects on the central nervous, cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Traduction INRS 53 B-77, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1977. 23p. 30 ref.
Proceedings - Conference on women and the workplace.
The conference was held in Washington, D.C. on 17-19 June 1976. Sessions were devoted to: risks of toxic substances to future generations; birth defects, cancer and miscarriage associated with anaesthetic gases, vinyl chloride and other chemicals; open forum on concerns of working men and women; job placement patterns related to sex; lead and women; panel discussions on societal responsibilities as seen by women, and on legal requirements and implications. In all, some 35 papers or statements are reproduced, and much space is devoted to discussions on technical and social aspects of the problems raised.
Society for Occupational and Environmental Health, 1714 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20036, USA, 1977. 364p. Illus. 301 ref. Price: US-$16.00.
Ungváry G., Hudak A., Tátrai E., Lorincz M., Folly G.
Study of the teratogenic and embryotoxic effect of vinyl chloride in CFY rats
A vinilklorid teratogén és embriotoxikus hatásának vizsgálata CFY patkányokon [in Hungarian]
Rats in the 8-14th day of gestation were kept in inhalation chambers which were continually ventilated vertically with air containing 4,000mg/m3 (about 1,500ppm) vinyl chloride (VC). Two control groups of the same gestation time were used; one in a chamber ventilated with clean air and the other under normal animal-house condition. The animals were sacrificed on the 21st day of gestation. Other groups of rats on the 18th day of gestation were subjected to inhalation of 5,500, 18,000 and 33,000mg/m3 VC for 2.5h respectively, and the VC concentration was determined in the blood of the mothers and offspring and in the amniotic fluid. The VC had no teratogenic or embryotoxic effects. The VC goes through the placenta of the rat foetus and it is present in the foetal blood and amniotic fluid.
Egészségtudomány, 1977, Vol.21, No.4, p.363-369. 31 ref.
A chemical, physical and biological assay of welding fume - Part I: Fume characteristics; Part II: Implications of positive mutagenic tests.
This paper was read at the Hungarian-Finnish-Italian-Scandinavian symposium on industrial dust problems (Helsinki, 1977). In Part I the particle type, size and distribution of the fumes are analysed as functions of welding method, electrode type, electrode length, and current characteristics. Metals and their concentration in the different fumes are determined. The mutagenic effects of Salmonella typhimurium are dealt with as well as dose-response relationship. In Part II the consequences of the mutagenic effects of stainless steel welding fumes are discussed. Hexavalent chromium appears to be the main mutagen, but other metals may be involved. Carcinogenic effects and threshold limit values are also considered.
Publication 77.05/08, Danish Welding Institute, Glostrup, Denmark, 1977. 2 brochures. Part I. 42p. Illus. 19 ref. Part II. 28p. 59 ref.
Berlin M., Fredga K., Gullberg B., Holm S., Knutsson P., Reitalu J., Tunek A.
Biological data on, and chromosome changes due to benzene exposure
Biologiskt index för och kromosomförändringar vid bensenexposition [in Swedish]
The relation between benzene exposure and concentration in exhaled air was studied in volunteers exposed to 3-10ppm benzene for 1-5 days, 3-6h per day. The accumulation and elimination of benzene via the respiratory tract can be described by a 3-compartment model with biological half-times of 2.5, 28, and 90h. At the steady state, the second compartment contributes about 75% of the benzene concentration in exhaled air 16h after the last exposure. The remaining 25% derives mainly (about 15%) from the compartment with the longest retention time, and less than 10% from the compartments with short retention times. The concentration of benzene in exhaled air, collected during rest ventilation 16h after exposure to 10ppm during 8h, 5 days per week (medium heavy work conditions), is about 0.1ppm. An epidemiological survey showed that exposure of 5-10ppm gives rise to chromosome changes in lymphocytes; these changes are not observed at 1ppm. English summary.
Rapport nr 771018, Institutionerna för Hygien, Genetik och Statistik, Lunds Universitet, Fack, 221 01 Lund, Sweden, 1977. 29p. Illus. 18 ref.
Lloyd D.C., Dolphin G.W.
Radiation-induced chromosome damage in human lymphocytes.
The different types of chromosome aberrations, the mechanism of their production, and dose-effect relations are outlined. Problems of interpretation are reviewed. These include the effects of partial body irradiation and the response to variations in dose rate and the intermittent nature of some exposures. Two surveys of patients irradiated for medical purposes are reported. Future developments are surveyed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1977, Vol.34, No.4, p.261-273. Illus. 49 ref.
Women, maternity and work
La femme, la maternité, le travail. [in French]
MD thesis. Development and particularities of women at work; impact of work on women's sexuality and pregnancy; review of occupational hazards against which women should be protected during pregnancy (benzene, lead, mercury, phosphorus, arsenic, fluorine, occupational infections, etc.); impact of pregnancy on work (behavioural changes, transfer to other work, absenteeism or cessation of activity); relevant clauses of the French Labour Code concerning protection of pregnant women, and of the contract of employment for pregnant women; regulations concerning employment, changes of job, termination of employment and social insurance; role of the occupational physician, which is considerable during the course of pregnancy and at pre-employment examinations, periodical and follow-up consultations; proposed improvements for the conditions of working women (pregnant women and working mothers).
Université de Bordeaux II, Unités d'enseignement et de recherche des sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1977. 128p. 17 ref.
Siou G., Conan L., Doinel A.
Mutagenic effects of benzene and benzo(a)pyrene - new evidence from the Howell-Jolly micronucleus test
Activité mutagčne du benzčne et du benzo(a)pyrčne - Mise en évidence par la technique des corps de Howell-Jolly (micronucleus test). [in French]
The Howell-Jolly animal experimental technique consists in examining bone marrow erythrocytes to determine the presence of a residual chromosome seen in the cell cytoplasm as a spherical object. This article lists the chemical substances determined as having mutagenic effects (presented in tabular form) and reports on experiments using this technique with benzene and benzo(a)pyrene. The authors found that benzene has a mutagenic effect in doses >0.250ml/kg, and confirm the results obtained by other authors as regards benzo(a)pyrene. Taking into account the relation between atmospheric benzene concentrations and benzene blood levels, the mutagenic effect appears at values considerably below the TLV of 25ppm adopted by the ILO for concentrations of benzene in workplace air.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1977, No.89, Note No.1079-89-77, p.433-444. Illus. 25 ref.
Influence of industrial chemicals on the course and outcome of pregnancy
Vlijanie proizvodstvennyh himičeskih faktorov na tečenie i ishod beremennosti [in Russian]
Results of immunological studies in 425 women workers in the chemical and petrochemical industries exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, phenols, etc.; gynaecological disorders during pregnancy occurred in 31% of them, while in 19% serological reactions showed the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies, frequently associated with hypotension and toxaemia of pregnancy. Spontaneous abortion was observed in cases with very high antibody titres; when the titre was moderate, pregnancy resulted in stillbirths or birth of malformed infants. There was a relation between haematological changes and length of service.
Azerbajdžanskij medicinskij žurnal, 1977, No.6, p.41-44. 5 ref.
Heath C.W., Dumont C.R.
Chromosomal damage in men occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer and other chemicals.
Measurements of chromosomal breakage were made in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 35 men exposed heavily, lightly or negligibly to vinyl chloride at plastics and tyre manufacturing plants. Breakage levels in all 3 groups were significantly higher than those in non-industrial control subjects. Breakage consisted mostly of simple chromatid gaps (86% of the aberrations). It appears that, in addition to vinyl chloride, other agents in these plants may cause cytogenetic damage to workers without it being possible to relate the damage to any of the wide range of chemicals (primarily solvents) to which rubber and plastics workers are exposed.
Environmental Research, Aug. 1977, Vol.14, No.1, p.68-72. 9 ref.
Nehéz M., Selypes A., Páldy A.
Mutagenicity of pesticides containing dinitro-o-cresol
Dinitro-0-krezol tartalmú növényvédőszer mutagenitásának vizsgálata [in Hungarian]
Results of studies in vitro with human lymphocytes and in vivo with bone marrow of mice, on the chromosomal effects of the pesticide Krezonit E, which contains 50% dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC). An average of 61% of 596 mitoses in human leucocyte cultures treated with 0.02, 0.2 or 2.0µg/ml of the pesticide, showed chromosome aberrations (2.5% of control cultures). The frequency of affected calls was even higher in vivo: 76% with 1mg/kg and 95% with 10mg/kg DNOC. German translation may be obtained from Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Neue Grünstrasse 18, DDR-1020 Berlin.
Egészségtudomány, 1977, Vol.21, No.3, p.237-243. Illus. 24 ref.
Funes-Cravioto F., Kolmodin-Hedman B., Lindsten J., Nordenskjöld M., Zapata-Gayon C., Lambert B., Norberg E., Olin R., Swensson Ĺ.
Chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchange in workers in chemical laboratories and a rotoprinting factory and in children of women laboratory workers.
Cultured lymphocytes from 73 chemical and printing industry workers had a significantly increased frequency of chromatid and isochromatid breaks compared with controls. A similar increase was found in 14 children of 11 women who had worked in laboratories during pregnancy. There was a significant relation between age and aberration frequency in the children. The frequency of sister-chromatid exchange was significantly increased in 12 technicians performing hormone analysis and in 4 children of 2 women technicians.
Lancet, 13 Aug. 1977, Vol.2, No.8033, p.322-325. Illus. 18 ref.
Picciano D.J., Flake R.E., Gay P.C., Kilian D.J.
Vinyl chloride cytogenetics.
Report on cytogenic studies in 209 workers engaged in VCM production for up to 28 years, and a non-exposed control group. No statistically significant differences were found. It is suggested that the risk of adverse genetic effects can be avoided in controlled, minimal-exposure environments.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1977, Vol.19, No.8, p.527-530. 31 ref.
Pharoah P.O.D., Alberman E., Doyle P., Chamberlain G.
Outcome of pregnancy among women in anaesthetic practice.
This survey covers 5,700 women doctors. Conceptions that occurred when the mother was in an anaesthetic appointment resulted in smaller babies, higher stillbirth rates and more congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system than the pregnancies of other women doctors. There was no significant difference in the spontaneous-abortion rate between the two groups.
Lancet, 1 Jan. 1977. Vol.1, No.8001, p.34-36. Illus. 9 ref.
The uptake, retention and distribution of plutonium-239 in rat gonads.
Male (30) and female (30) rats (6-8 weeks old) were injected with plutonium (Pu) doses from 1.9 to 3.9µCi Pu/kg body weight. The total radioactivity in the testes did not change with time (1-575 days), showing retention of the nuclide. Results with 6-month-old rats were similar. The ovaries of the females were assayed 1-146 days after injection and there was again no change with time. The mean uptake of Pu in the testes was 0.062±0.006% per testis; for the ovaries the mean uptake was 0.016±0.002% of the injected dose per ovary.
Health Physics, Jan. 1977, Vol.32, No.1, p.29-31. 8 ref.
Farulla A., Alimena G., Delfini A.M., Ogis M., Percoco V.D., Naro G.
In vitro chromosome radiosensitivity in preleukaemic syndromes
Radiosensibilitŕ cromosomica "in vitro" nelle sindromi preleucemiche [in Italian]
Chromosome studies in 6 cases of preleukaemic syndrome showed particular radiosensitivity in forms of involutive myelopathy (medullary aplasia, sideroachrestic anaemia, chronic erythroblastopenia), while myeloproliferative forms (2 cases) showed a behaviour similar to that of controls.
Securitas, Mar.-Apr. 1976, Vol.61, No.3-4, p.118-124. Illus. 9 ref.
Singh G.B., Khanna S.K.
Effect of benzanthrone on testis and male accessory sex glands.
The histological studies showed patchy degeneration of seminiferous tubules but normal Leydig cells. Dorsal and lateral prostates showed typical alveoli with normal secretory activity. The biochemical studies showed no change in the weight of any of the glands. Acid and alkaline phosphatase activities of seminal vesicles and ventral prostate, fructose content in the coagulating gland, and cholesterol in the testis remained unchanged. Testicular hyaluronidase was significantly decreased. It appeared that benzanthrone exposure leads to damage of the gametogenic function; the androgenic status is unaffected.
Environmental Research, Dec. 1976, Vol.12, No.3, p.327-333. Illus. 22 ref.
Verschaeve L., Kirsch-Volders M., Susanne C., Groetenbriel C., Haustermans R., Lecomte A., Roossels D.
Genetic damage induced by occupationally low mercury exposure.
Lymphocytes from whole blood cultures from 28 workers exposed to mercury, its amalgams or organic mercury derivatives and 7 controls were studied cytogenetically. Differences between aneuploidy of exposed and unexposed subjects were significant for all substances. No statistically significant difference (except for ethylmercury exposure) was observed for the frequency of cells with structural chromosome aberrations although all of the observed frequencies in exposed subjects were higher than those of the controls. There was a significant correlation between the blood and urine mercury levels and the total amount of cells with chromosomal aberrations and frequencies of cells with other than chromatid type aberrations.
Environmental Research, Dec. 1976, Vol.12, No.3, p.306-316. Illus. 15 ref.
Genetic hazards in manufacture of the fungicide zineb
O genetičeskoj opasnosti fungicida cineba v proizvostvennyh uslovijah [in Russian]
Results of cytogenetic studies of lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of 24 chemical workers exposed to zineb and 10 controls. There was a definite excess of chromosome aberrations in the exposed group, with an average of 5.5%. No relation between duration of exposure and cytogenic effect was noted.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1976, No.12, p.26-29. 9 ref.
Loprieno N., Barale R., Baroncelli S., Bauer C., Bronzetti G., Cammellini A., Cercignani G., Corsi C., Gervasi G., Leporini C., Nieri R., Rossi A.M., Stretti G., Turchi G.
Evaluation of the genetic effects induced by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) under mammalian metabolic activation: Studies in vitro and in vivo.
Vinyl chloride was genetically active in yeasts and (in a dose of 700mg/kg) in mice. Mutagenic studies can be reliable indicators of biological toxic activity and are of value in the screening of industrial chemicals for carcinogenicity.
Mutation Research, 1976, Vol.40, p.85-95. 17 ref.
Silaev A.A., Tarasenko N.Ju.
Effects of barium on reproduction and on health
Vlijanie barija na generativnuju funkciju i ego gigieničeskoe značenie [in Russian]
Research on white rats (oral administration and prolonged inhalation of barium carbonate) showed that barium concentrations sufficiently high to produce general toxic effects impair the male and female reproductive functions. The mortality of new-born rats was very high; there were haemopoietic, cardiovascular system and mineral metabolism disorders. The foetus is very sensitive to barium carbonate administered to the mother during the first half of pregnancy. Recommended TLV for barium carbonate: 0.5mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1976, No.7, p.33-37. 10 ref.
Cytogenetic monitoring of persons with symptoms of acute lead poisoning
Citogenetska kontrola osoba s akutnim manifestacijama saturnizma [in Serbocroatian]
Results of chromosome studies in 10 workers acutely exposed to lead in the ceramics and glass industries, and 10 controls. Exposed workers had all the symptoms of lead poisoning (high blood and urinary lead levels, stipple cells, etc.), and a high number of chromosome aberrations (dicentric, acentric fragments, centric rings) in the lymphocytes and bone marrow. Similar studies in chronically exposed workers showed no excessive aberrations.
Sigurnost, 1976, Vol.18, No.1, p.69-75. Illus. 12 ref.
Slime control agents: Carcinogenic and teratogenic hazards
Slembekämpningsmedel: Risk för cancer och fosterskador [in Swedish]
The paper industry uses slime control agents on a large scale. These agents (generally thiocarbamates in solvents such as dimethylformamide), which act against microorganisms and thus prevent formation of slimy plugs or deterioration of the paper, are present in the water vapour released by the paper during manufacture. Swedish research has found ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) to be carcinogenic and teratogenic, and dimethylformamide teratogenic. Pregnant women should thus not be exposed. Appendices: list of compounds used as slime control agents and their solvents, with the associated health hazards.
Arbetsmiljö, 1976, No.11, p.11-13. Illus.
Volkova Z.A., Fomenko V.N., Bagdinov Ju.M., Bjalko N.K., Katosova L.D., Ponomareva N.I., Tolčeva Ė.I., Davtjan R.M., Zil'fjan Z.N., Gurdžiev T.I., Hajrullina A.Š.
Establishing a TLV for chloroprene in the workplace air
K obosnovaniju veličiny PDK hloroprena v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Women working for several years in neoprene glove and balloon production, and thus exposed to chloroprene, presented menstrual disorders, the incidence of hypomenorrhoea being related to the length of service. Animal experiments showed the present Soviet TLV of 2mg/m3 to be justified in respect of general toxicity, but 0.15mg/m3 produced mutagenic and gonadotropic effects. A TLV of 0.05mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1976, No.3, p.31-36. 8 ref.
Beljaeva N.N., Bystrova T.A., Revazova Ju.A., Arhangel'skij V.I.
Comparative evaluation of the toxic and mutagenic properties of organic tin compounds
Sravnitel'naja ocenka toksičeskih i mutagennyh svojstv organičeskih soedinenij olova [in Russian]
Bis(tributyltin)oxide (BTO), butyltin trilaurate (BTT) and dibutyltin bis(trifluoroacetate) (DTBT) were administered to mice by ingestion and inhalation. Results for LD50, GOT and GPT inhibition, cholinesterase activation, frequency and nature of chromosome aberrations) are given. DTBT and BTO were more toxic than BTT. All possessed marked cumulative properties which increased in inverse proportion to the daily dose.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1976, No.5, p.10-14. 7 ref.
Effects of administration of cadmium sulfate on the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis in the rat
Effets de l'administration de sulfate de cadmium sur l'axe hypothalamo-hypophyso-testiculaire du rat. [in French]
MD thesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cadmium-induced early lesions are limited to the testis or can spread to other levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis, and thus contribute to the development or maintenance of peripheral gonadal lesions. A general section on cadmium and its toxicity (metabolism, clinical signs and symptoms of poisoning, reproductive effects) is followed by a report on experiments comprising a single abdominal subcutaneous injection of 3.74mg/kg cadmium sulfate to 24 rats. Cadmium sulfate produces massive testicular lesions, involving both the germinal epithelium and Sertoli's cells and the interstitium. These lesions are related to histological changes in the gonadotrophic cells of the anterior pituitary, indicating either a functional effect secondary to the toxic testicular one, or a direct action of cadmium on these cells. Blood levels of gonadotrophin A (FSH) and B (LH) fell considerably in the first days, to increase significantly after a week. Blood testosterone fell greatly after a week.
Université René Descartes, Faculté de médecine Necker - Enfants malades, Paris, France, 1976. 50p. Illus. 91 ref.
Seth P.K., Srivastava S.P., Agarwal D.K., Chandra S.V.
Effect of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on rat gonads.
Enzymic and pathological changes in rat gonads were studied after injection of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Succinic dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphatase activities decreased suggesting energy metabolism impairment. β-Glucuronidase activity increased suggesting alterations involving lysosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. The testis of the treated animals showed thickened tunica albuginea and degeneration of epithelium. There were no detectable differences between the ovaries of normal and treated rats.
Environmental Research, Oct. 1976, Vol.12, No.2, p.131-138. Illus. 20 ref.
Smith F.A., Schwetz B.A., Nitschke K.D.
Teratogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in CF-1 mice.
Pregnant mice were given TCDD orally on days 6-15 of gestation in doses of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 3µg/kg/day. There was little or no maternal toxicity. 3µg/kg caused cleft palate and dilated renal pelvis; 1µg/kg cleft palate. No significant malformation occurred at 0.1µg/kg and below.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Dec. 1976, Vol.38, No.3, p.517-523. 9 ref.
Pollini G., Biscaldi G.P.
Persistence of lymphocyte karyotype changes ten years after benzene poisoning
Persistenza delle alterazioni del cariotipo nei linfociti di soggetti benzolici a dieci anni dalla intossicazione [in Italian]
Report on lymphocyte karyotype studies in 4 subjects. There was a significant incidence of aneuploid cells in 3 of them, while none showed hyperploidy. No gross morphological changes of the karyotype were found.
Medicina del lavoro, 1976, Vol.67, No.5, p.465-472. Illus. 5 ref.
Kimmel C.A., Cook R.O., Staples R.E.
Teratogenic potential of noise in mice and rats.
The effects of a quiet environment and a noisy environment on the developing embryo were studied in mice and rats. It was found that neither foetal weight nor the incidence of malformations was significantly affected by exposure to a 100dB white noise during gestation. White noise had some maternal and embryotoxic effects in mice and little effect in rats, but it was not teratogenic in either species.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, May 1976, Vol.36, No.2, p.239-245. 17 ref.
Vainio H., Pääkkönen R., Rönnholm K., Raunio V., Pelkonen O.
A study on the mutagenic activity of styrene and styrene oxide.
Styrene oxide is mutagenic, without metabolic activation, to Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 1535 and TA 100, which have been devised to detect mutagens causing base-pair substitutions. Styrene seems mutagenic toward the same strains, but only after metabolic activation. The toxicity of the compounds impairs reliable dose-response relation conclusions. Diethyl maleate and 3,3,3-trichloropropene oxide enhance the mutagenicity of styrene oxide in the presence of homogenate; epoxide hydratase and glutathione S-oxide transferase participate in the metabolism of styrene oxide. These 2 chemicals do not influence the mutagenic activity of styrene. Styrene glycol and 4-tert-butylpyrocatechol are not mutagenic to any of the strains. The authors conclude suggesting that further, more detailed investigations of the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of styrene and styrene oxide are warranted, and possibly an epidemiologic study on workers in industry.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1976, Vol.2, No.3, p.147-151. 9 ref.
Purrott R.J., Lloyd D.C., Prosser J.S., Dolphin G.W., Tipper P.A., Reeder E.J., White C.M., Cooper S.J., Stephenson B.D.
The study of chromosome aberration yield in human lymphocytes as an indicator of radiation dose - VI. A review of cases investigated: 1975.
This and the 5 preceding annual reports cover a total of 206 cases, all of which are recapitulated here. They are divided into 4 exposure categories and the types of aberrations found are analysed. Brief individual accounts are given for 28 of the 37 cases investigated in 1975, with estimates of dose where possible. Experiments to determine the effects of dose rate and dose fractionation on the aberration yield are reviewed, and the importance of these variables for chromosome dosimetry discussed.
NRPB-R41, National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ, United Kingdom, Jan. 1976. 15p. 14 ref. Price: Ł0.50.
Király J., Szentesi I., Ruzicska P., Czeizel E.
Investigations of chromosomes in workers producing organophosphate insecticides
Kromoszóma-vizsgálatok szerves foszforsav-inszekticideket gyártó munkásokban [in Hungarian]
Data was compared of workers producing or formulating trichlorphon (Ditrifon 50, chlorophos), diazinon (Basudin E), and Prolate (Safidone 40 WP, phosmet) with those of an unexposed control group, a prolonged indirect-exposure group ("factory control") and a "positive control" group producing tetrachlorobenzene. The frequency of chromatide-type aberrations and acentric fragments increased considerably in the factory control group in relation to the normal controls. Diazinon and Prolate caused an increase in the 3 types of structure deformations, while trichlorophon provoked a slight increase in chromosome-type deformities compared to the factory control group. The mutagenicity of tetrachlorobenzene was confirmed.
Munkavédelem, 1976, Vol.22, No.7-9, p.27-33. 19 ref.
Thiess A.M., Fleig I.
Chromosome analysis after ethyleneimine dermatitis of the scrotum
Chromosomenanalyse nach Äthylenimin-Dermatitis am Skrotum [in German]
The results of chromosome studies carried out in connection with a new case of scrotal dermatitis due to ethyleneimine vapours are reported. No increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was noted. Work with ethyleneimine requires protective rubber clothing closely fitting at the wrists and ankles, and diving helmet.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Feb. 1976, Vol.26, No.2, p.38-40. Illus. 39 ref.
Hakulinen T., Salonen T., Teppo L.
Cancer in the offspring of fathers in hydrocarbon-related occupations.
All cases (852) of childhood cancer reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry in 1959-1968 were studied with matched controls: 339 leukaemia and lymphomas, 219 brain tumours, 294 other tumours. Separate results are given for children <5 and (all) children <15 years. No significant association existed between these cancer cases and a hydrocarbon-related occupation of the father at the time of the child's birth: motor mechanics, machinists, miners, painters and drivers.
British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, June 1976, Vol.30, No.2, p.138-140. 6 ref.
Courtney K.D., Copeland M.F., Robbins A.
The effects of pentachloronitrobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and related compounds on fetal development.
Comparison of the effects of pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as major contaminant, purified PCNB, tetrachloronitrobenzene (TCNB) and pentachloroaniline (PCA), a PCNB metabolite, suggested that the teratogenic activity of contaminated PCNB was probably due to HCB. TCNB and PCA were not teratogenic in rats. Tissue distribution of PCNB, PCA and methyl pentachlorophenyl sulfide, pentachlorobenzene (or quintochlorobenzene, QCB), and HCB were studied in pregnant mice. Neither PCNB nor QCB accumulated in tissues; HCB accumulated in fat, urinary bladder, skin, thymus, etc.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Feb. 1976, Vol.35, No.2, p.239-256. 19 ref.
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