Antifertility and prenatal effects - 646 entries found
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- Antifertility and prenatal effects
Jansen P.W., Tiemeier H., Verhulst F.C., Burdorf A., Jaddoe V.W.V., Hofman A., Moll H.A., Verburg B.O., Steegers E.A., Mackenbach J.P., Raat H.
Employment status and the risk of pregnancy complications: The Generation R Study
This study explored the relationships of employment status, type of unemployment and weekly working hours with a wide range of pregnancy outcomes. Information on employment characteristics and pregnancy outcomes was available for 6111 pregnant women enrolled in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. After adjustment for confounders, there were no statistically significant differences in risks of pregnancy complications between employed and unemployed women. Overall, there were no indications that paid employment during pregnancy affects the health of the mother and child. However, among unemployed and employed women, women receiving disability benefit, students and women with long working hours during pregnancy were at risk for some adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2010, Vol.67, No.6, p.387-394. 33 ref.
Dolk H., Armstrong B., Lachowycz K., Vrijheid M., Rankin J., Abramsky L., Boyd P.A., Wellesley D.
Ambient air pollution and risk of congenital anomalies in England, 1991-1999
The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between risk of congenital anomaly and exposure to air pollution in England during the 1990s. A geographical study was conducted across four regions of England using population-based congenital anomaly registers, 1991-1999. Exposure was measured as 1996 annual mean background sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10) concentrations. Poisson regression, controlling for maternal age, area socioeconomic deprivation and hospital catchment area was used to estimate relative risk for an increase in pollution from the 10th to the 90th centile. For non-chromosomal anomalies combined, relative risks were 0.99 for SO2, 0.97 for NO2 and 0.89 for PM10. For chromosomal anomalies, relative risks were 1.06 for SO2, 1.11 for NO2 and 1.18 for PM10. Raised risks were found for tetralogy of Fallot and SO2 (RR 1.38), NO2 (RR 1.44) and PM10 (RR 1.48), which is of interest in light of previously reported associations between this cardiac anomaly and other air pollutants.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2010, Vol.67, No.4. p.223-227. 27 ref.
Ambient_air_pollution.pdf [in English]
Peters C., Harling M., Dulon M., Schablon A., Torres Costa J., Nienhaus A.
Fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers - A systematic review
A systematic literature was carried out to investigate fertility and pregnancy among hairdressers. A total of two reviews and 26 original studies on fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers were identified. The different authors describe increased risks of infertility, congenital malformations, small for gestational age, low birth weight, cancer in childhood, as well as effects from single substances. Overall, the studies were inconsistent, so that no clear statements on an association between the exposure as a hairdresser and the effect on reproduction were possible. However, on the basis of the identified epidemiological studies, fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers cannot be excluded.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, 5:24, 13p. 47 ref.
Fertility_disorders.pdf [in English]
Studies and research 2009/2010
Etudes et recherche 2009/2010 [in French]
This bilingual French/English booklet presents the research efforts undertaken by the French national institute for research and safety (Institut national de recherche et sécurité, INRS) for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases during 2009 and 2010.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2010. 104p. Illus.
Studies_and_research_2009/2010.pdf [in English]
Etudes_et_recherche_2009/2010.pdf [in French]
Testud F., Abadia-Benoist G.
Occupational hazards among pregnant women
Risques professionnels chez la femme enceinte [in French]
As of now, few occupational factors have been clearly identified as presenting a risk to reproduction in pregnant women. Nevertheless the most important factors that warrant surveillance are lead and solvents for women working in the chemical industry and some infectious agents (German measles, listeriosis, toxoplasmosis and HIV) for health care personnel. Measurements of the exposure intensity should accompany the clinical diagnosis of symptoms such as migraine, nausea or a sense of foul smells.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 1st Quarter 2010, No.166, 11p. 72 ref.
Martuzzi M., Mitis F., Bianchi F., Minichilli F., Comba P., Fazzo L.
Cancer mortality and congenital anomalies in a region of Italy with intense environmental pressure due to waste
Waste management in the Campania region has been characterised, since the 1980s, by widespread uncontrolled and illegal practices of waste dumping, generating concerns over the health implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible adverse health effects of such environmental pressure. The health effects of waste-related environmental exposures in Campania were assessed in 196 municipalities of the provinces of Naples and Caserta. Poisson regression was used to analyse the association between health outcomes and environmental contamination due to waste. Statistically significant excess relative risks (ERR) in high-index compared with low-index (unexposed) municipalities were found for all-cause mortality (9.2% in men and 12.4% in women) and liver cancer (19.3% in men and 29.1% in women). Increased risks were also found for all cancer mortality (both sexes), stomach and lung cancer (in men). Statistically significant ERRs were found for congenital anomalies of the internal urogenital system (82.7%) and of the central nervous system (83.5%). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.725-732. Illus. 39 ref.
Bonzini M., Coggon D., Godfrey K., Inskip H., Crozier S., Palmer K.T.
Occupational physical activities, working hours and outcome of pregnancy: Findings from the Southampton Women's survey
The objective of this study was to investigate risks of physical activity at work by pregnancy trimester, including the effects on head and abdominal circumference. At 34 weeks of gestation 1327 expectant mothers participating in a wider cohort study were interviewed on their activities (working hours, shift work and work postures) in jobs held at each of 11, 19 and 34 weeks of gestation, and subsequently ascertained birth outcomes (preterm delivery, small for gestational age (SGA) and reduced head or abdominal circumference). Risk of preterm delivery was elevated nearly threefold in women whose work at 34 weeks entailed trunk bending for >1h/day. Small head circumference was more common in babies born to women who worked for >40h/week. However, no statistically significant associations were found with SGA or small abdominal circumference, and preterm delivery showed little association with long working hours, lifting, standing or shift work.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.66. No.10, p.685-690. 24 ref.
Occupational_physical_activities.pdf [in English]
González-Yebra A.L., Kornhauser C., Barbosa-Sabanero G., Pérez-Luque E.L., Wrobel K.
Exposure to organic solvents and cytogenetic damage in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa from shoe workers
The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of solvents used in shoemaking. Thirty-four exposed Mexican shoe workers and 34 unexposed control subjects, paired by age and sex, were compared. Occupational exposure was determined by personal monitoring followed by gas chromatography. Exfoliated buccal cells of each subject were used to determine the incidence of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities. Solvents detected were acetone, ethyl acetate, butanone and toluene. The incidence of nuclear abnormalities was significantly higher in the exposed group. A positive relationship was found between the incidence of micronuclei and workplace toluene concentrations. The micronucleus test is proposed as a low cost biomarker of genotoxicity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.373-380. Illus. 34 ref.
Garlantézec R., Monfort C., Rouget F., Cordier S.
Maternal occupational exposure to solvents and congenital malformations: A prospective study in the general population
To study the relations between maternal occupational exposure to solvents during pregnancy and the risk of congenital malformations, a prospective population-based cohort study was undertaken in three districts of Brittany, France, involving 3421 pregnant women. Occupational exposure to solvents at the beginning of pregnancy was assessed from the women's self-reported occupational exposures and from a job-exposure matrix. Logistic regressions were used to adjust for potential confounders. Significant associations were found between major congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to solvents by both self-reports and the job-exposure matrix (OR 2.48 and 3.48 respectively for the highest and lowest exposure groups). A significant dose-response trend was observed with both exposure assessment methods. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2009, Vol.66, No.7, p.456-463. 40 ref.
Yong L.C., Sigurdson A.J., Ward E.M., Waters M.A., Whelan E.A., Petersen M.R., Bhatti P., Ramsey M.J., Ron E., Tucker J.D.
Increased frequency of chromosome translocations in airline pilots with long-term flying experience
Chromosome translocations are an established biomarker of cumulative exposure to external ionising radiation. This study determined the frequency of translocations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 83 airline pilots and 50 comparison subjects. Translocations were scored in an average of 1039 cell equivalents (CE) per subject using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) whole chromosome painting and expressed per 100 CE. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. There was no significant difference in the mean translocation frequency of pilots and comparison subjects. However, among pilots, the adjusted translocation frequency was significantly associated with flight years. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.56-62. 40 ref.
Wen-Bin M., Wei W., Yu-Lan Q., Fang J., Zhao-Lin X.
Micronucleus occurrence related to base excision repair gene polymorphisms in Chinese workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer
This study examines whether base excision repair gene polymorphisms contributes to susceptibility of chromosomal damage induced by vinyl chloride. The cytokinesis block micronucleus test was performed on 185 vinyl chloride exposed workers to detect chromosomal changes in peripheral lymphocytes. The PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was applied to detect polymorphisms of TDG, PARP1 and APE1 genes. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. Findings are discussed. Vinyl chloride exposed workers carrying TDG 199Gly/Ser + Ser/Ser genotypes were found to be highly susceptible to chromosomal damage. A combination of TDG Gly199Ser and APE1 Ile64Val polymorphisms may modify the risk of chromosomal damage.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.51, No.5, p.578-585. 43 ref.
Shirangi A., Fritschi L., Holman C.D.J., Bower C.
Birth defects in offspring of female veterinarians
To investigate the risk of birth defects in offspring of female veterinarians exposed to occupational hazards such as radiation, anesthetic gases and pesticides, a questionnaire survey was conducted among of all graduates from Australian veterinary schools from 1960 to 2000. In a multiple logistic regression controlling for the potential confounders, the study showed an increased risk of birth defects in offspring of female veterinarians after occupational exposure to high doses of radiation (taking more than 10 X-ray films per week, odds ratio 5.73) and to pesticides (exposure at least once per week, odds ratio 2.39).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.51, No.5, p.525-533. 53 ref.
Wang Y., Duan H., Dai Y., Bin P., Cheng J., Pan Z., Huang C., Leng S., Chen W., Zheng Y.
Uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1A7 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to chromosomal damage among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposed workers
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1A7 (UGT1A7) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chromosomal damage among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-exposed workers. Blood and urine samples of 140 PAH-exposed workers and 66 non-PAH-exposed workers were collected. The polymorphisms of UGT1A7, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and 1-hydroxypyrene were analyzed. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that polymorphisms of UGT1A7 gene may alter the severity of PAH-induced chromosomal damage among the exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.51, No.6, p.682-689. Illus. 56 ref.
Lee M.S., Paek D., Eum K.D., Siegrist J., Li J., Lee H.E., Cho S.I.
Paternal work stress and prolonged time to pregnancy
The aim of this study was to explore an association between psychosocial stress at work in married men and their spouses' prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP). All married male workers of a large Korean petrochemical enterprise and their wives fulfilling the selection criteria were included. Data were available from 322 couples. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. In the chronically stressed group, delayed TTP was associated with an elevated imbalance between effort and reward (OR 0.47). A similar but somewhat weaker effect was found for the overall group (OR 0.67).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.209-216. Illus. 53 ref.
Jakobsson K., Mikoczy Z.
Reproductive outcome in a cohort of male and female rubber workers: A registry study
The objective of this study was to investigate whether employment in the Swedish rubber industry from 1973 onwards had a negative impact on reproductive health. Pairs of mother and child, and triads of father-mother-child were obtained through linkage of a cohort of 18,518 rubber factory employees with the Swedish Population Registry. Birth outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Register for 17,918 children. For each child, parental employment as blue-collar rubber worker during the pregnancy and sperm maturation period was obtained from work-place records. Children to female food industry workers, in all 33,256, constituted an external reference group. Working in the rubber industry was found to have a statistically significant effect on the sex ratio, the risk of multiple births, birth weight and weight for gestational age.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.165-174. 43 ref.
Chiu B.C., Blair A.
Pesticides, chromosomal aberrations, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
An excessive incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been reported among farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. Some pesticides exhibit immunotoxic and genotoxic activities. Individuals exposed to pesticides have also been found to have an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities. Two recent epidemiologic studies reported that the association between pesticide exposures and risk of NHL was largely limited to NHL cases with the chromosomal translocation t(14;18). This review summarizes the findings of various epidemiologic studies, speculates on implications, and suggests the research needed to clarify the role of pesticides in NHL.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.250-255. 20 ref.
Kisby G.E., Muniz J.F., Scherer J., Lasarev M.R., Koshy M., Kow Y.W., McCauley L.
Oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure and oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples of pesticide applicators and farm workers working in the fruit orchards of Oregon were analysed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and was serum analysed for lipid peroxides. Cellular DNA damage was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Compared to unexposed populations, urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farm workers and applicators, with 8-OH-dG levels being 8.5 and 2.3 times higher, respectively and malondialdehyde levels 4.9 and 24 times higher, respectively. DNA damage and oxidative DNA repair were also significantly greater in lymphocytes of applicators and farm workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.206-214. Illus. 22 ref.
Karaman A., Pirim I.
Exposure to bitumen fumes and genotoxic effects on Turkish asphalt workers
The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to asphalt fumes among Turkish asphalt workers and to determine whether any effects could be detected with genotoxic tests. The study included 26 asphalt workers and 24 control subjects. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) were determined in peripheral lymphocytes. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) excretion was used as a biomarker of occupational exposure to PAHs. The asphalt workers had a significant increase in SCEs and MN. A positive correlation existed between the duration of exposure and rates of SCE or MN frequencies. The concentration of 1-OHP in urine was higher for the asphalt workers than for the controls. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the urinary 1-OHP concentration and SCEs or MN frequencies.
Clinical Toxicology, Apr.-May 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.321-326. Illus. 59 ref.
Lin C.C., Wang J.D., Hsieh G.Y., Chang Y.Y., Chen P.C.
Increased risk of death with congenital anomalies in the offspring of male semiconductor workers
This study aimed to investigate whether the offspring of male workers employed in the semiconductor manufacturing industry had an increased risk of death with congenital anomalies. The 6,834 male workers had been employed in the eight semiconductor companies in Taiwan between 1980 and 1994. Live born children of the workers with or without congenital anomalies were identified using the National Birth and Death Registries from the Department of Health, Taiwan. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of birth outcomes and deaths, controlling for infant sex, maternal age, and paternal education. A total of 5,702 children were born to male workers during the study period. There were increased risks of deaths with congenital anomalies (adjusted OR 3.26) and heart anomalies (OR 4.15) in the offspring of male workers who were employed during the two months before conception. The possible etiological basis needs to be corroborated in further research.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol. 14, No.2, p.112-116. 41 ref.
Documenting occupational exposures
Retracer les expositions professionnelles [in French]
This report presents proposals pertaining to the prevention of occupational hazards arising from carcinogens, mutagens and substances toxic to reproductive health (CMRs), particularly from the standpoint of improved understanding workers' exposures by means of the traceability of occupational exposure data, the requirements with respect to the conservation of the data, the conditions governing access to this information and its relationship with general medical practice.
La Documentation française, 29, quai Voltaire 75007 Paris, France, Oct. 2008. 180p. Illus.
http://lesrapports.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/cgi-bin/brp/telestats.cgi?brp_ref=084000684&brp_file=0000.pdf [in French]
Cherry N., Moore H., McNamee R., Pacey A., Burgess G., Clyma J.A., Dippnall M., Baillie H., Povey A.
Occupation and male infertility: Glycol ethers and other exposures
The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between male infertility and occupational exposures, particularly glycol ethers. It involved men attending 14 fertility clinics in the United Kingdom, from whom a semen sample was collected and occupational exposure data were obtained by means of interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Work with organic solvents, particularly glycol ethers was associated with the likelihood of low motile sperm count. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for moderate and high glycol ether exposure (compared with none) were 1.70 and 2.54. After adjustment for potential confounders, these risks were slightly reduced (OR 1.46 and 2.25, respectively). No other occupational risk factor was identified.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.65, No.10, p.708-714. Illus. 31 ref.
Rajan P., Kelsey K.T., Schwartz J.D., Bellinger D.C., Weuve J., Spiro A., Sparrow D., Smith T.J., Nie H., Weisskopf M.G., Hu H., Wright R.O.
Interaction of the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism and lead burden on cognitive function: The VA normative ageing study
This study evaluated the modifying influence of a δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene polymorphism on the relation between lead burden and cognition among older men. Information on ALAD genotype, lead measurements, potential confounders and cognitive testing was collected from 982 veterans. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. With higher levels of tibia lead, ALAD 1-2/2-2 carriers exhibited worse performance on a spatial copying test in comparison with ALAD 1-1 carriers. However, there was no consistent pattern of an ALAD genotype-lead interaction for the other tests.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep 2008, Vol.50, No.9, p.1053-1061. 36 ref.
Jönsson L.S., Littorin M., Axmon A., Jönsson B.A.G., Broberg K.
Lung function in relation to 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and genetic effect modification among rubber workers in Sweden
The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of impaired lung function among Swedish rubber workers. Included in the study were 159 rubber exposed and 118 unexposed controls. Urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (a marker of carbon disulfide and vulcanization fumes) were assessed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes were analyzed by Taqman-based allelic discrimination and conventional polymerase chain reaction. There was an association between increasing levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and impaired lung function among exposed workers. The association was modified by glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 (GSTA1)-52 and GSTP1-114. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep 2008, Vol.50, No.9, p.1006-1012. 43 ref.
Baste V., Moen B.E., Riise T., Hollund B.E., Øyen N.
Infertility and spontaneous abortion among female hairdressers: The Hordaland Health Study
This cross-sectional study investigated the risks of negative reproductive outcome among female hairdressers. A total of 16,907 women in their forties were invited to participate; the response rate was 71%. Information on infertility, delayed conception, spontaneous abortions, smoking and education was collected by means of questionnaires. Infertility and spontaneous abortion were higher among female hairdressers than among women in other occupations (adjusted relative risks 1.30 and 1.31 respectively).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1371-1377. 30 ref.
Harley K.G,, Marks A.R., Bradman A., Barr D.B., Eskenazi B.
DDT exposure, work in agriculture, and time to pregnancy among farmworkers in California
This study examined whether exposure to pesticides, including DDT, was associated with longer time to pregnancy (TTP). A total of 402 pregnant women living in a migrant farm worker community were asked how many months they took to conceive. Women reported their and their partners' occupational and home pesticide exposure preceding conception. In a subset of 289 participants, levels of DDT and its decomposition product DDE were measured in maternal serum. No associations were seen with DDT exposure. However, longer TTP was seen among women reporting exposure to agricultural and home pesticides, but not among men. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1335-1342. Illus. 44 ref.
Wu F., Xia Z., Qu Y., Tang Y., Cao D., Sun P., Christiani D.C.
Genetic polymorphisms of IL-1A, IL-1B, IL-1RN, NFKB1, FAS, and FASL, and risk of silicosis in a Chinese occupational population
To test whether polymorphisms in IL-1, NF-KB, FAS and FASL genes are associated with risk of silicosis, a case-control study was conducted with 183 silicosis patients and 111 silica-exposed miners who were frequency-matched by age, dust exposure duration, work location, and type of work. Genotype analysis was performed on genomic DNA, using a PCR-RFLP assay. Findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.843-851. 26 ref.
Vaktskjold A., Talykova L.V., Chashchin V.P., Odland J.Ö., Nieboer E.
Maternal nickel exposure and congenital musculoskeletal defects
The objective of this study was to investigate whether women occupationally exposed to nickel in the nickel and copper refineries in the Kola region of Russia in early pregnancy were at elevated risk of delivering a newborn with a malformation or deformation of the musculoskeletal system. Data were obtained from the Kola Birth Register. Each record was assigned a categorical nickel exposure rating according to the occupation the delivering woman had at the time of becoming pregnant. Based on 22,965 births, 304 infants (13.3/1,000 births) were diagnosed with musculoskeletal defects at birth, especially for feet deformities. The incidence was high, but unrelated to maternal exposure to nickel. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.825-833. 47 ref.
Ates I., Suzen H.S., Yucesoy B., Tekin I.O., Karakaya A.
Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms in CWP and its severity in Turkish coal workers
To determine the cytokine gene profiles of Turkish coal miners, a genotyping analysis was performed to investigate the polymorphisms pro-inflammatory (TNFA, IL1A, IL1B, and IL6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RN and TGFB1) related to coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). An additional goal was to observe whether these cytokine gene polymorphisms influence the development risk and severity of CWP. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Findings suggest that the TNFA (-238) variant may be a risk factor in both the development and severity of CWP, while the TNFA (-308) variant seems to be important only in disease severity. On the other hand, IL6 variant may have a protective effect on the development and disease severity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.741-747. 49 ref.
Bretveld R., Kik S., Hooiveld M., van Rooij I., Zielhuis G., Roeleveld N.
Time-to-pregnancy among male greenhouse workers
The aim of this study was to determine whether time-to-pregnancy (TTP) is prolonged in 694 male greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides in comparison with 613 non-exposed controls. Data were collected through self-administrated questionnaires with detailed questions on TTP, as well as on lifestyle (smoking habits, coffee and alcohol consumption, etc.), work tasks, and occupational exposures of the men and their partners in the six months before conception of the most recent pregnancy. TTP was compared between male greenhouse workers and non-exposed controls. The crude analyses did not show a decreased overall fecundability among greenhouse workers compared to the non-exposed reference group. However, when fecundability was assessed for primigravidous couples, duogravidous couples, and multigravidous couples separately, greenhouse workers were found to be less fecund when trying to conceive their first pregnancy. Among couples who already experienced one or more pregnancies, no association was seen between pesticide exposure and TTP after adjustment for confounders.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.185-190. Illus. 21 ref.
Franko A., Dolžan V., Arnerić N., Dodič-Fikfak M.
The influence of genetic polymorphisms of GSTP1 on the development of asbestosis
Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the development of asbestosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) P1 represent a risk factor for this disease. The study population included 262 workers with asbestosis and 265 matched controls. Information on cumulative asbestos exposure was available. A real-time PCR based on the 5' nuclease assay was designed for the analysis of the GSTP1 polymorphisms. The key finding was that GSTP1 genotype coding for an enzyme with high conjugation capacity versus genotypes resulting in intermediate and low enzyme activity significantly increases the risk of asbestosis (odds ratio 1.49).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.50, No.1, p.7-12. 29 ref.
Jönsson L.S., Jönsson B.A.G., Axmon A., Littorin M., Broberg K.
Influence of glutathione-related genes on symptoms and immunologic markers among vulcanization workers in the southern Sweden rubber industries
The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of genetic variants on symptoms of the eyes and airways, headache and nausea, as well as on immunologic markers, among vulcanization workers in the Swedish rubber industry. Polymorphisms in genes, which are involved in the defence against reactive oxygen species and metabolism of toxic substances present in the vulcanization fumes, were analysed. A total of 145 exposed and 117 unexposed workers were included in the study. Data concerning symptoms and medical and occupational histories were obtained in structured interviews. Immunologic markers were analysed in blood. Polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes were analysed by TaqMan allelic discrimination and polymerase chain reaction. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that hereditary factors may influence the susceptibility to symptoms and the immunologic response of rubber industry workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.913-919. Illus. 36 ref.
Hintsanen M., Elovainio M., Puttonen S., Kivimäki M., Lehtimäki T., Kähönen M., Juonala M., Rontu R., Viikari J.S.A., Raitakari O.T., Keltikangas-Järvinen L.
Val/met polymorphism of the COMT gene moderates the association between job strain and early atherosclerosis in young men
Several studies support job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Since the COMT gene influences dopamine transmission, dopaminergic activity might moderate effects of stress on CHD risk. This study examines whether COMT Val158Met polymorphism moderates the association between job strain and atherosclerosis. Participants were 347 women and 353 men from the population-based Young Finns study. Preclinical atherosclerosis was measured using carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) ultrasound. The COMT polymorphism was found to moderate the job strain-IMT association in men. The findings support a general model in which the interaction between genotype and job strain is assumed to predispose to increased atherosclerotic processes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.649-657. Illus. 51 ref.
Yucesoy B., Kurzius-Spencer M., Johnson V.J., Fluharty K., Kashon M.L., Guerra S., Luster M.I., Burgess J.L.
Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms with rate of decline in lung function
The objective of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants involved in cytokine expression are associated with the age-related rate of decline in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1). Gene polymorphisms were investigated in 374 active firefighters for whom the data of at least five pulmonary function tests were available. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that inter-individual variability in progressive decline in FEV1 may be explained in part by genetic variations within genes involved in inflammatory responses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.642-648. 37 ref.
Simcox A.A., Jaakkola J.J.K.
Does work as a nurse increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes?
A population-based study was conducted to assess whether work as a nurse during pregnancy increased the risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age. The study population was selected from The Finnish Prenatal Environment and Health Study of 2568 newborns and included 128 newborns of nurses and 559 newborns of office workers as a reference group. The risk of low birth weight (odds ratio OR 1.02) and preterm delivery (OR 0.81) did not differ between newborns of nurses and office workers, but the risk of small-for-gestational-age was substantially higher among newborns of nurses (OR 1.99).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2008, Vol.50, No.5, p.590-592. 11 ref.
Ates I., Suzen H.S., Yucesoy B., Tekin I.O., Karakaya A.
Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms in CWP and its severity in Turkish coal workers
Cytokines are believed to play a key role in inflammatory mechanisms that result in several diseases such as coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). To determine the cytokine gene profiles of Turkish coal miners, a genotyping analysis was performed to investigate the polymorphisms of CWP-related pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Genotyping was carried out by the polymerase chain reaction technique, coupled with fragment length polymorphism restriction. It was found that the TNFA (-238) variant was a risk factor in both the development and severity of CWP, while the TNFA (-308) variant was important only in disease severity. On the other hand, IL6 variant may have a protective effect on both development and severity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.741-747. 49 ref.
Sallmén M., Neto M., Mayan O.N.
Reduced fertility among shoe manufacturing workers
To investigate whether fertility is reduced among female shoe manufacturing workers exposed to solvents, a retrospective study was conducted on time to pregnancy (TTP) among 250 Portuguese shoe manufacturing women workers exposed to solvents and 250 unexposed women working in other sectors. Data on TTP and related factors were collected by means of interviews, and exposure assessment was based on workplace atmosphere sampling. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. Exposure to solvents was associated with reduced fertility. Overall, the findings provide further evidence that exposure to solvents is hazardous for female reproduction. The observed association may be related to any of the following solvents commonly used in shoe manufacturing: n-hexane and hexane isomers, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2008, Vol.65, No.8, p.518-524. 38 ref.
Milham S., Ossiander E.M.
Low proportion of male births and low birth weight of sons of flour mill worker fathers
The Washington State Department of Health has collected and coded parental occupation information on birth certificates since 1980. These data were used to search for possible effects of parental occupational exposures on birth outcomes. There were 59 births (22 boys and 37 girls) where the father's occupation was specified as flour mill worker. The sex ratio of 0.373 was lower than the mean sex ratio of 0.512. The mean birth weight for flour mill workers' newborn boys was 3180g compared to an overall mean of 3511g for all newborn boys. The mean birth weight of flour mill workers' newborn girls was 3602 compared to an overall mean of 3389 for all newborn girls. The low prevalence of male infants born to fathers of flour mill workers suggests that fumigants that they are exposed to are causing testicular dysfunction, while the very low birth weight seen in these infants may be due to yet unknown genotoxic factors.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, No.2, p.157-158, 8 ref.
Multigner L., Ben Brik E., Arnaud I., Haguenoer J.M., Jouannet P., Auger J., Eustache F.
Glycol ethers and semen quality: A cross-sectional study among male workers in the Paris municipality
This study investigated the effects of past and current exposure to products containing glycol ethers on semen quality and reproductive hormones among men employed by the Paris Municipality. Between 2000 and 2001, 109 male volunteers provided semen, blood and urine samples and underwent a medical examination. Information on lifestyle, occupation, exposure and medical history was obtained by interview. According to their job and chemical products used during the period 1990-2000, participants were classified as either historically exposed or non-exposed. Current exposure levels to glycol ethers were evaluated by monitoring urinary metabolites. Previous exposure to glycol ethers was associated with declines in sperm concentration, motility and morphologically-normal sperm levels. No effect of previous glycol ether exposure on hormones levels was observed. By contrast, current glycol ether exposure levels were low and not correlated with either seminal quality or hormone levels.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2007, Vol.64, No.7, p.467-473. 39 ref.
Wang H., Chen W., Zheng H., Guo L., Liang H., Yang X., Bai Y., Sun J., Su Y., Chen Y., Yuan J., Bi Y., Wei Q., Wu T.
Association between plasma BPDE-Alb adduct concentrations and DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke oven workers
Coke oven emissions (COE) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can induce both benzo[a]pyrene-r-7, t-8, t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts and DNA damage. However, the relation between these biomarkers for early biological effects is not well documented in coke oven workers. In this study, 207 male workers exposed to COE and 102 controls not exposed to COE were recruited in the same steel plant in northern China. BPDE-Alb adduct concentrations in plasma was measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes by alkaline comet assay. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the concentrations of BPDE-Alb adduct and Olive TM levels in exposed but not in control group. The results suggest that occupational exposure to COE may induce both BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage in the lymphocytes of coke oven workers and that these two markers are useful for monitoring exposure to COE in the workplace.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.753-758. Illus. 40 ref.
Schulte P.A., Kelsey K.T., Vainio H.
The contributions of genetics and genomics to occupational safety and health - Genetics and occupational safety and health - Genetics and occupational health and safety
This editorial and the two comments it elicited discuss the contributions of genetics and genomics to occupational health. Genetic factors contribute to the variable responses of workers to occupational hazards - particularly chemical hazards, together with some biological and physical agents. Workers with susceptible genetic profiles may still be at unacceptably high risk even if exposed to low concentrations. There is a broad range of published evidence showing that genetic polymorphisms can lead to differential occupational disease risks in exposed workers. However collecting information on workers' genetic susceptibility raises ethical and legal questions about the way this information should be used.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.717-718; p.720-722. 32 ref.
Study of CMRs in hazardous waste
Etude des composés CMR dans les déchets dangereux [in French]
This article presents the findings of a study on the exposure of waste disposal workers to carcinogens, mutagens and reprotoxic agents (CMRs). A first part describes the methodology used for the survey. Next, the results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. A final section outlines proposed operating procedures for improving protection against risks posed by CMRs, including the formalization of information transfer to the parties concerned.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.73-88. Illus. 9 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_PR%2031/$File/pr31.pdf [in French]
Certin J.F., Fayol M., Fauquet A.L., Héry M., Langlois E., Vincent R.
Results of the 2006 audit campaign entitled "labour inspection - Prevention of occupational hazards of the regional health insurance institutions" (with the technical support of the INRS) on the use of carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic agents in industry
Résultat de la campagne de contrôle 2006 "inspection du travail - prévention des risques professionnels des CRAM" (avec le soutien technique de l'INRS) sur l'utilisation des agents cancérogènes, mutagènes et toxiques pour la reproduction dans l'industrie [in French]
This campaign focussed on four sectors of activity, namely mechanical engineering, plastics processing, the manufacture of paints and varnishes, and the refractory ceramic fibres sector. It was concentrated on a limited number of products: trichloroethylene, lead compounds, phthalates, chromates, MBOCA and refractory ceramic fibres. Close to 2000 enterprises were visited, among which 900 reported using CMRs (carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic substances). The survey attempted to define the practices adopted by enterprises with respect to the identification of CMRs, hazard analysis, substitution methodology and preventive measures.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2007, No.207, p.77-84. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/PR%2027/$File/PR27.pdf [in French]
Exposure of workers to CMR agents
Exposition des travailleurs aux agents CMR [in French]
Chemical agents that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic (CMRs) continue to be widely used in occupational settings. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries are the main primary users of these agents. French regulations require that employers take all the necessary measures to ensure the safety and health of employees who are either exposed or risk being exposed to CMRs or other dangerous substances at the place of work. This article comments the main findings of a study on the use of CMRs in France in 2005, based on a literature survey together with interviews of occupational hygiene experts and safety officers within enterprises.
Face au risque, May 2007, No.433, p.9-12. Illus.
Oltmanns J., Schneider K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Examination of the limit dose for the classification of substances as toxic for reproduction
Überprüfung der Grenzdosis zur Einstufung reproduktionstoxischer Stoffe [in German]
A dose of 1000mg/kg body weight/day is generally cited in EU directives and OECD guidelines as a maximum dose for studies on reproductive toxicity. This project investigated whether this limit remained valid in cases of high levels of workplace exposure. To this end, published exposure data together with data from the MEGA database of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association were evaluated. It was noted that exposures to ambient concentrations of volatile substances were in the 500 to 2000mg/m3 range (time weighted averages), while the inhalation exposures to aerosols and skin exposures were low. By using the appropriate extrapolation factors, the corresponding doses were calculated for animal experiments. For volatile substances, these doses were found to be considerably higher than 1000mg/kg/day. The analysis of the results together with other findings shows that the general concept of a limit dose of 1000mg/kg/day for the classification of substances that are toxic for reproduction is not suited to all chemicals.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 65p. Illus. 70 ref. Price: EUR 10.50.
Bonde J.P., Joffe M.
The influence of occupational exposure on male reproductive function
This literature survey reviews recent epidemiological studies exploring the effect of occupational exposures on semen quality, fecundity and the ability to conceive. The evidence for an adverse effect on male reproduction of several occupational and environmental exposures and toxicants, such as heat, ionizing radiation, inorganic lead, dibromochloropropane, ethylene dibromide, some ethylene glycol ethers, carbon disulfide and welding operations, is strongly supported in well-designed epidemiological studies. For other agents, the association is only suspected or suggested and needs further evaluation before conclusions can be drawn. Many workers in the developing countries are still exposed to substances that are banned in developed countries, sometimes in high concentrations.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.56, No.8, p.544-553. 128 ref.
Occupational risk factors and reproductive health of women
This literature review summarizes recent epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between occupational exposures and negative reproductive outcome among women workers. The studies examined include those published in the international scientific literature since 1990 identified through the search of relevant data banks using selected keywords. There is sufficient evidence is sufficient to warrant the maximum protection of pregnant women from exposure to several occupational risk factors, including anaesthetic gases, antineoplastic drugs, heavy metals, solvents, heavy physical work and irregular work schedules. For other work risks, such as exposure to non-ionizing radiation and psychosocial work stress, the evidence is often suggestive but not conclusive.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.56, No.8, p.521-531. Illus. 100 ref.
Burdorf A., Figà-Talamanca I., Kold Jensen T., Thulstrup A.M.
Effects of occupational exposure on the reproductive system: Core evidence and practical implications
This literature survey concludes that evidence concerning occupational risk factors for adverse effects on the reproductive system is consistent for a limited number of risk factors, most notably exposure to lead, glycol ethers, organic solvents, pesticides and ionizing radiation. It remains difficult to arrive at sound conclusions on the level of exposure and the specific chemicals within the groups of glycol ethers, organic solvents and pesticides that are associated with an increased risk. Precautions to be taken for the protection of the reproductive health have so far focused on pregnant women in the workplace, although available evidence strongly suggests that exposure in the few months before conception may also be of importance, both among women and men.
Occupational Medicine, 2006, Vol.56, p.516-520. 8 ref.
Lacasaña M., Vázquez-Grameix H., Borja-Aburto C.H., Blanco-Muñoz J., Romieu I., Aguilar-Garduño C., García A.M.
Maternal and paternal occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly
The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the association between parental occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly. Cases included 151 children born with anencephaly in maternities of three Mexican states, while controls were births without congenital malformations from the same maternities. General information and information on exposures to pesticides were obtained by means of questionnaires. The children of mothers who worked in agriculture in the acute risk period during pregnancy had a significantly greater risk of anencephaly (odds ratio, OR 4.57). The risk of fathers having a child with anencephaly was greater among those who applied pesticides, irrespective of whether it was during or not during the acute risk period (OR 2.50 and 2.03 respectively).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.63, No.10, p.649-656. 43 ref.
Sallmén M., Baird D.D., Hoppin J.A., Blair A., Sandler D.P.
Fertility and exposure to solvents among families in the Agricultural Health Study
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of solvent exposure on the fertility of couples where the male is a licensed pesticide applicator. The couples were enrolled in a cohort between 1993 and 1997. Exposure to solvents was assessed by means of questionnaires on work tasks. The study was limited to couples (wife aged less than 40 years) with an attempt at pregnancy in the last four years. Twenty eight per cent of the 2112 couples were defined as subfertile. Adjusted subfertility odds ratios (OR) for exposure to solvents were calculated with logistic regression. Female exposure (OR 1.42) and male exposure to solvents (OR 1.21 for monthly exposure and OR 1.40 for daily or weekly exposure) were associated with subfertility. To account for potential dual exposure, variables for parental exposure (either parent exposed or both parents exposed) were also defined. Both were strongly associated with subfertility (OR 1.62 and OR 2.10, respectively).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2006, Vol.63, No.7, p.469-475. Illus. 32 ref.
Inventory of chemical CMR agents used in France in 2005
Inventaire des agents chimiques CMR utilisés en France en 2005 [in French]
A survey was commissioned by the French Ministry of Labour to identify chemical CMR agents (carcinogens, mutagens and reprotoxic agents) widely used in France in occupational settings, together with the number of potentially-exposed workers by sector of activity. National and European statistics and information collected from a representative sample of 2000 enterprises involved in 30 sectors were analysed to evaluate the annual consumption of 324 chemical CMR agents and several hundred petroleum derivatives. Findings are discussed. They show that 4.8 million tons of chemical CMR agents were consumed in France in 2005. Ten agents were consumed in quantities above 100,000 tons/year, while for 168 agents, consumption was very low or nil. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries were the main consumers of primary chemical CMR agents.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2006, No.205, p.83-96. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/PR%2026/$File/PR26.pdf [in French]
DEMETER: Documents for the medical evaluation of reprotoxic products
DEMETER: Documents pour l'évaluation médicale des produits toxiques vis-à-vis de la reproduction [in French]
This guide in the form of a CD-ROM provides guidance for medical practitioners, and particularly occupational physicians, on the evaluation of reproductive hazards resulting from exposures of men and women to toxic substances in the workplace. It contains sheets summarizing the current understanding of the reproductive toxicity of some sixty substances.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2006. CD-ROM (requires a PC with Windows, a web browser and Acrobat reader). Price: EUR 20.00.
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