Clothing and finished textile products industry - 108 entries found
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Reiche K., Müller C., Börngen K.
Partial reversibility of morphological and functional changes of the nasal mucosa after termination of long-term exposure to formaldehyde
Partielle Reversibilität der morphologischen und funktionellen Veränderungen der Nasenschleimhaut nach Beendigung langjähriger Exposition gegenüber Formaldehyd [in German]
In comparison to a non-exposed control group, mucociliary clearance was impaired in 50% and olfactory function in about 30% of 18 workers in a felt manufacturing plant. The workers had been exposed to formaldehyde for an average of 11.3 years. Reexamination of 6 workers 1 year after termination of the exposure to formaldehyde yielded evidence of metaplastic changes returning to normal.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1992, Vol.42, No.5, p.182-186. Illus. 16 ref.
Nag A., Desai H., Nag P.K.
Work stress of women in sewing machine operation
The work stress on 107 women engaged in sewing machine operation in small garment manufacturing units was evaluated. Of the three types of sewing machines (motor operated, full and half shuttle foot-operated), 74% were foot-operated. Short-cycle sewing work involves repetitive action of the hand and feet. Long-term sewing work had a cumulative load on the musculo-skeletal structures and about 68% of the women complained of back pain, among whom 35% reported a persistent low back pain. Unsatisfactory man-machine compatibility, work posture and fatigue, improper co-ordination of the eye, hand and leg are the major problems of the operators. The workplace design may be significantly improved by taking women's anthropometric dimensions into consideration when modifying the workplace.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1992, Vol.21, No.1, p.47-55. Illus. 15 ref.
Roman E., Beral V., Sanjose S., Schilling R., Watson A.
Pernicious anaemia in the textile industry
The objective of this case-control study of textile and clothing workers who died in England and Wales in the years around 1961, 1971 and 1981 was to examine whether the observed excess mortality from anaemia in the industry was associated with any specific anaemia type or occupational activity. The main data gathered were type of anaemia, place of residence and of birth, and occupation. The frequency of the different types of anaemia in this industry differed from that of England and Wales with relatively more deaths from pernicious anaemia than in the country as a whole (74 observed versus 55 expected deaths). Within the industry, those whose death was attributed to pernicious anaemia were more than twice as likely as other textile and clothing workers to have worked in textile mills. Occupational factors, specifically work in textile mills, could be implicated in the pathogenesis of pernicious anaemia. The aetiology of this disease is not well understood and further study in the case of textile mill workers is required.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1991, Vol.48, No.5, p.348-352. 15 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Upholstering machines - Safety regulations and enforcement rules [Germany]
Polstereimaschinen - VBG und Durchführungsanweisungen [in German]
Applicable to machines and installations used in the making of stuffing or upholstered articles, the regulations do not cover folding, cutting, sewing, ironing, cloth marking, steaming, glue spraying and nailing operations. They define danger points and their guarding and deal with machine controls, the release of dangerous and harmful substances and particular types of machines and plant. The rules provide some additional information.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, 1993. 11p. + 6p.
Tartaglia R., Cinti G., Carrara S., Colombini D., Occhipinti E., Loi F.
Work postures and alterations of the spine in sewing machine operators in the clothing industry
Posture di lavoro e alterazioni del rachide nelle addette al cucito del settore abbigliamento [in Italian]
An evaluation was made of the posture risk and occurrence of alterations of the spine in 232 female sewing machine operators in the clothing industry. The results revealed a greater risk of sewing operators of contracting spinal disorders compared with a control population matched for sex and age. The cause of these disorders appears to be the fact that the work station cannot be adjusted to the anthropometric requirements of the individual worker and also that the workers sit without interruption for long periods.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1990, Vol.81, No.1, p.39-44. Illus. 4 ref.
Unskilled labour by women in industrial production
Frauenarbeitsplätze für ungelernte und angelernte Tätigkeiten in der industriellen Produktion [in German]
Unskilled work by women in consumer electronics, textile and clothing industries involves e.g. assembly-line work, soldering or ironing. Work-related health problems (backache and neck disorders, visual function disorders, noise-induced hearing loss) and preventive measures (e.g. ergonomic design of workplaces) are outlined. A survey on job satisfaction revealed for instance that women with high physical strain felt satisfied with their work.
BAD-Inform, 1989, No.2, p.1-6. Illus. 1 ref.
Yu C.Y., Keyserling W.M.
Evaluation of a new work seat for industrial sewing operations
The new seat was compared with a traditional sewing work seat to evaluate the effectiveness of design features. It was designed with special seat-pan and backrest features to accommodate the musculoskeletal geometry of a low sit-stand posture. The traditional work seat was similar to an office chair with a higher than normal seat-height. This investigation consisted of three studies: (1) A user comfort and acceptance experiment which compared the initial psychophysical responses of 50 industrial sewers when introduced to the new seat; (2) a backrest usage experiment which compared the duration of backrest use among 10 industrial sewers; and (3) a follow-up experiment to evaluate chair preference after extended use of the new seat. The results of the user comfort and acceptance experiment found that the new work seat had greater comfort and user preference; the results of the backrest usage experiment found that the new seat had greater backrest use than the traditional seat; the results of the follow-up experiment found that the preference for the new seat was maintained over time.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 1989, Vol.20, No.1, p.17-25. Illus. Bibl.
New accident prevention regulation concerning folding, cloth-cutting and sewing machines (VBG 71)
Ins Bild gesetzt: Die neue Unfallverhütungsvorschrift "Lege-, Zuschneide- und Nähmaschinen" (VBG 71) [in German]
Outline of the most important provisions of new safety-by-design rules concerning folding, cloth-cutting and sewing machines in the Federal Republic of Germany (effective: 1 Oct. 1989).
Der Unfallschirm, Mitteilungsblatt der Textil- und Bekleidungs-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1989, No.3, p.3-6. Illus.
Fernandez J.F., Malzahn D.E., Eyada O.K., Kim C.H.
Anthropometry of Korean female industrial workers
Results of an anthropometric survey conducted on Korean female workers in the garment industry. The data were collected as part of a project to modify work stations that utilised equipment from other countries. A set of 23 body dimensions were taken from a sample of 101 workers (aged 18-28 years). The anthropometric measurements are presented and compared with those of the Western and Japanese female. The results indicate that the body dimensions of the Korean female are different from those of both the Western and the Japanese female. The ratio of sitting height to standing height for the Korean female is closer to that of the Western female than to that of the Japanese female.
Ergonomics, 1989, Vol.32, No.5, p.491-495. Illus. 7 ref.
Explanations and practical advice on photoelectric guards and contact-free switches on textile and garment machines
Erläuterungen und praktische Hinweise zu Lichtschrankensystemen und berührungslos wirkenden Positionsschaltern an Textil- und Bekleidungsmaschinen [in German]
Safety on photoelectric guards and contact-free switches on textile and garment machines which fulfil legal minimum safety requirements in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Der Unfallschirm, Mitteilungsblatt der Textil- und Bekleidungs-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1989, No.1, p.XIV-XVI. Illus.
Aleksandrov V.V., Solncev V.I., Sukonnikov S.E.
Occupational safety and health in the textile and light industries
Ohrana truda v tekstil'noj i legkoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
This book, intended as a reference guide for managers, engineers, technicians and OSH personnel in light industry undertakings, contains basic regulatory, organisational and methodological materials on occupational safety and health in the industries concerned. Covered are the following aspects: organisation of OSH activities; OSH and conditions of work improvement (planning and financing); accident investigation and reporting; workmen's compensation; degree of disability evaluation; employment injury and other work-related health impairment compensation by undertakings (organisations); medical examinations; occupational safety and health for women and minors; other rules, regulations and instructions. In appendix: OSH management and administration diagram; standard method for calculating OSH performance indices; safety rule compliance chart; high OSH performance bonus calculation, etc.
Izdatel'stvo Legkaja promy¿lennost' i bytovoe obsluživanie, 1-j Kada¿evskij per. 12, 113035 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 400p. Price: SUR 1.50.
Stayner L.T., Elliott L., Blade L., Keenlyside R., Halperin W.
A retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed to formaldehyde in the garment industry
In order to assess the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, a retrospective cohort mortality study of 11,030 workers exposed for at least 3 months to formaldehyde in 3 garment facilities was carried out. The average (TWA) formaldehyde exposure at the 3 plants monitored in 1981 and 1984 by NIOSH was 0.15ppm. A statistically significant excess in mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity and connective tissue was observed. Statistically nonsignificant excesses in mortality were observed for cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung, pharynx, bladder, leukaemia and aleukaemia. Mortality from cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung was inversely related to duration of exposure and latency. In contrast, mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity, leukaemias, and lymphopoietic neoplasms increased with duration of formaldehyde exposure and/or latency. It should be recognised that these findings are based on relatively small numbers and that confounding by other factors may still exist. The results from this investigation do provide evidence of a possible relationship between formaldehyde exposure and the development of upper respiratory cancers (buccal), leukaemias, and other lymphopoietic neoplasms in humans.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.6, p.667-681. 33 ref.
Yu C.Y., Keyserling W.M., Chaffin D.B.
Development of a work seat for industrial sewing operations: results of a laboratory study
A hydraulically adjustable chair with 7 independent variables - seat height, seat angle, seat rocking, seat swivel, back-rest height and back-rest angle - was constructed to evaluate comfort and biomechanical factors relevant to the design of a chair for industrial sewing operations. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which of these factors were significant. Two female subjects attended eight 6-hour experimental sessions. The results indicate that to accommodate 90% of the female population, the seat height should be adjustable in the range 51-61cm, the back-rest distance adjustable in the range 10-15cm (measured from the centre of the back-rest to the centre of the seat-pan), the back-rest height should be fixed at 25cm (measured from the centre of the back-rest to the centre of the seat-pan), and the seat allowed to swivel freely.
Ergonomics, 1988, Vol.31, No.12, p.1765-1786. Illus. Bibl.
Working conditions and health in a clothing factory
Les conditions de travail et la santé dans une usine de confection [in French]
This study was conducted at the request of the factory's safety and health committee. There was a question as to the possible connection between working conditions and the occurrence of psychosomatic problems and the consumption of medicinal drugs. A questionnaire answered by 284 employees led to an analysis of general conditions in the factory. It was concluded that all of the medical or psychological problems could not be attributed to working conditions: non-occupational factors also played an important role.
Médecine et travail, 1988, Vol.136, No.2, p.31-36.
Guide to occupational hygiene
Rukovodstvo po gigiene truda [in Russian]
Second of 2 volumes addressed to industrial physicians, specialists in occupational medicine, plant physicians and other medical personnel. Vol.2 is arranged in 16 chapters devoted to occupational hygiene problems in the following industries: mining; coal-mining (opencast and underground); iron and steel (sintering and iron-ore pellet plants, cakes and by-products, blast-furnace processes, steelmaking, ferroalloy smelting processes etc.); non-ferrous metals (manufacturing of alumina, aluminium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc etc.); machinery (foundry, press forging, heat-treating, machine shops etc.); electronics; chemicals; oil and gas extraction and refining; microbiology; synthetic polymers (plastics, man-made fibers, synthetic rubber, rubber products); construction and building materials; asbestos processing; textiles and light industry (textile, clothing, leather goods, shoe making); wood, pulp and paper, woodworking; printing; work with ionising radiation (nuclear power plants, radioactive sources, x-ray equipment, particle accelerators, etc.).
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, 101000 Moskva, USSR, 1987. Vol.2, 446p. 58 ref. Price: SUR 1.90.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Ironing [Federal Republic of Germany]
Bügelei [in German]
These safety regulations cover machines used for pressing, crabbing and folding of textiles and textile articles, and for joining textiles with adhesives. Sections deal with: dangerous zones, hot surfaces, marking, operating elements, pedal switches, precautions for automatic start-up, mangle safety and lifting devices, maintenance, folding machine safety devices and emergency shutdown, machine operation and repair, instruction, prohibited work, age limits, periodic inspection. Supplement: rules of implementation.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1987. 16 + 12p.
Hansson Mild K., Kolmodin-Hedman B., Urdal L., Andersson M.C., Jönsson E., Hagberg M., Eriksson A., Hannevik M., Andersson B.
Effects on humans of high exposure to radiofrequency radiation - A study of health and exposure of plastics welding machine operators
Effekter på människa av hög exposition för radiofrekvent strålning - Studier av plastsvetsoperatörers hälsa och exposition [in Swedish]
113 radiofrequency radiation (RF)-exposed men and women in Sweden and 51 RF-exposed men and women in Norway were studied and RF fields around the operators' welding machines were measured. A reference group of 23 women, sewing machine operators and assembly workers, was chosen in the Swedish part of the study. The power density of leaked radiation from more than 50% of the welding machines exceeded the ceiling value of 220W/m2. The highest leakage fields were found near machines used in the clothing industry. This applies to electric as well as magnetic fields. Some 23% of the men and 40% of the women (37 persons) reported eye irritation, and more than 90% of the persons thought the symptoms were work-related. In Norway, eye irritation was less frequent, occurring in 21% of the men and 25% of the women. A high incidence of hand numbness was found in both studies. A local thermal effect of electric fields in the fingers may have caused the observed paraesthesia and abnormal 2-point discrimination. The conjunctivitis might be caused either by a heating effect of the electromagnetic fields or by irritating effects of plastic pyrolysis products.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 66p. Illus. 39 ref.
Punnett L., Keyserling W.M.
Exposure to ergonomic stressors in the garment industry: application and critique of job-site work analysis methods
Recently developed work analysis techniques permit the quantitative description of job demands and facilitate the identification of highly stressful work elements. It is also a necessary tool for the epidemiologic study of occupational musculoskeletal disorders and their risk factors. The methods were applied to the analysis of 14 garment assembly jobs, employing 151 women, among whom an elevated prevalence of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders had previously been found. The goals of the job analyses were to document the biomechanical features of the jobs and to evaluate the work analysis methods for the characterisation of ergonomic exposures in an epidemiologic study. The cycle lengths of the 14 jobs ranged from 9.5 seconds to 3.4 minutes. Wrist and hand postures that were used frequently included finger pinches, wrist extension and ulnar deviation. The methods were extremely time and labour-intensive; the development of more efficient work analysis techniques will facilitate their wider use in epidemiologic research on the health effects of ergonomic stressors.
Ergonomics, July 1987, Vol.30, No.7, p.1099-1116. Illus. 34 ref.
Sillanpää J., Pääkkönen R., Syväoja H.
Evaluation of ergonomic and industrial hygiene changes at the workplace of industrial seamstresses
Vaiheompelijan työskentelypaikan kehittäminen - Ergonomisia ja työhygieenisiä näkökohtia [in Finnish]
Study of work postures, noise and vibration measurement in a traditional machine table, 3 ergonomically improved prototypes, and 2 ergonomically improved machine tables. Elevating or tilting the machine table improved the work posture. Noise levels were generally between 68 and 95dB(A) and vibration measured near the sewing machine needle exceeded recommended levels in standard ISO/DIS 5349. The A-weighted noise level was decreased by 1-3dB for the traditional machine table. The vibration level was decreased by 10dB at the most adverse frequencies.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisutoimisto, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa, Finland, 1985. Työolosuhteet 53. 31p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: FIM 17.00.
Garas'ko E.V., Brodilo L.I., Zaripova E.P.
Effectiveness of vitamin supplements and ultraviolet irradiation on women operating sewing machines
Ėffektivnost' dopolnitel'noj vitaminizacii i ul'trafioletovogo oblučenija rabotnic švejnogo ceha [in Russian]
An erythaema dose of ultraviolet light (5.5 milliequivalent radium/m2) was administered to 95 women during the fall, winter and early spring (8h/day). Vitamin supplements were provided for 4 months (1 Dec.-31 Mar.). The vitamin dose was adjusted to take account of each subject's job. Clinical examination and tests showed that vitamin supplementation improved the overall state of health of the workers, decreased the fragility of capillaries in their skins and increased the light sensitivity of their visual analysers. The activity of their immune systems was also increased. However, hypovitaminosis was only reduced, not eliminated. It is recommended that vitamin supplementation be administered throughout the winter and spring (Dec.-May).
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1985, No.8, p.83-84. 8 ref.
Punnett L., Robins J.M., Wegman D.H., Keyserling W.M.
Soft tissue disorders in the upper limbs of female garment workers
188 garment workers and 76 hospital workers (control group) were surveyed by questionnaire and physical examination. The prevalences of persistent shoulder, wrist and hand pain were significantly greater among the garment workers. Workers in hand sewing and trimming showed very high prevalences of pain in all upper limb sites. Stitchers had elevated rates of pain in the shoulders, wrists and hands. Workers ironing by hand had a significant elevation in elbow pain rates. Garment tasks appear to be associated with cumulative trauma of the hands and wrists.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1985, Vol.11, No.6, p.417-425. 37 ref.
Friedman S.J., Pery H.O.
Erythema multiforme associated with contact dermatitis
A garment worker developed erythema multiforme concurrently with allergic contact dermatitis of the hands. Patch testing revealed sensitivity to nickel (which was present in her scissors) and to paraphenylenediamine (a commercial dye). During the patch-test evaluation, both the hand dermatitis and the erythema multiforme became exacerbated. Later, patch testing to only nickel sulfate produced erythema multiforme on the face and hands. The allergic pathogenesis, involving the absorption of an allergen through the skin and resulting in a type III allergic reaction from nickel, is discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1985, Vol.12, No.1, p.21-23. 17 ref.
Brinton L.A., Blot W.J., Fraumeni J.F.
Nasal cancer in the textile and clothing industries
A case-control study of 160 patients with cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and 290 controls showed an excess risk among women associated with work in the textile or clothing industries. There was no trend associated with length of service or duration since first employment. Both men and women were at an increased risk of adenocarcinoma, with further enhancement of risk for those experiencing dusty conditions. No aetiological inferences can be drawn from this study.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1985, Vol.42, No.7, p.469-474. Illus. 22 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Occupational safety in vocational training: step-by-step instruction in the clothing industry
Arbeitssicherheit in der beruflichen Ausbildung: für die Stufenausbildung in der Bekleidungsindustrie [in German]
Manual to be used in the safety and health education of workers in the clothing industry during vocational training offered by schools and industry. It covers: generalities (ergonomics, noise, personal protection, dangerous substances, electricity, legislation in the Federal Republic of Germany, safety institutions); risks and their prevention specific to the industry (machinery).
Lexika Verlag, Max Hueber, München, Federal Republic of Germany, 1984. 70p. Illus.
Occupational safety in the mechanisation of heavy and laborious work in textile production and light industry
Bezopasnost' truda pri mehanizacii tjaželyh i trudoemkih rabot v tekstil'noj i legkoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Contents of this manual for engineers and industrial safety specialists: safe machine placement and in-plant traffic flow; safe work with lifting equipment, overhead transport, conveyors, ground transport, and pneumatic conveyors; work organisation for safety; basic safety devices (guards, travel and speed limiters, interlocks, signalisation, electrical safety, noise and vibration control). Particular attention is given to the mechanisation of loading and unloading operations in spinning, weaving, footwear and clothing factories.
Izdatel'stvo "Legkaja i piščevaja promyšlennost", l-j Kadaševskij per. 12, 113035 Moskva M-35, USSR, 1984. 199p. Illus. Bibl. Price: Rbl.0.70.
Working conditions in a clothing factory and their effect on the efficiency and state of health of workers
Pracovní podmínky na konfekční dílně a jejich vliv na výkonnost a zdravotní stav švadlen [in Czech]
The microclimate, illumination and noise level in a children's clothing factory were all satisfactory. There were great differences in efficiency among the 30 dressmakers (all women). Performance decreased with age and correlated negatively with motor and circulatory illness. In 43% of the women there were objective findings of painful vertebrogenic illness (most frequently cervicobrachial syndrome), in 59% increased volume of lower limbs during the shift, in 67% indications of deep thrombophlebitis and thrombosis. Further findings were low saturation with vitamin C (bleeding of the gums in 46%), and in 22% insufficient pulse recovery after effort, indicating an excessive work load. Proposed improvements are described.
Pracovní lékařství, Nov. 1984, Vol.36, No.10, p.385-390. Illus. 10 ref.
Lindner H., Knoche H.
Demands of sewing on vision in relation to workplace illumination
Sehanforderungen und Beleuchtung an Näharbeitsplätzen [in German]
Sewing is the major task in the fabrication of textile articles and footwear; it is a cause of considerable visual stress. Typical visual tasks in sewing are described. Working posture, the distance of the workpiece from the worker and the direction of incident light are analysed. Sewers should be able to vary freely the direction of lighting, even directing light parallel to the line of sight. Present task-lighting fixtures do not meet this requirement.
Augenoptik, 1984, Vol.101, No.2, p.35-39. Illus. 5 ref.
Study of female absenteeism in a textile factory in the Hainaut-Cambrésis region (France)
Enquête sur l'absentéisme féminin dans une industrie textile de la région Hainaut-Cambrésis [in French]
A study of the influence of personal and occupational factors on absenteeism among 138 female production-line workers. The most important personal factors were: family situation, having children and the distance between the home and the workplace. The most important occupational factors were: work posture and relations (conflict) with supervisors. The number of children, the mode of payment (by output or by time), level of qualification and seniority all had little effect on absenteeism.
Travail humain, 1984, Vol.47, No.2, p.113-124. 13 ref.
(Comité technique national des industries du vêtement, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie)
The garment-making industry - Installation of automated equipment and implementation of new technologies
Industrie de la confection - Mise en ¿uvre des matériels automatisés et des techniques nouvelles [in French]
Recommendations adopted on 22 May 1984: preventive measures designed to prevent workers' being hit, dragged, crushed, caught or cut by moving parts of equipment; prevention of burns and back injury; measures to reduce noise, and to maintain thermal comfort and appropriate lighting levels. Commentary on some of these points and on the protection of operators or semi-automated equipment.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1984, No.117, Note No.1511-117-84 (Recommendation No.246), p.579-582.
(Comité technique national des industries du vêtement, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie)
Protection against puncture wounds from sewing machines
Protection contre les piqûres sur machines à coudre [in French]
These recommendations, adopted on 22 May 1984, advise management to equip sewing machines with an effective and convenient device against puncture wounds. The terms "effective" and "convenient" are defined. As examples, two models of guards (already tested) are presented.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1984, No.117, Note No.1509-117-84 (Recommendation No.244), p.571-574.
Tisserand M., Schouller J.F.
Working posture during work on offset-arm sewing machines
Postures de travail sur machines à coudre à bras déporté [in French]
Study conducted in France by 2 regional health insurance funds subsequent to the request made by the National Technical Committee of the Clothing Industry in response to complaints by workers in various branches of this industry. Contents: 1. Description of the work station; physiopathological consequences of improper posture at work; spinal deformation in some women working with such machines; recommendations on choice of equipment and on the layout of the work station. 2. Ergonomic characteristics of machines used in France; visibility in the work zone, appropriate dimensions, controls.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Apr. 1983. 86p. Illus. 14 ref.
Konarski S., Świętochowski J., Gniewecki A.
Rationalisation of the electric lighting in sewing departments in the clothing industry
Racjonalizacja ośwetlenia elektrycznego szwalni w zakładach przemysłu odzieżowego [in Polish]
Surveys of lighting conditions in several Polish clothing factories revealed ways in which lighting systems in sewing departments could be improved in terms of vision and energy consumption. An improved distribution of area and task lighting was introduced in one of the factories. It gave a 3-fold increase in light intensity at the sewing machine presser foot and a 2-fold increase at the bed. Flicker was reduced from 28 to 10%. Glare was likewise reduced. The improved system was sectional, which permitted lighting to be adjusted to the demands of production. The principles of the improved system can be applied to many similar workplaces.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1983, Vol.33, No.116, p.41-53. 24 ref.
Domont A., Couillet F., Marie A., Briotet A., Philbert M., Proteau J.
Study of work stations in the clothing industry by sequential continuous recording of electrocardiographic activity
Etude de postes de travail dans le secteur de la confection par enregistrement séquentiel de l'activité électrocardiographique dynamique en continu [in French]
Various work stations were studied by the Holter method. The study was intended to evaluate the difficulties of applying the method in medium-scale enterprises, to evaluate the meaning and usefulness of the data recorded, and to determine whether or not the results could be used in conjunction with ergonomic studies to improve working conditions. The cardiac cost of a job can be analysed more specifically by this method than by others currently in use. The data should be analysed by activity section or time section, and sequences recorded during food intake or digestion should be eliminated.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.3, p.173-182. Illus. 29 ref.
Castagna W., Von Collrepp F., Krankenhagen J., Lintow H.
Work design in the clothing industry - Handbook for the practising ergonomist - Fundamentals
Arbeitsgestaltung in der Bekleidungsindustrie - Handbuch für den betrieblichen Praktiker - Grundlagen [in German]
The objectives of work design in the context of the working conditions found in the different branches of the clothing industry are discussed. Ergonomic work design is presented for the workplace (seated and standing postures, VDU work stations) and the work environment (lighting, noise, microclimate). A chapter is devoted to health at the workplace: mental stress, medical examinations, respiratory symptoms, visual disturbances, ear, nose and throat disorders, hypertension, numbness of legs, influenza, haemorrhoids, cardiac disturbances, headache, varicose veins, digestive disturbances, neuralgia, hypotension, urinary tract disorders, hearing disturbances, tenosynovitis, back pain. Legal basis of work design. List of relevant standards and directives.
VDI-Verlag, Postfach 1139, 4000 Düsseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 154p. Illus.
Sillanpää J., Frilander P., Liius R., Rantanen S., Syväoja H.
Working conditions in the textile and clothing industries - a summary report
Työolot TEVA-teollisuuden ompelutyöpaikoilla - Yhteenvetoraportti [in Finnish]
An examinationof the health problems caused by work in the textile and clothing industry, based on a questionnaire survey of 623 workers, and in-depth study of the work performed by 83 workers. The respirable dust concentration in the air of textile plants was also measured. Though this was below the TLV value, 60% of the workers complained about the dust. Other environmental factors complained about: heat, draught, noise, humidity. Physical symptoms, mostly related to work posture, included: neck and back pain, swelling of the hand and fingers, headaches, stomach pain. An accelerated work pace led to many stress symptoms.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisutoimisto, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620, Vantaa 62, Finland, 1982. 154p. Illus. 58 ref. Price: Fm.40.00.
Konarski S., Gadomska H.
The relation between visual performance and type of lighting in industrial sewing machine locations
Zależność wydolności wzrokowej przy obsłudze maszyn szwalniczych od rodzaju ich oświetlenia [in Polish]
Results of tests on 18 students aged 20-24 years, conducted for the purpose of determining the optimum level of lighting in industrial stitching shops. The tests were carried out under differing lighting conditions (general lighting and combined general and local lighting), with the equipment and test specially designed to simulate machine sewing, Landolt ring tests having been judged inappropriate. Combined lighting is best for the purpose, and the optimal lighting level is 600lx, with general and local lighting making an equal contribution.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1982, Vol.32, No.115, p.299-309. 27 ref.
On the degree of fatigue of workers in a sewing factory for three different ages
The critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFF), numeral discrimination speed (NDS) and the subjective feeling of fatigue and frequency of complaint were determined for female sewing machine operators, 8 of them were in their 20's, 6 in their 30's, and 10 in their 40's. CFFF was lower after work than before, and the ratio of decrease was greatest for workers in their 40's and least for workers in their 20's. NDS was also lower after work than before but the ratio of decrease was greatest for those in their 20's and least for workers in their 40's. Fatigue and frequency of complaints of fatigue were greater after work than before, and the effect was greatest on younger workers.
Japanese Journal of Science of Clothing, Oct. 1982, Vol.26, No.1, p.19-26. Illus. 12 ref.
Vihma T., Nurminen M., Mutanen P.
Sewing-machine operators' work and musculo-skeletal complaints
40 sewing-machine operators (SMO), with work cycles of 30-60s, and 20 seamstresses as controls were studied. Working postures were more static in the SMO. SMO showed a higher incidence of musculoskeletal complaints, especially in the neck and shoulders and lower limbs.
Ergonomics, Apr. 1982, Vol.25, No.4, p.295-298. Illus. 10 ref.
Guard for the vertical blade on a textile cutter
Protecteur sur couteau à lame verticale utilisé pour la coupe du tissu [in French]
Principle behind the blade guard; description of operation; advantages of latest improvements made to the guard. It is made from thin bars to ensure good visibility; it can be opened to facilitate blade changing; both hands are required to start the cutter; a power-failure protection device is fitted.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 1982, No.9, p.448-449. Illus.
Automatic guard for a fabric bandsaw
Protecteur automatique pour scie à ruban à couper les tissus [in French]
Description of a guard made up of telescopic tubes around the bandsaw blade; the guard is fixed to the blade guide and moves with it. The operator does not need to adjust the blade guide manually; adjustment is automatic. Operating diagram of the fluidic control system. Explanation of operation in the starting position, in the equilibrium position, and when cutting has been completed.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 1981, No.12, p.622-624. Illus.
Granati A., Calsini P., Lenzi R.
Criteria for the evaluation of toxic chemicals - Studies in the clothing industry
Criteri di valutazione di pericolosità di agenti chimici - Ricerche nell'industria dell'abbigliamento [in Italian]
Results of an epidemiological study in an Italian clothing factory between 1972 and 1978. Changes in the epidemiology, and immunological studies in 1979 corfirm the hypothesis that formaldehyde is a significant aetiological factor in the clinical disorders observed in clothing industry workers. It seems that formaldehyde does not act through immunological mechanisms but that its action is potentiated by a sensitisation to common allergens.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1981, Vol.72, No.1, p.22-32. Illus. 19 ref.
Occupational safety in the clothing industry
Sigurnost na radu u tekstilnoj konfekciji [in Serbocroatian]
Contents of this safety training manual for workers in the clothing industry: movement of personnel; lifting and carrying of goods and materials; electrical safety; noise and vibration; lighting; hot materials and surfaces; hot vapours; harmful substances; body posture at work; fire prevention; machinery and tools (fabric spreading machines, portable and stationary (rotary and reciprocating) cutting machines, setting presses, electric and steam irons, ironing presses, electric serving machines, button stitchers). A set of questions to assess the safety knowledge of workers is appended.
Zavod za nakladničku djelatnost iz sigurnosti na radu, Zagreb, Kroflinova 34, 41000 Zagreb, Yugoslavia, 1980. 51p. Illus.
Ministry of Mechanical Engineering (Ministerium für Werkzeug- und Verarbeitungsmaschinenbau)
Textile manufacture and processing [German Democratic Republic]
Textilbearbeitung und -verarbeitung [in German]
This standard, which applies to machines used in the manufacture and processing of textile products (including cutting presses), specifies in Part 1 safety requirements for these machines (machine guarding, controls, hazards in case of breakdown, heating, harmful substances); Part 2: technical requirements for factory rooms (safe distances, ventilation, heating, lighting, fire protection); Part 3: safety rules for general observance in workplaces, for machine operators, and for maintenance staff.
Staatsverlag der DDR, Bereich Standardversand, Postfach 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Apr. 1980. 20p.
Miyashita K., Shiomi S., Kasamatsu T., Itoh N., Iwata H.
A study on occupational cervicobrachial disorder among female sewing machine operators in a small scale industry
A group of 64 female sewing machine operators (group O) was compared with a group of 21 female managers (group C) on complaints of tiredness in the neck, shoulder and arm and a significant difference in the prevalence of tiredness and hypaesthesia of the left arm was found between the two groups. Symptom analysis using a scoring method revealed more severe manifestations of heavy muscle load of the back and lower extremities as well as the left neck-shoulder-arm system in group O than in group C. Symtoms such as eye strain, amblyopia, headache, general fatigue and giddiness due to chronic fatigue were more common among operators than managers. Positive rates of neurological tests showed no difference between the groups except for Eaton's test.
Wakayama Medical Reports, Dec. 1980, Vol. 23, No.3, p.81-88. Illus. 17 ref.
Three guards for textile cutting band saws
Trois protecteurs pour scies à ruban utilisées pour couper les tissus [in French]
Design, working, advantages and disadvantages of 3 guards developed by French firms using band saws: Kretz-Chantelle guard (metal shoe guard in front of blade, with improvements developed by the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS)); Dupré guard (narrow sheath enclosing cutting edge of blade, controlled by photoelectric cells); Absorba-Poron guard (complex device giving complete protection: electro-pneumatic obstacle sensor with optical fibre control).
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 1980, No.9, p.493-495. Illus.
Hazards of stairways in the textile and clothing industry - New ideas - Methods for renovating and improving existing stairways
Les risques dus aux escaliers dans l'industrie textile et celle du vêtement - Conceptions nouvelles - Moyens de rénovation et d'amélioration des escaliers existants. [in French]
Communication to the Joint Regional Technical Committee for the Textile Industry (Comité technique régional des industries textiles), Lille, France: statistics of accidents due to stairways; requirements to be met by stairs (technical, human and economic considerations); safety aspects of office stairs (with or without stair carpets or other additional walking surface); safety aspects of stairs in industrial premises (concrete, tile, wood and metal steps); safety rules for all types of stairs (handrails, cleaning, lighting, standardisation).
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, Boîte postale 3008, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 25 Oct. 1979. 7p. Gratis.
Sengel D., Khelladi A., Foussereau J.
Occupational allergy to diazo paper in the textile industry
Allergie professionnelle au papier diazo dans l'industrie textile [in German]
Allergie professionnelle au papier diazo dans l'industrie textile. [in French]
A case of allergic eczema in a textile industry worker in contact with diethylaminobenzenediazonium chloride in diazo paper used for ultraviolet light copying is reported. The diazo paper was being used for production of patterns.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1979, Vol.27, No.6, p.178-179. Illus. 5 ref.
Dooms-Goossens A., Boyden B., Ceuterick A., Degreff H.
Dimethylthiourea, an unexpected hazard for textile workers.
The case is reported of a 24-year-old woman working as a fabric cutter who reacted to dimethylthiourea, an ancillary component of the diazo-sensitised paper used for copying cutting patterns, with conjunctivitis and erythematous itching dermatitis of the eyelids, nasal mucous membranes, and the corners of the mouth. Her dermatitis disappeared when she left the clothing industry.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1979, Vol.5, No.6, p.367-370. Illus. 11 ref.
Asbestos fibre release from protective garments during manufacture and use
Vêtements de protection en amiante - Dégagement de poussières lors de la fabrication et de l'emploi. [in French]
Data sheet based on a study "Untersuchungen zum Freiwerden von faserigem Staub beim Verarbeiten und beim Einsatz von Asbestgeweben für Hitzeschutzzwecke unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Wirksamkeit des Imprägnierens sur Staubunterdrückung" (Moderne Unfallverhütung, Essen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1976-77, No.21, p.120-126). Account of research carried out under the auspices of the German Staubforschungsinstitut involving: laboratory testing of commercial fabric samples and clothing items; readings taken at workplaces during the manufacture of garments using asbestos-based fabrics (cutting, sewing, stamping); measurement of fibres released by protective asbestos clothing during use in hot temperatures in the iron and steel industry. The results reveal that although non-negligible amounts of asbestos fibres are released in all cases, they rarely exceed the MAK limit value of 2 fibres/cm3 at workplaces.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1979, No.96, Note No.1201-96-79, p.425-433. Illus. 16 ref.
Prevention of accidents due to sewing machines in the garment industry
La prévention des accidents survenant sur les machines à coudre dans l'industrie du vêtement. [in French]
Paper presented to the Joint Regional Technical Committee for the Textile Industry (Comité technique régional des industries textiles), Lille, France. Most of these accidents are due to the flat bed seamers widely used in the tayloring trade, which can sew 6,000 stitches/min. Various types of guards are described: needle guards (pricks), screens (flying particles), remote operation. A removable guard (for rethreading) developed by the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) is described.
Regional Health Insurance Fund for Northern France (Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France), 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 19 Oct. 1978, 6p. 4 ref.
Lessons drawn from the use of glow-discharge air ionisers in a garment cutting shop
Opyt primenenija ėlektroėffljuvial'nogo aėroionizatora v zakrojnom cehe švejnogo proizvodstva [in Russian]
Description of trials with these ion generators installed in the ventilation system openings to assess the value of atmospheric ionisation for air cleaning. Results of dust measurements at different time intervals with and without ionisation (gravimetric dust concentration, particle and bacterial count). The use of glow-discharge air ionisers is recommended, since they effectively reduce the respirable dust and bacterial content of the air.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1977, No.12, p.44-46. 2 ref.
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