Glass, pottery and related materials - 277 entries found
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Gana Soto J.M.O., Giampaoli E., Nadim Zidan L., Da Silva M.D.
Evaluation of silicosis hazard
Levantamento do risco potencial de silicose [in Portuguese]
Report on an investigation carried out in the ceramic industry in the State of Sćo Paulo, Brazil. Methodology: collection of dust samples on filters, gravimetry and determination of free silica content by x-ray diffractometry. 315 samples were taken in 30 plants. Findings: there was a silicosis hazard in many departments and operations, and a large proportion of the employees were at risk. Detailed recommendations, illustrated by health engineering techniques for dust control.
Revista brasileira de saśde ocupacional, Jan.-Feb.-Mar. 1981, Vol.9, No.33, p.71-108. Illus.
Recent findings on the hazards of glass and mineral fibres
Neuere Erkenntnisse über Gefährdungen durch Glas- und Mineralfasern [in German]
A review of production methods for artificial mineral fibres makes it possible to define those methods which will produce respirable fibres. The criterion of number of fibres per cm3 during production and use also makes it possible to exclude a carcinogenic or fibrogenic risk in the production and use of glass fibre, as is confirmed by epidemiological studies. From the point of view of carcinogenesis, the effective diameter (effective diameters < 3 down to 0.5µm), fibre length and fibre resistance are critical factors. Explanation of the hypothetical mechanism. Amorphous artificial fibres (glass and mineral fibres) and crystalline silica fibres (asbestos) seem to vary in their resistance to body fluids.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, Aug. 1980, Vol.30, No.8, p.280-285. Illus. 12 ref.
Bertazzini P., Candela S., Collini P., Francesconi E., Guidetti P., Tonelli S., Bolognesi D., Busani R., Renna E., Torreggiani A., Vecchi G.
Prevention of lead poisoning in the pottery industry
La prevenzione del saturnismo nelle industrie ceramiche [in Italian]
Results of workplace studies and medical examination of workers (urinary ALA monitoring) are presented before and after an occupational hygiene programme was carried out. Data were collected in 82 undertakings at an interval of about 3 years. There was a clear reduction in the incidence of severe poisoning, while the proportion of mild case remained substantially the same. The number of cases was reduced in larger undertakings, but not in those with 51-100 employees. The incidence of severe cases decreased in all undertakings regardless of size. A section gives details of the glazing process and modalities of data collection.
Studi e documentazioni 34. Dipartimento sicurezza sociale della regione Emilia-Romagna, Italy, 1980. 46p. 9 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Safety rules for die forming presses, isostatic presses and roller forming machines
Sicherheitsregeln für Stempelpressen, isostatische Pressen und Rollermaschinen der keramischen Industrie [in German]
These rules are intended to prevent hand injuries and occupational diseases due to dust and noise in the various branches of the ceramic industry. Definitions of machines and technical terms; safety rules concerning construction and equipment (safety by design, marking, safety devices to prevent inadvertent movement of the press, hand guards, controls), toolsetting and maintenance, noise and dust control, testing. Appended: list of pertinent regulations and directives.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 1980. 18p. Price: DM.1.40.
Khera A.K., Wibberley D.G., Dathan J.G.
Placental and stillbirth tissue lead concentrations in occupationally exposed women.
Lead values in antenatal blood and placenta of women employed in the pottery industry increased with occupational exposure. Liver and kidney stillbirth lead values were lower than those of much older children and rib-bone lead values from stillbirths were 3 times as high as those of a control group of infants dead from other causes.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1980, Vol.37, No.4, p.394-396. 14 ref.
De Rosa E., Rossi A., Toffolo D., Brighenti F., Rosa A., Caroldi S.
The ceramics industry and lead poisoning - Long-term testing.
Blood levels were determined in 154 workers at 4 plants over 6-8 months. Changes as a result of industrial hygiene measures taken during that period were noted. There was a clear fall in blood lead levels as a result of reducing environmental exposure, but they were still above recommended limits in many cases. Further improvements can be made only by reducing the lead content of the glazes used.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1980, Vol.6, No.4, p.312-315. 3 ref.
De Rosa E., Brighenti F., Rossi A., Caroldi S., Gori G.P., Chiesura P.
The ceramics industry and lead poisoning - Lead poisoning in relation to technology and jobs.
The risk of lead absorption in 288 ceramics industry workers was studied. Men usually performed the higher risk jobs involving direct use of ceramic glazes with a high lead content. Lead absorption occurred in decreasing order in workers engaged in: glazing, kiln work, maintenance, decoration, and selection. Although women generally work in the 2 last categories, their blood levels exceeded recommended limits.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1980, Vol.6, No.4, p.306-311. 21 ref.
Maggioni A., Meregalli G., Sala C., Riva M.
Respiratory and skin diseases in glass fibre production workers
Patologia respiratoria e cutanea negli addetti alla produzione di fibre di vetro (filato) [in Italian]
Dust concentrations of 1mg/m3 at a spun glass fibre plant contained 1% glass fibres in the production units and 3-7% in the spinning departments. Some of the fibres were respirable. No cases of pneumoconiosis and/or pulmonary fibrosis were found, and the incidence of chronic bronchitis was no greater than in controls. There was a higher incidence of chronic and dysplastic pharyngolaryngitis in workers exposed to higher concentrations of fibres for more than 5 years. 14% of workers had skin diseases, generally primary irritative dermatitis. Topical eczema occurred in 3. Reduction of the exposure limits for glass fibres is recommended.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1980, Vol.71, No.3, p.216-227. 21 ref.
Nakamura K., Komoike Y., Horiguchi S.
Audiogram in glass workers
Annual audiometric examinations over 10 years in male workers exposed to noise in 4 glass factories revealed a C5 dip in many workers irrespective of their age. Older workers generally had hearing loss regardless of the length of exposure. A helmet with 2 earplugs hanging from the visor was designed. The main point of the design is that the hanging earplugs would annoy the worker if they were not worn.
Sumitomo Bulletin of Industrial Health, 1 Apr. 1980, No.16, p.19-28. 6 ref.
Braem M., Brunet R., Janiaut M.
Ergonomic work table with exhaust unit - Application in a finishing station in the chinaware industry
Table de travail ergonomique avec aspiration - Application ą un poste de finissage en porcelainerie. [in French]
Description of a working surface and its local exhaust ventilation unit, designed for use in glueing, welding or brazing small workpieces. The ergonomic design aims at reducing fatigue to a minimum (adjustable chair and footrest, circular cutout in work table, ergonomic layout of feed system). Example of use in a finishing unit in a pottery works. Technical data for the exhaust hood are given.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1980, No.101, Note No.1284-101-80, p.511-518. Illus.
Sparks P.J., Wegman D.H.
Cause of death among jewelry workers.
Death certificates of 931 men were studied. There was an excess of pancreatic cancer in the group as a whole. Polishers showed an excess of stomach cancer and stomach ulcer. Possible important exposures in the jewellery industry are reviewed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1980, Vol.22, No.11, p.733-736. 19 ref.
Roeslin N., Lassabe-Roth C., Morand G., Batzenschlager A.
La silico-protéinose aiguė. [in French]
Case study of acute silicosis with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis characterised by the presence, in addition to the silicotic nodules, of proteinaceous substance in the alveoli. The patient had worked in the ceramics industry (clay preparation), where he had handled free silica, barium sulfate, talc and dolomite in a dust-laden atmosphere. Presentation of clinical, radiological and anatomopathological data, followed by pathological hypotheses.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1980, Vol.41, No.1, p.15-18. Illus. 22 ref.
Watanabe T., Endo A., Kato Y., Shima S., Ikeda M.
Cytogenetics and cytokinetics of cultured lymphocytes from benzene-exposed workers.
Chromosome aberrations, sister-chromatid exchange frequencies and cell-cycle kinetics of cultured lymphocytes from benzene-exposed workers (40ppm for < 20 years) were examined. While no increase in the number of structural and numerical chromosome aberrations nor any changes in cell-cycle kinetics were observed, a slight decrease in the frequency of sister-chromatid exchanges was detected. This decrease may be a manifestation of the subtler effect of benzene on the DNA replication mechanism. Possible dose-effect relation in benzene-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1980, Vol.46, No.1, p.31-41. 26 ref.
Sköldström B., Elnäs S., Holmér I.
Heat stress in glass blowing
Värmebelastning vid glasblåsning [in Swedish]
Assessment of heat stress in 7 workplaces in a glassworks. Pulse rate, body and skin temperatures were recorded; globe temperature, and dry and wet temperatures were measured; sweat rate was determined. During blowing of relatively heavy, large-dimensioned pieces body temperature exceeded 38°C, with 150 pulse rate. The physiological load was also great when refilling crucibles and in cleaning out furnaces. The WBGT index calculated in relation to duration of exposure did not exceed the recommended TLV, but it does not give precise information on the effective heat load.
Undersökningsrapport 1980:15, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1980. 32p. Illus. 5 ref. Gratis (1 free copy only).
Silicosis - Observations on a case register.
This monograph describes and analyses observations from the national Swedish pneumoconiosis register. At present 80-100 cases of silicosis are notified yearly. The study polpulation consisted of 4590 cases of silicosis diagnosed since 1931. Distributions by age at the radiographic manifestation of silicosis, latency time and radiographic disease stage at diagnosis are given. Data are presented separately for occupational categories in the mining, iron and steel, and ceramics industries, and quarrying. Results of follow-up studies are given on the radiographic progression of silicosis, complicating pulmonary tuberculosis, overall mortality, lung cancer, cause-specific mortality and competing mortality risks, and the possibility of an association between continuing dust exposure after diagnosis and radiographic progression. General trends in the occupational environments dealt with are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1980, Vol.6, Supplement 2, 86p. Illus. 53 ref.
Kilian A., Zaunick U.
Noise evaluation and noise control in the glass industry
Lärmerfassung und -bekämpfung in der Glasindustrie [in German]
Description of methodology and results of analysis of noise from a tank furnace, taking into account various factors (oil or gas burners, preheated air for burners, regulation of air intake). Optimum combustion as regards noise control is not always compatible with production requirements (temperature required for molten glass in tank). Mathematical relations are given enabling the sound pressure level to be determined in relation to burner adjustment and distance.
Die Technik, Feb. 1979, Vol.34, No.2, p.101-104. Illus. 6 ref.
Safety problems of electric glass melting
Sicherheitstechnische Probleme bei der Glasschmelze mittels elektrischer Energie [in German]
The advantages and hazards of supplementary electric heating for shaft furnaces are presented. The construction and operation of these installations are subject to regulations of the Association of German Electrical Engineers (VDE 0100 and 0721). Danger zones must be made inaccessible and the workplace electrically insulated. The equipment must be operated only by qualified personnel wearing personal protective equipment. Another category of precautions concerns safety checks (protection against direct and indirect contacts, earthing, emergency stop, electric resistance and insulation of the workplace). Maintenance work is permitted only when the installation is disconnected.
Keramik und Glas, 1979, No.3, p.6-10. Illus.
Reinhardt K., Huke K., Schunk W., Heuer I.
Infrared radiation exposure in ceramics bakers
Zur Infrarotstrahlenexposition bei Keramikbrennern [in German]
The appearance of heat-ray cataract in a ceramics baker prompted a study of radiation exposure. Intensities were comparable with those experienced by glass blowers. At a baking temperature of 1050°C radiation intensity is relatively high in the harmful wave length region, but the total radiation dose is considerably shorter. The risk of heat-ray cataract is considered much lower than in glass blowers. Since the main source of exposure is opening the kilns, the need for safety measures during this operation is stressed.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Nov. 1979, Vol.25, No.11, p.806-807. 12 ref.
Health and Safety Executive.
Ceramics - Health and safety 1971-77.
Under the new system of sector reports, replacing the former annual report of H.M. Chief Inspector of Factories covering all industries, this is the first report covering the pottery and allied industries. Activities of the joint standing committee (adoption of 2 reports: dust control; general conditions in the ceramics industry; publication of 2 booklets on: dust extraction systems; safe operation of ceramic kilns); standardisation of dust-extraction systems, and of personal protective clothing; elimination of hydrofluoric acid for cleaning gold splatter, reduction of use of straw in packing, substitution of vegetable for mineral oils on roller turning machines); role of the Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee and of the Factory Inspectorate (problems of: silica content of quartz sand/calcined sand mixture substituted for flint milling (calcined flint dust hazard); lead; hazardous machinery; high-temperature kilns (substitution of low-temperature drying stoves); industrial premises; housekeeping; training. Table of reported accidents 1971-77, with breakdown by type of accident or cause; statistics of lead poisoning cases.
HSE Report, H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1979. Illus. 15p. Price: £0.75.
Yamada Y., Kodo T., Oyama K., Sakamoto M., Nogawa Y., Kobayashi E.
Studies on the health hazards of lead in "Kutani-Yaki" ceramics painters
Studies were done in 181 ceramics painters (105 men and 76 women). The blood lead level (PbB) was 5-50µg/dl and the urinary lead level (PbU) 10-200µg/l. ALAD and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) correlated with PbB, but urinary ALA and coproporphyrin did not, nor with PbU. Haemoglobin, red blood cell count, haematocrit and blood specific gravity showed no correlation with PbB or PbU. Women workers with a PbB above 20µg/dl had more subjective complaints, and those with a PbU above 60µg/l had more histories of abortion.
Hokuriku Journal of Public Health - Hokuriku Koshu Eisei Gakkaishi, Oct. 1979, Vol.6, No.1, p.35-46. Illus. 13 ref.
Schmöger E., Heuer I., Reinhardt K., Huke K.
Heat-ray cataract in pottery kilnmen
Zum Auftreten eines Feuerstars bei Keramikbrennern [in German]
A typical heat-ray cataract was observed in a pottery kilnman, but there was no evidence of lens damage in the other workers. Infrared radiation exposure was greatest when the kilns were opened. The heat-ray cataract hazard is smaller in ceramics workers than in glass burners.
Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen, 1979, Vol.34, No.34, p.1634-1636. Illus. 13 ref.
Current status of health aspects of fibrous glass and other man-made mineral fiber (An annotated bibliography).
There have been no significant chronic pulmonary health effects in workers with up to 38 years exposure in fibrous glass manufacturing. In some individuals, there is a transitory mechanical irritation. Animal studies gave similar results. The 55 annotated citations are arranged as human, animal and environmental studies. There are 30 additional references not annotated.
IHF's Medical Series Bulletin No.20-79, Third Revision, Industrial Health Foundation, 5231 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232, USA, 1979. 35p. 55 ref. Price: US-$5.00.
Dust control in craft pottery manufacture
Stofbestrijding bij de ambachtelijke vervaardiging van aardewerk [in Dutch]
Contents of this data sheet: health hazards (respirable silica dust, unfritted glazes containing soluble lead); dust sources; requirements for workplace (volume of air per person, easily cleaned floor and wall surfaces); preparation of plastic clay (emptying of bags in an enclosure); casting shops (floor grating to facilitate rinsing away spilled clay); drying of moulds and patterns; shaping (local exhaust); firing (harmful effects of firing and combustion gases); biscuit fettling (in an exhaust box to eliminate tridymite dust); glazing (use of low-lead glazes, exhaust ventilation); hygiene (regular cleaning of clothes, personal hygiene, housekeeping); handling of raw materials; Dutch statutory texts.
P No.149, Labour Inspectorate, General Directorate of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-General van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, Voorburg, Netherlands, 1979. Illus. 15p. Price: Glds.0.50.
Esmen N., Corn M., Hammad Y., Whittier D., Kotsko N.
Summary of measurements of employee exposure to airborne dust and fiber in sixteen facilities producing man-made mineral fibres.
Results are reported of a 3-year industry-wide study of glass fibre and mineral wool fibre manufacturing plants. There was a wide variation in concentrations of airborne fibres and particulate matter between and within the plants surveyed, but counts were generally below 2.5mg particulate matter and 0.5 fibres/m3. There was a close relation between fibre size and average airborne fibre concentration.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1979, Vol.40, No.2, p.108-117. 3 ref.
Occupational accidents and diseases in the pottery, porcelain and chinaware industry
Maladies professionnelles et accidents du travail dans l'industrie de la céramique. [in French]
A number of short papers presented at a session of the French Occupational Medicine and Hygiene Society on 3 Apr. 1978, covering the following themes, are reproduced: health status of personnel of the Sčvres Porcelain Manufactory (France), particularly during the Second Empire period; ergonomic study of various jobs (burnishing, painting, lathe operation, shaping and throwing) at the Sčvres Manufactory (awkward or harmful postures); occupational accidents and diseases in the pottery, porcelain and chinaware industry (list of toxic substances used, accident and disease statistics for the period 1970-1975); pneumoconiosis in the pottery industry (16 case studies; trends in recorded dust levels (1950-1974), showing very high levels in the mining and quarrying sectors and in the preparation of raw materials); apnoea with effort in pottery lathe operators.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1978, Vol.39, No.12, p.721-739. Illus.
Dust control in a ceramics factory
Halte ą la poussičre! [in French]
Report on dust control measures which produced a dramatic reduction in dust levels between 1957 and 1975 (particles <5µm/l in 1975: 100,000-200,000 in the ambient air, 200,000-400,000 at workplaces). The profusely illustrated text describes the measures taken: mechanisation; installation of a high vacuum duct system permitting connection of flexible pipes with exhaust nozzle every 6m; metal gratings at the main workplaces; use of floor-cleaning machines; replacement of axial flow fans by large, low-speed large-bladed fans in the drying rooms; exhaust system in the glazing shop operating at 20,000m3/h, with air speed of 1m/s in the region of the operator. Wearing of a mask remains necessary at certain workplaces where the dust level is still relatively high (e.g. glazing of hollow ware).
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 1978, No.11, p.560-569. Illus.
Fire protection of a new fibreglass factory.
This article considers fire hazards and fire protection incorporated by design from the aspects of construction and layout (segregation of the various units of production, storage of lubricating oils in a separate building of fire-resisting construction by the tank farm, etc.) and production methods (phenol-formaldehyde resin batch mixing, gas-fired melting tank, spinners, curing oven, trimming the glass fibre mat as it emerges from the oven, wrapping and bagging, warehousing). Description of fire precautions at each stage: smoke detectors, sprinklers, fire alarm, CO2 extinguishers, fire vents, central fire alarm panel, water storage tanks, pump house, external and internal hydrants, hose reels.
Fire Prevention, Dec. 1978, No.128, p.22-26. Illus.
Interim report on a national survey of the pottery industry
Interimrapport van het landelijk onderzoek in de fijnkeramische industrie [in Dutch]
Contents of this report, which covers the first stage of the survey (1974-75): background information on, and groundwork for, the survey; stage I (examination of 528 workers employed in 74 plants): information and publicity campaign; description of manufacturing processes; dust exposure at various stages of the production process; silicosis in pottery workers; TLVs for exposure to silicogenous dust; instruments and method used to measure dust concentrations; results of measurements carried out; results of medical examinations (63 cases of silicosis, of which 61 were at the initial stage; 10 suspected cases); information on health protection for management and workers (the "Ten Commandments" for exposed workers); health engineering (enclosure, local exhaust ventilation, removal of deposited dust, etc.). The results (graphs and tables) and numerous illustrations are appended in 2 separate booklets.
Werkgroep Keramische Bedrijven, Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Voorburg, Netherlands, Feb. 1978. 3 booklets of 46, 17 and 29p. Illus. 18 ref. Gratis.
Workplaces and occupational health damage in glass works - Case study of a bottle manufacturing plant in Cognac
Postes de travail et pathologie professionnelle dans les verreries (A partir d'une usine de verre creux de Cognac). [in French]
MD thesis. Historical background information and a description of the organisation and operation of the glass-making industry, followed by considerations on the various departments and workposts in a highly mechanised and automated glass bottle factory employing some 1,200 workers and producing 1,200,000 bottles a day. The author's survey shows that the former typical occupational diseases in this branch (silicosis, lead poisoning, etc.) hardly exist any more thanks to efficient preventive medicine and constant research to improve working conditions. Instead of them we find problems common to most large modern plants (especially heat, noise, and shift work), the health effects of which are studied by the author, together with the causes and types of occupational accidents and the role of the plant physician in their prevention.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unités d'enseignement et de recherche des sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1978. 108p. 52 ref.
Koplan J.P., Wells A.V., Diggory H.J.P., Baker E.L., Liddle J.
Lead absorption in a community of potters in Barbados.
Survey of 12 potters traditionally using lead glazes, 19 family members and 24 controls. The potters and their families had high blood lead levels, related to exposure; 6 had upper extremity tremor. Dust from their homes and work areas contained up to 320,000ppm lead. Pottery released up to 3,125µg/ml lead.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Sep. 1977, Vol.6, No.3, p.225-229. Illus. 10 ref.
Safety in the operation of ceramic kilns.
These recommendations, prepared by the Joint Standing Committee for the pottery and allied industries, are intended to give guidance for the operation of intermittent and continuous kilns, to help eliminate fires and explosions. Sections are devoted to: training of kiln operators, instructions; hazards; characteristics of liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) and natural gas; storage of LPGs; gas fired kilns (gas supplies, pressure switches, vents, air supplies, air/gas mixtures); liquid fuel fired kilns; electically fired kilns; ignition; ventilation of combustion products; maintenance of safety equipment (safety controls, gas/air ratio control); safe operating procedure; start-up sequence; shut-down sequence, etc. Appendices: continuous tunnel kilns (emergency measures for wreck clearance), gas fired tunnel kiln (layout of typical controls), etc.
Health and Safety Executive, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, June 1977. 27p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: £1.25.
Synthetic mineral fibres in respirable air - A pilot study for the workplace
Künstliche Mineralfasern in der Atemluft - Eine Pilotstudie für den Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Earlier experiments have shown that the frequency of cases of mesothelioma was related to the form of the glass fibres, whatever their chemical composition, and that fibres more than 3µm in diameter and less than 5-10µm in length had less biological effect than thinner and longer fibres. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the numerical concentration of fibres (fibres/cm3) and the proportion of fibres having a biological effect (over 5-10µm in length, less than 3µm in diameter) in a restricted number of workplaces. Detailed description of sampling and measuring methods (methodological problems, sampling apparatus, phase-contrast microscopy count, determination of dimensions by scanning electron microscopy). The results obtained show that the dust still contains very short and extremely thin fibres (diameter <0.1µm) and are less fibrous than asbestos dust. Aerodynamic selectivity of the sampling apparatus used.
Staub, Apr. 1977, Vol.37, No.4, p.147-151. Illus. 20 ref.
Mayer P., Valentin H., Bost H.P., Essing H.G.
Glass fibre dust and its health effects on man
Glasfaserstäube und ihr gesundheitlicher Einfluss auf den Menschen [in German]
In a 1st article (Mayer P.) the morphology, different types and compositions of glass fibre, and production methods are reviewed, with emphasis on the results of occupational hygiene studies at production sites. Gravimetric results and number of fibres/cm3 were well below the indicative technical concentration established in the Fed.Rep. of Germany for practical purposes. The morphology differs considerably from that of asbestos fibre. On the basis of the results, the possibility of a fibrogenic or carcinogenic hazard in the production or use of glass fibre is ruled out. In the 2nd article the controversial problem of the pathogenic effect of prolonged exposure to glass fibre is reviewed. Definition of fibrous dust and glass fibre. Relation between length and diameter of fibres and presumed carcinogenic effect. Results of radiographic examination in 232 workers with at least 12 years' exposure to glass fibre. No fibrosis or malignant tumour was found. The hypothesis of pathogenicity of glass fibre was not substantiated.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Feb. 1977, No.2, p.56-64. Illus. 18 ref.
Sims M., Gillies G., Drury R.
Using a cool spot to improve the thermal comfort of glassmakers.
The work of monitoring the molten glass as it passes between the rollers before it enters the annealing oven, to prevent it sticking to the rollers, is described. An environmental survey led to the development of a cool workplace subject to several practical and financial constraints. The cool spot is surrounded by an air curtain with a sliding screen providing protection from the radiant heat. An emergency handle opens the screen and at the same time slows the rolling machine in the event of sticking. The improvement made it possible to have the monitoring post several metres closer to the rolling machine. The result was better performance in a more pleasant environment.
Applied Ergonomics, Guildford, United Kingdom, Mar. 1977, Vol.8, No.1, p.2-6. Illus. 3 ref.
The lead hazard of frit in the ceramics industry.
Results of this study: the in vitro solubility in serum of the lead contained in frit was low; the acute toxicity of frit was low in mice and rats; weekly intraperitoneal injections of frit for 15 weeks caused distinct symptoms of lead poisoning in rabbits. The toxicity seemed to be similar to that of soluble lead such as lead acetate.
Journal of the Nagoya City University Medical Association, Aug. 1976, Vol.27, No.2, p.141-159. Illus. 20 ref.
Essing H.G., Bühlmeyer G., Valentin H., Kemmerer G., Prochazka R.
Absence of health disturbances after prolonged exposure to barium carbonate in steatite ceramics production
Ausschluss von Gesundheitsstörungen nach langjähriger Bariumcarbonat-Exposition bei der Produktion von Steatitkeramik [in German]
Studies on the effects on the muscles, bones and lungs of inhalation of barium carbonate dust in the manufacture of ceramics based on steatite. Results of examination of 12 workers with 7-27 years' exposure: history, clinical examination, lung function tests, ECG, chest, pelvic and femoral X-rays. No pathological effects were found from inhalation. Oral intake of barium carbonate can however cause severe poisoning.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Dec. 1976, Vol.11, No.12, p.299-302. Illus. 9 ref.
Machinery and equipment for the glass industry - General safety provisions
Mašini i oborudovanie dlja stekol'noj promyšlennosti - Obščie trebovanija bezopasnosti [in Russian]
This standard (entry into force: 1 Jan. 1977) sets out the safety requirements to be met by equipment used for drawing, rolling, moulding, and heat treatment of glass: general rules (built-in safety at the design stage); protective devices (fixed guards, electrically interlocked moving guards); control and regulation elements (control desks, ergonomic layout, etc.); greasing and cooling systems; pneumatic systems; electrical safety and local lighting; work platforms and access stairways; supplementary rules concerning glass feeders, heat treatment furnaces, drawing lines, etc.; provisions relating to compliance testing.
GOST 12.2.015-76, State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet standartov), Moskva, 12 Feb. 1976. Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, Moskva, D-557, USSR, 1976. 9p. Price: Rbl.0.04.
Dust abatement in glass works air
Sniženie zapylennosti vozduha na stekol'nyh zavodah [in Russian]
Contents: respirable dust and other health hazards in glass works (silica, lead, arsenic, chromium, etc.) and their TLVs; dusty operations and dust control methods (enclosure of bulk handling installations for raw materials, local exhaust ventilation, etc.); dust control measures at the design stage of new glass works (rational layout of storage areas and installations for mixing raw materials, mechanisation and occupational hygiene techniques, adoption of processes which avoid raising dust); dust control by ventilation (examples of calculations, local exhaust ventilation); atmospheric pollution control; adjustment and maintenance of ventilation (examples of calculations, local exhaust ventilation); atmospheric pollution control; adjustment and maintenance of ventilation systems. Some practical solutions adopted in Soviet glass works are described, with diagrams.
Strojizdat, pl. Ostrovskogo 6, 191011 Leningrad, USSR, 1976. 137p. Illus. 45 ref. Price: Rbl.0.36.
Noise control in the manufacture of quartz glass
O sniženii šuma v proizvodstve izdelij iz kvarcevogo stekla [in Russian]
At workshops manufacturing fused silica glass, the melting of which is very high, noise produced by the gas blowpipes exceeds the permissible level of 85dB(A) by 3-13dB in the medium-frequency and by 12-35dB in the high-frequency range. Description of measures which reduced noise to permissible levels: replacement of the blowpipes by quieter ring burners; attachment of adjustable sound screens above each worker's head; soundproofing of workshops with absorbant wall panels and baffles.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1976, No.5, p.45-46. Illus. 2 ref.
Michel F.B., Aļache J.M., Gayraud J.P., Pierredon M.
Humidifier disease - 4 case studies
Maladie des humidificateurs - A propos de 4 observations. [in French]
Report on 4 case studies in glass fibre spinning plant personnel working in a tunnel system involving an air curtain saturated with water vapour. Actinomycetes were found in water samples and in moisture on the tunnel walls. Diagnosis was based on general and respiratory clinical signs, lung function tests and immunological tests in 4 workers. 12 workers exposed to the same hazard but without symptoms of lung disease served as controls. Considerations on aetiological aspects of the disease, since agents other than actinomycetes were involved.
Revue franēaise des maladies respiratoires, May-June 1976, Vol.4, No.5-6, p.537-544. Illus. 9 ref.
Urinary non-precipitable lead in lead workers.
Groups of lead workers with: long-term presumed moderate exposure and positive (group A) or negative (B) laboratory signs; short-term exposure and positive (C) or negative (D) signs; presumed heavy exposure (E); and a control group (F) showed the following results for total blood lead and the mean proportion of non-precipitable lead respectively: group A, 0.62µmol/l and 48.7%; B, 0.35µmol/l and 44.9%; C, 0.40µmol/l and 48.9%; D, 0.17µmol/l and 24.6%; E, 1.43µmol/l and 44.3%; F, 0.14µmol/l and 18.8%. Thus it appears that when urinary lead is normal (groups D and F), it is excreted largely as precipitable lead even in lead-exposed workers, and that the chief conditions determining excretion of non-precipitable lead are the current or recent degree of lead absorption. The excretory mechanisms and the biological significance of non-precipitable lead are also discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1976, Vol.33, No.3, p.187-192. Illus. 12 ref.
Lavorazione della ceramica [in Italian]
A guide, written in straightforward language, to the relevant occupational safety and health legislation. General and specific hygiene regulations; dust: preventive measures (substitution, wetting, etc.), local exhaust and general ventilation; heat radiation; colours and glazes (protective gloves, barrier creams, ventilation, spray booths); safety regulations (fire prevention, electrical hazards); machine guarding (transmission elements, prime movers, control elements, work elements, maintenance, etc.); occupational diseases (lead poisoning, silicosis); machinery (preparation of plastic clay, conveyors, shaping, presses, drying); firing.
Norme di sicurezza - Settore artigiano, Serie A - N.4, Ente Nazionale Prevenzione Infortuni, via Alessandria 220E, 00198 Roma, Italy, 1976. 31p. Illus. Price: L.100.
Determination of colophony aerosol in air
Opredelenie aėrozolja kanifoli v vozduhe [in Russian]
Description of a method for determining concentrations of colophony vapours in factories producing high-temperature-resistant glass fibre, where colophony is used as a lubricant. The method relies on the reaction of colophony with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and spectrophotometric determination of the absorption index. Details of sampling method, reproduction of absorption spectrum and calibration curve are given.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1975, No.7, p.55-57. Illus. 2 ref.
Pulmonary emphysema in glass blowers
Das Lungenemphysem bei Mundglasbläsern [in German]
The results of studies in 131 glass blowers and reports in the literature indicate that neither pulmonary emphysema nor chronic bronchitis are typical occupational diseases in these workers. Recognition of pulmonary emphysema as a compensable occupational disease is not recommended.
Arbeitsmedizin-Information, 1975, Vol.2, No.576, p.28-32.
Roščin A.V., Azova S.M.
The coniotic factor during production of new types of glass fibre
Pylevoj faktor v proizvodstve novyh vidov steklovolokna [in Russian]
Results of an occupational health study on the production of 3 new types of fibres (kaolin-based, metallised, optical). The maximum amount of dust was measured at workplaces for the production of kaolin-based fibres, where the health hazards to the upper respiratory tract, skin, nervous system, etc. were also the greatest. The biochemical properties and the fibrogenetic power of the dust of different fibre types were studied in animal experiments. A threshold limit value of 0.01mg/m3 is proposed for optical fibre dust (which contains lead silicate) and safety measures are recommended.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1975, No.12, p.24-28. Illus. 2 ref.
Aubertin G., Granjon M.
Work in glass works - Protective clothing against infrared radiation
Travail dans les verreries - Un vźtement de protection contre le rayonnement infrarouge. [in French]
Results of research by the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS). After reviewing the criteria which protective clothing for infrared radiation must satisfy, and the heat transmission efficacy values of certain materials having an aluminised coating facing the heat source, the authors describe the elements of the protective garment: jacket-and-trouser suit of aluminised cotton with removable reflecting strips, 3 types of mask (face protector with headgear; face protector with mouth grip, back-tipping helmet with mouth tab), aluminised asbestos gloves. These features are illustrated in diagrams and tables. Comparison with other clothing brought out the superiority of the garment under study, which in addition to its effective reflection of infrared radiation presents a number of other qualities (comfort, ease of maintenance and low manufacturing cost). While designed for glass manufacture, it could find application in other industries.
Travail et sécurité, Aug.-Sep. 1975, No.8-9, p.402-409. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive, London.
Dust extraction systems in the ceramics industry - Recommendations of the Joint Standing Committee for the Pottery and Allied Industries.
Information on the use of dust extraction equipment for protecting workers in the ceramics industry against the inhalation hazard of fine dust (<5µm) with a silica or lead content. It is explained that there are a number of simple points of design and operation which make all the difference between good and bad dust extraction and these points are considered under the following headings: application of exhaust draught to the dust source; arrangement of ducting to carry away the dusty air; disposal of dust and dusty air; maintenance and testing of exhaust ventilating plant; suggested engineering standards for dust extraction plants (hoods and exhaust openings, metallic and non-metallic ducts, dust collectors, inspection and testing); specifications of exhaust hoods already recommended by the Joint Standing Committee; notes on emission from, and collection efficiency of, dust collectors.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1., United Kingdom, 1975. 25p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: £0.40.
Cuypers J.M.C., Bleumink E., Nater J.P.
Dermatological aspects of glass fibre production
Dermatologische Aspekte der Glasfaserfabrikation [in German]
To determine the role of allergic factors in skin disorders frequently observed in glass fibre workers, the authors carried out patch tests in 66 workers, using a standard series of allergens and the raw materials used in the fibre production. Positive reactions to epoxy resins were observed in more than 25% of the cases. Examination of the skin revealed skin injury caused by glass fibres, especially on the back of the hand and forearm. Showering was not sufficient to remove all glass fibres. The authors conclude that the skin disorders of workers in the spinning department were due to the hypersensitisation to the finisher components (epoxy resins) and to skin lesions caused by the glass fibre.
Berufs-Dermatosen, 1975, No.4, p.143-154. Illus. 18 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Jan. 1975.
Safety rules for tilting tables for flat glass
Sicherheitsregeln Kipptische für Flachglas [in German]
These safety rules apply to the construction and fitting out of these tables: nameplate, pneumatic equipment, protection against accidental tilting of the table, elimination or protection of crushing and shearing points, glass-holding devices, controls. Additional rules for automatic or remote-controlled equipment. Conditions of use for tilting tables.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.). 8p. Price: DM.0.50.
Müller C.G., Schorr D., Werner D.
Occupational safety and health in the porcelain and fine ceramics industry
Arbeitsschutz in der Porzellan- und feinkeramischen Industrie [in German]
An outline of occupational safety and health problems in the fine ceramics industry (occupational accidents and diseases, toxic substances, dust, noise, heat, arduous work, lighting) is followed by a review of the latest state of technology and the necessary safety measures in the various departments of the main and secondary processes of fine ceramics production. A further chapter is devoted to safety problems in ancillary departments. The role of work studies and employee participation in the improvement of safety and health protection are discussed.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, x 1193 , 1975. 104p. Illus. 86 ref. Price: M.2.00.
Environmental aspects of fibrous glass production and utilization.
The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is studying worker exposure to respirable glass fibers of large and small diameter. Exposure in small diameter fiber operations is many orders of magnitude higher than in conventional operations. This paper also includes a short history of fibrous glass technology, and a review of the biological effects of exposure. In the large diameter insulation plants, low levels of exposure were observed, and the concentration of airborne fibers was low. In small diameter operations, mean airborne fiber concentrations were 1.0-21.9 fibers/ml; and 40-85% of fibers were less than 0.5µm in diameter. The respirable fiber exposure in a reinforced plastics plant was extremely low.
Environmental Research, June 1975, Vol.9, No.3, p.295-312. Illus. 23 ref.
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