Glass, pottery and related materials - 277 entries found
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Health and Safety Commission - Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
This booklet advises on the effects that the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988 (COSHH) have had on the role of the "works inspector" in the pottery industry. Using a series of questions and answers, the role of the "appointed person" is outlined along with the qualities needed to fill such a post. The kind of questions an appointed person will need to ask in order to carry out his/her job are listed and advice is given on training.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 23p. 5 ref.
Health and Safety Commission - Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Personal protective equipment
This booklet advises on the provision and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the ceramics industry. The need for protective clothing is outlined along with the responsibilities of employers to provide appropriate clothing and guidance on how it should be worn and taken care of. The use of respirators and eye and ear protectors is also outlined.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 11p. Illus. 3 ref.
Health and Safety Commission - Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Asbestos in kilns and driers
This booklet summarises the action necessary to ensure that work with asbestos-containing materials found in high-temperature plant in the ceramics industry is carried out safely and in accordance with legislation. Contents: types of asbestos and its recognition and location; potential hazards; regulatory requirements; work not requiring a licence; hazard assessment; control limits.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 11p. 9 ref.
Wilkinson S.M., Heagerty A.H.M., English J.S.C.
Hand dermatitis in the pottery industry
Irritant hand dermatitis has long been recognised in the pottery industry. Among workers handling glaze, sensitisation to chromate was common and allergy to other metals and to biocides also occurred. Allergy to oil additives was found in mould makers. Whilst irritant hand dermatitis does occur, allergy to metals and biocides should be looked for in workers handling glazes, and allergy to oil additives in mould makers.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1992, Vol.26, No.2, p.91-94. 11 ref.
Peltier A., Guillemin C., Gendre J.C., Stempfer J.C., Pellé-Duporté D., Schmitt J.P.
Study of the solubility of lead compounds used in glazing workshops
Etude de la solubilité des composés du plomb utilisés dans les ateliers d'émaillage [in French]
This document assesses the state of research into the toxicity of industrial products containing lead compounds (lead silicates or "lead frits" as used in ceramic glazes, for example). Present findings are insufficient for any significant conclusions regarding the danger of these products. It is possible, however, to envisage the development of a large-scale toxicological study.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.146, Note No.1870-146-92, p.43-50. Illus. 14 ref.
Shima S., Arakawa T., Kato Y., Yoshida T., Taniwaki H., Nagaoka K., Nishida Y., Otani N.
Epidemiological studies on the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis or lung cancer in ceramic workers with pneumoconiosis
Yōgyō jinpaisha no haikekkaku narabi ni haigan ni kansuru ekigakuteki kenkyū [in Japanese]
Retrospective cohort study (1979-1990) on pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer in 960 ceramic workers with pneumoconiosis and 337 controls. Those with pneumoconiosis were classified according to categories 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the Japanese X-ray classification of pneumoconiosis. The age-adjusted mortality rate (MR) per 1000 person-years for cat. 4 workers was significantly higher (22.6) than among controls (4.5). Age-adjusted MRs were 2.3 for pneumoconiosis, 3.4 for pulmonary tuberculosis and 5.6 for all cancers in cat. 4 workers, significantly higher than among controls. There were no significant differences for lung cancer. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR), based on Japanese MRs, was estimated for the period 1986-1990. SMRs in cat. 4 workers were 356 for all causes, 294 for all cancers, 909 for lung cancer and 5000 for pulmonary tuberculosis, all significantly higher than among controls. SMRs for these causes in cat. 1, 2 and 3 were not significantly higher. The age-adjusted incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis for those with pneumoconiosis of any category was significantly higher than among controls. The standardised incidence ratios for pulmonary tuberculosis for the period 1979-1990 for all cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and for infectious pulmonary tuberculosis were also significantly higher than among controls for all 4 categories.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, 10 Dec. 1991, Vol.67, No.12, p.565-573. 14 ref.
Risk of pneumoconiosis in the traditional ceramic industry - Current evidence and results of a cross-sectional cohort study
Le risque pneumoconiotique dans l'industrie céramique traditionnelle: données actuelles et présentation des résultats d'une enquête de cohorte transversale [in French]
The aim of this medical thesis is to analyse the risk of pneumoconiosis and exposure to silica in the ceramics industry, ranked 2nd or 3rd in France according to the number of those with recognised silicosis. The technology and economics of the ceramics industry is described. The risk of pneumoconiosis, its nature, and causal factors in the industry are analysed based on statistical data and current epidemiological evidence. In a descriptive, cross-sectional study of a group of exposed workers in the ceramics industry, possible clinical, radiological and spirometric abnormalities are analysed in terms of total exposure to silica dust. The results obtained are compared with data from the literature and suggest a relatively low risk and an evident trend towards a reduction in the frequency and gravity of silicosis.
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris, France, 1991. 152p. Illus. 60 ref.
Ulmer W.T., Zimmermann I., Bengtsson U.
Evolution of silicosis in the ceramic and glass industries
Silikoseentwicklung in der Keramik- und Glas-Industrie [in German]
Chest X-rays of 60 workers in the ceramics and glass industries, with dust exposure of up to 35yrs, were evaluated. For each worker, an average of 10 chest X-rays were available. In the majority of cases silicosis had not yet progressed to functional impairment after 32yrs of exposure. In a few cases severe forms of silicosis were observed after much shorter exposure times. Type A opacities were present in 8% of the cases and type B in 2%.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, Mar. 1991, Vol.41, No.3, p.72-75. Illus. 9 ref.
Lischinsky J., Vigliani M.A., Allard D.J.
Radioactivity in zirconium oxide powders used in industrial applications
Recent work involving the decommissioning of a former ceramic manufacturing facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for activities involving depleted uranium oxide has discovered the presence of unexpected high levels of natural radioactivity in non-licensed zirconium oxide powders also used in the same utility. A comparison between the levels of source material found in samples of this material and the current regulatory guidance for licensed activities and decommissioning was conducted. It has been determined that the level of radioactivity in the zirconium oxide is high enough to raise health physics concerns in the areas of licensing and regulatory compliance, decontamination criteria, and worker health and safety. An examination of these areas was conducted and implications associated with the findings are presented.
Health Physics, June 1991, Vol.60, No.6, p.859-862. 10 ref.
Kumar P., Rastogi S.K., Gupta B.N., Husain T.
Psychological responses to thermal stress in a glass bangle factory
Behavioural studies were conducted on a random sample of 38 glass bangle workers engaged in various occupations and exposed to high ambient temperature (38.2 ± 3.4°C) and radiant heat (46.2 ± 5.1°C) during their work in the glass bangle industries at Firozabad, India. The control group consisted of 22 subjects of similar age and socio-economic status. Series of tests were used to assess the behavioural changes induced by the existing heat stress. The mean scores of immediate memory were much lower in the exposed population indicating impairment of immediate memory in the study group. Visuo-motor coordination and vigilance were also significantly affected. Visual perception showed a downward trend among the glass bangle workers.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Winter 1991, Vol.41, No.4, p.157-160. Illus. 22 ref.
Bache C.A., Lisk D.J., Scarlett J.M., Carbone L.G.
Epidemiologic study of cadmium and lead in the hair of ceramists and dental personnel
The cadmium and lead content of hair in 70 ceramists was studied, with a comparable group of 75 dental personnel used a control cohort. The median levels of both metals in the hair of the ceramists was significantly higher than among the dental personnel. Those ceramists whose studios were ventilated showed significantly lower levels of both metals in their hair. The use of protective masks or respirators was associated with significantly higher levels of cadmium in the hair of ceramists. A review of the literature on the subject is presented and the health significance of the results is discussed.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Dec. 1991, Vol.34, No.4, p.423-431. 26 ref.
Kronenberg R.S., Levin J.L., Dodson R.F., Garcia J.G.N., Griffith D.E.
Asbestos-related disease in employees of a steel mill and a glass bottle manufacturing plant
This report presents preliminary observations on the prevalence of asbestos-related disease in workers at two industrial sites not generally associated with asbestos exposure: a glass bottle manufacturing plant and a steel mill.
Toxicology and Industrial Health, Jan.-Mar. 1991, Vol.7, No.1/2, p.73-79. 9 ref.
de la Cuadra J., Grau-Massanés M.
Occupational contact dermatitis from rhodium and cobalt
The report of a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from rhodium sulfate and cobalt chloride in a 29 year-old woman working in a goldsmith's workshop is presented. The relevance and source of sensitisation to these metals in this patient is described, and the literature on the subject reviewed.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1991, Vol.25, No.3, p.182-184. 5 ref.
Vilaplana J., Romaguera C., Grimalt F., Cornellana F.
New trends in the use of metals in jewellery
Owing to the constant increase in the number of cases of nickel sensitisation seen in most allergy departments of dermatology and to the fact that sensitisation to nickel is almost always through contact with jewellery and imitation jewellery, an update was carried out on the metal alloys principally used in the manufacture of such jewellery (earrings, bracelets, necklaces, rings, watch straps, etc.). The conclusions of this review demonstrate that nickel is irreplaceable in the majority of the alloys because of its excellent technical properties and low price and, as a result, the percentage of sensitisations to this allergen will not only maintain their present high level but will probably increase in the future.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1991, Vol.25, No.3, p.145-148. 11 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Shaping a healthy future (COSHH and the production of pottery)
This videotape concentrates on chemical hazards in pottery production, and on how the British COSHH (CIS 89-1092) and the Control of Lead at Work Regulations (CIS 81-134), as well as the Potteries Approved Code of Practice (CIS 91-159) are applied in this industry.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1990. Videotape. Length: 22min. Price: GBP 28.68 (hire), GBP 85.10 (sale). ###
Sankila R., Karjalainen S., Pukkala E., Oksanen H., Hakulinen T., Teppo L., Hakama M.
Cancer risk among glass factory workers: An excess of lung cancer?
A total of 3749 workers employed for at least three months in two Finnish glass factories (cohorts A and B) were followed up for cancer in 1953-86 through the Finnish Cancer Registry. The risk of cancer was analysed by primary site, type of work, years since first exposure, and age at diagnosis. The only significantly increased risks were those of lung cancer among men. It is postulated that the excess risk of lung cancer, detected in this study, can also be accounted for by lifestyle, and not only by possible occupational exposures, because a similar excess risk of lung cancer has been found previously for all industrial workers in Finland.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1990, Vol.47, No.12, p.815-818. 17 ref.
Rastogi S.K., Gupta B.N., Mathur N., Husain T.
Ventilatory dysfunction in glass bangle workers
The pulmonary function status of 73 glass bangle workers suffering from chronic bronchitis having varied exposures to pulmonary toxicants in the work environment was evaluated in 1984. The findings were compared with those observed in 220 asymptomatic glass bangle workers and 88 unexposed controls. There was a higher prevalence (45.2%) of ventilatory dysfunction in the chronic bronchitic cases as compared to 19% in the asymptomatic workers and 2.3% in controls, respectively. The relative risk of airway obstruction was 8.3 and 19.6 times higher in the asymptomatic and chronic bronchitic workers respectively as compared to the control (p < 0.001). Age > 30 was found to be significantly associated with bronchial obstruction in chronic bronchitic cases. The occupational and environmental factors responsible for the high prevalence of chronic bronchitis and associated ventilatory dysfunction in relatively young glass bangle workers are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.18, No.6, p.707-715. Illus. 34 ref.
Seidenari S., Danese P., Nardo D., Hanzini B.M., Motolese A.
Contact sensitization among ceramics workers
139 workers from 3 ceramics factories underwent a dermatological and allergological examination, using standard and occupational patch test series, in order to evaluate the prevalence of dermatitis and contact sensitisation, to identify the most important sensitising substances in the ceramics industry, and to correlate the results with possible risk factors such as atopy. Hand dermatitis had affected 37% of the subjects examined. 27% of the workers were sensitised to 1 or more allergens. Of 52 subjects with dermatitis, 37% had allergic contact dermatitis and 63% irritant contact dermatitis. 18 subjects were found to be sensitised without showing any previous or present clinical symptoms. Atopy tended towards correlation with the overall incidence of dermatitis, though not with the prevalence of sensitisation.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1990, Vol.22, No.1, p.45-49. Illus. 5 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Control of substances hazardous to health in the production of pottery: Approved Code of Practice
This Code amplifies certain aspects of the general Approved Codes of Practice under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations and the Control of Lead at Work Regulations. Topics covered include: assessment of nature and extent of health risks; procedures requiring control measures to reduce exposure to silica, lead and other substances; prevention of contamination and disposal of waste; provision and use of protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment; cleaning of workrooms, plant and equipment; construction of buildings and equipment; use and maintenance of control measures; exposure monitoring and health surveillance.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 33p. 19 ref. Price: GBP 4.50.
Hassine L., Hedkili A., Ben Salah N., Souilem J., Yacoub M.
Occupational lead poisoning among potters
Saturnisme professionnel chez les artisans potiers [in French]
Eleven potters working in 3 pottery workshops were examined in order to find signs of lead poisoning caused by exposure to a lead-based varnish. The findings confirm biological exposure of all 11 potters, despite the poor clinical symptomatology. In conclusion, the authors emphasise the need for elementary prevention measures.
Journal de toxicologie clinique et expérimentale, Jan.-Feb. 1990, Vol.10, No.1, p.27-30. 5 ref.
Cherrie J.W., Bodsworth P.L., Cowie H.A., Groat S.A., Pettie S., Dodgson J.
A report on the environmental conditions at seven European ceramic fibre plants
This report presents the results of occupational hygiene surveys in seven European ceramic fibre production plants, along with the rationale and methods used to calculate each worker's cumulative exposure to airborne dust and fibres. Details are given of airborne fibre concentration by occupational group (respirable and inspirable fibre concentrations and mass concentrations) along with fibre size and concentration data. Individual respirable fibre concentrations ranged up to 2.4 fibres/mL in the case of production workers and 3.4 fibres/mL for secondary production workers. Comparisons are made with other studies in similar production plants.
Institute of Occupational Medecine, Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh EH8 9SU, United Kingdom, June 1989. 69p. 21 ref. Price: GBP 40.00 (GBP 45.00 overseas)
Beltrami V., Innocenti A., Pieroni M.G., Civai R., Nesi D., Bianco S.
Occupational asthma due to cuttle-fish bone dust
Asma professionale da inalazione di polvere di osso di seppia [in Italian]
This report describes a new case of occupational asthma in a goldsmith. A 25-year-old female suffered attacks of urticaria and asthma at each exposure to the dust of cuttle-fish bone used to polish gold jewellery. A specific occupational bronchial provocation challenge showed a dual asthmatic response with a maximum fall in FEV1 of 26% of the baseline value after 6 hours. A pick-test with crude cuttle-fish bone dust in glycerin 10% also gave a positive response.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1989, Vol.80, No.5, p.425-428. Illus. 7 ref.
Tornling G., Gustavsson A., Hogstedt C., Westerholm P.
Mortality and cancer incidence in workers with silicosis in the ceramics industry
Mortalitet och cancerincidens hos arbetare med silikos inom keramisk industri [in Swedish]
Mortality and the incidence of cancer were investigated in male workers with silicosis from the Swedish ceramics industry. The anticipated numbers of deaths and cancer cases were calculated from national rates standardised for age and calendar year. Mortality from 1951 to 1985 in the 314 studied men was significantly increased because of increased mortality due to silicosis and tuberculosis, but there was no increased mortality due to malignant disease. The total number of cancer cases from 1958 to 1983 in 280 studied men was not increased, but there was an increased incidence of lung cancer, especially when a long time had elapsed after the silicosis diagnosis. Exposure in the Swedish ceramics industry did not include known lung carcinogens except for quartz. The increased risk of lung cancer may have been caused by quartz dust, impairment of lung function or by some fibrosis-related mechanism.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 20p. 25 ref.
Salsi S., Barliev A.
Optical radiation in hand-blown glass factories - Study of protective measures
Rayonnements optiques dans les verreries à main - Etude des moyens de prévention [in French]
Results of the 2nd part of a general survey carried out in 4 hand-blown glass factories, in which 21 workplaces were studied. (For the 1st part, see Note No.1617-126-87 under CIS 87-1057). The aim of the survey was to control the efficiency of the preventive measures used and to make recommendations based on French Standards NF S 77-104 and NF S 77-106. The results show that except for those using 'bleu fondeur' filters, all protective measures were effective. Standards defining welding (NF S 77-104) and infrared (NF S 77-106) filters are not adapted for the measurement of radiation in hand-blown glass factories (in particular, the spectral band widths covered are not broad enough).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1989, No.137, Note No.1757-137-89, p.639-654. Illus. 12 ref.
The social meanings of time off-work: a case study from a pottery factory
An intensive study of sickness absence in a large pottery factory shows that shop floor workers take time off in cycles, some familiar, some less often noticed. The author and his colleagues combined use of company records on absence and sickness with participant observation, and also interviewed a stratified random sample of employees. It is shown that there are different distributions by day of week for unexcused and excused absences; that there is a complex seasonal distribution, linked to holidays, which differs for men and women; and that the distribution of absences across the working life does not conform to the tendency of people to report a greater degree of incapacity as they age. Qualitative data suggest that men and women of differing age and marital status behave as household and kin relations demand. It is thus unsatisfactory to account for cycles of sickness absence in terms either of individual attitudes to work ('malingering') or of the direct impact of biomedical conditions ('genuine sickness'). What the meanings behind the cycles reveal is that sickness absence is a structured social process.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.3, p.423-438. Illus. 30 ref.
Prowse K., Allen M.B., Bradbury S.P.
Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary impairment in male and female subjects with pottery workers' silicosis
Respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, lung function and radiological category of silicosis were assessed in 276 present and former pottery workers who were receiving industrial disablement benefit for silicosis. There were 140 females and 136 males. The proportion with conglomerate disease (massive fibrosis) was similar in both sexes. The FEV1 declined with increasing X-ray category of silicosis irrespective of smoking habit and was most marked in subjects with symptomatic chronic bronchitis. In females who had never smoked the average decline of FEV1 in those with simple silicosis was 18mL year-1 and for those with conglomerate disease 38mL year-1. Symptomatic chronic bronchitis was common and only partly related to smoking, occurring in 69% of 101 non-smoking female silicotic patients. No significant changes were observed in vital capacity, lung volume or transfer factor for carbon monoxide.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.3, p.375-385. 28 ref.
Yuri T., Kato Y., Shima S., Tachikawa S., Yoshida T., Taniwaki H., Hosoda H., Kuramoto T., Nagai K., Ukai Y., Mori N., Arakawa T., Yamauchi S., Nagaoka K., Tamura A.
Annual change in the development of pneumoconiosis and pulmonary dysfunction
Yōgyō-jinpai no shinten to haikino-shōgai no keinenhenka [in Japanese]
The development of pneumoconiosis and of pulmonary dysfunction accompanying it was studied in 623 workers of the ceramic industry. All of them had been under observation for a period of 4 years or more. Spirometry and flow volume curve measurements were carried out to chart the annual changes in various pulmonary function indicators. It was observed that the decline in %VC/Ht (mainly used as an indicator of constrictive impairment) remained at about the same level throughout all the stages of the development in radiographic findings. On the other hand, the decline in %FEV1.0/Ht or %V50/Ht (chiefly indicative of obstructive dysfunction) was greater in the PR3 and PR4 groups than in other groups, and was shown to increase rapidly with more advanced stages found in radiographic findings. Where the stage of the disease in terms of radiographic findings was within the PR1 - PR3 range, small-airway dysfunction was greater than central airway dysfunction.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Feb. 1989, Vol.65, No.2, p.146-156. Illus. 14 ref.
Polato R., Morossi G., Furlan I., Moro G.
Risk of abnormal lead absorption in glass decoration workers
Rischio di abnorme assorbimento di piombo nella decorazione del vetro [in Italian]
Following the observation of abnormal lead absorption (PbB 72µg/100mL) in a young female glass decorator in a routine laboratory test, blood lead levels were measured in glass decorators of an entire area of Northern Italy. Abnormal lead absorption was found in a large number of glass workers, the source of exposure being the high content of inorganic lead in the "low-melting" paints that were used (brush and spray painting). Most of the exposed workers were females of fertile age, for whom even a moderate exposure to inorganic lead may constitute a risk during pregnancy. Attempts to reduce lead exposure levels by means of a health education programme and environmental improvements at the workplace were unsuccessful. In conclusion, a reduction in lead absorption in female glass decoration workers can only be achieved by using "low-melting" paints with a lower lead content.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1989, Vol.80, No.2, p.136-139. 7 ref.
Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour
Specifications for duct control in batch house of glass manufacturers [China]
Boli shengchan peiliao chejian fangchen jishu guicheng [in Chinese]
This standard (effective 1 Apr. 1987) is to ensure that the environment of batching plants in the glass industry conforms to standard TJ 36-79 (Standard on hygiene in industrial enterprise design). It specifies the physical location and ventilation of batching plants, ideal particle size of raw materials (greater than 0.05mm in diameter), storage and transportation of raw materials, measures for wet dust control and sealing of dust sources, dust prevention and management. Lists of measures for sealing dust sources in batching plants, and reference standards for air exhaust rate for commonly used equipment are annexed. The whole standard is discussed in an appended commentary.
In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.418-439. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume).
Advice and guidance on skin problems in the pottery industry
Råd og vejledning om hudproblemer i den keramiske industri [in Danish]
Contents of this training booklet giving practical advice on how to avoid skin injuries during manual tasks in the pottery industry: hazards to the skin in this type of work, the genesis of skin injuries, eczema, preventive measures (replacement of hazardous substances, protective gloves, avoidance of direct contact with the substances) and skin care (creams, hygiene).
Arbejdsmiljøfondet, Vermundsgade 38, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1st ed. 1988. 8p. Illus.
Srivastava A.K., Mathur N., Rastogi S.K., Gupta B.N.
Case control study of chronic bronchitis in glass bangle workers
Eighty-nine cases of chronic bronchitis were matched against 167 asymptomatic controls from the glass bangle industry of Firozabad. Factors of age, social status, smoking habits and duration of exposure were studied. Duration of exposure was found to be a factor contributing significantly to the causation of disease.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Winter 1988, Vol.38, No.4, p.134-136. 16 ref.
Romaguera C., Grimalt F., Vilaplana J.
Contact dermatitis from nickel - An investigation of its sources
Patch tests with the GEIDC standard series of allergens, and with 8 washers made of copper, nickel, nickel-palladium, palladium, brass, bronze, gold and iron, were carried out in 964 consecutive patients who complained of intolerance to metals and in 200 controls who did not. All subjects were also questioned as to personal and family history of atopy, occupational contact and intolerance to gold. The results provide support for the substitution of nickel in imitation jewellery with metals such as palladium or bronze.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1988, Vol.19, No.1, p.52-57. 43 ref.
Gardner M.J., Magnani C., Pannett B., Fletcher A.C., Winter P.D.
Lung cancer among glass fibre production workers: A case-control study
To test the hypothesis that processes producing or using finer (respirable) fibres may be related to a higher risk of lung cancer, a nested case-control study was carried out. Included were 73 cases of lung cancer and 506 matched controls, for whom jobs held and processes worked on were blindly recoded in more detail than for the cohort study. Workers known to have been employed on processes containing respirable fibres had a relative risk of lung cancer of 1.2 (95% confidence interval 0.7-2.0) compared with other workers. There was no evidence of a relationship of lung cancer to fibre diameter, duration of exposure, or time since first exposure. Although the study has not indicated a differential risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to finer diameter glass fibres, the exposure levels were low and the number of cases small.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1988, Vol.45, No.9, p.613-618. 7 ref.
Nehéz M., Berencsi G., Freye H.A., Huszta E., Mazzag É., Scheufler H., Dési I.
Analysis in mice of the prenatal toxicity of some paints used in the ceramics industry
Néhány kerámiaipari festék prenatális-toxikológiai hatásának vizsgálata egéren [in Hungarian]
No embryotoxic or teratogenic effects were found in mice exposed to any one of 16 paints used in the ceramics industry. The paints were fed to pregnant mice in 3 doses of 1000mg/kg during the 6th - 12th days of pregnancy.
Egészségtudomány, 1988, Vol.32, No.172-175.
Diverse manifestations of trichloroethylene
Trichloroethylene, a solvent used in a variety of industrial settings for more than 60yrs, has had adverse effects on the central and peripheral nervous system, the skin, liver, kidney, and heart. This article reports on 3 previously healthy men who showed relatively unusual manifestations after exposure to trichloroethylene in degreasing operations in the jewellery industry. The manifestations included toxic encephalopathy, hepatitis, and carpal spasm. Clinical and laboratory data, including measurement of urinary trichloroacetic acid concentrations, are presented.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1988, Vol.45, No.2, p.122-126. Illus. 24 ref.
Houts P.S., McDougall V.
Effects of informing workers of their health risks from exposure to toxic materials
This study compares the mental health, attitudes, and smoking behaviour of 133 workers who had been informed of health risks from exposure to toxic materials on the job with 137 workers who worked in similar conditions but who had not been told that their health was at risk because of exposure to toxic materials. The informed workers reported more health problems than the controls, but there were no significant differences between the informed and uninformed groups in mental health, attitudes toward health hazards in or outside the workplace, or in smoking rates. Ninety percent of all respondents felt that exposed workers definitely should be told of their health risks. These findings indicate little psychological risk from informing workers about their risks because of exposure to toxic substances and a strong desire on the part of workers to be informed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.2, p.271-279. 15 ref.
Tisserand M., Schouller J.F., Englert M., Didier M., Sot V.
Prevention of elbow disorders caused by prolonged leaning. Study of the work station of glass cutters
Prévention des affections du coude provoquées par un appui prolongé. Etude du poste de tailleur de verre [in French]
Elbow disorders among manual cutters, polishers and engravers are recognised occupational diseases in France. This paper studies the factors which cause these disorders to appear and develop and gives the results of on-the-job measurements of vibrations and forces to which elbows are subjected and also of a brief survey of the frequency of these disorders. The analysis of the workplace is accompanied by a description of a simple mechanical device enabling the worker to lean on the forearms rather than on the elbows. The device should put a stop to elbow disorders among glass cutters, and could also be used in other industries with similar working postures.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1988, No.131, Note No.1680-131-88, p.327-337. Illus. 13 ref.
Vassileva-Todorova L., Kuzmin V.
Characteristics of infrared radiation in the glass industry
Harakteristika na infračervenata radiacia v stăklarskoto proizvodstvo [in Bulgarian]
An assessment of infrared radiation exposure is made for the entire technological process in the glass industry, and data are given on lengths of exposure. Glass-blowers are constantly exposed to infrared radiation of 1.5 to 7cal/cm2/min. Most significant is the exposure to 1.5 cal/cm2/min. This makes infrared radiation a serious risk factor in the glass industry.
Problemi na higienata, Aug. 1987, Vol.12, p.82-86. 9 ref.
Influence of the recrystallisation of ceramic fibres on their effects on men
Der Einfluss der Rekristallisation keramischer Fasern und deren Wirkung auf den Menschen [in German]
The state of the present debate about the biological availability of man-made mineral fibres is described. The behaviour of all these fibres at temperatures up to 800°C and of ceramic fibres up to 2,000°C is shown. The ceramic products heated to more than 1,000°C recrystallise, and only a part of them consists of mineral fibres. These fibres have little mechanical strength, and only a part of the recrystallised material contains cristobalite. The silicogenicity of cristobalite is discussed.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1987, Vol.37, No.10, p.302-314. Illus. 45 ref.
Gosudorstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, Sekretariat vsesojuznogo central'nogo soveta professional'nyh sojuzov
Approval of lists of strenuous, hazardous, ... jobs for which supplementary payments to workers may be established on account of working conditions in the building materials, glass and china industries [USSR]
Ob utverždenii perečnej rabot s tjaželymi i vrednymi, ... uslovijami truda, na kotoryh mogut ustanavlivat'sja doplaty rabočim za uslovija truda v proizvodstvennyh ob"edinenijah i na predprijatijah promyšlennosti stroitel'nyh materialov, stekol'noj i farforo-fajansovoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
This decision of 3 Oct. 1986 establishes 3 standard lists of jobs in the building materials, glass and china industries for which pay increases can be made due to hazardous working conditions.
Bjulleten' - Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, 1987, No.5, p.18-27.
A brief survey is given of the scope and diversity of the British ceramics industry (heavy clay industry, refractories, glass making, cement, pottery, and finishing). Discussed are silicon dangers, location of the industry, hazards and risk prevention, regulations, health monitoring, advisory bodies, and kiln experience.
Occupational Safety and Health, May 1987, Vol.17, No.5, p.34-37. Illus.
Dubrow R., Gute D.M.
Cause-specific mortality among Rhode Island jewelry workers
Death certificates for Rhode Island (USA) jewellery manufacturing workers from 1968 to 1978 were examined. Elevated ratios among males were observed for nonmalignant kidney diseases, liver cancer, drug dependence and accidental poisoning. Among females, the elevated ratios occurred with stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, skin diseases and drug dependence. Possible reasons for the elevated ratios are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.5, p.579-593. 46 ref.
Bedello P.G., Goitre M., Roncarolo G., Bundino S., Cane D.
Contact dermatitis to rhodium
Case report of a goldsmith who developed dermatitis of the hands as a result of rhodium plating articles of jewellery. This is the first report of rhodium sensitisation.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1987, Vol.17, No.2, p.111-112. 1 ref.
Salsi S., Barlier A., Jeandel B.
Optical radiation in hand-blown glass factories. A study of 21 workplaces
Rayonnements optiques dans les verreries à main - Etude de 21 postes de travail [in French]
Survey carried out in 4 glass factories in order to investigate risks to glass workers from the energy emission spectra of the different heat sources used. The methodology is described and the findings are interpreted in terms of the limit values proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. It is demonstrated that near and mid-IR radiation (IRA and IRB) can be dangerous (cataracts, cornea irritations) at pots and tank cells and that actinic UV and near and mid-IR can constitute a threat to the eyes and skin at gas furnaces and fire-finishing burners (kerato-conjunctivitis, photokeratitis, erythemas). These problems can be solved only by using suitable screens.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1987, No.126, Note No.1617-126-87, p.75-88. Illus. 4 ref.
Fluorure d'hydrogène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: chemical burns to the eyes, mucous membranes and the skin on contact. Absorbs readily through the skin. Effects may be delayed in the case of oral or skin absorption. Chronic toxicity: irritation of the mucous membranes and the skin; fluorosis. Ceiling exposure limit is 2.5mg fluoride/m3 (France, 1982).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1987. 6p. 32 ref.
Bertazzi P.A., Zocchetti C., Riboldi L., Pesatori A., Radice L., Latocca R.
Cancer mortality of an Italian cohort of workers in man-made glass-fibre production
This study was undertaken in order to examine possible long-term effects, particularly cancer, associated with working in the man-made glass-fibre production industry in Italy (glass wool and continuous filament). All male production workers employed for a minimum of 1yr between 1944 and 1974 were admitted to the study (1,098 subjects), and their mortality was examined in the period 1944-1983 (21,325 person-years). The vital status ascertainment was successful for 98.9% of the cohort members. An increased risk of cancer of the larynx was noted based, however, on only 4 deaths. When contrasted with the values of the local population, the increase proved to be statistically significant after 25yrs since first exposure. The higher than expected larynx cancer mortality was confined to workers hired before the age of 25yrs, exposed for at least 15yrs, who started exposure before 1960 (main production: glass wool), and who belonged to the highest cumulative exposure categories.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.65-71. 36 ref.
Mal'ceva L.M., Masič T.A., Kol'cun S.S., Malhas'jan L.I., Mučnik I.B., Tal' A.A., Lokšina V.B.
Computer-assisted assessment of the external respiratory system in expert evaluation of performance abilities of patients with dust-induced bronchitis
Ispol'zovanie ėlektronno-vyčislitel'nyh mašin dlja ocenki sistemy vnešnego dyhanija pri ėkspertize trudosposobnosti bol'nyh pylevym bronhitom [in Russian]
211 patients with dust-induced bronchitis (workers in the ceramics, refractory products and paper-making industries) were examined. Length of exposure for all was more than 10yrs. In addition to detailed clinical and x-ray examination, all patients were subjected to spirography, pneumotachometry and oxyhaemography. Computer-assisted factor analysis was used to derive 4 internal parameters reflecting external respiration status. Of these parameters, the "ventilatory function" factor (VF) gave the best generalised characterisation of the state of the external respiratory system. VF permits an accurate assessment (screening-test) of respiratory system status in workers in dusty occupations.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1986, No.10, p.24-27. 7 ref.
Maurice P.D.L., Rycroft R.J.
Allergic contact dermatitis from UV-curing acrylate in the manufacture of optical fibres
Case report of acute dermatitis in a man who handled the acrylates used to coat optical fibres. The sensitising potential of ultraviolet curing acrylates has long been recognised in the printing and electronics industry, but this is the first report of acrylate dermatitis in the official fibre industry.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1986, Vol.15, No.2, p.92-93. 8 ref.
Comité technique national des pierres et terres à feu, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie
Glass works (machine- or hand-made glass): protection against accidental spills (Recommendation No.272)
Verreries (mécaniques ou à la main): protection contre les coulées accidentelles (Recommandation n°272) [in French]
Recommendations adopted 29 Nov. 1985. Safety measures for people working with furnaces: building of an enclosure around the furnace, or installation of a system that would detect the spilling of molten material, installation of piping outside the areas with the most intense radiation, installation of alarms and electrical cut-off systems in the furnaces, updating of emergency procedures to be taken in the case of accidental spills. Commentary.
Travail et sécurité, June 1986, No.6, p.424.
Gardner M.J., Winter P.D., Pannett B., Simpson M.J.C., Hamilton C., Acheson E.D.
Mortality study of workers in the man-made mineral fiber production industry in the United Kingdom
The workforces of 2 factories in the United Kingdom have been followed up to the end of 1984 as part of the collaborative European study of the health of workers in the man-made mineral fibre industry. In the cohort from an English glass-wool plant there was no suggestion of any excess mortality compared to national or local rates, except for lung cancer among men in comparison to the national level. However, the data indicate that the workers were largely local persons by place of birth, occupation, and death, and they therefore suggest that the national comparison was inappropriate. Lung cancer mortality showed little relationship to length of employment, duration of time since first exposure, occupational classification, or level of exposure. In the cohort from a continuous filament plant in Northern Ireland no excess mortality from cancer was found. There were, however, raised death rates from violent causes and cardiovascular disease, but these rates were not exceptional for the area of the country in which the factory was located. No deaths from mesothelioma were reported in either cohort.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.85-93. 21 ref.
Bertazzi P.A., Zocchetti C., Riboldi L., Pesatori A., Radice L., Latocca R.
Cancer mortality of an Italian cohort of workers in man-made glass-fiber production
This study was undertaken in order to examine possible long-term effects, particularly cancer, associated with working in the man-made glass-fibre production industry in Italy (glass wool and continuous filament). All male production workers employed for a minimum of 1 year between 1944 and 1974 were admitted to the study (1,098 subjects), and their mortality was examined in the period 1944-1983 (21,325 person-years). An increased risk of cancer of the larynx was noted based, however, on only 4 deaths. When contrasted with the values of the local population, the increase proved to be statistically significant after 25yrs since first exposure. The higher than expected larynx cancer mortality was confined to workers hired before the age of 25yrs, exposed for at least 15yrs, who started exposure before 1960 (main production: glass wool), and who belonged to the highest cumulative exposure categories. Known confounding factors could not completely account for the excess observed. Among the numerous studies carried out on man-made glass-fibre workers, only 1 incidence study in France supports our findings. No other increased cancer risks have been suggested by the present study.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.65-71. 36 ref.
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