Glass, pottery and related materials - 277 entries found
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Bertazzi P.A., Zocchetti C., Riboldi L., Pesatori A., Radice L., Latocca R.
Cancer mortality of an Italian cohort of workers in man-made glass-fiber production
This study was undertaken in order to examine possible long-term effects, particularly cancer, associated with working in the man-made glass-fibre production industry in Italy (glass wool and continuous filament). All male production workers employed for a minimum of 1 year between 1944 and 1974 were admitted to the study (1,098 subjects), and their mortality was examined in the period 1944-1983 (21,325 person-years). An increased risk of cancer of the larynx was noted based, however, on only 4 deaths. When contrasted with the values of the local population, the increase proved to be statistically significant after 25yrs since first exposure. The higher than expected larynx cancer mortality was confined to workers hired before the age of 25yrs, exposed for at least 15yrs, who started exposure before 1960 (main production: glass wool), and who belonged to the highest cumulative exposure categories. Known confounding factors could not completely account for the excess observed. Among the numerous studies carried out on man-made glass-fibre workers, only 1 incidence study in France supports our findings. No other increased cancer risks have been suggested by the present study.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.65-71. 36 ref.
Teppo L., Kojonen E.
Mortality and cancer risk among workers exposed to man-made mineral fibers in Finland
A cohort of 941 workers in the glass-wool producing industry in Finland was followed for deaths in 1953-1981, the mean duration of follow-up being 12.1yrs. The overall mortality and mortality from individual causes of death did not differ significantly from those expected. Similarly, the cohort was followed for cancer incidence through the Finnish Cancer Registry. No excess cancer risks were observed. There were 4 cases of lung cancer versus 6.6 expected.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.61-64. 2 ref.
Simonato L., Fletcher A.C., Cherrie J., Andersen A., Bertazzi P.A., Charnay N., Claude J., Dodgson J., Estève J., Frentzel-Beyme R., Gardner M.J., Jensen O.M., Olsen J.H., Saracci R., Teppo L., Winkelmann R., Westerholm P., Winter P.D., Zocchetti C.
The man-made mineral fiber European historical cohort study - Extension of the follow-up
The study concentrated on 21,967 workers producing rock wool/slag wool, glass wool or continuous filament in 13 European factories. The expected deaths and incident cancer cases were derived from multiplying the accumulated person-years by national reference rates. Exposure assessment was based on the results of a historical environmental investigation reported elsewhere. There were 189 deaths (151.2 expected), and for rock-wool/slag-wool and glass-wool workers the standardised mortality ratios for lung cancer showed a pattern of increasing mortality with time since first exposure but not duration of employment. There was an excess of lung cancer among rock-wool/slag-wool workers employed during an early technological phase before the introduction of dust-suppressing agents, and fibre exposure, either alone or in combination with other exposures, may have contributed to the elevated risk. No excess of the same magnitude was evident for glass-wool production, and the follow-up of the continuous filament cohort was too short to allow for an evaluation of possible long-term effects. There was no evidence of an increased risk for pleural tumours or non-malignant respiratory disease.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.34-47. 28 ref.
Cherrie J., Dodgson J.
Past exposures to airborne fibers and other potential risk factors in the European man-made mineral fiber production industry
A historical environmental investigation was undertaken in European man-made mineral fibre factories (MMMF). The aim was to assess past exposures to MMMF and other environmental risk factors (asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl, formaldehyde, and arsenic). A self-administered questionnaire completed by each plant management and an interview of the respondents were used. Addition of oil to the MMMF, change in the nominal fibre size of the bulk MMMF, and elimination of early discontinuous production techniques were identified as principal changes. It was concluded that for epidemiologic purposes the subdivision of the history of each plant into an early, intermediate, and late technological phase based on the aforementioned changes would be appropriate. Corresponding time periods were identified for asbestos usage, use of bitumen as a binder, and production of slag wool. Two factories were singled out for specific attention because of their use of asbestos and possible exposure to coal-tar pitch volatiles.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.26-33. Illus. 15 ref.
Cherrie J., Dodgson J., Groat S., Maclaren W.
Environmental surveys in the European man-made mineral fiber production industry
Estimates of airborne fibre concentrations and fibre size for European man-made mineral fibre (MMMF) factories on the basis of measurements made in 1977-1980 are presented. The airborne fibre concentrations previously reported at a conference of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1982 have been revised to harmonise the results with the WHO-European MMMF reference counting level. The result was an approximate doubling of the reported airborne fibre levels. After the revisions the average combined occupational group concentration in the rock- and glass-wool plants were still generally low (<0.1 fibres/mL). In the glass continuous-filament factories the airborne fibre concentrations were very low (<0.1 fibres/mL). The average plant median for fibre length ranged from 10 to 20µm, and the corresponding median diameters ranged from 0.7 to 2µm. In general, the glass-wool fibres were thinner than the rock-wool fibres. The fibre concentrations measured in other studies in the MMMF production and user industries are reviewed. Higher levels (between 0.1 and 1.0 fibres/mL) have been measured in some insulation wool production, secondary production, and user industries. The highest levels (>1.0 fibres/mL) occurred in very fine glass-fibre production and in other specialist insulation wool usage.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.18-25. Illus. 14 ref.
A review of experimental evidence for the carcinogenicity of man-made vitreous fibers
Experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of man-made vitreous fibres are reviewed. Long-term inhalation studies using several animal species and dust preparations of fibrous glass, rock wool or slag wool have produced little evidence of pulmonary fibrosis or pulmonary tumours. While some intratracheal injection studies found almost no pathological changes in lung tissue, some showed that pulmonary fibrosis can occur. Only one intratracheal injection study has reported that vitreous fibres can be carcinogenic; in contrast, many workers have reported that, following intrapleural or intraperitoneal injection, man-made vitreous fibres are highly carcinogenic, and tumour production appears to be closely related to fibre size. In vitro tests confirm that vitreous fibres can be toxic and can cause neoplastic transformation of cultured cells. The discrepancies between some experimental studies probably result from the relatively high solubility of most vitreous fibres. It seems likely that, while these fibres can survive in body cavities long enough to cause tumour production, they dissolve in lung tissue fast enough to have relatively little harmful effect. Rock-wool fibres appear more durable than glass- or slag-wool fibres, and, with similar fibre numbers and sizes in any dust cloud, this material is the most likely to have harmful potential.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.12-17. 46 ref.
Ten years of epidemiologic investigations on man-made mineral fibers and health
The results of an extended follow-up study of mortality and cancer incidence among workers in the man-made mineral fibre (MMMF) production industry in Europe, undertaken by IARC are summarised. In addition, the prior epidemiologic evidence on this subject, both in terms of the earlier results of the same study and the results of other studies on the long-term effects of occupational exposure to MMMF are reviewed. The conclusion drawn from this prior evidence was that the possibility that some excess of lung cancer may be causally related to exposure to MMMF could not be ruled out. When the findings of the extended follow-up are added to the existing evidence, the overall results were considered (i) to endorse the indication that no adverse long-term health effects have been detectable in terms of mortality throughout almost all segments of the MMMF production of industry and (ii) to support the inference that MMMF - as present in the environmental conditions of early slag-wool/rock-wool production - may have played a role in the causation of lung cancer.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.5-11. 36 ref.
Contributions to the IARC study on mortality and cancer incidence among man-made mineral fiber production workers
This supplement presents a number of reports that are part of an extended follow-up of an IARC study of mortality and cancer incidence among man-made mineral fibre industry workers in Europe. Abstracts of individual articles presented in this supplement are included in this issue of CIS Abstracts.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.1-93. Bibl.
New protective device for presses
Neuartige Schutzeinrichtung an Pressen [in German]
Description of a protective device for presses that form ceramic tiles. Linked spirals of wire form a curtain between two horizontal loops of metal that encircle the press. When the press is off, pneumatic cylinders lift the lower loop, collapsing the curtain and giving access to the press. An interlock ensures that the press cannot be actuated until the curtain has been lowered. Two photoelectric guards verify that the curtain is in position. Cleaning and maintenance of the machine can be performed easily without dismantling of the device.
Sicherheitsingenieur, 1986, No.5, p.12-17. Illus.
Glass furnace repair
This data sheet describes safe practices during teardown and repair operations on glass tank furnaces.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1986. 5p. Illus. 1 ref.
Carcinogenic risks of man-made mineral fibres from mineral fibre insulation products
Kanzerogene Risiken durch künstliche Mineralfasern aus Mineralfaserdämmstoffen [in German]
The man-made mineral fibres (MMMF) used in insulating materials (e.g., glass fibre, rock wool) show carcinogenic effects in animal experiments only when the fibres are administered in ways that avoid the body's natural defenses. Epidemiological evidence of MMMF carcinogenicity is insufficient, as recent research has suggested that other workplace factors may be responsible for the observed mortality patterns in MMMF workers.
Staub, 1986, Vol.46, No.3, p.105-111. Illus. 37 ref.
Moulin J.J., Mur J.M., Wild P., Perreaux J.P., Pham Q.T.
Oral cavity and laryngeal cancers among man-made mineral fiber production workers
From 1975 to 1984, the incidence of cancer was determined among workers employed in a French man/made mineral fibre (MMMF) production plant. The cohort, including 1,374 fully active or retired men, represented 12,793 person-years. 41 patients had cancer, 19 of which were in the upper respiratory and alimentary tract and 5 of which were lung cancers. The number of lung cancers did not differ significantly from the expected number. However the incidence of upper respiratory and alimentary tract cancers was significantly higher, especially for those in the larynx, pharynx and buccal cavity. The relative risk of these cancers seemed to increase with the length of exposure to glass fibres and exceeded the value of 3.0 for more than 10 years of exposure. This result does not seem to be attributable to an excess in tobacco or alcohol consumption. No previous survey of the MMMF industry has shown such a risk, except in Italy. Thus this finding has to be confirmed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1986, Vol.12, No.1, p.27-31. 26 ref.
Chemical substances and materials in pottery work
Stoffer og materialer i keramiske virksomheder [in Danish]
Contents of this training booklet giving practical advice on hazardous substances in the pottery industry: health hazards associated with these substances, the creation of a collection of chemical safety data sheets for hazardous substances in the pottery industry in Denmark, substitution of substances, adaptation of the workplace and safe working methods, personal protective equipment and occupational exposure limits. A checklist and a list of relevant Danish directives are appended as well as some examples of the new data sheets.
Branchesikkerhedsråd nr.5, Almen industri, DA/gr., Nørre Voldgade 34, 1358 København K, Denmark, 1985. 28p. Illus. 8 ref.
Baba Y., Iwao S., Kodama Y.
Follow-up study on pulmonary function of dust workers: An epidemiological evaluation of discontinued workers of dust operations
An epidemiologic study on 176 workers exposed to dust in various occupations was initiated in 1978. No workers complained of chronic cough or phlegm. Their chest X-rays belonged to Category I as defined by the Pneumoconiosis Law in Japan. Pulmonary function test was performed on these workers, however, 54 workers discontinued taking part in the study by the end of 1979 ("early-discontinued" group), and 49 workers had discontinued by 1981 ("late-discontinued" group). A total of 73 workers had a 5-year follow-up survey of pulmonary function. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second divided by forced vital capacity and forced expiratory flow rate at 25% of FVC divided by height were mainly compared by smoking habit, work years, type of job, size of company, and the time when they discontinued their jobs. Predicted percentage values of lung function were used for the adjustment of the influence of workers' ages. Decrements of these values in the 5-year follow-up group were larger than the 1978 level. The mean values in the early-discontinued group were lower than in the late-discontinued and active working groups. The fact that respiratory function indicators are better for the workers with longer exposure than for the early-discontinued group is a reflection of the "healthy worker effect": only the physically healthiest workers remain in jobs that present health hazards.
Journal of UOEH, Sep. 1985, Vol.7, No.3, p.257-263. Illus. 8 ref.
Podlešák K., Matoušek O., Gilbertová S.
Work load on female stone grinders
Pracovní zátěž brusiček kamenů [in Czech]
Among women who grind stones for jewellery, the fast pace, monotonous operation and other factors contribute to a one-sided load of the locomotor apparatus, particularly the upper limbs. Subjects were examined objectively by electromyography. Subjective responses were assessed by interviews. Electromyographic activity correlated with subjective fatigue. Fatigue increases during the shift, especially in the lumbar area. The frequent incidence of vertebrogenic disorders indicates a hazard of illness from overload. Recommended measures are: medical examinations on entry and periodically thereafter, rehabilitation, a regimen of work and rest, and a better work environment, particularly adjustable work tables and seats.
Pracovní lékařství, 1985, Vol.37, No.1, p.9-15. Illus.
Yamamura Y., Yoshida M., Higuchi Y.
Epidemiological survey of lead effects on cloisonné makers
One of the workers in a cloisonné factory was found to be suffering from lead poisoning and was treated. With this case as an index case, 109 workers were surveyed for the effects of lead exposure. Blood (PbB) lead values of 25 workers were above 60µg/100g, and the highest PbB value was 147µg/100g. The correlations of PbB values with the logarithm of the activity of blood ALA dehydratase and the concentrations of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, urinary ALA (ALA-U), urinary coproporphyrin (CP-U) and serum iron were: -0.891, 0.780, 0.759, 0.753, 0.018, respectively. The correlation coefficient for log ALA-U vs. log CP-U was 0.915. A slight depression of haemoglobin or elevation of blood urea nitrogen was observed in a few workers with high PbB levels. The fabrication of cloisonné articles is briefly described.
Occupational Health Journal - Sangyō Igaku Jānaru, Sep. 1985, Vol.8, No.5, p.29-37. Illus. 9 ref.
Ng T.P., Allan W.G.L., Tsin T.W., O'Kelly F.J.
Silicosis in jade workers
Case study of silicosis in 5 jade workers in Hong Kong. Workplace investigations revealed the source of silicosis to be the silica flour used in the polishing of jade, with the respirable dust concentration (89% quartz) ranging between 0.34-0.72mg/m3 (well over the TLV of 0.1mg/m3). Three of the cases presented an early-onset, rapidly progressive form of silicosis.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1985, Vol.42, No.11, p.761-764. Illus. 12 ref.
Occupational hazards derived from the use of fuels in the ceramics industries of the province of Lérida
Problemática laboral derivada de la utilización de combustibles en las cerámicas de la provincia de Lérida [in Spanish]
This occupational health survey was conducted with the aim to identify the risks related to the various fuels used by the ceramics industry in the Spanish province of Lérida. Aspects covered: general description of the industry; different types of kilns and fuels; health hazards (inhalation of clay and lead-containing dust); mechanical hazards.
Salud y trabajo, May-June 1985, No.49, p.9-17. Illus.
Clerk S.H., Rastogi S.K., Chardra H., Mahendra P.N., Chandra S., Srivastava A.K.
Health hazards in the glass bangle industry
Summary of a respiratory morbidity survey of 373 workers in the glass bangle industry in India. The approx. 20,000 workers in this industry (employed in enterprises of 20-100 workers) are exposed to siliceous dust and high temperatures for 8-10h/day. Whereas the respiratory morbidity in a control group drawn from the same socio-economic and ethnic groups was 38.5%, it was 50.9% among the glass bangle workers. The prevalence of pneumoconiosis among the latter was 7.2%; prevalence increased with age and length of service. 28.5% of the glass bangle workers had obstructive respiratory abnormalities, 21.4% had restrictive impairment and 9.3% had both.
Industrial Toxicology Bulletin, 1985, Vol.8, No.1-2, p.3.
Wingren G., Axelson O.
Mortality pattern in a glass producing area in SE Sweden
Report on a mortality study that involved workers in a Swedish glass factory. There was a significant excess number of deaths from stomach cancer (especially in glassblowers), lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. Arsenic is suggested as the most likely agent causing excess mortality.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1985, Vol.42, No.6, p.411-414. 13 ref.
Gerhardsson L., Ahlmark A.
Silicosis in women: experience from the Swedish Pneumoconiosis Register
Among the approx. 4700 cases of pneumoconiosis reported during the period 1931-1980, there were 53 women with silicosis, 42 of whom had worked in the ceramic industry. A comparison with a group of men with similar history showed that the pre-diagnosis duration of exposure to dust was significantly shorter for women. Radiographic evidence of progression of the lesions was also more pronounced in women.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1985, Vol.27, No.5, p.347-350. Illus. 10 ref.
Levy B.S., Davis F., Johnson B.
Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle makers exposed to stannic chloride solution and other potentially hazardous substances
An epidemiologic study and occupational health survey of workers at a glass bottle manufacturing plant in the USA identified hydrogen chloride generated by the combination of stannic chloride and water as the probable cause of increased respiratory irritation among workers at the hot end of the process. Other contaminants investigated (silica dust, sulfur dioxide, ozone and trichloroethylene) were all present but at very low concentrations.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1985, Vol.27, No.4, p.277-282. Illus. 9 ref.
Rood A.P., Streeter R.R.
Size distributions of airborne superfine man-made mineral fibers determined by transmission electron microscopy
Personnel and bulk samples were taken in several factories producing man-made mineral fibres (MMMF) in the United Kingdom (Q and Min-K vitreous silica fibres and borosilicate glass fibres). Median diameters ranged from 0.1 to 0.3µm and median lengths between 2.4 and 6.3µm. These sizes are comparable with those of amphibole asbestos. Neither light microscopy nor scanning electron microscopy were found to be suitable for determining the full size distribution of airborne superfine MMMF.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1985, Vol.46, No.5, p.257-261. Illus. 14 ref.
Anger J.P., Anger F., Brault A., Brunet P.
Thermal decomposition of dibutyltin difluoride and lung toxicity of pyrolysis products in rats and guinea pigs - Part 1
Dégradation thermique du fluorure de dibutylétain et toxicité pulmonaire des produits de combustion chez le rat et le cobaye - 1ère partie [in French]
Part 1 of this article is an analysis of the thermolysis of dibutyltin fluoride between 200° and 600°C, with emphasis on its particular industrial occurrence (glass manufacturing). DBTF decomposes above its melting point into saturated hydrocarbons and olefins, accompanied by CO and CO2 during combustion as well as by volatile fluorine compounds. The solid residue is composed of various butyltins, of tin fluoride, of metallic tin and of tin oxides. Part 2 deals with toxicological information derived from animal experiments and with occupational pathology.
Journal de toxicologie clinique et expérimentale, 1985, Vol.5, No.1, p.15-23. 3 ref.
Valentino M., Coppa G., Ruschioni A.
Pregnancy in a worker exposed to lead
Gravidanza in un'operaia esposta al piombo [in Italian]
Case study of a woman who had worked 16 years in ceramics enameling. During a 6 year period she had one spontaneous abortion and 2 stillbirths. High lead levels in her blood and urine, and the absence of any other biochemical, anatomical or genetic abnormality, suggest that lead poisoning was the cause of the 3 foetal deaths. After EDTA treatment a fourth pregnancy, during which she had no occupational exposure to lead, had a successful outcome.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1984, Vol.75, No.4, p.296-299. 20 ref.
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Machinery and equipment for the manufacture of clay and silica bricks, ceramic and asbestos-cement products - General safety requirements
Mašiny i oborudovanie dlja proizvodstva glinjanogo i silikatnogo kirpiča, keramičeskih i asbestocementnyh izdelij - Obščie trebovanija bezopasnosti [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1985) establishes general requirements for the safe design of this machinery and equipment. Contents: general provisions, safety requirements with regard to machine elements and controls (operator's workstation, machine frame openings, guards for moving, rotating and current-carrying parts, acoustic signalling, electrical equipment, armoured cables, pneumatic systems, control desks, etc.; built-in safety (enclosures, inspection openings, hoppers); assembly and repairs; transportation; methods of enforcement. A list of equipment to which this standard is applicable is appended.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 10p. Price:Rbl.0.03.
Huggins R.G., Testagrossa P.A., Petersen R.C., Philen D.L., Turnispeed J.M.
Nonionizing radiation aspects of optical fiber manufacturing
The evaluation of the spectral distribution of the electromagnetic emissions from a system composed of a H2/O2 torch and a glass tube lathe used to manufacture rods for drawing optical fibres indicate levels of visible and infrared radiation that necessitated a specific type of eye protection for workers operating this equipment. The type of lenses used to prevent exposure to UV, visible and IR radiation is specified.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1984, Vol.45, No.12, p.796-801. Illus. 5 ref.
Barnes R., Rogers A.J.
Unexpected occupational exposure to asbestos
Case study of a 44-year old woman who developed malignant mesothelioma. Lung tissue analysis revealed amosite fibre levels of approx. 3 million fibres per gram of dry tissue, 6 times the upper range of the normal urban population. The likely place of exposure to amosite, causing mesothelioma, was during the woman's employment as a process worker in an artificial-jewellery factory, 1960-1972, where talc powder was used as a separating agent. The disease is surprising, because of the small amounts of talc used (500g every 2 months). A leading article in the same journal (p.452-453) makes extensive comments on the possible relation between talc and mesothelioma.
Medical Journal of Australia, 14 Apr. 1984, Vol.140, No.8, p.488-490, and p.452-453. Illus. 15 + 19 ref.
De Rosa E., Toffolo D., Sigon M., Brighenti F., Gori G.P., Bartolucci G.B.
Evaluation of the current risk of lead poisoning in the ceramics industry
Average blood lead levels (PbB) were determined in 5 checks on 94 workers in 4 ceramic tile plants and once in 221 subjects in 5 other plants. There was a reduction in mean PbB compared with previous investigations which is attributed to the use of glazes containing less lead. PbB levels observed were satisfactory and overlapped with data for workers involved in artistic pottery production, which is considered a less dangerous source of lead exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1983, Vol.9, No.6, p.463-469. 22 ref.
Fukumoto Y., Yoshida T., Yamazaki A., Torii F., Hamano T.
Results of questionnaires of low back pain
In a questionnaire survey of low back pain among 892 workers in a glass factory, it was noted that 29.9% of them complained of low back pain (continually or occasionally) and 26.3% of them had experience of low back pain in the past. The complaints were most frequent among workers in their 50's. The duration of the complaint was: 30% <5 years, 52.1% <10 years and 13.9% <20 years. Regarding the severity of the pain, 3.7% of the respondents had some difficulty in working. Among the workers with low back pain, 83.5% underwent medical treatment: 17% of them recovered and 31% improved, but one case aggravated. Regarding the effect of calisthenics, 31% of the participants became better, but no improvement was noted in the others.
Sumitomo Bulletin of Industrial Health, Aug. 1983, No.19, p.154-167. Illus. 6 ref.
Shima S., Kato Y., Yoshida T., Miki T., Ochiai A., Tachikawa S.
Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in pneumoconiosis
Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity in 263 ceramic workers with pneumoconiosis and 118 control subjects was determined by a modification of Cushman's method. SACE activity in pneumoconiotic subjects (category 1: 40.6±11.9 units; category 2: 42.8±10.0 units; category 3: 45.9±12.7 units; category A or B: 47.0±12.8 units) was higher in all categories than in normal subjects (30.8±8.8 units). SACE activities more than 2 standard deviations higher than those in controls were found in 18.3% of category 1 subjects, 22.0% of category 2 subjects, 35.3% of category 3 subjects and 32.1% of category A or B subject.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1983, Vol.31, No.4, p.320-325. Illus. 16 ref.
Classical and contemporary aspects of glassblowers cataract. Their implications for occupational medicine
Aspects classiques et actuels de la cataracte des verriers. Leur abord en médecine du travail [in French]
A discussion of previous studies, of statistics and of the essential characteristics of the title syndrome, which is caused by short-wavelength infrared radiation emitted by incandescent glass or metal. This study focusses on technical and medical preventive measures, and on problems of compensation, which have recently been solved in France by the publication of Table 71 (thermal cataracts) of the general schedule of occupational diseases. Although this affliction has become rare among glassblowers, there is a threat of its reappearance in connection with such new techniques as the infrared drying of automobile finishes. ISO and AFNOR standards for eye protection against infrared radiation are appended to the thesis.
Université Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Lariboisière Saint-Louis, Paris, France, 1983. 118p. 65 ref.
Raj Behari J., Singh S., Tandon S.K., Wahal A.K.
Lead poisoning among Indian silver jewellery makers
9 cases, all male, are reported. The work involved purification of impure silver by heating with lead without adequate exhaust ventilation. The working atmosphere was filled with smoke laden with lead and lead oxides. Lead concentrations of 6.33-19.85mg/m3 were measured in the workers' breathing zone. Clinical symptoms included acute and chronic abdominal pain, constipation, anaemia, loss of appetite, motor deficit, headache, and blue gum lining. Most showed significant increases in blood lead-zinc protoporphyrin; a decrease in blood haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and δ-ALAD activity; basophilic stippling of erythrocytes; and increased urinary excretion of lead and δ-ALA. Wasting and weakness of the forearm muscles occurred as a result of peripheral neuropathy. There was marked deposition of lead salts at the metaphyses of the knees, wrists and hands. Opacification of sesamoid bones was present in all cases.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1983, Vol.27, No.1, p.107-109. Illus.
(Comité technique national des industries des pierres et terres à feu, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie)
Specific risks associated with manual operations in the glassmaking industry
Risques spécifiques des verriers à la main [in French]
These recommendations, adopted 17 Nov. 1982, apply to permanent or temporary workers who shape, cut, polish or engrave glass by hand. Provisions bear specifically on prevention of injuries to the eye (hazard identification, direct prevention, maintenance of contrast, training and information of personnel) and elbow (placement of tools, placement of rests, training of personnel, medical supervision). Technical commentaries and a table of common hazards and TLVs are appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1983, No.111, Note No. 1428-111-83 (Recommendation No. 214), p.263-266.
Rapp R., Aubertin G.
Working conditions in hot workplaces - A study of glass manufacture by craftsmen
Conditions de travail à la chaleur - Etude de la verrerie à la main [in French]
About 3,000 glass-workers were studied to evaluate their thermal stress at different workplaces using the following indicators: increase in body-core temperature, WBGT index and sweat rate. Results show a hich (very high in fact) thermal stress in 40% of the jobs studied. In the summer, the percentage is around 60%, and for 5% of jobs the stress is above the danger threshold. Suggestions are made for reducing thermal stress, and the efficiency of the methods proposed is evaluated. An example is given of the estimated efficiency of certain radiation protections after the setting up of heat-stress prevision programmes which enable isoradiation curves to be plotted.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1983, No.110, Note n°1404-110-83, p.1-19. Illus. 25 ref.
Percovskij A.L., Harnikova G.A., Kremko L.M., Sidenko A.T.
Chromatographic determination of aerosols of dicyano-diamido-formaldehyde resin in factory air, on workers' skin and on work clothes
Hromatografičeskoe opredelenie aėrosolja diciandiamidformal'degidnoj smoly v vozduhe proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij, na kožnyh pokrovah rabotajuščih i specodežde [in Russian]
Acetic acid solutions of the title resin are used as lubricants in the production of glass fibre; cases of dermatitis have been associated with exposure to the lubricants, and they may have other toxic and allergenic effects. Airborne resin is determined by passing a known volume of air through a filter, washing the filter with water, heating an aliquot of the extract with acidic 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, extracting the resulting formaldehyde dinitrophenylhydrazone with toluene, and determining the dinitrophenylhydrazone by gas chromatography. The chromatographic step uses a 100x0.4cm column of 5% SKTFB-803 silicone on silanised Chromaton with nitrogen as carrier gas, and an electron capture detector. The detection limit for a 100-litre air sample is 0.02mg/m3, with a relative error of ≤6%. Resin deposited on workers' skin and work clothes is recovered by washing with water. Detection limits for deposited resin are 0.01mg/m3 in both cases. There is no interference from organic solvents, acetic acid, mineral oil, dibutyl sebacate or other components of the fibre-drawing lubricant.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1982, No.12, p.57-58. Illus. 4 ref.
Telišman S., Keršanc A., Prpić-Majić D.
The relevance of arguments for excluding ALAD from the recommended biological limit values in occupational exposure to inorganic lead (WHO 1980)
ALAD and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in the blood and δ-ALA (ALAU)and coproporphyrin (CPU) in the urine were correlated with blood lead levels (PbB) in 394 workers at factories manufacturing crystal glass, ceramics, and lead articles. The spontaneous recovery of these indicators was studied in 14 workers 4.5 and 10 months after cessation of lead exposure. All parameters correlated significantly with PbB in the order ALAD>ZPP>ALAU>CPU. Advantages of ALAD over the other parameters are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1982, Vol.50, No.4, p.397-412. Illus. 32 ref.
Ljubčenko P.N., Dupljankin S.A., Dmitrieva L.G., Avramenko M.M., Savickaja E.A., Ždanko T.F.
Combined toxic effects of lead, selenium and cobalt under industrial conditions
O toksičeskom vzaimodejstvii svinca, selena i kobal'ta v proizvodstvennyh uslovijah [in Russian]
90 workers engaged in the production of pigments for ceramics were compared with respect to their heavy metal exposure: 41 exposed to lead alone showed lower frequencies of lead-poisoning symptoms than did 49 exposed to lead, selenium and cobalt. These symptoms include reduced haemoglobin levels, increased basophilic granulated erythrocyte count, and increased urinary ALA and coproporphyrin excretion. Thus, contrary to published assertions, selenium does not dependably counteract the toxic effects of lead.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1982, No.1, p.26-28. 14 ref.
Ramakrishna R.S., Ponnampalam M., Brooks R.R., Ryan D.E.
Blood lead levels in Sri Lankan families recovering gold and silver from jewellers' waste
The recovery method involves mixing the residues of jewellers' waste (dust, floor sweepings, rags, paper) with powdered lead scrap (old batteries, lead-coated cables, etc.), and heating the alloy in open vessels to remove the lead by volatilisation. Mean lead levels in these families (33µg/dl) were always at least twice those of their neighbours. Gold and silver recovery represents a significant occupational health hazard in third world countries.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1982, Vol.37, No.2, p.118-120. 9 ref.
Sartorelli E., Loi F., Gori R., Catalano P., Valiani M.
Inorganic lead exposure in workers at 2 glassware factories in the upper Elsa valley (Italy)
Esposizione a piombo inorganico in lavoratori di due cristallerie dell'Alta Val d'Elsa [in Italian]
Report of long-term studies in 2 glassware factories to determine the sources and levels of lead exposure and measures atmospheric lead, blood lead and protoporphyrin and urinary ALA. Health status was evaluated by assessing changes in various body organs and systems. The environmental and biological exposure indicators showed that the lead hazard was highest in glass melting but progressively decrased in glass mixing and the shaping of the final glassware. The most pronounced symptoms of exposure were found in the digestive and nervous systems.
Lavoro umano, July-Aug. 1982, Vol.30, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 14 ref.
A little-known disease - Cataract in workers shaping glass by hand
Une maladie mal connue: la cataracte du verrier à la main [in French]
General considerations on this occupational disease due to exposure to infrared radiation. Reference to a circular (8 Apr. 1981) issued by the French National Health Insurance Fund (Caisse nationale française de l'assurance maladie) concerning collective and individual protection. Principal points covered in a study carried out on the evaluation of hazards associated with exposure to UV, visible and IR radiation, and preventive measures.
Travail et sécurité, June 1982, No.6, p.302-309. Illus.
Tartakovskaja L.Ja., Salganikova B.S., Troickaja E.E.
Effect on the body of "low-level" vibration in conjunction with local muscle stress in the cutting of semiprecious stones
Vlijanie na organizm "malyh" urovnej vibracii v sočetanii s lokal'noj myšečnoj nagruzkoj pri ogranke poludragocennyh kamnej [in Russian]
Two types of occupational pathology were found among cutters of semiprecious stones: vibration disease and fasciitis. The extent of pathology and the complex of symptoms observed varied with the force and frequency of hand and arm movement and with the frequency and amplitude of vibration experienced.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1981, No.11, p.38-41. 1 ref.
Pučežskij A.A., Mikulinskij A.M., Kossovskij N.N., Kaljaganov P.I., Sudonina L.T.
Working conditions and state of health of glassware cutters and polishers
Uslovija truda i sostojanie zdorov'ja šlifovščikov-almazčikov po obrabotke stekloizdelij iz hrustalja [in Russian]
The worst aspect of glass cutting and polishing is the high static load on the upper extremities. Other negative factors are vibration, noise and dust containing lead and silica. Clinical studies revealed pathology of the neuromuscular systems of the upper extremities and confirmed the role of environmental factors in their aetiology. Isolated cases of occupational disorders of the lungs were detected. No signs of chronic lead poisoning were found. Workplace conditions would be markedly improved by providing: exhaust ventilation at each workstation, lubricants in the water used for cutting, team organisation of work to permit rotation of tasks, and universal availability of diamond cutting wheels.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1981, No.7, p.20-23. 13 ref.
Hygienic evaluation of dibutyltin bis(trifluoroacetate)
Gigieničeskaja ocenka dibutilditriftoracetatolova [in Russian]
The toxicity of dibutyl di(trifluoroacetate)tin (DBDTT) was determined in acute, subacute, and chronic experiments. Its LD50 was: 53.65 mg/kg for mice, 80.0 mg/kg for male rats, 55.0 mg/kg for female rats, 41.1 mg/kg for newborn rats, and 180.0 mg/kg for rabbits. DBDTT is absorbed by the skin, irritates the mucosa of the eye, and is a cumulative poison. In subacute experiments, DBDTT produced several alterations in blood chemistry. Chronic inhalation experiments with 1mg/m3 DBDTT showed alterations in nervous system and liver function. A concentration of 0.1mg/m3h is apparently close to the threshold limit value.
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1981, No.7, p.18-19. 4 ref.
Laer V.A., Schäcke G., Rohde N.
Standardised ergometric tests for glassblowers
Standardisierte ergometrische Untersuchungen bei Glasbläsern [in German]
Report on preventive medical examination of 90 glassblowers, following the principles laid down by the Mutual Industrial Accident Insurance Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften) in the Federal Republic of Germany: workers examined, method (anamnesis, physical examination, radiography, lung function tests, ECG, ergometry), analysis of results. The report concerns principally the results of measurements of heart rate and arterial blood pressure during ergometric tests. Evaluation of work aptitude should be based on normal workload for the occupation. An effort of 120W continued during 5min was observed to involve serious cardio-vascular hazards.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Dec. 1981, Vol.16, No.12, p.294-297. Illus. 10 ref.
Morgan R.W., Kaplan S.D., Bratsberg J.A.
Mortality study of fibrous glass production workers
A retrospective study of the mortality experience of a cohort of 6,536 male exployees employed ≥ 10 years in fibrous glass production, and of a sub-group of 1,222 workers with > 20 years employment and ≥ 30 years latency, showed no significant excess or increase in mortality for any cause of death. The pattern of mortality for these workers was lower than comparable national patterns in the U.S. Long-term worker mortality experience was similar to that of individuals employed for shorter periods.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.36, No.4, p.179-183. 5 ref.
Yamada Y., Kido T., Okada A., Nogawa K., Kobayashi E.
Studies on the biological effects of low level lead exposures - Part 1. Estimation of usefulness of some biochemical tests as parameters for occupational lead exposures
Erythrocyte ALAD, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), ALA and coproporphyrin (CP) in urine, and lead (Pb) levels in blood (PbB) and in urine (PbU), were monitored in male painters in a ceramics works. At PbB levels of 5-50µg/dl and PbU levels of 10-200µg/l log ALAD and log FEP showed good linear correlations with PbB, and ALA-U and CP-U showed significant but lesser correlations with PbB. A good linear correlation was found between PbU and log ALAD and log FEP, and ALA-U showed fairly good correlation with log PbU. ALAD and FEP were the most sensitive tests for determining increasing PbB or PbU. FEP monitoring is the most sensitive and useful test for occupational lead exposures.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, May 1981, Vol.23, No.3, p.260-269. Illus. 41 ref.
Israeli R., Smirnov V., Sculsky M.
Symptoms of intoxication due to dicyclohexyl-methane-4,4'-diisocyanate exposure
Vergiftungserscheinungen bei Dicyclohexyl-Methan-4,4'-Diisocyanat-Exposition [in German]
Dicyclohexylmethane 4,4'-diisocyanate (DMDI) is used for coating glass bottles to prevent injuries among bottle users. The production process is described and 3 cases of poisoning are studied. Eleven of 15 workers who were first exposed to DMDI showed allergic and non-allergic skin reactions. Six suffered from vertigo with or without headaches and 4 showed obstructive ventilatory disorders, tachycardia, and hypotension (ECG normal). All were treated with oral antihistamines and local steroid application. The signs of the intoxication disappeared after 10-14 days from the beginning of the treatment. There was no difference in the clinical syndrome between the atopic and the non-atopic workers. It seems that DMDI does not affect the respiratory tract as strongly as TDI. The chronic effects of DMDI and the organic isocyanates are discussed. The difficulties of measuring DMDI in air are explained (TLV = 0.003ppm).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.2, p.179-184. Illus. 19 ref.
Roberts D.L., Messenger A.G., Summerly R.
Occupational dermatitis due to 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one in the pottery industry
3 male mould-makers acquired a contact allergic dermatitis to a releasing oil. All 3 were sensitised to the biocide 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one in the oil.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1981, Vol.7, No.3, p.145-147. 4 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Control of lead: Pottery and related industries
Reference to U.K. legislation on lead exposure and interpretation of the regulations; assessment of work involving exposure to lead; control measures for materials, plant and processes; respiratory protective equipment; protective clothing; industrial hygiene, personal hygiene (washing and changing facilities; eating, drinking and smoking habits); cleaning of work premises; workplace air monitoring; medical surveillance and biological tests.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Aug. 1981. 4p. Price: £0.50.
Gana Soto J.M.O., Giampaoli E., Nadim Zidan L., Da Silva M.D.
Evaluation of silicosis hazard
Levantamento do risco potencial de silicose [in Portuguese]
Report on an investigation carried out in the ceramic industry in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Methodology: collection of dust samples on filters, gravimetry and determination of free silica content by x-ray diffractometry. 315 samples were taken in 30 plants. Findings: there was a silicosis hazard in many departments and operations, and a large proportion of the employees were at risk. Detailed recommendations, illustrated by health engineering techniques for dust control.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Feb.-Mar. 1981, Vol.9, No.33, p.71-108. Illus.
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