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Glass, pottery and related materials - 277 entries found

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  • Glass, pottery and related materials

1975

CIS 76-170 Dement J.M.
Environmental aspects of fibrous glass production and utilization.
The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is studying worker exposure to respirable glass fibers of large and small diameter. Exposure in small diameter fiber operations is many orders of magnitude higher than in conventional operations. This paper also includes a short history of fibrous glass technology, and a review of the biological effects of exposure. In the large diameter insulation plants, low levels of exposure were observed, and the concentration of airborne fibers was low. In small diameter operations, mean airborne fiber concentrations were 1.0-21.9 fibers/ml; and 40-85% of fibers were less than 0.5µm in diameter. The respirable fiber exposure in a reinforced plastics plant was extremely low.
Environmental Research, June 1975, Vol.9, No.3, p.295-312. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 75-1278 Cogez J.M.
Contribution to the study of conditions of work in the ceramics industry
Contribution à l'étude des conditions de travail dans l'industrie céramique. [in French]
The author of this MD thesis draws attention to the diversity of the ceramics industries and the raw materials used, and reviews the occupational diseases encountered in this sector (the principal hazard being silicosis) pointing out that 40 years ago systematic radiological examinations resulted in diagnosis of this disease among 50% of workers after 6 to 10 years' exposure, whereas new cases are rarely discovered nowadays, due to improved industrial hygiene and workplace conditions, local exhaust ventilation for dust control, airtight enclosure of certain operations, etc. Medical prevention consists of pre-employment examination and regular check-ups (including chest X-ray), inspection for compliance with industrial hygiene regulations and a system of permits for new plants.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Broussais - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1975. 38p. 29 ref.

CIS 75-1471 Enterline P.E., Henderson V.
The health of retired fibrous glass workers.
Report of a study of mortality and morbidity in 560 retired men from 6 U.S. plants producing glass fibre insulation materials. The mean follow-up period from first exposure was about 30 years. The results show that at the levels and type of exposure prevailing (no details are given), there were no unusual health hazards apart from a possible excess in chronic bronchitis. Causes of death and disability (observed and expected rates) are tabulated. There was no evidence of a cancer hazard.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar. 1975, Vol.30, No.3, p.113-116. 5 ref.

1974

CIS 76-1751 Training guideline: Training for safety and health in the pottery industry.
Comprehensive training guidelines drawn up by a working party of the Pottery Committee of the Ceramics, Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, in which employers' and workers' representatives and representatives of H.M. Factory Inspectorate and other bodies participated. Contents: responsibility for safety and health in the industry (accident statistics for 1967-1969; annual reported accident incidence 1957-1971 shown graphically; roles and responsibilities for safety and health training); guidance to pottery companies (safety aspects of training: induction training, manual handling, safety techniques, first aid, etc.). Recommendations for safety and health promotion roles of works inspectors, safety officers etc. are appended. Safety check list. List of safety training facilities and courses. Accident and medical emergency drill.
Ceramics Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board and H.M. Factory Inspectorate, Training Division, London, United Kingdom, July 1974. 32p. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 76-418 Lenzi R., Cerroni A., Tria M.
Toxicological aspects of an adhesive (methyl 2-cyanoacrylate) used in work with precious stones
Aspetti tossicologica di un particolare collante (metil 2 cianoacrilato) usato nella lavorazione di oggetti preziosi [in Italian]
After details of the operations involved in setting stones (the fine nature of the work requires it to be performed without gloves) and chemical analysis of the adhesive, this article reports the results of 5 years' observation of 12 exposed workers and 6 controls. Contact dermatitis of the hands and inflammation of the nasal, pharyngeal and conjunctival mucosae were found. Introduction of an exhaust system with a closed hood, and of semi-automatic working methods, completely eliminated the irritative symptoms. Determinations in a simulated work environment yielded an atmospheric concentration of 2mg/m3 (0.44ppm). The authors recommend limiting exposure to a level of 1mg/m3.
Folia medica, 1974, Vol.57, No.1-2-3, p.30-40. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 76-147 Franzinelli A., Battista G., Benelli A., Sartorelli E.
Erythrocyte dehydratase of delta-aminolaevulinic acid in crystal glass workers
ALAD-deidratasi eritrocitaria ed esposizione al piombo negli operai di una cristalleria [in Italian]
The authors measured the concentration of airborne lead in a crystal glass works and simultaneous laboratory tests were carried out to determine the workers' erythrocyte ALAD, urinary ALA and haemoglobin levels. Monitoring of erythrocyte ALAD was found to be particularly useful, as it showed a statistically significant reduction compared with controls. No significant difference was observed between urinary ALA and haemoglobin levels in the exposed workers and the control group.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1974, Vol.65, No.5-6, p.206-214. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 75-1269 Dement J.M.
Preliminary results of the NIOSH industrywide study of the fibrous glass industry.
Environmental studies were conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in undertakings manufacturing fibreglass insulation products, reinforced plastic products, small diameter fibres and air filters using the latter. Discussion of relevant technology (steam attenuation, flame attenuation, centrifugal or rotary process); review of medical findings (there is little evidence of pneumoconiosis) and animal studies; review and comparison of weight and count sampling methods; results. Discussion bears on fibre respirability and lung clearing mechanisms; the "most respirable" fibres (diameter <3.5µm, length <50µm) occur in the refractory and paper fibre operations, rarely in wool insulation plants and reinforcing plastic operations. Caution is required when comparing glass fibre counts with those for asbestos, where only 1-4% are recorded. Very fine diameter glass fibres should be kept to an absolute minimum by the use of good engineering controls and work practices. Tables with data on composition of commercial glass fibres, nominal fibre diameters, airborne dust and fibre concentrations, distribution of airborne fibres by length and diameter, are appended.
Transactions of the Thirty-fifth Annual Meeting of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Boston, Massachusetts, 20-25 May 1973. p.67-94. Illus. 23 ref. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1014 Broadway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, USA.

CIS 75-361 Corn M., Sansone E.B.
Determination of total suspended particulate matter and airborne fiber concentrations at three fibrous glass manufacturing facilities.
Environmental and personal air samples were obtained in 3 fibrous glass manufacturing plants to determine airborne concentrations of total particulate matter and fibres. The sampling and analytical methods used are described. It was found that the total number of fibres in a filter sample and the sample weight (expressed as mg) were not clearly related in any single plant or when data from all plants were pooled. These results suggest that fibre content of the air cannot be reliably estimated from the weight of total suspended particulate matter in the air.
Environmental Research, Aug. 1974, Vol.8, No.1, p.37-52. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 75-410 Šejbl J., Šejblová S.
Harmful effects of barium and boron on man
Action nocive du baryum et du bore sur l'organisme humain. [in French]
French translation of: ¿kodlivý vliv barya a boru na lidský organismus. Sklář a keramik, Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1961, Vol.11, No.1, p.75-79. Barium and boron compounds, which are used in the glass and ceramic industry, enter the body mainly by inhalation or ingestion of dust. The authors indicate the principal sources of emission and describe briefly the symptoms and course of acute and chronic poisoning, together with hints on first-aid treatment. Preventive measures consist essentially in mechanising production, hermetically sealing off the production plant, and adequate ventilation.
Translation INRS 32 B-74, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1974. 8p.

1973

CIS 94-761 Glass Bevelling Welfare Regulations, 1973 [Ireland]
Na Rialacháin Slándála Beibhealóireachta Gloine, 1973 [in Irish]
These regulations provide for the supply of suitable protective clothing to workers in glass bevelling factories. The provision of welfare facilities is also required.
Government Publications Sales Office, Sun Alliance House, Molesworth Street, Dublin 2, Ireland, 1973. 3p. (English), 2p. (Irish).

CIS 75-1677 Ramos H., Flesch J.P., Shama S.K.
Health hazard evaluation/toxicity determination Report 71-10-48, PPG Industries, Inc., Clarksburg, West Virginia.
This health hazard survey of environmental and medical conditions determined that salicylic acid, a component in Polytek dust which is used for interleaving between glass sheets, is toxic at the concentrations found. Samples of air were taken near 2 types of dispensers. The time-weighted average concentrations of salicylic acid were 0.010 to 0.321 and 0.003 to 0.355mg/m3, respectively, for 1 day and 0.016 to 0.072 and 0.006 to 0.017mg/m3 respectively, for a second day. The concentrations caused acute symptoms of irritation to eyes, nose and throats of workers. High noise levels were found when broken glass was being discarded in waste chutes. The dust also caused slippery floors. Recommendations included: control of quantity and distribution of the dust on glass, the container for overflow dust should be cleaned regularly, spillage should be avoided, and dust respirators should be used when the dust was being manually applied.
PB-229 263/9WJ, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA, June 1973. 21p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$4.25/Microfiche US-$1.45.

CIS 75-103 Vivoli G., Rinaldi Ferrari L., Caselgrandi E.
Comparative study of urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid and coproporphyrin in subjects exposed to lead
Studio comparativo tra l'escrezione urinaria di acido delta-aminolevulinico e di coproporfirine in soggetti esposti al piombo [in Italian]
In order to study the correlation between the 2 most widely-used tests to diagnose lead poisoning, the authors determined the level of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin in 629 urine samples from lead-exposed workers in the ceramics industry. Statistical analysis of the results shows that ALA excretion is closely linked to coproporphyrinuria, although the ratio between these 2 parameters is not very stable for values within normal limits. Some 40% of the subjects with normal urinary coproporphyrin levels had urinary ALA levels showing manifest alteration of porphyrin metabolism. It may be deduced from this that determination of this biological parameter enables the first alterations due to increased absorption of Pb to be detected earlier; this confirms the findings of other authors.
Nuovi annali d'igiene e microbiologia, May-June 1973, Vol.24, No.3, p.139-148. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 74-2060 Occupational safety problems in sanitary earthenware factories
Sicherheitstechnische Fragen und Probleme in Sanitärkeramikfabriken [in German]
The article reviews recent trends of accidents in this industry and emphasises the effects of mechanisation and automation, especially from the point of view of dust control and silicosis prevention. Most accidents involve striking against hard and cutting objects and the use of power trucks. Brief review of the various processes and operations and their attendant hazards: storage and transport of raw materials, preparation of glazes, moulding, glazing, baking, sorting and polishing.
Keramik und Glas, June 1973, No.2, p.1-15. Illus.

CIS 74-1804
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Dec. 1973.
Guidelines concerning traversers, materials handling trucks and kiln and autoclave trucks
Richtlinien für Schiebebühnen, Absetzwagen, Ofen- und Härtewagen [in German]
These guidelines apply to traversers and track-mounted vehicles used in the ceramics, glass and building materials industry, other than railway system rolling stock. They comprise rules concerning construction and installation (rails, safe distances, winches and materials handling equipment, control cabins, control panels, vehicles, remote control and automatic equipment) and operational rules.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.). 13p. Price: DM.1.80.

CIS 74-1371 Muratova A.K.
The hygienic significance of lead in various mechanical glassworking processes
Gigieničeskoe značenie svinca pri različnyh processah mehaničeskoj obrabotki stekla [in Russian]
During the splitting, cutting, grinding and polishing of optical glass and crystal, the workpost atmosphere is polluted by lead-bearing dust. This article presents the results of analysis of dust samples collected during various manual and mechanical operations as well as experimental data concerning the extraction of the lead contained in glass dust by water and solutions of ordinary salt and hydrochloric acid at 37°C. Recommendations made for the reduction of exposure include: workers' education; local exhaust ventilation; prohibition of dry methods for cleaning surfaces; personal hygiene.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1973, No.9, p.46-48. 5 ref.

CIS 74-516 Meret N., Ionescu N.
New personal protective equipment for workers in glassworks
Noi echipamente de protecţie individuală pentru muncitorii din fabricile de sticlă [in Romanian]
Describes personal protective clothing (cuffs, gauntlets, leggings) specially designed for workers employed in glassmaking. Pigskin which has undergone vegetable tanning is the best material for the manufacture of this type of article, standing up better to the conditions in the glassmaking industry than polyvinyl chloride or other types of leather. These protective garments are perforated to facilitate thermal exchange.
Industria uşoară, Feb. 1973, Vol.20, No.2, p.116-118. Illus.

CIS 74-122 Duhamel J., Roques J.C., Dervillée E., Kadiri A., Rolland A.M., Marc Y.
Statistical study of some physiological and biological variables in workers exposed to heat
Etude statistique de quelques variables physiologiques et biologiques chez des sujets exposés à la chaleur. [in French]
A study of various clinical and biological parameters in 75 persons employed in a glassworks. Evaluation of temperature curves, pulse rate and blood pressure during work at high temperature; evaluation of absorption and elimination; determination of levels of urinary electrolytes and steroids; statistical analysis of the data obtained. The authors emphasise the importance of clinical supervision and the systematic determination of urinary chlorides and potassium.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, June 1973, Vol.34, No.6, p.321-334. Illus.

1972

CIS 74-676 Rüttner J.R., Spycher M.A., Sticher H.
Diffuse 'asbestosis-like' interstitial fibrosis of the lung.
Describes the pathological changes in the lungs of a female employee who had worked in the production of electrical insulators and may have inhaled dust containing mica, kaolin and feldspar. During her life (she died of cardiac failure at age 7O), radiological changes had demonstrated diffuse lung fibrosis with reduced alveolar diffusion. Chemical, mineralogical and electron microscope investigations revealed plate-shaped silicates but no asbestos. Mica, kaolin and feldspar, all plate-shaped minerals, show, like asbestos fibres, a reduced intrapulmonary transportability, as compared with granular quartz particles. This results in a diffuse rather than a nodular type of pneumoconiotic fibrosis.
Pathologia et Microbiologia, 1972, Vo.38, No.4, p.250-257. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 74-560 Occupational safety and health in the glass and fine ceramics industry
Bezpečnost a ochrana zdraví při práci v průmyslu skla a jemné keramiky [in Czech]
This industrial standard, approved on 18 May 1972 and which entered into force on 1 Dec. 1972, repeals and replaces standard ON 70-0400 (see CIS 1327-1966, Xml (606)). Introductory considerations are followed by technical safety rules concerning plant design and construction, chimneys, water mains, producer gas plants, cleaning plants for producer gas, gas mains, regulators, communication ways, stairs, walls and ceilings, doors, windows, lighting fittings, storage areas, mechanised handling equipment, compressors, etc. Other provisions deal with the use and maintenance of premises and equipment, layout of workplaces, personal protective equipment, sanitary installations, etc.
ON 70-0400, Czechoslovakian Ministry for Industry (Ministerstvo průmyslu ČSR), Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1972. 166 p.

CIS 74-254 Polleschner B., Koch K., Weise A.
Safety and health in the glass industry
Arbeitsschutz in der Glasindustrie [in German]
Advice on safety measures for the main phases of glass production (raw material processing, melting, moulding, glassworking and finishing), in the manufacture of various sorts of glass and glass products and in ancillary shops (power supply, metal and woodworking, pottery shop, repair and maintenance). Further sections are devoted to hot work, substances hazardous to health, transport and storage, fire protection and general safety measures (instruction and training, workpost layout and design, protection of women and young persons, amenities and protective clothing).
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, x 1193 , 1972. 187p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: M.4.90.

CIS 72-2542 De Maisonneuve J., Lardeux P.
Ventilation of work premises and work posts - Examples - 6. Handling of dusty lead-based materials
Ventilation des locaux et postes de travail - Quelques exemples - 6. Manipulation de produits pulvérulents à base de plomb [in French]
Description of an installation for collecting dust given off during the manufacture and handling of particulates for the pottery industry (pigments, glazes, etc.). A negative pressure is created at the work post but minimal particulate entrainment is ensured; provision is made for removing deposited dust from exhaust ventilation ducts. Data on system design and calculation are given.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1972, No.68, Note No.800-68-72, p.279-283. Illus.

CIS 73-26 Tarasenko N., Pučežskij A.A.
Fundamental occupational health problems in fused-quartz glass manufacture
Osnovnye voprosy gigieny truda v proizvodstve kvarcevogo stekla [in Russian]
Studies in the fused-quartz glass industry showed that, in spite of wet procedures, partial automation of raw-material handling and vacuum smelting, workers were exposed to quartz dust, carbon monoxide, acid vapours, heat, noise and microwave radiation. The authors recommend: centralised furnace charging; wet grinding of quartz and rock crystal; use of continuous tube drawing process; introduction of induction furnaces; development of quieter burners for glass-blowing.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1972, Vol.16, No.4, p.8-12. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 73-195 Steffen H., Schwarzbach E.
Nitrous gases in the glass industry
Nitrose Gase in der glasverarbeitenden Industrie [in German]
During high temperature work, a small proportion of atmospheric nitrogen may be oxidised to form nitrogen dioxide, and this is the reason why workers in the glass industry frequently complain of headaches, dyspnoea and vertigo. The authors describe the formation of nitrogen oxides in blowpipe flames, the effect of the gaseous fuel used and the physiological action of nitrogen oxides; they then analyse the results of measurements carried out in glass industry plants. These measurements showed that the threshold limit values were exceeded. To overcome this hazard, they recommend a reduction in the amount of oxygen added to the fuel gas, improved blow torch design, local exhaust ventilation and good general ventilation.
Arbeitsschutz, July-Aug. 1972, No.7-8, p.267-270. 10 ref.

CIS 73-313. Krause-Wichmann J.
Pollution control in the pottery industry
La lutte contre la pollution dans l'industrie céramique [in French]
Having given a definition for "dust", the author describes different types of dust control equipment: respiratory protective equipment, industrial vaccum cleaners and vacuum sweepers, stationary vacuum cleaning installations, and individual and centralised dust-collection equipment; the advantages and disadvantages of each type of dust-control equipment are given for different cases. The article is illustrated by 17 diagrams.
Industrie céramique, Apr. 1972, No.650, p.274-279. Illus.

CIS 73-323 Nogawa K.
Lead and cadmium hazards to pottery painters
In a study of the health hazards of lead and cadmium in pottery glaze of pigments, physical examinations were carried out on 283 pottery painters. Urinary concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher than in controls, suggesting abnormal but slight accumulation of these metals within the body. High urinary lead concentrations were accompanied by low haematocrits and haemoglobin levels. Workers with high urinary concentrations of both lead and cadmium presented particularlymarked anaemia, and it is suggested that these metals may exert a synergic action.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, June 1972, Vol.27, No.2, p.259-266. Illus. 22 ref.

1971

CIS 72-1935 Hager G., Pagel S., Broschmann D.
Heat cataract in locomotive stokers
Feuerstar bei Lokomotivheizern [in German]
Report on a comparative study of infrared exposure among locomotive stokers and glassworkers. Burning coal and molten glass both emit infrared radiation in the 800-1400-nm wavelength range which is harmful to the crystalline lens. Cataract in locomotive stokers may be recognised as an occupational disease providing there is supporting evidence of occupational exposure. Cases of locomotive-stoker cataract following various durations of exposure are presented.
Verkehrsmedizin und ihre Grenzgebiete, Oct. 1971, Vol.18, No.10, p.443-449. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 73-136 Udžvarlić H., Tanasković B.
Respiratory lesions in electric porcelain factory workers
Oštećenja disajnih organa kod radnika u tvornici elektroporcelana [in Serbocroatian]
In 1969-1970, an industrial hygiene survey was made of airborne dust concentration, composition and particle size in a Yugoslav electric porcelain works; the results are tabulated. Clinical examination of 165 workers revealed 5 cases of pneumoconiosis, 5 of active tuberculosis, 1 of pneumoconiosis with tuberculosis and 4 of chronic bronchitis; clinical and radiological pictures are described. There was a close relationship between respiratory lesions and workplace dust composition - especially where the dust contained free silica of respirable size. The following measures are recommended: local exhaust ventilation, polyester fibre working clothes, humidification of raw materials, total enclosure of processes, rigorous pre-employment medical examinations, and BCG vaccination.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1971, Vol.22, No.2, p.111-125. 25 ref.

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