Antifertility and prenatal effects - 646 entries found
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- Antifertility and prenatal effects
Golding J., Sladden T.
Congenital malformations and agricultural workers
Information collected for all births in Oxfordshire and West Berkshire (United Kingdom) since 1965 shows no evidence of excess congenital malformation in the children of agricultural, horticultural or forestry workers. There is no evidence to suggest that the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenol has a teratogenic effect.
Lancet, 18 June 1983, Vol.1, No.8338, p.1393. 7 ref.
Rachootin P., Olsen J.
The risk of infertility and delayed conception associated with exposures in the Danish workplace
1,069 infertile couples identified from a hospital register and 4,305 fertile control couples were studied by questionnaire. Male exposure to heat, and female exposure to noise, textile dyes, lead, mercury and cadmium were associated with infertility.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1983, Vol.25, No.5, p.394-402. 16 ref.
Piechotta W., Witting U., Miebs T., Witting C., Krieg V., Kollmeier H., Seemann J., Wittig P.
Carcinogenic, mutagenic and immunological effects of heavy metals
Cancerogene, mutagene und immunsystem-bezogene Wirkungen von Schwermetallen [in German]
The 1st of these 3 reports summarises present knowledge of the harmful effects of lead, cadmium and mercury and reviews the relevant literature: animal experiments, epidemiological studies, in-vitro studies, occupational exposure, defenses against infection, humoral and cellular immunity. Results are summarised in tables. The 2nd report analyses the literature on malignant tumours of occupational origin. Results are tabulated according to the organs and tissues affected: blood and lymphatic tissue, respiratory tract, mesothelioma, digestive system, liver and pancreas, urogenital system, brain, skeleton, skin; occupations and harmful substances are also identified. The 3rd report is a review of various methods of sampling and sample preparation in order to complex and extract heavy metals for flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metals concerned are: cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc in human pulmonary, hepatic, splenic and renal tissue. Preferred methods are presented.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1983. Vol.1: 264p. 300 ref. Price: DM.34.00. Vol.2: 347p. 535 ref. Price: DM.42.00. Vol.3: 93p. 172 ref. Price: DM.20.35.
Selypes A., Nagymajtényi L., Berencsi G.
Investigation of the mutagenic and embryotoxic effects on mice of exposure to mercury fumes
Az aerogén higany expozíció mutagén és fötotoxikus hatásának vizsgálata egéren [in Hungarian]
Foetuses in pregnant mice exposed to mercuric chloride fumes at 10 and 100 times the TLV of 0.02mg/m3 showed significant disorders. Following exposure to 100 times the TLV, 32% of the foetuses died (4%). Of those that survived, 100% were seriously weight-retarded (1%), 68% showed serious retardation in bone-growth (4%), and 38% showed liver cell chromosome aberrations (3%); (numbers in parentheses refer to controls). Exposure at 10 times the TLV showed a reduced, but still significantly high, number of differences from controls. Exposure at the TLV level seems to have resulted in a higher number of liver-cell chromosome aberrations than in the controls, though within statistical significance limits.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1983, Vol.29, No.7-9, p.152-154. 10 ref.
Lloyd D.C., Prosser J.S., Moquet J.E., Malowany D.J.
Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis. XIII. A review of cases investigated: 1982
The 12th in a series of annual reports. Of 31 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation investigated in 1982, 25 were associated with industrial radiography, 4 with research, education, or health institutions, and 2 with major nuclear organisations. 19 of the dose estimates made from chromosome examinations were in the range 0-0.09Gy, 6 exceeded 0.09Gy, and no biological assessment of dose was possible in 6 cases. The dose estimate for the case with the highest confirmed over-exposure was 0.17Gy. The chromosome data are compared with information obtained from physical dosimetry, and a brief summary of each case is appended.
HM Stationery Office, P.O.Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom. 14p. 3 ref. Price: £2.00.
Agents considered as teratogenic or influencing the reproductive system
Current knowledge is summarised of the effect of certain teratogenic agents and other chemical products on the male and female reproductive systems in man and animals, and of their direct or indirect effects on fertility, conception and/or foetal development. A list of substances with known or suspected effects on the reproductive system or foetal development is given.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, 1983, Vol.20, No.3, p.195-210. 11 ref.
Hendrickx B., Hermans B., Ottogali M., Lakhanisky T.
Measurement of the genotoxicity of chemical substances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Use of this system for a battery of tests
Mesure de la toxicité génétique des substances chimiques chez Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Utilisation de ce système dans une batterie de tests [in French]
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is useful for the testing of the genotoxicity of chemical substances because so many of its genetic markers are well characterised. Measurement of the mutagenic and recombinogenic potential of a number of well-known genotoxic compounds confirmed the potential usefulness of the yeast for rapid screening tests.
Archives belges de médecine sociale, hygiène, médecine du travail et médecine légale - Belgisch Archief van Sociale Geneeskunde, Hygiëne, Arbeidsgeneeskunde en Gerechtelijke Geneeskunde, 1983, Vol.41, No.1-2, p.41-54. Illus. 21 ref.
Second US-Finnish joint symposium on occupational safety and health
The 24 papers presented at this symposium, 24-26 May 1982, Helsinki, Finland, are reproduced. Topics covered include: reproductive hazards and genotoxic and embryotoxic effects of exposure to industrial chemicals; injury and accident studies and prevention; hazard analysis; computer-assisted surveillance; asbestosis; wollastonite exposure; welding fumes; diesel exhaust and coal dust; power press operations; logging and forestry work; nasal cancer; neurotoxicology; lung particle retention; gas monitoring methodology.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1983, Vol.9, No.2. 230p. Illus. 364 ref.
Nisbet I.C.T., Karch N.J.
Chemical hazards to human reproduction
This book explores the importance of chemicals as factors contributing to reproductive impairment in humans. It summarises the results of studies in exposed humans, surveys methods for testing chemicals in laboratory animals, and discusses the predictive value of animal tests. Public health and occupational health aspects are both considered.
Noyes Data Corporation, Mill Road at Grand Ave., Park Ridge, NJ 07656, USA, 1983. 245p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US-$28.00.
Rom W.N., Livingston G.K., Casey K.R., Wood S.D., Egger M.J., Chiu Gh., Jerominski L.
Sister chromatid exchange frequency in asbestos workers
A comparative study of 25 asbestos insulators (6 with radiographic asbestosis) and 14 age-matched controls showed the insulators to have a marginally increased sister chromatid exchange (SCE) rate in circulating lymphocytes with increasing years of exposure. There was a significant association between SCE rate and smoking after controlling for years of asbestos exposure and age. Smoking asbestos workers had the highest SCE rate. SCE in group A chromosomes, i.e. the group with the longest chromosomes, were significantly associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking, with an interaction being apparent between the 2 factors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Jan. 1983, Vol.70, No.1, p.45-48. 28 ref.
Miner J.K., Rom W.N., Livingston G.K., Lyon J.L.
Lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies in coke oven workers
Lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies were determined for 12 long-term coke oven workers and 12 other age-matched steelworkers with no coke oven work exposure. All study participants were non-smokers. The exposed group had a mean of 28.9 year's exposure to coke oven emissions. SCE frequencies for the exposed workers ranged from 7.97 to 11.20 SCEs per cell while those for the controls ranged from 6.73 to 10.60 SCEs per cell. The mean SCE frequency for the exposed group was 9.54±SD1.15 SCEs per cell, and was 14% higher than that of the control group (8.35±1.09 SCE's per cell, p=0.016). The long-term exposure to coke oven emissions in the coke oven workers is considered possibly to be the explanation for this small difference.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. l983, Vol.25, No.1, p.30-33. Illus. 33 ref.
Second Finnish-U.S. joint symposium on occupational safety and health, 24-26 May 1982, Hämeenlinna, Finland: Abstracts
29 abstracts of papers read at the symposium are reproduced under the major heads of: reproduction epidemiology; reproduction hazards in the occupational environment (occupational exposures and congenital malformations, genotoxicity of epoxides, genotoxic hazards in the rubber industry, styrene, radiofrequency radiation); accident research (data sources and processing, hazard analysis, accidents caused by materials handling and falls in the construction industry); occupational safety and health (health selection among metal workers, accident prevention strategies, two-hand controlled power presses, personal protection); dusts and fibres (asbestosis, respiratory morbidity and wollastonite exposure, welding fume retention and clearance, coal dust and diesel exhaust); new methodologies and directions for further studies.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mrs. Maj-Britt Vääriskoski, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1982. 27p. Price: US$25.00.
Perocco P., Pane G., Bolognesi S., Zannotti M.
Increase of sister chromatid exchange and unscheduled synthesis of desoxyribonucleic acid by acrylonitrile in human lymphocytes in vitro
Acrylonitrile was toxic starting from a concentration of 5 x 10-3M, caused a small but significant increase in sister chromatid exchanges compared with controls at 5 x 10-4M with metabolic activation, and elicited reparative (unscheduled) DNA synthesis as determined by tritiated thymidine uptake, particularly at a concentration of 5 x 10-1M. The toxic and mutagenic actions of acrylonitrile were observable only at very high concentrations, which are not comparable with those occurring at the workplace. Given the massive production and use of acrylonitrile, genotoxic effects could be produced in man by prolonged continuous exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1982, Vol.8, No.4, p.290-293. Illus. 17 ref.
Evaluating the health effects of acetone
K gigieničeskoj ocenke acetona [in Russian]
Analysis of clinical records showed an excess of complications of pregnancy and birth defects of offspring among female industrial workers exposed to acetone. The effects were seen in women exposed to acetone levels well below the USSR MAC (200mg/m3), such as rewinders and twisters, as well as in women exposed to concentrations at or above the MAC, such as workers in the chemical synthesis and spinning of fibres. Exposure of experimental animals to typical industrial concentrations of acetone showed that the compound had embryotoxic effects. It is recommended that the MAC be substantially lowered.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1982, No.6, p.24-28. Illus. 5 ref.
Epidemiological, immunological and genetical aspects of asbestosis
This issue is devoted to the proceedings of an international conference held 24-26 Mar. 1981 at Wrocław, Poland. Sections cover: epidemiological studies in various professions in the Federal Republic of Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Sweden, Turkey, Poland, and Hungary; immunology and genetics of asbestos-related diseases (use of electron microscopy in analysing autopsy and biopsy material, immunological monitoring of an exposed population, antigen typing in relation to long-term effects of exposure, autoimmunity in asbestos-exposed persons); experimental and pathological studies (asbestos-induced lung diseases, asbestos and mesothelioma in the German Democratic Republic, combination effects in chemical carcinogenesis, factors affecting benzo(a)pyrene activation in mammalian cells, carrier function of asbestos fibres in benzo(a)pyrene mutagenicity); dose-response relations and clinical studies (worker exposure in asbestos-processing plants, morbidity in asbestos miners, identification and effects of chrysotile, radiological studies).
Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis, 1982, Vol.30, No.3-4, p.135-331. Illus. Bibl. Price: Zł.130.00.
Genotoxic hazards in the rubber industry
Genotoxiska risker i gummiindustrin [in Swedish]
Final report of a major study of the genotoxic and teratogenic hazards of exposure to rubber chemicals. The 80 chemicals whose effects were examined belonged to these groups: vulcanisers, vulcanisation accelerators, antioxidants, retarding agents, vulcanisation gases. To measure genotoxicity, the Ames test for mutagens in Salmonella was used, and strong mutagenic effects were found with thiurams, dithiocarbamates (both vulcanisation accelerators) and with almost all the vulcanisation gases. Other genotoxic tests confirmed the results of the Ames test. For embryotoxic and teratogenic effects, the chemicals were tested with chicken embryos, and the effective dose 50 (ED50) level was tabulated, together with the maximum percentage of malformed embryos. Urinary mutagenicity in rubber workers was measured and correlated with type of work and smoking. The biochemistry of the genotoxic process after exposure to thiurams and dithiocarbamates is described. Cancer and miscarriage epidemiology in rubber workers are discussed. Protective measures in the rubber industry are suggested.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 11181 Stockholm, Sweden, 1982. 202p. Illus. 25 ref.
Barlow S.M., Sullivan F.M.
Reproductive hazards of industrial chemicals
The world-wide medical and scientific literature on reproductive pharmacology, endocrinology, and toxicology in animals and humans of about 50 of the most commonly used industrial chemicals is reviewed. Chapters cover: reproductive hazards; reproductive toxicity testing in animals; reproductive effects in humans; mutagenicity testing; reproductive hazards associated with different occupational groups (abortions, malformations and perinatal deaths, cancer and gene mutations in offspring); effects in male and female workers; review of compounds (literature search, criteria for acceptable methodology in animal studies, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity).
Academic Press (London) Ltd., 24-28 Oval Road, London NW1 7DX, United Kingdom, 1982. 610p. Bibl. Price: £40.50.
Barchielli A., Buiatti E., Franchini M., Geddes M., Scarselli G.
Male infertility and exposure to chemical agents: A review
Infertilità maschile ed esposizione lavorativa ad agenti chimici: una rassegna [in Italian]
This literature review from 1970 to 1980 covers the epidemiologic and experimental data on alterations in spermatogenesis following exposure to chemical substances. The industrial use and mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic potentials are presented for: cadmium, carbaryl, kepone, dichlorvos, ethylene dibromide, hydroquinone, ethyl and methyl mercury compounds, methoxychlor, 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene, tris(1-aziridyl)phosphine oxide, lead, polychlorpinene, epichlorohydrin, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate, chloroprene and carbon disulfide.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1982, Vol.73, No.5, p.483-495. 32 ref.
Parodi S., Santi L., Russo P., Albini A., Vecchio D., Pala M., Ottaggio L., Carbone A.
DNA damage induced by auramine O in liver, kidney, and bone marrow of rats and mice, and in a human cell line (alkaline elution assay and SCE induction)
DNA fragmentation in liver, kidney and bone marrow cells using commercial auramine O and the induction of sister chromatid exchanges in bone marrow cells are described. An intraperitoneal LD50 of 135mg/kg was determined.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, May-June 1982, Vol.9, No.5-6, p.941-952. Illus. 31 ref.
Zenick H., Hastings L., Goldsmith M., Niewenhuis R.J.
Chronic cadmium exposure: Relation to male reproductive toxicity and subsequent fetal outcome
Male rats were exposed to zero, 17.2, 34.4 or 68.8ppm Cd for 70 days. They were mated after exposure and the offspring tested for teratological effects and behavioural changes. No significant effects on any of the parameters studied were observed.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar. 1982, Vol.9, No.3, p.377-387. Illus. 19 ref.
Fredga K., Dävring L., Sunner M., Bengtsson B.O., Elinder C., Sigtryggsson P., Berlin M.
Chromosome changes in workers (smokers and nonsmokers) exposed to automobile fuels and exhaust gases
Blood samples were taken from drivers of diesel-engine trucks, drivers of gasoline-engine trucks, automobile inspectors, and a control group (12 subjects in each group). There was no evidence of a marked occupational effect, although a grave suspicion remains that working with diesel engines may increase the incidence of chromosome changes. Smokers showed significant or near significant increases in aberrations in 3 of the groups.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1982, Vol.8, No.3, p.209-221. Illus. 31 ref.
Smith A.H., Fisher D.O., Pearce N., Chapman C.J.
Congenital defects and miscarriages among New Zealand 2,4,5-T sprayers
The number of births, congenital defects and miscarriages in the wives of 548 2,4,5-T sprayers and 441 controls was established for 1969-1980 by questionnaire. The relative risk estimates of 1.19 for congenital defects, and 0.89 for miscarriages, were not statistically significant. Exposure of the wives from helping with spraying or washing contaminated clothes had no detectable effect on reproduction.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1982, Vol.37, No.4, p.197-200. 15 ref.
Hazard alert - 2-Methoxy ethanol (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether); 2-ethoxy ethanol (ethylene glycol monoethyl ether) - Suspect reproductive hazards
Recent evidence suggests that these compounds may pose severe reproductive hazards to occupationally exposed workers (sterility or reduced fertility in men, menstrual disorders in women; birth deformities due to exposure of men or women). Details are given of health effects (blood and central nervous system); reproductive and teratogenic effects (review of studies); workers at risk; Australian Council of Trade Unions recommendations (information by employers on the use of these substances; use of substitutes; if no substitutes are available, reduction of exposure to the lowest technically feasible level using total engineering containment; supply of full protective clothing as an interim measure).
ACTU/VTHC Occupational Health and Safety Unit, Trades Hall, Box 93, Carlton South, 3053, Vic., Australia; Health and Safety Bulletin, Oct. 1982, No.20, 6p. 9 ref.
Use of chromosomal abberration analysis in radiation protection
Využití analýzi chromozómových aberací v ochraně před zářením [in Czech]
Study of the possibilities and limitations of quantitative biological dosimetry based on an analysis of radiation-induced chromosomal abberrations. Attention is focussed on the relationship between the level and quality of radiation and the rate of chromosomal abberration from the point of view of both calibration studies following irradiation in vitro and radiation load of persons exposed in vivo. The paper sums up current opinions concerning the importance of chromosomal changes in lymphocytes for the evaluation of the post-irradiation risk. The future prospects of this method of analysis are dealt with, particular attention being paid to the use of computers and to the automatic detection of abberrations.
Radioaktivita a životne prostredie, 1982, Vol.5, No.4, p.251-257. Illus. 4 ref.
Genetic testing in the workplace
Methods of genetic testing, including tests for genetic hypersusceptibility (GH) and techniques for monitoring DNA and chromosome damage, are reviewed and evaluated. There is a fundamental difference between these two categories of tests. There is little evidence linking any genetic condition with an increased risk of developing occupational disease; routine screening for GH is therefore not necessary. While cytogenetic and other monitoring techniques are widely accepted, their clinical results are not well understood and should be interpreted cautiously.
Occupational Health in Ontario, July 1982, Vol.3, No.3, p.140-153. 24 ref.
Cammarano G., Guercilena S., Forni A.
Cytogenetic studies of persons occupationally exposed to ionising radiation
Studi citogenetici in soggetti professionalmente esposti a radiazioni ionizzanti [in Italian]
Results of chromosome studies on the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 13 radiologists, 34 medical radiology technicians (22 males and 12 females) and 20 industrial radiology technicians with long-term exposure to radiation doses within the permissible levels. The prevalence of unstable chromosome aberrations was higher in the exposed group than amongst controls. No difference was found in the case of stable chromosome aberrations. The mean percentage of cells with unstable chromosome aberrations and the calculated number of chromosome breakages in cells was not significantly different in the 2 groups.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1982, Vol.73, No.3, p.224-233. 26 ref.
Ericson A., Källen B,, Meirik O,, Westerholm P.
Gastroinstestinal atresia and maternal occupation during pregnancy
In the light of cohort study findings that women who worked in laboratories during pregnancy may be at increased risk of having an infant with gastro-intestinal atresia, a case-control study was made of 201 women who had infants with gut atresia and 402 matched women whose infants did not have that malformation. Maternal occupation during pregnancy was ascertained by interviews or mailed inquiries. Laboratory work was more often the occupation during pregnancy among case mothers than among controls, thus substantiating the connection. The actual exposure in the laboratory work causing the embryonic damage is not known.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July l982, Vol. 24, No.7, p.5l5-5l8. 3 ref.
Fleig I., Petri N., Stocker W.G., Thiess A.M.
Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to formaldehyde in formaldehyde manufacturing and processing
Cytogenetic evaluation of 15 workers who had been exposed to formaldehyde when manufacturing and processing this chemical for between 23 and 35 years (average 28 years). The mean formaldehyde concentrations at the workplaces did not exceed 5ppm before 1971 and 1ppm after that date. Analyses of the data for aberrant cells, including chromatid and isochromatid gaps, did not reveal any significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberrations between the exposed workers and controls. There is no evidence at present that formaldehyde may cause mutagenic effects in mammals and man.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1982, Vol.24, No.12, p.1009-1012. 18 ref.
Hamill P.V.V., Steinberger E., Levine R.J., Rodriguez-Rigan L.J., Lemeshow S., Avrunin J.S.
The epidemiologic assessment of male reproductive hazard from occupational exposure to TDA and DNT
As the result of reports that toluenediamine (TDA) and dinitrotoluene (DNT), which are used in the production of tolylene diisocyanate and polyurethane plastics, may cause reproductive effects in rodents, and a preliminary survey which showed a probable reproductive effect in humans, a study was carried out on 84 workers exposed to DNT/TDA and 119 controls. Each worker had a urogenital examination, completed a reproductive and fertility questionnaire, an estimation of testicular volume, an assessment of serum follicle-stimulating hormone, and an analysis of semen for sperm count and morphology. No differences were found between the exposed and control groups. TDA and DNT did not present a detectable reproductive hazard to these workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1982, Vol.24, No.12, p.985-993. 40 ref.
Working conditions and their influence on the health of the expectant mother, the foetus and the breast-fed child
Les conditions de travail et la santé de la travailleuse enceinte, de l'enfant à naître et de l'enfant allaité [in French]
This guidance document is intended to pinpoint hazardous working conditions - in particular, the major chemical, physical, biological and ergonomic health hazards to which pregnant or nursing mothers may be exposed. Contents: socio-demographic survey of women in employment in the Province of Quebec; maternity and working conditions (difficulties in evaluating health hazards); list of principal hazards to the foetus (chemical substances, metals, physical agents); working conditions and pregnancy; effects of the mother's working conditions on breast-fed offspring.
Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du Québec, Canada, 1982. 122p. 170 ref.
Husgafvel-Pursiainen K., Kalliomäki P.L., Sorsa M.
A chromosome study among stainless steel welders
Possible chromosome damage among manual metal arc (MMA) welders of stainless steel, was studied following findings that welding fumes generated by MMA welding of stainless steel are mutagenic in several in vitro systems. Structural chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were also studied in peripheral-blood lymphocytes of 23 welders and 22 controls. No significant differences in the frequency of chromosome aberrations or SCEs were detected between the 2 groups. Smokers, both welders and controls, showed a significantly higher SCE rate than non-smokers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1982, Vol.24, No.10, p.762-766. 31 ref.
Gold E.B., Diener M.D., Szklo M.
Parental occupations and cancer in children - A case control study and review of the methodologie issues
The occupation and occupational exposure of parents before and after the birth of a child who later developed leukaemia or a brain tumour (cases) were compared with the occupational experience of parents of children with other cancers and of normal children. 43 children diagnosed with leukaemia from 1969 to 1974 and 70 children diagnosed with brain tumours from 1965 to 1974 were ascertained. There was no relation between parental occupation and the occurrence of leukaemia or brain tumours in the offspring. The methodological problems of this and similar studies are reviewed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1982, Vol.24, No.8, p.578-584. 13 ref.
Donner M., Hytönen S.
12th Annual Meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen Society, Dipoli, Espoo, Finland, 20-24 June 1982
These proceedings give abstracts of the opening lecture, the plenary sessions and the workshops. The workshop on occupational mutagens contains abstracts of 40 oral presentations and posters (e.g. variations of the mutagenic impurities in a carbon black; health and safety in the office environment - use of the Ames test as a biological screen; initiation of cell transformation by formaldehyde; sex differences in genetic risks from plutonium). The workshop on mutagenicity test methods contains abstracts of 50 oral presentations and posters (e.g. studies on the sensitivity of the yeast S. Cerevisiae D7 in detecting mutagens; the effect of sample size on the analysis of the cytogenetic effects of benzene inhalation by rats).
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisutoimisto, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1982. 250p.
Cox C., Murray W.E., Foley E.P.
Occupational exposures to radiofrequency radiation (18-31MHz) from RF dielectric heat sealers
The exposure to radiofrequency radiation from dielectric heat sealers for plastics was measured for a group of 82 operators, mostly female, of whom 75% were of child-bearing age. Exposure measurements were made using electric (E) and magnetic (H) field probes. The geometric mean of the maximum measured exposures was ≥200V/m for the E-field and 0.094A/m for the H-field. 55% of the operators were exposed to E-field levels >200V/m and 21% to H-field levels >0.5A/m, the OSHA exposure standards. For the heat sealers evaluated, the frequencies ranged from 18 to 31MHz. The exposure range is sufficiently broad to make these operators adequate candidates for an epidemiologic study of the effects of RF radiation in the 10-100MHz range on reproductive functions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1982, Vol.43, No.3, p.149-153. Illus. 13 ref.
Buffler P.A., Aase J.M.
Genetic risks and environmental surveillance: Epidemiological aspects of monitoring industrial populations for environmental mutagens
Criteria are proposed for a desirable system of surveillance for detecting deleterious genetic effects of occupational exposures, and existing and suggested surveillance systems for industrial populations are reviewed against these criteria (sentiel phenotypes, protein markers, changes in chromosome number and structure, sex ratio, birth defects, major malformations, minor malformations, spontaneous abortion and infertility). At present, monitoring for infertility and loss of reproductivity seems to be the technique best suited for surveillance of industrial populations. However, monitoring techniques based on these events do not directly assess mutagenicity. Nevertheless, since f¿tal death and infertility are strongly, but not exclusively, correlated with mutation, these methods may be considered as an early-warning system to indicate when and where more definitive studies are needed. French translation may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1982, Vol.24, No.4, p.305-314. 11 ref.
Lloyd D.C., Prosser J.S., Lelliott D.J., Moquet J.E.
Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis - XII. A review of cases investigated: 1981
Of the 40 cases of suspected overexposure to radiation investigated in 1981, 8 were associated with industrial radiography, 8 with a major nuclear organisation, and 8 with an institution of research, education or health. In dose estimates made from chromosome examinations, 32 were in the range 0 - 9 rad, 5 exceeded 10 rad and, in 3 cases, no biological assessment of dose was possible. The dose estimate for the case with highest confirmed overexposure was 17 rad. The chromosome data obtained are compared with information from physical dosimetry.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Feb. 1982. 16p. Price: £2.00.
York R.G., Sowry B.M., Hastings L., Manson J.M.
Evaluation of teratogenicity and neurotoxicity with maternal inhalation exposure to methyl chloroform
In 4 groups of female rats, 1 was exposed to 2100±200ppm methyl chloroform (MC) for 2 weeks before mating and through day 20 of gestation, a second group was exposed only before mating, a third only during pregnancy and a fourth was exposed to filtered air as a control. At term, half of each group were sacrified and assessed for maternal toxicity, embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. No significant differences were found in measurements of maternal toxicity or embryotoxicity except for a decrease in foetal body weight when rats were exposed during pregnancy alone. Increased incidences of skeletal and soft tissue variations were found in foetuses from the group exposed before mating and during pregnancy. In a post-natal evaluation of offspring from half the sample no significant effects of exposure were noted in body weight or neuro-behavioral tests of open-field activity.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Feb. 1982, Vol.9, No.2, p.251-266. Illus. 19 ref.
Siou G., Conan-Lerond L., Benoist G.
Screening for chromosomal aberrations in man - Some examples of its application to occupational exposure to chemicals
Recherches des anomalies chromosomiques chez l'homme - Quelques exemples d'application à l'exposition aux produits chimiques [in French]
A method generally used for chromosomal analysis is presented, and the main morphological abnormalities that may appear spontaneously are summarised. In a survey of 109 persons not exposed to chemicals, abnormalities, mainly of the "gap" or "break" type, were present in 76.1% of the cases. A brief review of the literature, giving results of studies of workers exposed to benzene, vinyl chloride monomer, and some metals, showed that these substances induce increased chromosome changes. (English translation available from Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street E., Hamilton, Ont. L8N 1H6, Canada. (CCOHS translation series No.141)).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1982, No.107, Note No.1379-107-82, p.269-276. Illus. 54 ref.
Van Doorn R., Bos R.P., Brouns R.M.E., Henderson P.T.
Is the determination of thioethers in urine samples useful for the biological monitoring of genotoxic effects in the workplace environment?
Is de bepaling van thioethers in urinemonsters bruikbaar bij de biologische monitoring van genotoxische belasting door de arbeidsomgeving? [in Dutch]
Report on thio ether urinalysis among workers exposed to certain chemicals (e.g. incineration of chemical wastes and increase in urinary thio ether excretion on the day of exposure). Thio ether determination is useful in view of the electrophilic properties of chemicals and may serve as a warning signal.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 20 Jan. 1982, Vol.60, No.2, p.30-34. Illus. 7 ref.
Chromosome damage induced by styrene, styrene oxide and some analogues
Academic dissertation, including a review of the literature on the metabolism and genotoxicity of styrene. In vitro (cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes), styrene and styrene 7,8-oxide, the main reactive metabolite of styrene, and some of their analogues produced structural chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Although styrene oxide was apparently mutagenic in human lymphocytes, neither styrene nor styrene oxide produced detectable chromosome damage in the bone marrow of hamsters. Styrene and vinyltoluene did cause chromosome breakage in the bone marrow of mice, as indicated by the micronucleus induction test. The difference between the 2 rodents is probably due to the relatively low activity of epoxide hydrolase in the mouse, which makes the mouse less able to inactivate styrene oxide.
Institute of Occupational Health, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 1, Helsinki, Finland, 1981. 56p. Illus. 111 ref.
Garza Chapa R., Leal Garza C.
Lead and chromosome aberrations
Plomo y aberraciones cromosómicas [in Spanish]
Factors studied were: blood lead (PbB) levels, urinary δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), duration of lead exposure, and age. Lymphocyte cultures were analysed from 77 lead exposed workers and 2 control groups. There was a significant increase in cells with chromosome aberrations in the exposed group. An association was found between these aberrations and PbB levels and with duration of exposure. In the control groups there was an association of chromosome aberrations and age.
Salud Pública de México, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.23, No.4, p.389-397. Illus. 25 ref.
Stankevič K.I., Badaeva L.N., Samoš L.V., Šumova L.Z.
Cytogenetic and gonadotoxic action of a static electric field
Citogenetičeskoe i gonadotoksičeskoe dejstvija statičeskogo ėlektričeskogo polja [in Russian]
The widespread use of polymeric materials (textiles, construction materials, plastics) under conditions which promote the accumulation of static electric charges means that workers may be exposed to unnaturally high fields. To determine the effects of static fields, mice were subjected to static electric fields up to 700V/cm in intensity for 2h, after which testicular tissue was examined for chromosomal aberrations. 700V/cm produced both chromosomal aberrations and reduced spermatogenesis; 300V/cm had similar but less pronounced effects, while 150V/cm produced no changes. Thus, 300V/cm is a threshold exposure level.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1981, No.10, p.9-11. 5 ref.
Aristov V.N., Red'kin Ju.V., Bruskin Z.Z., Ogleznev G.A.
Experimental data on the mutagenic action of toluene, isopropanol and sulfur dioxide
Ėksperimental'nye dannye o mutagennom dejstvii toluola, izopropanola i sernistogo gaza [in Russian]
The nature and frequency of chromosomal and mitotic aberrations in the bone marrow of albino rats were determined in chronic inhalation experiments with toluene, isopropanol and sulfur dioxide in various concentrations and combinations. The statistical calculations involved in predicting no-effect concentrations of toluene and isopropanol are presented; a non-linear regression equation was used. The proposed method can be used to calculate no-effect concentrations of toxic substances for purposes of TLV determination or correction.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1981, No.7, p.33-36. 9 ref.
Women entering labour force draw attention to reproductive hazards for both sexes
The increase of women in the American labour force in the last decade had lead to an increased awareness of the reproductive hazards posed, to both sexes, by occupational exposures to dangerous materials such as lead. Industry has attempted to protect the child-bearing potential of female employees but did not address the overall problem. The lead standard, finalised in 1978, should provide worker protection but its adequacy with regard to reproductive effects is still uncertain.
Family Planning / Population Reporter, Feb. 1981, Vol.10, No.1, p.10-13
Gonadotoxic and embryotoxic effects of halothane
O gonadotoksičeskom i ėmbriotoksičeskom dejstvii ftorotana [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments carried out with a view to investigating the effects of low concentrations of halothane (1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloro-2-bromoethane), an inhalation anaesthetic, on the gonads, embryo and foetus. Halothane affects the gonads in both male and female rats, and the gonadotoxic effect is proportional to the concentration of the anaesthetic. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects were observed neither in rats nor in mice. A threshold limit value of 20mg/m3 was established for halothane.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1981, No.4, p.21-24. 17 ref.
Nordenson I., Sweins A., Beckman L.
Chromosome aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes exposed to trivalent and pentavalent arsenic
Cultured human lymphocytes from healthy individuals were exposed to sodium arsenic (trivalent) and sodium arsenate (pentavalent) at concentrations comparable to the arsenic (As) levels found in the urine of copper smelter workers. Significantly increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations were found after exposure to trivalent but not pentavalent As. This effect was not found when non-stimulated lymphocytes were exposed to trivalent As and then cultured. The rate of sister chromatid exchanges was also increased after exposure to trivalent As. Trivalent As is more genotoxic than pentavalent As and exerts its effect mainly during cell division.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1981, Vol.7, No.4, p.277-281. 18 ref.
Hernberg S., Kahn H., Lehtinen S.
Proceedings of the second Finnish-Estonian Symposium of early effects of toxic substances
Doklady Vtorogo Finsko-Ėstonskogo simpoziuma po rannim vozdejstvijam toksičnyh veščestv [in Russian]
Proceedings of a Symposium organised by the Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine in Tallinn, Estonia (USSR), and the Finnish Institute of Occupational health. The texts of 21 papers presented at the symposium are reproduced in English and Russian under 2 main headings: genetic toxicology (implications in occupational health, chromosomal aberrations in offspring of female styrene workers, experimental effects of shale oil on reproductive function, biological monitoring); clinical and experimental neurotoxicity (central nervous function following lead exposure, psychological effects of long-term mercury exposure, neurotoxic properties of n-hexane, injury to brain cells by exposure to sublethal doses of organic solvents).
Institute of Occupational Health, Haartmaninkatu 1, 00290 Helsinki 29, Finland, 1982. 212p. Illus. 164 ref.
Waksvik H., Klepp O., Brøgger A.
Chromosome analyses of nurses handling cytostatic agents
Report of a cytogenetic study (chromosome damage and sister chromatid exchange) of 10 nurses handling cytostatic agents used in the chemotherapy of certain forms of cancer (average exposure, duration 2150 hours) and 10 controls. The nurses had an increased frequency of chromosome gaps and a slight increase in sister chromatid exchange frequency. It is postulated that the increase may be attributable to exposure to cytostatic drugs and that these agents are a potential occupational hazard in therapeutic staff.
Cancer Treatment Reports, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.65, No.7-8, p.607-610. 27 ref.
Canada Safety Council
Effects of physical and chemical hazards on the reproductive health of male and female workers
Contents: chemical and physical hazards; workplace exposure and its effects on reproduction; impediments to progress; chemical reproductive hazards, proven (anaesthetic gases, carbon disulfide, hormones, lead, mercury, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, vinyl chloride); potential (aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroprene); suspected (arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chloroform, dimethylformamide, lithium, nickel); physical reproductive hazards, proven (ionising radiation, non-ionising radiation); potential (heat, noise, vibration); employers' responsibilities and worker rights; bibliography; 2-page summary for poster display.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3V4, Canada, 1981. 33p. 21 ref.
Whorton M.D., Stubbs H.A., Obrinsky A., Milby T.H.
Testicular function of men occupationally exposed to para-tertiary butyl benzoic acid
90 male volunteers involved in the manufacture, packaging and maintenance of equipment used in production of p-tert-butylbenzoic acid (TBBA) were compared with 103 male workers not exposed to any known testicular toxin. Exposure indexes were based on employment in the years prior to the installation of a scrubber system in 1964, prior to the introduction of personal protective practices, 1964-1978, and 1978-1979. Peak exposure concentration was 9.3mg/m3. Evaluations of sperm count, history of fathering children, and gonadotropin levels indicated that, at the exposure levels experienced, TBBA did not have a clinical or epidemiologic effect on testicular function.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1981, Vol.7, No.3, p.204-213. 6 ref.
Proceedings of the US-Finnish joint symposium on occupational safety and health and the third annual NIOSH scientific symposium
23 (of a total of 47) of the papers presented at this joint US-Finnish symposium (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, Oct. 1980) are reproduced in 5 sections entitled: general aspects of occupational health; neurotoxicology; reproductive effects; safety; epidemiology.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1981, Vol.7, No.4, p.166. 438 ref.
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